Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft fuel tank

  1. Aircraft Fuel Tank Inerting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    replacement of materials lost In eiactrostatically induced fuel tank fires for systems that use blue foam. During the program, funding cuts eliminated the...with a diameter of 40 microns and a 6-micron wall thickness. The structure of the polymethylpentene material permits the oxygen to permeate through the...auxiliary studies and manufacture of permeable membrane modules, which were subcontracted as follows: Boeing Aerospace Company, Wichita , Ka., for

  2. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sensor is formed by two concentric metallic electrodes, separated by an insulator material , between which an electric current circulates when a given... materials are used to make the mentioned current, proportional to the concentration of corrosive contaminants in the water and to the amount of microbial...contamination level, detected in the respective fuel tank. REFERENCES 1. C. B. Ward. Corrosion resulting from corrosion fuel tank contamination. Materials

  3. Aircraft-Fuel-Tank Design for Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T W

    1955-01-01

    Some of the considerations involved in the design of aircraft fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen are discussed herein. Several of the physical properties of metals and thermal insulators in the temperature range from ambient to liquid-hydrogen temperatures are assembled. Calculations based on these properties indicate that it is possible to build a large-size liquid-hydrogen fuel tank which (1) will weigh less then 15 percent of the fuel weight, (2) will have a hydrogen vaporization rate less than 30 percent of the cruise fuel-flow rate, and (3) can be held in a stand-by condition and readied for flight in a short time.

  4. Integral Aircraft Fuel Tank Leak Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    effects of the following parameters on the rate of surface dispersion of fuels were examined: fuel type, leakage rate, surface material, fuel and...ranging from 3.34C to 98 C (38OF to 209’F). The vapor pressure of the fuel at the test temperature has a very pronounced effect on the propensity of the...Fuels and the Effect of Flow Rate 8 Effect of Temperature 14 Effect of Air Flow Rate 14 Effect of Panel Angle of Inclination 19 Effect of Panel

  5. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  6. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  7. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  8. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  9. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles, summary. [aircraft design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Gary L.; Buchholtz, Brian; Olsen, Al

    2012-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells, turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However, the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry, tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked, helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

  11. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than... fuel tanks containing a mixture of anhydrous hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (M86 fuel) and designed for installation as complete units in aircraft are excepted from the specification...

  12. Flame Tube and Ballistic Evaluation of Explosafe Aluminum Foil for Aircraft Fuel Tank Explosion Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    OIL FOR AIRCRAFT FUEL TANK EXPLOSION Aug• •77-MarI* ;P7 9 .OTECTI. 6 RFORMING ORG REPOT N BER •. j• H•. .J...Bob. Fiur 82 Scemtc iara f laeTue es qupmn Dra’i V3 56 .1 .~~~~~anfl Nock...... 7 2 7 . AFWAL-TR-80- 2031

  13. RF Coupling into the Fuel Tank of a Large Transport Aircraft from Intentionally Transmitting Peds in the Passenger Cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Ely, Jay J.; Richardson, Robert E.; Hatfield, Michael O.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the potential for radio frequency (RF) power radiated from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) to create an arcing/sparking event within the fuel tank of a large transport aircraft. This paper describes the experimental methods used for measuring RF coupling to the fuel tank and Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) wiring from PED sources located in the passenger cabin. To allow comparison of voltage/current data obtained in a laboratory chamber FQIS installation to an actual aircraft FQIS installation, aircraft fuel tank RF reverberation characteristics were also measured. Results from the measurements, along with a survey of threats from typical intentional transmitting PEDs are presented. The resulting worst-case power coupled onto fuel tank FQIS wiring is derived. The same approach can be applied to measure RF coupling into various other aircraft systems.

  14. Simulation of Hydrodynamic RAM of Aircraft Fuel Tank by Ballistic Penetration and Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Jun, Seung M.

    Airframe survivability and hydrodynamic ram effect of aircraft are investigated. Penetration and internal detonation of a simple tank and ICW(Intermediate Complexity Wing) are simulated by nonlinear explicit calculation. Structural rupture and fluid burst are analytically realized using general coupling of FSI(Fluid-Structure Interaction) and adaptive master-slave contact. Besides, multi-material Eulerian solver and porosity algorithm are employed to model explosive inside fuel and tank bays which are defined in multi-coupling surfaces. Structure and fluid results are animated on the same viewport for enhanced visualization.

  15. Studies of new perfluoroether elastomeric sealants. [for aircraft fuel tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Channel and filleting sealants were developed successfully from cyano and diamidoxime terminated perfluoro alkylene ether prepolymers. The prepolymers were polymerized, formulated and tested. The polymers and/or formulations therefrom were evaluated as to their physical, mechanical and chemical properties (i.e., specific gravity, hardness, nonvolatile content, corrosion resistance, stress corrosion, pressure rupture resistance, low temperature flexibility, gap sealing efficiency, tensile strength and elongation, dynamic mechanical behavior, compression set, fuel resistance, thermal properties and processability). Other applications of the formulated polymrs and incorporation of the basic prepolymers into other polymeric systems were investigated. A cyano terminated perfluoro alkylene oxide triazine was formulated and partially evaluated. The channel sealant in its present formulation has excellent pressure rupture resistance and surpasses present MIL specifications before and after fuel and heat aging.

  16. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  17. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  18. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  19. Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 by microorganisms isolated from aircraft fuel tanks.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Leard, Ryan; Bearce, Ktisten; Dante, James; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms frequently contaminate jet fuel and cause corrosion of fuel tank metals. In the past, jet fuel contaminants included a diverse group of bacteria and fungi. The most common contaminant was the fungus Hormoconis resinae. However, the jet fuel community has been altered by changes in the composition of the fuel and is now dominated by bacterial contaminants. The purpose of this research was to determine the composition of the microbial community found in fuel tanks containing jet propellant-8 (JP-8) and to determine the potential of this community to cause corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024). Isolates cultured from fuel tanks containing JP-8 were closely related to the genus Bacillus and the fungi Aureobasidium and Penicillium. Biocidal activity of the fuel system icing inhibitor diethylene glycol monomethyl ether is the most likely cause of the prevalence of endospore forming bacteria. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and metallographic analysis of AA2024 exposed to the fuel tank environment indicated that the isolates caused corrosion of AA2024. Despite the limited taxonomic diversity of microorganisms recovered from jet fuel, the community has the potential to corrode fuel tanks.

  20. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  1. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  2. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  3. Aircraft Wing Fuel Tank Environmental Simulator Tests for Evaluation of Antimisting Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Filters 75 5.3 Heat Transfer Considerations 76 5.4 Gel and String Formation 76 5.5 Flowability of ANK 76 6. CONCLUSIONS 76 7. REFERENCES 78 8...Jet A), giving the fuel the property of resisting mist formation. Fuel in this "antimisting" state is susceptible to problems with flowability ...the flowability of AMK to that of normal jet fuel, and to restore its combustion capability, mechanical shearing or other means of destroying the anti

  4. Investigation of thermoelastic stresses induced at high altitudes on aircraft external fuel tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousseau, Stephanie Lynn Steber

    As composite technology has grown over the past several decades, the use of composite materials in military applications has become more feasible and widely accepted. Although composite materials provide many benefits, including strength optimization and reduced weight, damage and repair of these materials creates an additional challenge, especially when operating in a marine environment, such as on a carrier deck. This is evident within the Navy, as excessive damage often leads to the scrapping of F/A-18 External Fuel Tanks. This damage comes in many forms, the most elusive of which is delamination. Often the delamination found on the tanks is beyond repairable limits and the cause unknown, making it difficult to predict and prevent. The purpose of this investigation was to study the structure of the Navy's 330 gallon External Fuel Tanks and investigate one potential cause of delamination, stresses induced at high altitudes by cold temperatures. A stress analysis was completed using finite element software, and validation of the model was accomplished through testing of a scale model specimen. Due to the difficulties in modeling and predicting delamination, such as unknown presence of voids and understanding failure criteria, delamination was not modeled in Abaqus, rather stresses were observed and characteristics were studied to understand the potential for delamination within the layup. In addition, studies were performed to understand the effect of material properties and layup sequence on the stress distribution within the tank. Alternative design solutions are presented which could reduce the radial stresses within the tank, and recommendations are made for further study to understand the trade-offs between stress, cost, and manufacturability.

  5. Fuel Tank Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  6. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  7. Selecting fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Until the use of underground storage tanks (USTs) for fuel storage was mandated by the 1970 Uniform Fire Code, above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) were widely used. The tanks were relatively crude by today's standards so the technical superiority and fire protection afforded by use of underground tanks soon made USTs the system of choice for almost all uses. As a result, tens of thousands of tanks have been underground for more than 20 years, and at some point, many of them began leaking. Often, the first sign of these leaks appeared when groundwater became contaminated. The EPA responded to this major environmental problem by strictly regulating the use of below-ground tanks to store flammable liquids. These added regulations have had a severe effect on both service stations and private fueling. The removal of underground tanks and the removal and disposal of any contaminated soil is an extremely expensive proposition. Furthermore, new Uniform Fire Code regulations have added to the costs, imposing requirements for double-walled tanks, corrosion protection, electronic leak monitoring, and annual tank testing. These requirements, plus the financial responsibility requirements the EPA imposed on owners and users of below-ground tanks, led directly to a reconsideration of the use of above-ground tanks for some applications.

  8. Evaluation of EXPLOSAFE. Explosion Suppression System for Aircraft Fuel Tank Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Stitching with nylon spun yarn (Appendix D 1: 90-gallon flexible rubber tank) and Dupont Kevlar-29 spun yarn (Appendix D 2: 200-gallon pylon tank...and placed about an inch away from the perimeter of the batt or voided areas needing support. Nylon and Kevlar yarn stitches performed well even under...arduous slosh and vibration conditions. A;hide from some stretching of the yarns which tended to slightly loosen the structure of the batts, no

  9. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than...

  10. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than...

  11. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than...

  12. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than...

  13. 14 CFR 23.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 23.969 Section 23.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....969 Fuel tank expansion space. Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of not less than...

  14. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel...

  16. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel...

  17. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel...

  18. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel...

  19. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel...

  20. Some aspects of aircraft jet engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekiesinski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Technologies are reviewed for improving the thermal stability of jet fuels, with reference to the overheating of fuel tanks in supersonic aircraft. Consideration is given to the development of a jet fuel with high thermal stability by the Polish petroleum industry.

  1. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  2. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  3. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  4. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  5. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  6. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  7. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  8. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  9. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  10. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  11. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  12. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  13. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank...

  15. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank...

  16. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank...

  17. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  18. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section 25.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank...

  19. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank...

  20. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank...

  1. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each...

  2. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section 25.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank...

  3. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each...

  4. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section 25.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank...

  5. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank...

  6. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank...

  7. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank...

  8. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  11. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank...

  12. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank...

  13. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section 25.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank...

  14. 14 CFR 29.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 29.967 Section 29.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.967 Fuel tank...

  15. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank...

  16. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each...

  17. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  18. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25.967 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank...

  19. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  20. 14 CFR 29.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 29.973 Section 29.973 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.973 Fuel tank...

  1. 14 CFR 29.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 29.963 Section 29.963 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each...

  2. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  4. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  5. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  6. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  7. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  8. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion...

  9. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  11. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  12. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  13. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  14. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  15. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  16. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  17. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  18. Study of methane fuel for subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. K.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Daniels, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The cost and performance were defined for commercial transport using liquid methane including its fuel system and the ground facility complex required for the processing and storage of methane. A cost and performance comparison was made with Jet A and hydrogen powered aircraft of the same payload and range capability. Extensive design work was done on cryogenic fuel tanks, insulation systems as well as the fuel system itself. Three candidate fuel tank locations were evaluated, i.e., fuselage tanks, wing tanks or external pylon tanks.

  19. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  20. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  1. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  2. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  3. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a...

  4. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  5. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  6. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  7. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  8. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  9. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  10. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  11. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  12. Study of fuel systems for LH2-fueled subsonic transport aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Riple, J. C.; Baerst, C. F.; Garmong, G.

    1978-01-01

    Several engine concepts examined to determine a preferred design which most effectively exploits the characteristics of hydrogen fuel in aircraft tanks received major emphasis. Many candidate designs of tank structure and cryogenic insulation systems were evaluated. Designs of all major elements of the aircraft fuel system including pumps, lines, valves, regulators, and heat exchangers received attention. Selected designs of boost pumps to be mounted in the LH2 tanks, and of a high pressure pump to be mounted on the engine were defined. A final design of LH2-fueled transport aircraft was established which incorporates a preferred design of fuel system. That aircraft was then compared with a conventionally fueled counterpart designed to equivalent technology standards.

  13. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes to type certificates affecting fuel..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.35 Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability....

  14. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  15. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  16. Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Conversion of fluorocarbon dicarboxylic acid to intermediates whose terminal functional groups permit polymerization is discussed. Resulting polymers are used as fuel tank sealers for jet fuels at elevated temperatures. Stability and fuel resistance of the prototype polymers is explained.

  17. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  18. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.971 Fuel tank sump. (a) Each fuel tank... fuel tank must allow drainage of any hazardous quantity of water from any part of the tank to its...

  20. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  1. 49 CFR 238.223 - Locomotive fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel tanks. 238.223 Section 238.223... Equipment § 238.223 Locomotive fuel tanks. Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or....21: (a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the...

  2. In-flight and simulated aircraft fuel temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel tank measurements from ten flights of an L1011 commercial aircraft are reported for the first time. The flights were conducted from 1981 to 1983. A thermocouple rake was installed in an inboard wing tank and another in an outboard tank. During the test periods of either 2 or 5 hr, at altitudes of 10,700 m (35,000 ft) or higher, either the inboard or the outboard tank remained full. Fuel temperature profiles generally developed in the expected manner. The bulk fuel was mixed by natural convection to a nearly uniform temperature, especially in the outboard tank, and a gradient existed at the bottom conduction zone. The data indicated that when full, the upper surface of the inboard tank was wetted and the outboard tank was unwetted. Companion NASA Lewis Research Center tests were conducted in a 0.20 cubic meter (52 gal) tank simulator of the outboard tank, chilled on the top and bottom, and insulated on the sides. Even though the simulator tank had no internal components corresponding to the wing tank, temperatures agreed with the flight measurements for wetted upper surface conditions, but not for unwetted conditions. It was concluded that if boundary conditions are carefully controlled, simulators are a useful way of evaluating actual flight temperatures.

  3. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b) Each... fuel tank support, chock, or strap that is not integral with a metallic fuel tank must be...

  4. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b) Each... fuel tank support, chock, or strap that is not integral with a metallic fuel tank must be...

  5. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b) Each... fuel tank support, chock, or strap that is not integral with a metallic fuel tank must be...

  6. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks....

  7. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks....

  8. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks....

  9. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks....

  10. 14 CFR 121.316 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tanks. 121.316 Section 121.316 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.316 Fuel tanks....

  11. 14 CFR 125.127 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 125.127 Section 125... Requirements § 125.127 Location of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 125.153. (b... compartment may be used as the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from...

  12. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  13. 14 CFR 121.229 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 121.229 Section 121... of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 121.255. (b) No part of the engine... the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from personnel compartments by means...

  14. 14 CFR 27.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 27.967 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.967 Fuel tank installation. (a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that tank loads are not concentrated on unsupported tank...

  15. 14 CFR 125.127 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 125.127 Section 125... Requirements § 125.127 Location of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 125.153. (b... compartment may be used as the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from...

  16. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  17. 14 CFR 121.229 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 121.229 Section 121... of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 121.255. (b) No part of the engine... the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from personnel compartments by means...

  18. 14 CFR 121.229 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 121.229 Section 121... of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 121.255. (b) No part of the engine... the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from personnel compartments by means...

  19. 14 CFR 125.127 - Location of fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of fuel tanks. 125.127 Section 125... Requirements § 125.127 Location of fuel tanks. (a) Fuel tanks must be located in accordance with § 125.153. (b... compartment may be used as the wall of an integral tank. (c) Fuel tanks must be isolated from...

  20. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  1. 14 CFR 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank installations. 25.967 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.967 Fuel tank installations. (a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that tank loads (resulting from the weight of the fuel in...

  2. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank ignition prevention. 25.981... ignition prevention. (a) No ignition source may be present at each point in the fuel tank or fuel tank... fuel tank if means are provided to mitigate the effects of an ignition of fuel vapors within that...

  3. Realistic Probability Estimates For Destructive Overpressure Events In Heated Center Wing Tanks Of Commercial Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N; Lambert, H

    2007-02-07

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identified 17 accidents that may have resulted from fuel tank explosions on commercial aircraft from 1959 to 2001. Seven events involved JP 4 or JP 4/Jet A mixtures that are no longer used for commercial aircraft fuel. The remaining 10 events involved Jet A or Jet A1 fuels that are in current use by the commercial aircraft industry. Four fuel tank explosions occurred in center wing tanks (CWTs) where on-board appliances can potentially transfer heat to the tank. These tanks are designated as ''Heated Center Wing Tanks'' (HCWT). Since 1996, the FAA has significantly increased the rate at which it has mandated airworthiness directives (ADs) directed at elimination of ignition sources. This effort includes the adoption, in 2001, of Special Federal Aviation Regulation 88 of 14 CFR part 21 (SFAR 88 ''Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements''). This paper addresses SFAR 88 effectiveness in reducing HCWT ignition source probability. Our statistical analysis, relating the occurrence of both on-ground and in-flight HCWT explosions to the cumulative flight hours of commercial passenger aircraft containing HCWT's reveals that the best estimate of HCWT explosion rate is 1 explosion in 1.4 x 10{sup 8} flight hours. Based on an analysis of SFAR 88 by Sandia National Laboratories and our independent analysis, SFAR 88 reduces current risk of historical HCWT explosion by at least a factor of 10, thus meeting an FAA risk criteria of 1 accident in billion flight hours. This paper also surveys and analyzes parameters for Jet A fuel ignition in HCWT's. Because of the paucity of in-flight HCWT explosions, we conclude that the intersection of the parameters necessary and sufficient to result in an HCWT explosion with sufficient overpressure to rupture the HCWT is extremely rare.

  4. Preliminary analysis of aircraft fuel systems for use with broadened specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasion, A. J.; Thomas, I.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted on the use of broadened specification hydrocarbon fuels in present day aircraft. A short range Boeing 727 mission and three long range Boeing 747 missions were used as basis of calculation for one-day-per-year extreme values of fuel loading, airport ambient and altitude ambient temperatures with various seasonal and climatic conditions. Four hypothetical fuels were selected; two high-vapor-pressure fuels with 35 kPa and 70 kPa RVP and two high-freezing-point fuels with -29 C and -18 C freezing points. In-flight fuel temperatures were predicted by Boeing's aircraft fuel tank thermal analyzer computer program. Boil-off rates were calculated for the high vapor pressure fuels and heating/insulation requirements for the high freezing point fuels were established. Possible minor and major heating system modifications were investigated with respect to heat output, performance and economic penalties for the high freezing point fuels.

  5. Numerical modeling of the flow in a cryogenic fuel tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Donald Steven

    Developing reusable flight weight cryogenic fuel tanks is one of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft. As an aid in the design of these aircraft, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. The model simulates the transient, two dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. The interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface to enable the calculation of slosh wave dynamics. The drain rate of the liquid fuel is specified as a boundary condition to the model. The ullage gas enters the model to replace the volume of drained liquid. The rate of ullage gas entering the model is calculated from boundary conditions of constant pressure and temperature for the ullage gas. The model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations with the exception that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. The method of solution is an explicit finite difference technique in two dimensional generalized coordinates approximated to second order accuracy in both space and time. The stiffness due to the low Mach number is handled by the method of artificial compressibility. Model comparisons are made to experimental data for free convection to a vertical plate and to free convection inside a horizontal cylinder. Slosh wave dynamics are compared to potential flow calculations for waves inside a square tank. Sample calculations are also performed on a rectangular tank and an eight sided polygon tank to demonstrate the capability of the model.

  6. Floor Plans Fuel Tank Support, Fuel Platform, and LOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Fuel Tank Support, Fuel Platform, and LOX Platform Plans - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. Alternate-fueled transport aircraft possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is organized to describe: (1) NASA's cryogenically fueled aircraft program; (2) LH2 subsonic and supersonic transport design possibilities (3) the fuel system and ground side problems associated with LH2 distribution; (4) a comparison of LCH4 with LH2; (5) the design possibilities for LCH4 fueled aircraft; and (6) a summary of where NASA's cryogenically fueled programs are headed.

  8. Numerical modeling of a cryogenic fluid within a fuel tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald S.

    1994-01-01

    The computational method developed to study the cryogenic fluid characteristics inside a fuel tank in a hypersonic aircraft is presented. The model simulates a rapid draining of the tank by modeling the ullage vapor and the cryogenic liquid with a moving interface. A mathematical transformation was developed and applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the moving interface. The formulation of the numerical method is a transient hybrid explicit-implicit technique where the pressure term in the momentum equations is approximated to first order in time by combining the continuity equation with an ideal equation of state.

  9. Experimental Study of Low Temperature Behavior of Aviation Turbine Fuels in a Wing Tank Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study aircraft fuels at low temperatures near the freezing point. The objective was an improved understanding of the flowability and pumpability of the fuels under conditions encoutered during cold weather flight of a long range commercial aircraft. The test tank simulated a section of an outer wing tank and was chilled on the upper and lower surfaces. Fuels included commercial Jet A and Diesel D-2; JP-5 from oil shale; and Jet A, intermediate freeze point, and D-2 fuels derived from selected paraffinic and naphthenic crudes. A pour point depressant was tested.

  10. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  11. LH2 fuel tank design for SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    This report will discuss the design of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank constructed from composite materials. The focus of this report is to recommend a design for a fuel tank which will be able to withstand all static and dynamic forces during manned flight. Areas of study for the design include material selection, material structural analysis, heat transfer, thermal expansion, and liquid hydrogen diffusion. A structural analysis FORTRAN program was developed for analyzing the buckling and yield characteristics of the tank. A thermal analysis Excel spreadsheet was created to determine a specific material thickness which will minimize heat transfer through the wall of the tank. The total mass of the tank was determined by the combination of both structural and thermal analyses. The report concludes with the recommendation of a layered material tank construction. The designed system will include exterior insulation, combination of metal and organize composite matrices and honeycomb.

  12. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b) Each... the top surface of each metallic fuel tank when the boat is in its static floating position. (e) Each fuel tank support, chock, or strap that is not integral with a metallic fuel tank must be...

  13. 46 CFR 182.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 182.435 Section 182.435 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull. (b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull...

  14. 46 CFR 182.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 182.435 Section 182.435 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull. (b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull...

  15. 46 CFR 182.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 182.435 Section 182.435 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull. (b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull...

  16. 30 CFR 36.50 - Tests of fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests of fuel tank. 36.50 Section 36.50 Mineral... Requirements § 36.50 Tests of fuel tank. The fuel tank shall be inspected and tested to determine whether: (a) It is fuel-tight, (b) the vent maintains atmospheric pressure within the tank, and (c) the vent...

  17. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding...

  18. 33 CFR 183.518 - Fuel tank openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank openings. 183.518...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.518 Fuel tank openings. Each opening into the fuel tank must be at or above the topmost surface of the tank....

  19. 46 CFR 182.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 182.435 Section 182.435 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull. (b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull...

  20. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35...

  1. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding...

  2. 33 CFR 183.518 - Fuel tank openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tank openings. 183.518...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.518 Fuel tank openings. Each opening into the fuel tank must be at or above the topmost surface of the tank....

  3. 30 CFR 36.50 - Tests of fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of fuel tank. 36.50 Section 36.50 Mineral... Requirements § 36.50 Tests of fuel tank. The fuel tank shall be inspected and tested to determine whether: (a) It is fuel-tight, (b) the vent maintains atmospheric pressure within the tank, and (c) the vent...

  4. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35...

  5. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35...

  6. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35...

  7. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35...

  8. 46 CFR 182.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 182.435 Section 182.435 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull. (b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull...

  9. Advanced supersonic technology fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Status of the fuel tank simulation and YF-12A flight tests utilizing a fluorosilicone sealant is described. New elastomer sealant development is detailed, and comparisons of high and low temperature characteristics are made to baseline fluorosilicone sealants.

  10. The use of hydrogen for aircraft propulsion in view of the fuel crisis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, S.

    1973-01-01

    In view of projected decreases in available petroleum fuels, interest has been generated in exploiting the potential of liquid hydrogen (LH2) as an aircraft fuel. Cost studies of LH2 production show it to be more expensive than presently used fuels. Regardless of cost considerations, LH2 is viewed as an attractive aircraft fuel because of the potential performance benefits it offers. Accompanying these benefits, however, are many new problems associated with aircraft design and operations; for example, problems related to fuel system design and the handling of LH2 during ground servicing. Some of the factors influencing LH2 fuel tank design, pumping, heat exchange, and flow regulation are discussed.

  11. Study of Hydrogen As An Aircraft Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    8 4 F. AMMONIA ............................................9 G . FUEL-CANDIDATE SUMMARY ............................11...would be up to 2.5 times as much as with conventional aircraft fuel, leading to vehicles of enormous size and limited capability.11 G . FUEL-CANDIDATE...Density Hydrogen Storage.” <http://www.apolloenergysystems.com/HighDensity_STOR.h tm>, January 16, 2003. Brewer, G . Daniel. Hydrogen Aircraft

  12. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump....

  13. 14 CFR 27.975 - Fuel tank vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank vents. 27.975 Section 27.975... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.975 Fuel tank vents. (a) Each fuel tank... system must be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the...

  14. 14 CFR 27.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 27.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 25.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the...

  16. 14 CFR 27.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tanks: general. 27.963 Section 27.963... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.963 Fuel tanks: general. (a) Each fuel... which it may be subjected in operation. (b) Each fuel tank of 10 gallons or greater capacity must...

  17. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1)...

  18. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel stainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  20. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  1. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  2. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  3. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 119.450 Section 119.450... Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a pipe connected to the highest point of the tank. (b) The minimum net cross...

  4. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 119.450 Section 119.450... Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a pipe connected to the highest point of the tank. (b) The minimum net cross...

  5. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be constructed from black iron or carbon steel. (c) A fuel tank encased in cellular plastic or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it...

  6. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be constructed from black iron or carbon steel. (c) A fuel tank encased in cellular plastic or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it...

  7. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be constructed from black iron or carbon steel. (c) A fuel tank encased in cellular plastic or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it...

  8. 14 CFR 23.963 - Fuel tanks: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tanks: General. 23.963 Section 23.963... tanks: General. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid, and structural loads that it may be subjected to in operation. (b) Each flexible fuel tank...

  9. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 29.975 Section 29.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System §...

  10. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 29.975 Section 29.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System §...

  11. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 25.975 Section 25.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System §...

  12. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 25.975 Section 25.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System §...

  13. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 29.975 Section 29.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System §...

  14. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 29.975 Section 29.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System §...

  15. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 25.975 Section 25.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System §...

  16. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. 25.975 Section 25.975 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System §...

  17. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed...

  18. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  19. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid fuel tanks. 393.67 Section 393.67... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... with commercial motor vehicles. (1) A liquid fuel tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, and...

  20. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid fuel tanks. 393.67 Section 393.67... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... with commercial motor vehicles. (1) A liquid fuel tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, and...

  1. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid fuel tanks. 393.67 Section 393.67... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... with commercial motor vehicles. (1) A liquid fuel tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, and...

  2. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid fuel tanks. 393.67 Section 393.67... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... with commercial motor vehicles. (1) A liquid fuel tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, and...

  3. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid fuel tanks. 393.67 Section 393.67... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.67 Liquid fuel tanks. (a) Application of the rules in this... with commercial motor vehicles. (1) A liquid fuel tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1973, and...

  4. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  5. 14 CFR 23.963 - Fuel tanks: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tanks: General. 23.963 Section 23.963... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.963 Fuel tanks: General. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank filler connection. 23.973 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked as prescribed...

  7. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.512 Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it...

  8. 14 CFR 23.963 - Fuel tanks: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tanks: General. 23.963 Section 23.963... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.963 Fuel tanks: General. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration,...

  9. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.512 Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it...

  10. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  11. 3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of tanks. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  12. 4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a vertical tank. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  13. 1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of tanks. View to northwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  14. 2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of tanks. View to southwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  15. Study of passive fuel tank inerting systems for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Steven J.; Motzenbecker, Peter F.; Clauson, Michael J.

    1988-09-01

    Many flammable materials are carried aboard combat vehicles, including fuel, hydraulic fluid, and munitions. A fire involving any of these can lead to destruction of the vehicle and injury to the crew. Ground combat vehicles have relied on fire extinguishing systems to protect the vehicles and crew, while aircraft use passive inerting techniques as well as fire extinguishing systems. The apparent disparity between ground combat vehicles and aircraft has caused the U.S. Congress to direct the Secretary of the Army to examine the use of passive, multiple-hit, fuel tank inerting systems in tracked and wheeled vehicles. This report examines passive fuel tank inerting techniques and provides an assessment of their applicability to ground combat vehicles. The extent of the hazard posed by the combat vehicle fuel tanks has been defined. The adequacy of the technology in reducing this hazard is evaluated for each technique considered. The current technology for the suppression of fires in and from vehicle fuel tanks available to and in use by the armed services, other government agencies, the private sector, and foreign armed services has also been examined. Attention was restricted to passive systems (systems which do not require any mechanical or electrical activation) which can suppress multiple occurrences of fire. Both fuel tank fillers and systems which surround the fuel tanks were considered. A review of currently available passive fuel tank inerting technologies has shown that the majority of these techniques are not effective for ground combat vehicles considering the large antiarmor threats. A significant quantity of testing has been conducted which bears this out. An exception to this are fuel tank jackets which show great promise in improving ground combat fire survivability. Futher development work must be done before this approach can be integrated into production vehicles or retrofitted into fielded vehicles. Proper fuel system and vehicle design, in

  16. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  17. Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Imide-linked perfluoroalkylene ether polymers, that were developed for the high temperature fuel tank sealant application, are discussed. Modifications of polymer structure and properties were realized through use of a new aromatic dianhydride intermediate containing an ether-linked perfluoroalkylene segment. Tests of thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, fuel resistance, and adhesion are discussed along with tensile strength and elongation results. Efforts to effect a low temperature condensation of amic acid prepolymer to form imide links inside are described.

  18. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cleaning. (4) Fuel tanks shall be adequately supported and braced to prevent movement. Portable tanks are... the tank for tank cleaning purposes. (iii) Liquid level gages must penetrate at a point that is more..., whichever is greater. A standpipe of 111/2 feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water...

  19. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cleaning. (4) Fuel tanks shall be adequately supported and braced to prevent movement. Portable tanks are... the tank for tank cleaning purposes. (iii) Liquid level gages must penetrate at a point that is more..., whichever is greater. A standpipe of 111/2 feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water...

  20. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cleaning. (4) Fuel tanks shall be adequately supported and braced to prevent movement. Portable tanks are... the tank for tank cleaning purposes. (iii) Liquid level gages must penetrate at a point that is more..., whichever is greater. A standpipe of 111/2 feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water...

  1. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b) Each... the top surface of each metallic fuel tank when the boat is in its static floating position. (e) Each..., the cellular plastic must meet the requirements of § 183.516 (b) or (c). (h) Each fuel tank...

  2. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 182.450 Section 182.450... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point of the...

  3. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded....

  4. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded....

  5. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded....

  6. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  7. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  8. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  9. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  10. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  11. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located...

  12. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded....

  13. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located...

  14. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located...

  15. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located...

  16. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located...

  17. Experimental Study of an On-board Fuel Tank Inerting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei; Lin, Guiping; Zeng, Yu; Pan, Rui; Sun, Haoyang

    2017-03-01

    A simulated aircraft fuel tank inerting system was established and experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the system. The system uses hollow fiber membrane which is widely used in aircraft as the air separation device and a simplified 20% scale multi compartment fuel tank as the inerting object. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influences of different operating parameters on the inerting effectiveness of the system, including NEA (nitrogen-enriched air) flow rate, NEA oxygen concentration, NEA distribution, pressure of bleeding air and fuel load of the tank. Results showed that for the multi compartment fuel tank, concentrated flow washing inerting would cause great differences throughout the distribution of oxygen concentration in the fuel tank, and inerting dead zone would exist. The inerting effectiveness was greatly improved and the ullage oxygen concentration of the tank would reduce to 12% successfully when NEA entered three compartments evenly. The time span of a complete inerting process reduced obviously with increasing NEA flow rate and decreasing NEA concentration, but the trend became weaker gradually. However, the reduction of NEA concentration will decrease the utilization efficiency of the bleeding air. In addition, the time span can also be reduced by raising the pressure of bleeding air, which will improve the bleeding air utilization efficiency at the same time. The time span decreases linearly as the fuel load increases.

  18. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in advanced designs of long range, subsonic transport aircraft is assessed. Both passenger and cargo type aircraft are investigated. Comparisons of physical, performance, and economic parameters of the LH2 fueled designs with conventionally fueled aircraft are presented. Design studies are conducted to determine appropriate characteristics for the hydrogen related systems required on board the aircraft. These studies included consideration of material, structural, and thermodynamic requirements of the cryogenic fuel tanks and fuel systems with the structural support and thermal protection systems.

  19. An Investigation of EME as a Potential Cause of Fuel Tank Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA researchers were tasked to study the potential for radio signals to excite an aircraft fuel quantity indication system (FQIS) enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within a fuel tank. Computational techniques were used to determine the threat from external high intensity radiated field (HIRF) transmitters nearby, like shipboard and airborne RADAR systems. Experimental methods were used to determine the threat from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) carried aboard by passengers. To support this work, unique electromagnetic coupling measurements were performed on a retired Boeing 747 aircraft, and new test and analysis methods were developed that may be applied to other FQIS designs as well as other aircraft electronic systems.

  20. Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Boschee, Jacob; Foygel, Michael Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A reduced dynamical model describing temperature stratification effects driven by natural convection in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has been developed. It accounts for cryogenic propellant loading, storage, and unloading in the conditions of normal, increased, and micro- gravity. The model involves multiple horizontal control volumes in both liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and velocity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken into account by using correlation relations. Heat exchange involving the tank wall is considered by means of the lumped-parameter method. By employing basic conservation laws, the model takes into consideration the major multi-phase mass and energy exchange processes involved, such as condensation-evaporation of the hydrogen, as well as flows of hydrogen liquid and vapor in the presence of pressurizing helium gas. The model involves a liquid hydrogen feed line and a tank ullage vent valve for pressure control. The temperature stratification effects are investigated, including in the presence of vent valve oscillations. A simulation of temperature stratification effects in a generic cryogenic tank has been implemented in Matlab and results are presented for various tank conditions.

  1. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to...

  3. The use of hydrogen for aircraft propulsion in view of the fuel crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, S.

    1973-01-01

    Some factors influencing the technical feasibility of operating a liquid hydrogen-fueled airplane are discussed in light of the projected decrease of fossil fuels. Other sources of energy, such as wind, tidal, solar, and geothermal, are briefly mentioned. In view of projected decreases in available petroleum fuels, interest has been generated in exploiting the potential of liquid hydrogen (LH2) as an aircraft fuel. Cost studies of LH2 production show it to be more expensive than presently used fuels. Regardless of cost considerations, LH2 is viewed as an attractive aircraft fuel because of the potential performance benefits it offers. Accompanying these benefits, however, are many new problems associated with aircraft design and operations; for example, problems related to fuel system design and the handling of LH2 during ground servicing. Some of the factors influencing LH2 fuel tank design, pumping, heat exchange, and flow regulation are discussed.

  4. Chemical research projects office fuel tank sealants review. [flight testing of fluorosilicone sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M Appendix M to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. M Appendix M to...

  6. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  7. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  8. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  9. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  10. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. 26.39 Section 26.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...

  11. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT...

  12. 14 CFR 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deformation of the tank walls: (1) Each complete tank assembly and its supports must be vibration tested while... 110 °F. During this test, a representative specimen of the tank must be installed in a supporting structure simulating the installation in the airplane. (d) For pressurized fuel tanks, it must be shown...

  13. 14 CFR 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deformation of the tank walls: (1) Each complete tank assembly and its supports must be vibration tested while... 110 °F. During this test, a representative specimen of the tank must be installed in a supporting structure simulating the installation in the airplane. (d) For pressurized fuel tanks, it must be shown...

  14. 14 CFR 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deformation of the tank walls: (1) Each complete tank assembly and its supports must be vibration tested while... 110 °F. During this test, a representative specimen of the tank must be installed in a supporting structure simulating the installation in the airplane. (d) For pressurized fuel tanks, it must be shown...

  15. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  16. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  17. IET. Jet fuel tank being lowered into position below grade. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Jet fuel tank being lowered into position below grade. Two tanks already in place. Date: October 18, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12535 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 14 CFR 27.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from the engine compartment by a firewall. At least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between the tank and the firewall. (d) Spaces adjacent to the surfaces of fuel tanks must be ventilated...

  19. 14 CFR 27.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from the engine compartment by a firewall. At least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between the tank and the firewall. (d) Spaces adjacent to the surfaces of fuel tanks must be ventilated...

  20. Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

  1. 14 CFR 23.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Syphoning of fuel (other than minor spillage) or collapse of bladder fuel cells may not result from improper.... A bladder-type fuel cell, if used, must have a retaining shell at least equivalent to a metal fuel... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 23.967 Section...

  2. 14 CFR 23.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Syphoning of fuel (other than minor spillage) or collapse of bladder fuel cells may not result from improper.... A bladder-type fuel cell, if used, must have a retaining shell at least equivalent to a metal fuel... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 23.967 Section...

  3. 14 CFR 23.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Syphoning of fuel (other than minor spillage) or collapse of bladder fuel cells may not result from improper.... A bladder-type fuel cell, if used, must have a retaining shell at least equivalent to a metal fuel... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank installation. 23.967 Section...

  4. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise provided, aircraft turbine fuel withdrawn from a Customs bonded warehouse for use under section 309, Tariff Act...

  5. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise provided, aircraft turbine fuel withdrawn from a Customs bonded warehouse for use under section 309, Tariff Act...

  6. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise provided, aircraft turbine fuel withdrawn from a Customs bonded warehouse for use under section 309, Tariff Act...

  7. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise provided, aircraft turbine fuel withdrawn from a Customs bonded warehouse for use under section 309, Tariff Act...

  8. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) shall be designed with a factor of safety of four on the ultimate strength of the material used with a... Machinery Requirements § 119.440 Independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials and construction. Independent fuel tanks must be designed and constructed of materials in compliance with the requirements of...

  9. 12. Interior view, fuel tanks on east side of power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, fuel tanks on east side of power plant, electrical panels on the left and fuel tanks in the center looking north - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 14 CFR 91.1507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 91.1507 Section 91.1507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 91.1507 Section 91.1507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 91.1507 Section 91.1507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 14 CFR 129.113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 129.113 Section 129.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 129.113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 129.113 Section 129.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 125.507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 125.507 Section 125.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 125.507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 91.1507 Section 91.1507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  17. 14 CFR 121.1113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 121.1113 Section 121.1113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 121.1113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of...

  18. 14 CFR 125.507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 125.507 Section 125.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 125.507 Fuel tank system inspection program. (a) Except as provided...

  19. 14 CFR 121.1113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 121.1113 Section 121.1113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Improvements § 121.1113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of...

  20. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  1. Jet aircraft fuel system deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hazlett, R.N.; Hall, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    Deposits samples were from the valve cavity of a fuel nozzle of a CF6-50A engine, from the fuel manifold adjacent to the combustor nozzles of a TR-30 engine, fuel test devices, and heat exchange tubes, operated in the laboratories of the Naval Air Propulsion Center and the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen in the deposits were determined with a Perkin Elmer Elemental Analyzer. Sulfur was determined on a separate sample by modifying ASTM method D3120-75. The high amount of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur found in the deposits is noteworthy. The data reported generally corroborates the information from the literature. All of the deposits from the engines and the test devices point to the importance of compounds containing hereto atoms. The importance of oxidation in triggering solids formation has been reviewed. It would appear that the trace primary oxidation reactions occurring in a fuel system would be insufficient to give the high concentration of oxygen in the deposit. However, if the compounds undergoing oxidation were oxygen-containing compounds rather than hydrocarbons the high oxygen concentrations in the deposit would be more reasonable. The high enhancement factors observed, causes one to conclude that some nitrogen and sulfur compounds found in fuels are very susceptible to oxidation and subsequent deposit formation. The high concentrations of hereto atoms implies that the deposits have highly polar characteristics. Since such material would have little attraction for the non-polar fuel, the insolubility of deposits may be due primarily to polarity differences rather than high molecular weight.

  2. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  3. 40 CFR 90.129 - Fuel tank permeation from handheld engines and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank permeation from handheld... KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.129 Fuel tank permeation from handheld... equipment with respect to fuel tanks. For the purposes of this section, fuel tanks do not include fuel...

  4. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E.

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers.

  5. In Situ Multi-Species (O2, N2, Fuel, Other) Fiber Optic Sensor for Fuel Tank Ullage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    A rugged and compact fiber optic sensor system for in situ real-time measurement of nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrocarbon (HC) fuel vapors, and other gases has been developed over the past several years at Glenn Research Center. The intrinsically-safe, solid-state fiber optic sensor system provides a 1% precision measurement (by volume) of multiple gases in a 5-sec time window. The sensor has no consumable parts to wear out and requires less than 25 W of electrical power to operate. The sensor head is rugged and compact and is ideal for use in harsh environments such as inside an aircraft fuel tank, or as a feedback sensor in the vent-box of an on-board inert gas generation system (OBIGGS). Multiple sensor heads can be monitored with a single optical detection unit for a cost-effective multi-point sensor system. The present sensor technology is unique in its ability to measure N2 concentration directly, and in its ability to differentiate different types of HC fuels. The present sensor system provides value-added aircraft safety information by simultaneously and directly measuring the nitrogen-oxygen-fuel triplet, which provides the following advantages: (1) information regarding the extent of inerting by N2, (2) information regarding the chemical equivalence ratio, (3) information regarding the composition of the aircraft fuel, and (4) by providing a self-consistent calibration by utilizing a singular sensor for all species. Using the extra information made available by this sensor permits the ignitability of a fuel-oxidizer mixture to be more accurately characterized, which may permit a reduction in the amount of inerting required on a real-time basis, and yet still maintain a fire-safe fuel tank. This translates to an increase in fuel tank fire-safety through a better understanding of the physics of fuel ignition, and at the same time, a reduction in compressed bleed air usage and concomitant aircraft operational costs over the long-run. The present fiber

  6. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance...

  7. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank)...

  8. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank)...

  9. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank)...

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ground and flight attitudes, of 0.25 percent of the tank capacity, or 1/16 gallon, whichever is greater... to its sump with the airplane in the normal ground attitude. (c) Each reciprocating engine fuel... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment...

  12. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Appendix N of this part, or that of a fuel tank within the wing of the airplane model being evaluated, whichever is greater. If the wing is not a conventional unheated aluminum wing, the analysis must be based on an assumed Equivalent Conventional Unheated Aluminum Wing Tank. (1) Fleet Average...

  13. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Appendix N of this part, or that of a fuel tank within the wing of the airplane model being evaluated, whichever is greater. If the wing is not a conventional unheated aluminum wing, the analysis must be based on an assumed Equivalent Conventional Unheated Aluminum Wing Tank. (1) Fleet Average...

  14. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix N of this part, or that of a fuel tank within the wing of the airplane model being evaluated, whichever is greater. If the wing is not a conventional unheated aluminum wing, the analysis must be based on an assumed Equivalent Conventional Unheated Aluminum Wing Tank. (1) Fleet Average...

  15. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Appendix N of this part, or that of a fuel tank within the wing of the airplane model being evaluated, whichever is greater. If the wing is not a conventional unheated aluminum wing, the analysis must be based on an assumed Equivalent Conventional Unheated Aluminum Wing Tank. (1) Fleet Average...

  16. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, oxidizer and fuel tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, oxidizer and fuel tank assembly for engine tests being raised by crane for permanent installation in Test Stand "D" tower. Each tank held 170 gallons of propellants. (JPL negative 384-2029-B, 7 August 1959) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must have a sump with an effective capacity, in the normal ground attitude, of not less than the... with the airplane in the ground attitude. (c) Each fuel tank sump must have an accessible drain...

  18. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris. (2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks,...

  19. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris. (2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks,...

  20. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris. (2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks,...

  1. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris. (2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris. (2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must have a sump with an effective capacity, in the normal ground attitude, of not less than the... with the airplane in the ground attitude. (c) Each fuel tank sump must have an accessible drain...

  4. 14 CFR 23.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine side of the firewall. There must be at least one-half inch of clearance between the fuel tank and the firewall. No part of the engine nacelle skin that lies immediately behind a major air opening...

  5. 14 CFR 23.967 - Fuel tank installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine side of the firewall. There must be at least one-half inch of clearance between the fuel tank and the firewall. No part of the engine nacelle skin that lies immediately behind a major air opening...

  6. 46 CFR 125.115 - Oil fuel tank protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil fuel tank protection. 125.115 Section 125.115... Oil fuel tank protection. (a) An OSV of at least 6,000 GT ITC (500 GRT if GT ITC is not assigned) that is delivered after August 1, 2010, with an aggregate capacity of 600 cubic meters or more of oil...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under...

  12. Sizing of an aircraft fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.

    1995-06-01

    A need to pump a mixture of two-phase fluid appears naturally in many situations. One example of this situation is aircraft fuel systems, where the pump inlet may have two-phase mixture due to the desorption of the dissolved gases at low pressures at higher altitudes. A simple procedure of selecting proper design conditions for the inlet inducer and a method of sizing the inducer, impeller and volute to meet all the design requirements has been described. This procedure has also been applied to a typical fighter plane boost pump design.

  13. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24 Section 31.10-24 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with...

  14. 14 CFR 23.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.965 Fuel... airplane structure, a pressure of 3.5 p.s.i., or that pressure developed during maximum ultimate... the maximum limit acceleration of the airplane with a full tank, with simultaneous application of...

  15. 14 CFR 23.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.965 Fuel... airplane structure, a pressure of 3.5 p.s.i., or that pressure developed during maximum ultimate... the maximum limit acceleration of the airplane with a full tank, with simultaneous application of...

  16. 14 CFR 23.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.965 Fuel... airplane structure, a pressure of 3.5 p.s.i., or that pressure developed during maximum ultimate... the maximum limit acceleration of the airplane with a full tank, with simultaneous application of...

  17. 81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON SOUTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON. CORNER OF CONTROL SKID VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Commercial Aircraft Airframe Fuel Systems Survey and Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Fairchild Swearingen Corporation Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada Ltd. P.O. Box 894 Box 10 San Antonio, Texas 78284 Longueuil , Quebec J4K 4X9 Mr...Antimisting Fuel Engineering and Development Plan, FAA-ED-18-4. The objective was to study the fuel systems of a representative sample of commercial aircraft

  19. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels. [aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    As the world supply of petroleum crude oil is being depleted, the supply of high-quality crude oil is also dwindling. This dwindling supply is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulphur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. The result of this trend is described and the change in important crude oil characteristics, as related to aircraft fuels, is discussed. As available petroleum is further depleted, the use of synthetic crude oils (those derived from coal and oil shale) may be required. The principal properties of these syncrudes and the fuels that can be derived from them are described. In addition to the changes in the supply of crude oil, increasing competition for middle-distillate fuels may require that specifications be broadened in future fuels. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition flame radiation, and emissions.

  20. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  1. Experimental Study of Turbine Fuel Thermal Stability in an Aircraft Fuel System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranos, A.; Marteney, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability of aircraft gas turbines fuels was investigated. The objectives were: (1) to design and build an aircraft fuel system simulator; (2) to establish criteria for quantitative assessment of fuel thermal degradation; and (3) to measure the thermal degradation of Jet A and an alternative fuel. Accordingly, an aircraft fuel system simulator was built and the coking tendencies of Jet A and a model alternative fuel (No. 2 heating oil) were measured over a range of temperatures, pressures, flows, and fuel inlet conditions.

  2. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Aircraft design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobe, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross sections and structural members on the performance of hypersonic cruise aircraft are evaluated. Representative fuselage/tank area structure was analyzed for strength, stability, fatigue and fracture mechanics. Various thermodynamic and structural tradeoffs were conducted to refine the conceptual designs with the primary objective of minimizing weight and maximizing aircraft range.

  3. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  4. Fiber-Optic Determination of N2, O2, and Fuel Vapor in the Ullage of Liquid-Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system has been developed that can remotely measure the concentration of molecular oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), hydrocarbon vapor, and other gases (CO2, CO, H2O, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) in the ullage of a liquid-fuel tank. The system provides an accurate and quantitative identification of the above gases with an accuracy of better than 1 percent by volume (for O2 or N2) in real-time (5 seconds). In an effort to prevent aircraft fuel tank fires or explosions similar to the tragic TWA Flight 800 explosion in 1996, OBIGGS are currently being developed for large commercial aircraft to prevent dangerous conditions from forming inside fuel tanks by providing an inerting gas blanket that is low in oxygen, thus preventing the ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the ullage. OBIGGS have been used in military aircraft for many years and are now standard equipment on some newer large commercial aircraft (such as the Boeing 787). Currently, OBIGGS are being developed for retrofitting to existing commercial aircraft fleets in response to pending mandates from the FAA. Most OBIGGS use an air separation module (ASM) that separates O2 from N2 to make nitrogen-enriched air from compressed air flow diverted from the engine (bleed air). Current OBIGGS systems do not have a closed-loop feedback control, in part, due to the lack of suitable process sensors that can reliably measure N2 or O2 and at the same time, do not constitute an inherent source of ignition. Thus, current OBIGGS operate with a high factor-of-safety dictated by process protocol to ensure adequate fuel-tank inerting. This approach is inherently inefficient as it consumes more engine bleed air than is necessary compared to a closed-loop controlled approach. The reduction of bleed air usage is important as it reduces fuel consumption, which translates to both increased flight range and lower operational costs. Numerous approaches to developing OBIGGS feedback-control sensors have been under

  5. Bioventing to treat fuel spills from underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Bioventilation is a procedure to cleanse soil gas of volatile fuel hydrocarbons originating from storage tank leaks. The rate of vapor degradation is a controlling parameter in the design of a bioventing system. A laboratory microcosm procedure using sandy soil from an aviation gasoline spill site was used to measure relative kinetics of some fuel vapors. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  6. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  7. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  8. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size. (b) There must...

  9. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size. (b) There must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  11. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  12. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  13. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  14. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  15. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  16. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  17. 14 CFR 26.37 - Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability. 26.37 Section 26.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.37 Pending type certification projects: Fuel tank flammability....

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the...

  19. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the...

  20. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the...

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the...

  2. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  3. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  4. 8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with Components Test Laboratory (T-27) located uphill to the left, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 36. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK, FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK, FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT FRAME AND SUPPORT PLATFORM, AND SAFETY MECHANISM ASSEMBLY (SPRING-LOADED HINGE). F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-S-1. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151975. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking southeast. At the extreme right is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) and the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. 4. Historic photo of fuel and oxidant tanks in hilltop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic photo of fuel and oxidant tanks in hilltop area of rocket engine test facility. 1956. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-1956-160D. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  9. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of modifications in hydrocarbon jet fuels specifications on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel system performance is discussed. Specific topics covered include: specific fuel consumption; ignition at relight limits; exhaust emissions; combustor liner temperatures; carbon deposition; gum formation in fuel nozzles, erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes; deposits in fuel system heat exchangers; and pumpability and flowability of the fuel. Data that evaluate the ability of current technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  10. Fuel level sensor based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    Safety in civil aviation is increasingly important due to the increase in flight routes and their more challenging nature. Like other important systems in aircraft, fuel level monitoring is always a technical challenge. The most frequently used level sensors in aircraft fuel systems are based on capacitive, ultrasonic and electric techniques, however they suffer from intrinsic safety concerns in explosive environments combined with issues relating to reliability and maintainability. In the last few years, optical fiber liquid level sensors (OFLLSs) have been reported to be safe and reliable and present many advantages for aircraft fuel measurement. Different OFLLSs have been developed, such as the pressure type, float type, optical radar type, TIR type and side-leaking type. Amongst these, many types of OFLLSs based on fiber gratings have been demonstrated. However, these sensors have not been commercialized because they exhibit some drawbacks: low sensitivity, limited range, long-term instability, or limited resolution. In addition, any sensors that involve direct interaction of the optical field with the fuel (either by launching light into the fuel tank or via the evanescent field of a fiber-guided mode) must be able to cope with the potential build up of contamination - often bacterial - on the optical surface. In this paper, a fuel level sensor based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs), including poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and TOPAS fibers, embedded in diaphragms is investigated in detail. The mPOFBGs are embedded in two different types of diaphragms and their performance is investigated with aviation fuel for the first time, in contrast to our previous works, where water was used. Our new system exhibits a high performance when compared with other previously published in the literature, making it a potentially useful tool for aircraft fuel monitoring.

  11. Development of a turbine in-tank fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Shinoda, K.

    1987-01-01

    Considerations have been made on using turbine pumps as in-tank fuel pumps for electronic flue injection systems (EFI). Flow channel dimension values, which had not been previously used for these types of pumps, were found to be very suitable for use as a fuel pump. The oil film visualization method was used to observe the flow pattern within the pump, and the results served to improve the flow channel shape. This contributed to designing a compact and efficient high-pressure fuel pump.

  12. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may effect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are explored; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are examined. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel specification changes is assessed and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  13. Generic Ordnance Ramjet Engine (GORJE) Fuel Tank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    Folding Characteristics, 95 ;,-:„:. VAC/PRESSURE GAGE ON/OFF VALVE i—-th- m BLADDER -._H20 k- PLEXI GLASS CASE NO. 2 —C^J Q PUMP FIG. 6-A...of Appendix A Factor of safety All point loads 1.5 on ultimate 1.15 on yield Pressure, psi Proof 450 Yield 475 Ultimate 550 Temperature...to the aircraft. This torque is sufficient to overcome frictional drag and inertial forces acting on the lug and will rotate the lug into the recess

  14. Properties of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    type analyses:, Antistatic additives ;’ Fuel ~o5 aiants / Modified fuels; Corrosion inhibitors.oý V , Fuel composition. - aim ~ " me ~ GOA"fl 15 ft"’k...97 2. Effects of Fuel Corrosion Inhibitor Additives on the Electrical Conductivity of Fuels Containing Antistatic Additives ...determine level of trace metals which had caused thermal insta- bility; to determine the interactive effects of fuel additives ; and to aid in solving

  15. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will constitute a fire hazard or from which fumes may enter personnel compartments; and (7) Vents must... a separate vent line to lead vapors back to the top of one of the fuel tanks. If there is more than... line must lead back to the fuel tank to be used first, unless the relative capacities of the tanks...

  16. Failure Analysis of a Helicopter External Fuel-Tank Pylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES...COVERED (From - To) October 2011–March 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase II) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James M. Sloan, David Flanagan, Daniel DeSchepper, Paul Touchet,* and Henry Feuer† 5d

  18. 14 CFR 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 25.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 25.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 25.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 25.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the...

  2. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  3. Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.

  4. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  5. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  6. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  7. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  8. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  9. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at...

  10. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at...

  11. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at...

  12. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at...

  13. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at...

  14. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel... December 26, 2008; (2) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if an application for a...

  15. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel... December 26, 2008; (2) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if an application for a...

  16. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel... December 26, 2008; (2) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if an application for a...

  17. 14 CFR 26.35 - Changes to type certificates affecting fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Applicability. This section applies to holders and applicants for approvals of the following design changes to any airplane subject to 14 CFR 26.33(a): (1) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if the fuel... December 26, 2008; (2) Any fuel tank designed to be Normally Emptied if an application for a...

  18. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... end at any point— (i) Where the discharge of fuel from the vent outlet would constitute a fire hazard... with vapor elimination connections must have a vent line to lead vapors back to one of the fuel tanks... line must lead back to the fuel tank used for takeoff and landing....

  19. Flashback flame arrester devices for fuel cargo tank vapor vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Kushida, R. O.

    1981-03-01

    The flame quenching capability of four types of flame arresting devices suitable for installation on fuel cargo tank vents of marine transport vessels is evaluated. A single 30 mesh screen, a dual 20 mesh screen, a spiral wound crimped metal ribbon, and a packed bed of ballast rings were tested. Flame speed and flame penetration of the test arresters were determined. Eight fuels representative of bulk cargoes were tested. The test arresters quenched a minimum of three flashback flames from all eight fuels, with one exception: high speed ethylene flames penetrated the dual 20 mesh screen on three tests. The arresters withstood the sustained flame from a propane/air mixture for 30 minutes. None of the arresters withstood the sustained flame from an ethylene/air mixture for more than 7 minutes.

  20. Flashback flame arrester devices for fuel cargo tank vapor vents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Kushida, R. O.

    1981-01-01

    The flame quenching capability of four types of flame arresting devices suitable for installation on fuel cargo tank vents of marine transport vessels is evaluated. A single 30 mesh screen, a dual 20 mesh screen, a spiral wound crimped metal ribbon, and a packed bed of ballast rings were tested. Flame speed and flame penetration of the test arresters were determined. Eight fuels representative of bulk cargoes were tested. The test arresters quenched a minimum of three flashback flames from all eight fuels, with one exception: high speed ethylene flames penetrated the dual 20 mesh screen on three tests. The arresters withstood the sustained flame from a propane/air mixture for 30 minutes. None of the arresters withstood the sustained flame from an ethylene/air mixture for more than 7 minutes.

  1. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  2. Advanced Aircraft Fuel Evaluation. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    sensible heat they can absorb and the endothermic heat of dehydrogenation at 450-500*C to the corresponding aromatic hydro- carbons. The aromatics in...hydrogen released in the endothermic dehydrogenation. Having absorbed this heat from the airframe, the fuel now has an effective heating value...reducing the heat absorbing capability of the fuel. The presence of an alkyl group increases the molecular weight of the fuel relative to the amount of

  3. Power characteristics of fuels for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, W S; James, W S; Roberts, E W; Gage, V R; Harper, D R Iii

    1920-01-01

    Report presents the summation of results obtained in the testing of fuels of various compositions and characteristics in the altitude laboratory. The data upon which this report is based has had an important influence upon the writing of specifications for the various grades of aviation fuels.

  4. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  5. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  6. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption, with duty deposited, as required under the applicable regulations (see part 144 of this chapter... withdrawal for consumption shall be filed and duties shall be deposited for the excess of fuel so withdrawn over that used on aircraft so qualifying. Such withdrawal shall be filed and such duties shall...

  7. Analytical Techniques for Aromatic Components in Aircraft Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    IN AIRCRAFT FUELS J . Scott Warner Richard P. Kenan Battelle Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 DTIC October 1979 ELECTE JUL...1979. Dr. J . Scott Warner, Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories, was the Principal Investigator for the program and had the primary responsibility for

  8. Autoignition characteristics of aircraft-type fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadaccini, L. J.; Tevelde, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The ignition delay characteristics of Jet A, JP 4, no. 2 diesel, cetane and an experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuel in air at inlet temperatures up to 1000 K, pressures of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 atm, and fuel air equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 were mapped. Ignition delay times in the range of 1 to 50 msec at freestream flow velocities ranging from 20 to 100 m/sec were obtained using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect of temperature, pressure, flow rate, and fuel/air ratio. The ignition delay times for all fuels tested appeared to correlate with the inverse of pressure and the inverse exponent of temperature. With the exception of pure cetane, which had the shortest ignition delay times, the differences between the fuels tested did not appear to be significant. The apparent global activation energies for the typical gas turbine fuels ranged from 38 to 40 kcal/mole, while the activation energy determined for cetane was 50 kcal/mole. In addition, the data indicate that for lean mixtures, ignition delay times decrease with increasing equivalence ratio. It was also noted that physical (apparatus dependent) phenomena, such as mixing (i.e., length and number of injection sites) and airstream cooling (due to fuel heating, vaporization and convective heat loss) can have an important effect on the ignition delay.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels under... damage during sideswipes (railroad vehicles and grade crossings), all drain plugs, clean-out...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels under... damage during sideswipes (railroad vehicles and grade crossings), all drain plugs, clean-out...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels under... damage during sideswipes (railroad vehicles and grade crossings), all drain plugs, clean-out...

  12. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  13. Fuel conservation possibilities for terminal area compatible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Design features and operational procedures are identified, which would reduce fuel consumption of future transport aircraft. The fuel-saving potential can be realized during the last decade of this century only if the necessary research and technology programs are implemented in the areas of composite primary structure, airfoil/wing design, and stability augmentation systems. The necessary individual R and T programs are defined. The sensitivity to fuel usage of several design parameters (wing geometry, cruise speed, propulsion) is investigated, and the results applied to a candidate 18, 140-kg (40,000-lb) payload, 5556-km (3000-nmi) transport design. Technical and economic comparisons are made with current commercial aircraft and other advanced designs.

  14. 44. ARAIII Fuel oil tank ARA710. Camera facing west. Perimeter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. ARA-III Fuel oil tank ARA-710. Camera facing west. Perimeter fence at left side of view. Gable-roofed building beyond tank on right is ARA-622. Gable-roofed building beyond tank on left is ARA-610. Ineel photo no. 3-16. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  16. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  17. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flow between interconnected tanks. 29.957... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  18. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  19. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.470 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a...

  20. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.470 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a...

  1. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  2. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with... ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will...

  3. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.470 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a...

  4. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  5. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with... ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will...

  6. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  7. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with... ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will...

  8. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with... ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will...

  9. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.470 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a...

  10. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  11. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.470 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a...

  12. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with... ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40 Section 167.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a)...

  19. Approximate Pressure Distribution in an Accelerating Launch-Vehicle Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing the pressure in a generic liquid-fuel launch vehicle tank subjected to uniformly accelerated motion is presented. The equations obtained are then for the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank at approximately 70 seconds into flight. This generic derivation is applicable to any fuel tank in the form of a surface of revolution and should be useful in the design of future launch vehicles

  20. Design of short haul aircraft for fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Sweet, H. S.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    Current jet fuel prices of twice the 1972 level have significantly changed the characteristics of airplane design for best economy. The results of a contract with the NASA Ames Advanced Concepts and Missions Division confirmed the economic desirability of lower design cruise speeds and higher aspect-ratio wings compared to designs developed in the by-gone era of low fuel price. Evaluation of potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft showed that an interaction of airfoil technology and desirable engine characteristics is important: the supercritical airfoil permits higher aspect ratio wings with lower sweep; these, in turn, lower the cruise thrust requirements so that engines with higher bypass ratios are better matched in terms of lapse rate; lower cruise speeds (which are also better for fuel and operating cost economy) push the desired bypass ratio up further. Thus, if fuel prices remain high, or rise further, striking reductions in community noise level can be achieved as a fallout in development of a 1980s airplane and engine. Analyses are presented of developmental trends in the design of short-haul aircraft with lower cruise speeds and higher aspect-ratio wings, and the effects on fuel consumption of design field length, powered lift concepts, and turboprop as well as turbofan propulsion are discussed.

  1. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  2. Credit BG. View looks south southeast toward tank farm, Rogers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks south southeast toward tank farm, Rogers Dry Lake is in the background. Each cylindrical tank is labeled for jet fuel grade JP5. Two 2,000 gallon capacity rectangular tanks in midground are fabricated of concrete for storing hydrocarbons; they were constructed in 1993. Structure at extreme right of view is Building 4515, Jet Fuel Testing Laboratory - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Aircraft Fuel Tank Farm, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  4. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank, to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. Two low-temperature situations were observed. Where the bulk of the fuel is above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removes all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. Where the bulk of the fuel is at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceases when solids block the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the overall average temperature.

  5. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

  6. 78 FR 76775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Lightning Protection of Fuel Tank...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes special conditions for the Airbus Model A350-900 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) that will incorporate a nitrogen generation system (NGS) for all fuel tanks that actively reduce flammability exposure within the fuel tanks significantly below that required by the fuel tank flammability regulations. Among other benefits, the......

  7. 75 FR 71346 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Lightning Protection of Fuel Tank Structure To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... has determined that, instead of Sec. 25.981(a)(3), alternative fuel tank structural lighting..., Alternative Fuel Tank Structural Lightning Protection Requirements, either have the common dictionary meaning... average probability per flight hour of the order of 1 x 10 -9 or less. 2. Alternative Fuel Tank...

  8. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the drop impact test for helicopter fuel tank.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jialing; Sun, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The crashworthiness of helicopter fuel tank is vital to the survivability of the passengers and structures. In order to understand and improve the crashworthiness of the soft fuel tank of helicopter during the crash, this paper investigated the dynamic behavior of the nylon woven fabric composite fuel tank striking on the ground. A fluid-structure interaction finite element model of the fuel tank based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method was constructed to elucidate the dynamic failure behavior. The drop impact tests were conducted to validate the accuracy of the numerical simulation. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental and numerical results of the impact force with the ground. The influences of the impact velocity, the impact angle, the thickness of the fuel tank wall and the volume fraction of water on the dynamic responses of the dropped fuel tank were studied. The results indicated that the corner of the fuel tank is the most vulnerable location during the impact with ground.

  9. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  10. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  11. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... may end at any point— (i) Where the discharge of fuel from the vent outlet would constitute a fire... carburetor with vapor elimination connections must have a vent line to lead vapors back to one of the fuel... return line must lead back to the fuel tank used for takeoff and landing....

  12. Effectiveness of Incendiary Ammunition Against Aircraft Fuel Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-10-05

    Figi.lre 2. 1FA 𔃻�, "X-Ray Pictures of Current Productio.YJ. Caliber .30 Ml Incendiary Bullets ::Juring Perfc:::-:c:ar.ce Tests’’, E. R Thilo ...2FA R-321 1’X-Ray Pictures of C:.rrrent ?rodu::tion Caliber 0.50 Ml Incendiary Durir.g Performanc0 ’:’ests, First Rer;o:rt", E. rt. Thilo , May HH3...Sea:ing ’I’ar.k:s Placed to Rear ofHeL;kel Fi.ep:ica ?arget", E, R. Thilo , Nov. 1944. " .:’APG FR S-39192 - O,P. 5:374, ’’Tc f.rr:;ostl.gace the Ap

  13. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S. Standard Gage,” which was established by the... of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms, sides, or ends, except for: (i) An...

  14. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S. Standard Gage,” which was established by the... of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms, sides, or ends, except for: (i) An...

  15. 46 CFR 182.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... table may be found in many standard engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S..., where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms,...

  16. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S. Standard Gage,” which was established by the... of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms, sides, or ends, except for: (i) An...

  17. 46 CFR 182.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... table may be found in many standard engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S..., where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms,...

  18. 46 CFR 182.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... table may be found in many standard engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S..., where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms,...

  19. 46 CFR 182.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... table may be found in many standard engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S..., where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms,...

  20. 46 CFR 119.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S. Standard Gage,” which was established by the... of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms, sides, or ends, except for: (i) An...

  1. 46 CFR 182.440 - Independent fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... table may be found in many standard engineering reference books. The letters “USSG” stand for “U.S..., where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms,...

  2. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Johnson, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population, it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end-of-life considerations in mind. In addition to the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or to reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion systems. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle that has reached its scheduled end-of mission, the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario, the likely survival of a stainless steel or titanium tank during reentry poses a risk to people and property due to the high melting point and large heat-of-ablation of these materials. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of a hazardous substance being released when the tank impacts the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods that have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular, it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank, as well as the evaluation of fuel tank designs, which are selected based on whether they burst during reentry.

  3. 46 CFR 28.340 - Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. 28... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.340 Ventilation... engine or gasoline storage tank must comply with the requirements of this section. (b) Ventilation...

  4. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  5. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  6. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section 157.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33...

  7. Determining Fuel Losses in Storage Tanks Based on Factual Saturation Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitin, R. E.; Tryascin, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    At present, evaluation of fuel evaporative losses is based on a number of indirect parameters. Accuracy of such methods leaves much to be desired. The paper presents a method developed following the author's laboratory tests. An effective operation range of pressure vent valves in various tanks is provided, as well as low A92 gasoline losses for horizontal steel tanks at all operation temperatures.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... valves located as close as practicable to the tank shell on each connection through which liquid can... equivalent to a pipe with a nominal inside diameter of 4 inches or greater. (2) Tethered or self-closing caps for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... valves located as close as practicable to the tank shell on each connection through which liquid can... equivalent to a pipe with a nominal inside diameter of 4 inches or greater. (2) Tethered or self-closing caps for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valves located as close as practicable to the tank shell on each connection through which liquid can... equivalent to a pipe with a nominal inside diameter of 4 inches or greater. (2) Tethered or self-closing caps for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  11. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a rate of 15 cycles per minute until you reach one million total cycles. Use an angle deviation of +15° to −15° from level. (4) Cap testing. Perform durability cycles on fuel caps intended for use with... between the reference tank and the test tank for each measurement. This value is Mi, where i is a...

  12. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a rate of 15 cycles per minute until you reach one million total cycles. Use an angle deviation of +15° to −15° from level. (4) Cap testing. Perform durability cycles on fuel caps intended for use with... between the reference tank and the test tank for each measurement. This value is Mi, where i is a...

  13. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a rate of 15 cycles per minute until you reach one million total cycles. Use an angle deviation of +15° to −15° from level. (4) Cap testing. Perform durability cycles on fuel caps intended for use with... between the reference tank and the test tank for each measurement. This value is Mi, where i is a...

  14. 46 CFR 182.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... type fuel gauge. (c) Where sounding pipes are used, their openings must be at least as high as the... straight line, from the deck connection to the top of the tank. Such pipes must terminate on the...

  15. Raman-based Oxygen and Nitrogen Sensor for Monitoring Empty Airplane Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a Raman-based method for detecting oxygen and nitrogen in empty fuel tanks. The need for such a method comes from the potential danger of allowing explosive oxygen-fuel mixtures to accumulate in empty airplane fuel tanks. An explosion resulting from such a mixture is believed to have caused the Flight TWA 800 disaster in 1996. Recently, (e.g., February 17,2004 press release) the FAA announced its intentions to make fuel tank inerting mandatory. One potential solution to this problem is to use an inert gas such as nitrogen to flood the empty fue1 tanks in order to reduce the concentration of oxygen.

  16. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposed to direct natural sunlight for an equivalent period of time as long as you ensure that the tank is... emission family. It would generally be appropriate to consider an HDPE fuel cap with a nitrile rubber...

  17. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  18. Modeling, design and energy management of fuel cell systems for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas Heenan

    Fuel cell powered aircraft have been of long term interest to the aviation community because of their potential for improved performance and environmental compatibility. Only recently have improvements in the technological readiness of fuel cell powerplants enabled the first aviation applications of fuel cell technology. Based on the results of conceptual design studies and a few technology demonstration projects, there has emerged a widespread understanding of the importance of fuel cell powerplants for near-term and future aviation applications. Despite this, many aspects of the performance, design and construction of robust and optimized fuel cell powered aircraft have not been fully explored. This goal of this research then is to develop an improved understanding of the performance, design characteristics, design tradeoffs and viability of fuel cell powerplants for aviation applications. To accomplish these goals, new modeling, design, and experimental tools are developed, validated and applied to the design of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles. First, a general sub-system model of fuel cell powerplant performance, mass and geometry is derived from experimental and theoretical investigations of a fuel cell powerplant that is developed in hardware. These validated fuel cell subsystem models are then incorporated into a computer-based, application-integrated, parametric, and optimizeable design environment that allows for the concurrent design of the aircraft and fuel cell powerplant. The advanced modeling and design techniques required for modern aircraft design (including multi-disciplinary analysis, performance optimization under uncertainty and system performance validation), are applied at the fuel cell subsystem level and are linked to aircraft performance and design metrics. These tools and methods are then applied to the analysis and design of fuel cell powered aircraft in a series of case studies and design experiments. Based on the results of

  19. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  1. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  2. Study of Hydrogen Recovery Systems for Gas Vented While Refueling Liquid-Hydrogen Fueled Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of capturing and reliquefying the cold hydrogen vapor produced during the fueling of aircraft designed to utilize liquid hydrogen fuel were investigated. An assessment of the most practical, economic, and energy efficient of the hydrogen recovery methods is provided.

  3. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF{sub 6} and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF{sub 4} in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry.

  4. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  5. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  6. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  7. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  8. Investigation of Transport Airplane Fuselage Fuel Tank Installations under Crash Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Hard end points with soft intermediate frames 2 Only soft frames throughout 3-36 The previous analysis of the double -wall cylinder tank in the 300-inch...installation configurations investigated in this study include: -e Conformable tank containing a bladder and supported within a dedicated structure) -*-- Double ...FUSELAGE FUEL TANK INSTALLATIONS 3-1 3.1 DOUBLE -WALL CYLINDRICAL STRAP-IN AUXILIARY TANKS 3-1 3.1.1 KRASH Analyses 3-4 3.1.1.1 Vertical Direction

  9. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  10. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  11. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  12. Challenge to Aviation: Hatching a Leaner Pterosauer. [Improving Commercial Aircraft Design for Greater Fuel Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  13. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.580...

  14. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.580...

  15. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.580...

  16. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.580...

  17. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.580...

  18. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  19. 14 CFR 23.965 - Fuel tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the tank walls: (1) Each complete tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while... fluid. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows: (i) If no frequency of vibration... frequency of vibration is: (A) The number of cycles per minute obtained by multiplying the...

  20. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  1. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  2. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  3. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 29.957 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow...

  4. Fuel dispersal in high-speed aircraft/soil impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how the jet fuel contained in aircraft wing tanks disperses on impact with a soft terrain, i.e., soils, at high impact velocities. The approach used in this study is to combine experimental and numerical methods. Tests were conducted with an approximately 1/42 linear-scale mass-model of a 1/4 span section of a C-141 wing impacting a sand/clay mixture. The test results showed that within the uncertainty of the data, the percentage of incident liquid mass remaining in the crater is the same as that qualitatively described in earlier napalm bomb development studies. Namely, the percentage of fuel in the crater ranges from near zero for grazing impacts to 25%--50% for high angles of impact. To support a weapons system safety assessment (WSSA), the data from the current study have been reduced to correlations. The numerical model used in the current study is a unique coupling of a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO. Qualitatively, the splash, erosion, and soil compression phenomena are all numerically predicted. Quantitatively, the numerical method predicted a smaller crater cross section than was observed in the tests.

  5. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must have a drainable sump with an effective capacity in any ground attitude to be expected in service... that in any ground attitude to be expected in service, water will drain from all parts of the tank...

  7. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effective with the rotorcraft in any normal attitude, and must be located so that the sump contents cannot... water from each part of the tank to the sump with the rotorcraft in any ground attitude to be...

  8. 14 CFR 29.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effective with the rotorcraft in any normal attitude, and must be located so that the sump contents cannot... water from each part of the tank to the sump with the rotorcraft in any ground attitude to be...

  9. Internal capillary insulation for cryogenic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrew, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Capillary-type insulation was devised for installation on inside of liquid methane fuel tanks for future aircraft. Insulation consists of honeycomb core of fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyimide resin which is bonded onto metal tank wall using polyimide adhesive. Capillary holes in each honeycomb cell admit methane which provides static pressure in cell.

  10. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  11. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Rabaza, Ovidio

    2016-01-01

    A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel) and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU. PMID:27213388

  12. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Antonio M; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco; Rabaza, Ovidio

    2016-05-19

    A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel) and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU(-1) and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10(-4) and 16.5 × 10(-4) RIU.

  13. Understanding electrostatic charge behaviour in aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, Jill A.; Hooker, Phil; Bennett, Darrell

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents work on the simulation of electrostatic charge build-up and decay in aircraft fuel systems. A model (EC-Flow) has been developed by BAE Systems under contract to Airbus, to allow the user to assess the effects of changes in design or in refuel conditions. Some of the principles behind the model are outlined. The model allows for a range of system components, including metallic and non-metallic pipes, valves, filters, junctions, bends and orifices. A purpose-built experimental rig was built at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Buxton, UK, to provide comparison data. The rig comprises a fuel delivery system, a test section where different components may be introduced into the system, and a Faraday Pail for measuring generated charge. Diagnostics include wall currents, charge densities and pressure losses. This paper shows sample results from the fitting of model predictions to measurement data and shows how analysis may be used to explain some of the observed trends.

  14. A study of subsonic transport aircraft configurations using hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) as fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, D. B.; Avery, B. D.; Bodin, L. A.; Baldasare, P.; Washburn, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The acceptability of alternate fuels for future commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Using both liquid hydrogen and methane, several aircraft configurations are developed and energy consumption, aircraft weights, range and payload are determined and compared to a conventional Boeing 747-100 aircraft. The results show that liquid hydrogen can be used to reduce aircraft energy consumption and that methane offers no advantage over JP or hydrogen fuel.

  15. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight External Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Britt, Vicki O.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Results of buckling and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle external tank superlightweight liquid-oxygen (LO2) tank are presented. Modeling details and results are presented for two prelaunch loading conditions and for two full-scale structural tests that were conducted on the original external tank. The results illustrate three distinctly different types of nonlinear response for thin-walled shells subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. The nonlinear response phenomena consist of bifurcation-type buckling, short-wavelength nonlinear bending, and nonlinear collapse associated with a limit point. For each case, the results show that accurate predictions of non- linear behavior generally require a large-scale, high-fidelity finite-element model. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled launch-vehicle shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. In addition, results presented for two full-scale structural tests of the original standard-weight external tank suggest that the finite-element modeling approach used in the present study is sufficient for representing the nonlinear behavior of the superlightweight LO2 tank.

  16. Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

    1977-01-01

    An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

  17. Development of A 5,000 BBL, Rubberized Fabric Fuel Storage Tank, Collapsible,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Rubbers ablate at very high heating rates which will protect the cloth for short periods of exposure at large heating rates so the tanks should have...AD-SlOG 005 GOOYEAR AEROSPACE CORP AKRON ON ENGINEERED FABRICS DIV F/S 13/4 DEVELOPMENT OF A 5,000 BOL. RUBBERIZED FABRIC FUEL STORAGE TAN- ETC(Ul...mEEmmhEEmhmhmhE OReport Number v L 4!! FINAL REPORT DEVELOPMENT OF A 5000 BBL RUBBERIZED FABRIC FUEL STORAGE TANK,COLLAPSIBLE I Ronald L Sosnowski

  18. Buffeting of External Fuel Tanks at High Speeds on a Gruman F7F-3 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Howard L.

    1947-01-01

    Attempts were made to alleviate the buffeting of external fuel tanks mounted under the wings of a twin-engine Navy fighter airplane. The Mach number at which buffeting began was increased from 0,529 to 0.640 by streamlining the sway braces and by increasing the lateral rigidity of the sway brace system. Further increase of the Mach number, at which buffeting began to 0.725, was obtained by moving the external fuel tank to a position under the fuselage.

  19. FIELD-PRODUCED JP-8 STANDARD FOR CALIBRATION OF LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT METERS USED BY JET FUEL TANK MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of military personnel and tens of thousands of civilian workers perform jet fuel tank entry procedures. Before entering the confined space of a jet fuel tank, OSHA regulations (29CFR1910.146) require the internal atmosphere be tested with a calibrated, direct-reading...

  20. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a...