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Sample records for aircraft general electric

  1. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Design of a 4-seat, general aviation, electric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Arvindhakshan

    Range and payload of current electric aircraft is limited primarily due to low energy density of batteries. However, recent advances in battery technology promise storage of more than 1 kWh of energy per kilogram of weight in the near future. This kind of energy storage makes possible the design of an electric aircraft comparable to, if not better than existing state-of-the art general aviation aircraft powered by internal combustion engines. This thesis explores through parametric studies the effect of lift-to-drag ratio, flight speed, and cruise altitude on required thrust power and battery energy and presents the conceptual and preliminary design of a four-seat, general aviation electric aircraft with a takeoff weight of 1750 kg, a range of 800 km, and a cruise speed of 200 km/h. An innovative configuration design will take full advantage of the electric propulsion system, while a Lithium-Polymer battery and a DC brush less motor will provide the power. Advanced aerodynamics will explore the greatest possible extend of laminar flow on the fuselage, the wing, and the empennage surfaces to minimize drag, while advanced composite structures will provide the greatest possible savings on empty weight. The proposed design is intended to be certifiable under current FAR 23 requirements.

  3. General Matrix Inversion Technique for the Calibration of Electric Field Sensor Arrays on Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    A matrix calibration procedure has been developed that uniquely relates the electric fields measured at the aircraft with the external vector electric field and net aircraft charge. The calibration method can be generalized to any reasonable combination of electric field measurements and aircraft. A calibration matrix is determined for each aircraft that represents the individual instrument responses to the external electric field. The aircraft geometry and configuration of field mills (FMs) uniquely define the matrix. The matrix can then be inverted to determine the external electric field and net aircraft charge from the FM outputs. A distinct advantage of the method is that if one or more FMs need to be eliminated or deemphasized [e.g., due to a malfunction), it is a simple matter to reinvert the matrix without the malfunctioning FMs. To demonstrate the calibration technique, data are presented from several aircraft programs (ER-2, DC-8, Altus, and Citation).

  4. General Matrix Inversion for the Calibration of Electric Field Sensor Arrays on Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a matrix calibration procedure that uniquely relates the electric fields measured at the aircraft with the external vector electric field and net aircraft charge. Our calibration method is being used with all of our aircraft/electric field sensing combinations and can be generalized to any reasonable combination of electric field measurements and aircraft. We determine a calibration matrix that represents the individual instrument responses to the external electric field. The aircraft geometry and configuration of field mills (FMs) uniquely define the matrix. The matrix can then be inverted to determine the external electric field and net aircraft charge from the FM outputs. A distinct advantage of the method is that if one or more FMs need to be eliminated or de-emphasized (for example, due to a malfunction), it is a simple matter to reinvert the matrix without the malfunctioning FMs. To demonstrate our calibration technique, we present data from several of our aircraft programs (ER-2, DC-8, Altus, Citation).

  5. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  6. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  7. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  8. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  9. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  10. BEST: A Learner-Centered Workplace Literacy Partnership of the Vermont Institute for Self-Reliance and General Electric Aircraft Engines Rutland, VT. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashof, Judith R.

    The Vermont Institute for Self Reliance (VISR) conducted a Basic Educational Skills for Training (BEST) program, a national demonstration project in workplace literacy, from April 1990 to March 1992. BEST provided learner-centered, context-based literacy instruction onsite, on company time, at two General Electric (GE) Aircraft Engines Rutland…

  11. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with the release of carbon fibers from general aviation aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, D.; Fiksel, J.

    1980-01-01

    A Poisson type model was developed and exercised to estimate the risk of economic losses through 1993 due to potential electric effects of carbon fibers released from United States general aviation aircraft in the aftermath of a fire. Of the expected 354 annual general aviation aircraft accidents with fire projected for 1993, approximately 88 could involve carbon fibers. The average annual loss was estimated to be about $250 (1977 dollars) and the likelihood of exceeding $107,000 (1977 dollars) in annual loss in any one year was estimated to be at most one in ten thousand.

  12. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  13. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  14. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  15. Aircraft measurement of electric field - Self-calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, W. P.

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft measurement of electric fields is difficult as the electrically conducting surface of the aircraft distorts the electric field. Calibration requires determining the relations between the undistorted electric field in the absence of the vehicle and the signals from electric field meters that sense the local distorted fields in their immediate vicinity. This paper describes a generalization of a calibration method which uses pitch and roll maneuvers. The technique determines both the calibration coefficients and the direction of the electric vector. The calibration of individual electric field meters and the elimination of the aircraft's self-charge are described. Linear combinations of field mill signals are examined and absolute calibration and error analysis are discussed. The calibration method was applied to data obtained during a flight near thunderstorms.

  16. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  17. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  18. Integrated digital/electric aircraft concepts study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.; Hays, A. P.; Green, F. B.; Radovcich, N. A.; Helsley, C. W.; Rutchik, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The integrated digital/electrical aircraft (IDEA) is an aircraft concept which employs all electric secondary power systems and advanced digital flight control systems. After trade analysis, preferred systems were applied to the baseline configuration. An additional configuration, the alternate IDEA, was also considered. For this concept the design ground rules were relaxed in order to quantify additional synergistic benefits. It was proposed that an IDEA configuration and technical risks associated with the IDEA systems concepts be defined and the research and development required activities to reduce these risks be identified. The selected subsystems include: power generation, power distribution, actuators, environmental control system and flight controls systems. When the aircraft was resized, block fuel was predicted to decrease by 11.3 percent, with 7.9 percent decrease in direct operating cost. The alternate IDEA shows a further 3.4 percent reduction in block fuel and 3.1 percent reduction in direct operating cost.

  19. Airvolt Aircraft Electric Propulsion Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, Aamod; Lin, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    Development of an electric propulsion test stand that collects high-fidelity data of motor, inverter, and battery system efficiencies; thermal dynamics; and acoustics independent of manufacturer reported values will improve understanding of electric propulsion systems to be used in future aircraft. A buildup approach to this development reveals new areas of research and best practices in testing, and attempts to establish a standard for testing these systems.

  20. General rules for metal aircraft construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidoni, Alessandre

    1924-01-01

    The Commissariat of Aviation deems it expedient to issue a few rules of a general character which should be followed by constructors in designing aircraft, into the manufacture of which metal enters to a considerable extent. The materials covered include: aluminum, duralumin, soft steel, high-resistance steel, in sheets, tubing, and shaped elements.

  1. Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1993-01-01

    It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

  2. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. An investigation of separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The status of a project to develop and evaluate separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft is discussed. The electrical design, roll heading hold is described and schematic diagrams and an operational description are provided. The flight tests program is explained. Various failure conditions are proposed and the effects on the stability of the aircraft are analyzed.

  4. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  5. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... type certificate and complies with all of the requirements of this chapter (14 CFR Chapter 1) that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft...

  7. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... type certificate and complies with all of the requirements of this chapter (14 CFR Chapter 1) that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft...

  8. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... type certificate and complies with all of the requirements of this chapter (14 CFR Chapter 1) that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft...

  9. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three

  10. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  11. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  12. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  13. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  14. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  15. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  16. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  17. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  18. An aircraft Earth station for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matyas, R.; Boughton, J.; Lyons, R.; Spenler, S.; Rigley, J.

    1990-01-01

    While the focus has been international commercial air traffic, an opportunity exists to provide satellite communications to smaller aircraft. For these users equipment cost and weight critically impact the decision to install satellite communications equipment. Less apparent to the operator is the need for a system infrastructure that will be supported both regionally and internationally and that is compatible with the ground segment being installed for commercial aeronautical satellite communications. A system concept is described as well as a low cost terminal that are intended to satisfy the small aircraft market.

  19. Material Challenges and Opportunities for Commercial Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Significant reduction in carbon dioxide emission for future air transportation system will require adoption of electric propulsion system and more electric architectures. Various options for aircraft electric propulsion include hybrid electric, turboelectric, and full electric system. Realization of electric propulsion system for commercial aircraft applications will require significant increases in power density of electric motors and energy density of energy storage system, such as the batteries and fuel cells. In addition, transmission of MW of power in the aircraft will require high voltage power transmission system to reduce the weight of the power transmission system. Finally, there will be significant thermal management challenges. Significant advances in material technologies will be required to meet these challenges. Technologies of interest include materials with higher electrical conductivity than Cu, high thermal conductivity materials, and lightweight electrically insulating materials with high breakdown voltage, high temperature magnets, advanced battery and fuel cell materials, and multifunctional materials. The presentation will include various challenges for commercial electric aircraft and provide an overview of material improvements that will be required to meet these challenges.

  20. The all-electric aircraft - In your future?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Cary R.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in all-electric aircraft technology are reviewed with particular attention given to models with a digital fly-by-wire quadraplex control systems and experimental mechanical actuators. It is shown that all-electric technologies can eliminate many traditional design constraints and open up enormous range of design possibilities.

  1. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  2. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  3. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  4. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  5. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... type certificate and complies with all of the requirements of this chapter (14 CFR Chapter 1) that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153...: General. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no certificate holder may operate...

  6. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... type certificate and complies with all of the requirements of this chapter (14 CFR Chapter 1) that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153...: General. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no certificate holder may operate...

  7. Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

  8. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  9. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  10. General aviation aircraft interior noise problem: Some suggested solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Navaneethan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory investigation of sound transmission through panels and the use of modern data analysis techniques applied to actual aircraft is used to determine methods to reduce general aviation interior noise. The experimental noise reduction characteristics of stiffened flat and curved panels with damping treatment are discussed. The experimental results of double-wall panels used in the general aviation industry are given. The effects of skin panel material, fiberglass insulation and trim panel material on the noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels are investigated. With few modifications, the classical sound transmission theory can be used to design the interior noise control treatment of aircraft. Acoustic intensity and analysis procedures are included.

  11. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  12. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  13. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  14. 4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH FROM "HOSPITAL HILL" SHOWING THE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL WITH RAIL TRACKS IN THE FOREGROUND AND FORT CROOK IN THE BACKGROUND. Peter Kiewit Sons, Inc. (PKS), 1941. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. A new direction in energy conversion - The all-electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft to be more efficient than conventional designs and offer substantial operating costs reductions. Compared to present aircraft, an all-electric transport can save at least 10 percent in fuel burn. The cornerstone of an all-electric aircraft is the electric secondary power system. This paper reviews the major features of flight critical electric secondary power systems. Research required to lay the foundation for an all-electric aircraft is briefly discussed.

  1. Engineering Education and General Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert N.; D'Acosta, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights some of the many and diverse training, continuing education, and research programs General Electric conducts. Major areas discussed include entry-level programs, advanced programs, university-industry relations, professional continuing education, research and development services, and the GE Foundation. (JN)

  2. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  3. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  4. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  5. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  6. 48 CFR 1452.228-71 - Aircraft and General Public Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft and General... Provisions and Clauses 1452.228-71 Aircraft and General Public Liability Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.306-70(c)(1), insert the following clause: Aircraft and General Public Liability Insurance Department...

  7. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  8. Systems Analysis Developed for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop and evaluate concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. As part of this effort, system studies are being conducted to identify concepts with high payoff potential and associated technology areas for further development. To support this effort, a suite of component models was developed to estimate the mass, volume, and performance for a given system architecture. These models include a hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; an SOFC; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. First-order feasibility studies were completed for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel-cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including a PEM fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage, a direct methanol PEM fuel cell, and a direct internal reforming SOFC/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared with the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  9. Neighboring Optimal Aircraft Guidance in a General Wind Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardin, Matthew R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and system for determining an optimal route for an aircraft moving between first and second waypoints in a general wind environment. A selected first wind environment is analyzed for which a nominal solution can be determined. A second wind environment is then incorporated; and a neighboring optimal control (NOC) analysis is performed to estimate an optimal route for the second wind environment. In particular examples with flight distances of 2500 and 6000 nautical miles in the presence of constant or piecewise linearly varying winds, the difference in flight time between a nominal solution and an optimal solution is 3.4 to 5 percent. Constant or variable winds and aircraft speeds can be used. Updated second wind environment information can be provided and used to obtain an updated optimal route.

  10. Binocular Camera for cockpit visibility of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barile, A. J.

    1981-04-01

    A history of cockpit visibility studies and requirements with regard to aircraft safety, human factors, collision avoidance, and accident investigations is presented. The Federal Aviation Administration's development of the Binocular Camera is reviewed, and the technical details of a new and improved camera are discussed. The Binocular Camera uses two 65 mm wide angle F6.8 lenses and covers an 88 1/2 deg field of vision. The camera produces images, representative of what the human eyes see before the brain integrates them into one, thus making it possible to analyze the effect of obstruction to vision. The improvements, applications, and uses of the camera in the research, development, and operations of general aviation aircraft are discussed.

  11. Emergency in-flight egress for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    A NASA program for development of an inflight egress system for the left (pilot) door of general aviation aircraft is described. The pyrotechnic release door was felt to be necessary because of pilot difficulty in reaching the right door when subjected to spin/stall centrifugal effects. A flexible, linear shaped charged of hexanitrostibene II and a lanyard actuated detonator are discussed, along with mock-up tests and instrumentation. The egress system was designed for minimum structural impact, mimimum pilot initiation procedures, low weight, and no egress interference, and to provide sufficient force to blow off the door, have low required maintenance, and high reliability. Results of 68 tests are reviewed, noting the inclusion of a screen to keep glass fragments from spraying the cabin. Certification was achieved, and uses in the F-111 and B-1 aircraft are noted.

  12. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    In support of a stall/spin research program, an emergency in-flight egress system is being installed in a light general aviation airplane. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add-on 11.2 kg pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The airplane skin will be explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel will be jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mock-ups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics.

  13. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  14. Systems study for an Integrated Digital-Electric Aircraft (IDEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.; Irish, L. A.; Bailey, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the Integrated Digital/Electric Aircraft (IDEA) Study are presented. Airplanes with advanced systems were, defined and evaluated, as a means of identifying potential high payoff research tasks. A baseline airplane was defined for comparison, typical of a 1990's airplane with advanced active controls, propulsion, aerodynamics, and structures technology. Trade studies led to definition of an IDEA airplane, with extensive digital systems and electric secondary power distribution. This airplane showed an improvement of 3% in fuel use and 1.8% in DOC relative to the baseline configuration. An alternate configuration, an advanced technology turboprop, was also evaluated, with greater improvement supported by digital electric systems. Recommended research programs were defined for high risk, high payoff areas appropriate for implementation under NASA leadership.

  15. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  16. Utilization of separate surface control systems on general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1977-01-01

    The application of separate surface control systems to general aviation aircraft is discussed. Block diagrams of a conventional control system with autopilot tie-in and of a separate surface control system are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems are compared. Theoretical descriptions of pilot-in-the-loop operation and operation in the autopilot mode are presented. The application of separate surface stability augmentation in yaw dampers, wing levelers, and static longitudinal stability augmentation is examined. The state-of-the-art of separate control surface technology is summarized.

  17. Basic avionics module design for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, R. K.; Smyth, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The design of an advanced digital avionics system (basic avionics module) for general aviation aircraft operated with a single pilot under IFR conditions is described. The microprocessor based system provided all avionic functions, including flight management, navigation, and lateral flight control. The mode selection was interactive with the pilot. The system used a navigation map data base to provide operation in the current and planned air traffic control environment. The system design included software design listings for some of the required modules. The distributed microcomputer uses the IEEE 488 bus for interconnecting the microcomputer and sensors.

  18. 1. General view of Boeing EC135 looking aircraft. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Boeing EC-135 looking aircraft. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. Aircraft emission impacts in a neighborhood adjacent to a general aviation airport in southern California.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shishan; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2009-11-01

    Real time air pollutant concentrations were measured downwind of Santa Monica Airport (SMA), using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments in spring and summer of 2008. SMA is a general aviation airport operated for private aircraft and corporate jets in Los Angeles County, California. An impact area of elevated ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations was observed extending beyond 660 m downwind and 250 m perpendicular to the wind on the downwind side of SMA. Aircraft operations resulted in average UFP concentrations elevated by factors of 10 and 2.5 at 100 and 660 m downwind, respectively, over background levels. The long downwind impact distance (i.e., compared to nearby freeways at the same time of day) is likely primarily due to the large volumes of aircraft emissions containing higher initial concentrations of UFP than on-road vehicles. Aircraft did not appreciably elevate average levels of black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), although spikes in concentration of these pollutants were observed associated with jet takeoffs. Jet departures resulted in peak 60-s average concentrations of up to 2.2 x 10(6) cm(-3), 440 ng m(-3), and 30 microg m(-3) for UFP, PB-PAH, and BC, respectively, 100 m downwind of the takeoff area. These peak levels were elevated by factors of 440, 90, and 100 compared to background concentrations. Peak UFP concentrations were reasonably correlated (r(2) = 0.62) with fuel consumption rates associated with aircraft departures, estimated from aircraft weights and acceleration rates. UFP concentrations remained elevated for extended periods associated particularly with jet departures, but also with jet taxi and idle, and operations of propeller aircraft. UFP measured downwind of SMA had a median mode of about 11 nm (electric mobility diameter), which was about half of the 22 nm median mode associated with UFP from heavy duty diesel trucks. The observation of highly

  20. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  1. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  2. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  3. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  4. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  5. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  6. Procedure for calculating general aircraft noise based on ISO 3891

    SciTech Connect

    Hediger, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The standard ISO-3891 specifies the presentation of aircraft noise heard on the ground or of noise exposure by succession of aircraft, without giving any details on different parameters required to their calculation. The following study provides some of these parameters considering acoustic measurements as well as laboratory analysis realized in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Aviation.

  7. General Models for Assessing Hazards Aircraft Pose to Surface Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Ragan

    2002-11-18

    This paper derives formulas for estimating the frequency of accidental aircraft crashes into surface facilities. Objects unintentionally dropped from aircraft are also considered. The approach allows the facility to be well within the flight area; inside the flight area, but close to the edge; or completely outside the flight area.

  8. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.; Alsworth, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of small turbofan engines to general aviation aircraft is discussed. The engine and engine/airplane performance, weight, size, and cost interrelationships are examined. The effects of specific engine noise constraints are evaluated. The factors inhibiting the use of turbofan engines in general aviation aircraft are identified.

  9. Advanced Propulsion Systems Study for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study defines a family of advanced technology Stratified Charge Rotary Engines (SCRE) appropriate for the enablement of the development of a new generation of general aviation aircraft. High commonality, affordability, and environmental compatibility are considerations influencing the family composition and ratings. The SCRE family is comprised of three engines in the 70 Series (40 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e. one, two, and four rotor and two engines in the 170 Series (105 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e., two and four rotor. The two rotor engines are considered the primary engines in each series. A wide power range is considered covering 125 to 2500 HP through growth and compounding/dual pac considerations. Mission requirements, TBO, FAA Certification, engine development cycles, and costs are examined. Comparisons to current and projected reciprocating and turbine engine configurations in the 125 to 1000 HP class are provided. Market impact, estimated sales, and U.S. job creation (R&D, manufacturing and infractures) are examined.

  10. Noise levels and data correction analysis for seven general aviation propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. W.; Rickley, E. J.

    1980-09-01

    This document reports noise levels of a general aviation propeller aircraft noise test at the FAA National Aviation Facility Experimental Center located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The test was performed to acquire noise data on general aviation type aircraft and examine how these noise levels are influenced by variables such as distance, aircraft speed, power settings, and propeller speeds. Aircraft were tested during takeoff, approach, and flyover modes and data are given in EPNL and in "A"-weighted decibels. All measurements were performed in accordance with FAR 36 Appendix C and Appendix F procedures.

  11. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

  12. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  13. NASA Electric Aircraft Test Bed (NEAT) Development Plan - Design, Fabrication, Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2016-01-01

    As large airline companies compete to reduce emissions, fuel, noise, and maintenance costs, it is expected that more of their aircraft systems will shift from using turbofan propulsion, pneumatic bleed power, and hydraulic actuation, to instead using electrical motor propulsion, generator power, and electrical actuation. This requires new flight-weight and flight-efficient powertrain components, fault tolerant power management, and electromagnetic interference mitigation technologies. Moreover, initial studies indicate some combination of ambient and cryogenic thermal management and relatively high bus voltages when compared to state of practice will be required to achieve a net system benefit. Developing all these powertrain technologies within a realistic aircraft architectural geometry and under realistic operational conditions requires a unique electric aircraft testbed. This report will summarize existing testbed capabilities located in the U.S. and details the development of a unique complementary testbed that industry and government can utilize to further mature electric aircraft technologies.

  14. Study of the suitability of the all fiberglass XV-11A aircraft for fuel efficient general aviation flight research

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of rapidly rising fuel prices upon future general aviation aircraft requirements is explored. The current configuration of the fiberglass XV-11A aircraft is presented and it is shown that the aircraft can become a cost effective testbed for fuel efficient general aviation aircraft configurations. Several suitable research tasks for the aircraft are defined. A low cost method to produce master wing molds is proposed.

  15. The Elite: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Amy; Fay, Jonathan; Staudmeister, Douglas; Avis, Daniel; Le, Tuan; Stem, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Elite is a six passenger, general aviation aircraft targeted at the upper middle class private pilot. The Elite is a low wing, conventional monoplane utilizing rudder, ailerons, and a stabilator. The Elite will create a new class of aircraft in Aeroworld. This class of aircraft will demonstrate a substantial improvement in cruise speed over the current existing commercial fleet of aircraft in Aeroworld. This new class will be capable of servicing all existing airstrips in Aeroworld, including rough and short airways. The drivers of this design were aesthetics, a high cruise speed, and take-off distance.

  16. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  17. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  18. General Equations of Motion for a Damaged Asymmetric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2007-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in dynamic characteristics of damaged aircraft both in order to assess survivability and to develop control laws to enhance survivability. This paper presents a set of flight dynamics equations of motion for a rigid body not necessarily referenced to the body's center of mass. Such equations can be used when the body loses a portion of its mass and it is desired to track the motion of the body s previous center of mass/reference frame now that the mass center has moved to a new position. Furthermore, results for equations presented in this paper and equations in standard aircraft simulations are compared for a scenario involving a generic transport aircraft configuration subject to wing damage.

  19. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  20. Development of crashworthy passenger seats for general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, M. J.; Tanner, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and floor supported seat concept designs were developed. A restraint system suitable for both concepts was designed. Energy absorbing hardware for both concepts was fabricated and tension and compression tests were conducted to demonstrate the stroking capability and the force deflection characteristics. Crash impact analysis was made and seat loads developed. The basic seat structures were analyzed to determine the adequacy of their strength under impact loading.

  1. Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti

    2011-07-01

    This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.

  2. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  3. Electric Field Profiles over Hurricanes, Tropical Cyclones, and Thunderstorms with an Instrumented ER-2 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Doug M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Bailey, Jeff C.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have flown a set of calibrated electric field meters (FMs) on the NASA high altitude ER-2 aircraft over oceanic and landbased storms in a number of locations. These included tropical oceanic cyclones and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Atlantic ocean during the Third and Fourth Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX-3,1998; CAMEX-4, 2001), thunderstorms in Florida during the TExas FLorida UNderflight (TEFLUN, 1998) experiment, tropical thunderstorms in Brazil during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (TRMM LBA, 1999), and finally, hurricanes and tropical cyclones in the Caribbean and Western Pacific and thunderstorms in Central America during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP, 2005) mission. Between these various missions we have well over 50 sorties that provide a unique insights on the different electrical environment, evolution and activity occurring in and around these various types of storms. In general, the electric fields over the tropical oceanic storms and hurricanes were less than a few kilovolts per meter at the ER-2 altitude, while the lightning rates were low. Land-based thunderstorms often produced high lightning activity and correspondingly higher electric fields.

  4. A brief review of aircraft controls research opportunities in the general aviation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A review of aircraft controls research in the general aviation field is given. Among the topics included are: controls technology benefits, military and commercial test programs, flight tests, ride quality control, and wind loading.

  5. A historical overview of stall/spin characteristics of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    Even today, stall/spin accidents involving general aviation aircraft account for more fatal and serious injuries than any other kind of accident. The classic stall/spin accident is one in which the pilot stalls the aircraft at too low an altitude to affect recovery. The primary attention in the investigation is given to aerodynamic considerations, although it is recognized that human factors and pilot training are also very important aspects of the total problem. A review of some 70 years of flight indicates that incorporation of the proper combination of aerodynamic parameters to provide good stall/spin avoidance has persistently remained an elusive goal for designers of general aviation aircraft.

  6. Lightning damage to a general aviation aircraft: Description and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The damage sustained by a Beechcraft King Air Model B90 aircraft by a single lightning discharge is presented and analyzed. The incident occurred during landing approach at Jackson, Michigan, on Feb. 19, 1971. In addition to the usual melted-metal damage at the lightning attachment points, there was severe implosion-type damage over a large area on the lower right side of the aircraft and impact- and crushing-type damage on the upper and lower surfaces on the left wingtip near the trailing edge. Analyses indicate that the implosion-type damage was probably caused by lightning-generated shock waves, that the impact-and crushing-type damage was caused by magnetic forces, and that the lightning discharge was a multiple strike with at least 11 strokes separated in time by about 4.5 milliseconds. The evidence indicates that the lightning discharge was rather different from the average in character severity.

  7. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers) and also helps improve absolute calibration. Additionally, this paper introduces an alternate way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has some benefits over conventional analyses. It is accomplished by using the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  8. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part I: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of retrieving storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with several electric field mill sensors can be expressed in terms of a standard Lagrange multiplier optimization problem. The method naturally removes aircraft charge from the retrieval process without having to use a high voltage stinger and linearly combined mill data values. It also allows a variety of user-supplied physical constraints (the so-called side constraints in the theory of Lagrange multipliers). Additionally, this paper introduces a novel way of performing the absolute calibration of an aircraft that has several benefits over conventional analyses. In the new approach, absolute calibration is completed by inspecting the time derivatives of mill and pitch data for a pitch down maneuver performed at high (greater than 1 km) altitude. In Part II of this study, the above methods are tested and then applied to complete a full calibration of a Citation aircraft.

  9. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  10. Advanced microstrip antenna developments. Volume 2: Microstrip GPS antennas for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, G. G.; Gross, B. D.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes the application of microstrip antenna technology to the design of general aviation (G/A) aircraft antennas for use with the Global Positioning System (GPS). For most G/A aircraft, only single frequency operation will be required. However, air-carrier and some large corporate aircraft may make use of dual-frequency operation. For this reason, some dual-frequency designs have been investigated. The main effort was given to the design of antennas with broad beamwidths which could be switched or steered to compensate for aircraft maneuvers, with the goal of maintaining near-hemispherical carriage in flight. A hybrid microstrip crossed-slot and sleeve-dipole element used with a suitable combining network gives a suitable, controllable broad-beam pattern. This element and its performance are described. In addition, radiation patterns are presented using scale-model aircraft and simple crossed-slot antennas.

  11. The General Electric Advanced Course in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Donald R.

    A three-year, in-house engineering course offered to selected General Electric Company engineers is discussed. It is designed to develop the ability to identify and solve real engineering problems. The course may be taken concurrently with college courses in a cooperative program that can result in a graduate degree in engineering. (MLH)

  12. A General Interface Method for Aeroelastic Analysis of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzong, T.; Chen, H. H.; Chang, K. C.; Wu, T.; Cebeci, T.

    1996-01-01

    The aeroelastic analysis of an aircraft requires an accurate and efficient procedure to couple aerodynamics and structures. The procedure needs an interface method to bridge the gap between the aerodynamic and structural models in order to transform loads and displacements. Such an interface method is described in this report. This interface method transforms loads computed by any aerodynamic code to a structural finite element (FE) model and converts the displacements from the FE model to the aerodynamic model. The approach is based on FE technology in which virtual work is employed to transform the aerodynamic pressures into FE nodal forces. The displacements at the FE nodes are then converted back to aerodynamic grid points on the aircraft surface through the reciprocal theorem in structural engineering. The method allows both high and crude fidelities of both models and does not require an intermediate modeling. In addition, the method performs the conversion of loads and displacements directly between individual aerodynamic grid point and its corresponding structural finite element and, hence, is very efficient for large aircraft models. This report also describes the application of this aero-structure interface method to a simple wing and an MD-90 wing. The results show that the aeroelastic effect is very important. For the simple wing, both linear and nonlinear approaches are used. In the linear approach, the deformation of the structural model is considered small, and the loads from the deformed aerodynamic model are applied to the original geometry of the structure. In the nonlinear approach, the geometry of the structure and its stiffness matrix are updated in every iteration and the increments of loads from the previous iteration are applied to the new structural geometry in order to compute the displacement increments. Additional studies to apply the aero-structure interaction procedure to more complicated geometry will be conducted in the second phase

  13. Data acquisition/reduction system for flight testing general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummer, D. I.; Mosser, M. A.; Renz, R. R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition/reduction system for use in the flight testing of general aviation aircraft is described. Design objectives for the system are adequate accuracy, ease of installation and removal from aircraft, simplicity of operation, and low cost. A 16-channel working system has been constructed, and tested in the collection of flight test data from a Cessna 172 aircraft, which uses as the basis of its design an AIM65 microcomputer. Data is reduced with a MINC minicomputer system. Attention is given to the onboard installation of computer, battery and transducer modules incorporated by the system.

  14. Systems analysis of the installation, mounting, and activation of emergency locator transmitters in general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A development program was developed to design and improve the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) transmitter and to improve the installation in the aircraft and its activation subsystem. There were 1135 general aviation fixed wing aircraft accident files reviewed. A detailed description of the damage to the aircraft was produced. The search aspects of these accidents were studied. As much information as possible about the ELT units in these cases was collected. The data should assist in establishing installation and mounting criteria, better design standards for activation subsystems, and requirements for the new ELT system design in the area of crashworthiness.

  15. Some flight data extraction techniques used on a general aviation spin research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    Some methods for obtaining flight data from a highly instrumented general aviation spin research aircraft are developed and illustrated. The required correction terms for the measurement of body accelerations, body velocities, and aircraft orientation are presented. In addition, the equations of motion are utilized to derive total aerodynamic coefficients for comparison with model tests and for analysis. Flight test experience is used to evaluate the utility of various instruments and calculation techniques for spin research.

  16. Comparisons of four alternative powerplant types for future general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickenheiser, T. J.; Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Strack, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recently completed NASA sponsored conceptual studies were culminated in the identification of promising new technologies for future spark ignition, diesel, rotary, and turbine engines. The results of a NASA in-house preliminary assessment study that compares these four powerplants types in several general aviation applications are reported. The evaluation consisted of installing each powerplant type in rubberized aircraft which are sized to accomplish fixed missions. The primary evaluation criteria include projected aircraft cost, total ownership cost, and mission fuel.

  17. EGADS: A microcomputer program for estimating the aerodynamic performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.

    1994-01-01

    EGADS is a comprehensive preliminary design tool for estimating the performance of light, single-engine general aviation aircraft. The software runs on the Apple Macintosh series of personal computers and assists amateur designers and aeronautical engineering students in performing the many repetitive calculations required in the aircraft design process. The program makes full use of the mouse and standard Macintosh interface techniques to simplify the input of various design parameters. Extensive graphics, plotting, and text output capabilities are also included.

  18. Remote Sensing of Electric Atmospheric Field Produced by Storm Cloud With an Instrumented Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, P. A.; Delannoy, A.; Blanchet, P.; Lalande, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sensing the 3 components of the atmospheric field is an efficient way to diagnose the electrification of convective cloud. This is currently done by rocket (Win and Moore 1971), balloon (Stolzenburg et al. 2007) and instrumented aircraft (Win 1993, Koshak et al. 2006). Intra cloud measurement can help to evidence electrification process (Sonnenfeld et al. 2006) or revealed local charged region in CB anvil (Dye et al. 2007). In 2010 a Falcon 20 jet aircraft has been instrumented to retrieve the value of electrostatic field in the vicinity of convective cloud. Instrumentation consists in 8 field mill mounted flush on aircraft surface. Each sensor delivers a linear measurement of the field at the surface of the aircraft from 10 V/m up to 80 kV/m. Calibration of the atmospheric electric field retrieving method has been done by using Koshak’s method and computation on a numerical meshing of the aircraft. With the present setting, the field mill network saturation occurs for an atmospheric field magnitude close to 12 kV/m. Several flights were performed close to and inside deep convective cloud at altitude ranging between 1500 and 6000 m AMSL. We present and discuss the observations obtained during this field experiment. Horizontal Atmospheric Electric Field along the trajectory of the aircraft

  19. PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

  20. General Aviation Light Aircraft Propulsion: From the 1940's to the Next Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkardt, Leo A.

    1998-01-01

    Current general aviation light aircraft are powered by engines that were originally designed in the 1940's. This paper gives a brief history of light aircraft engine development, explaining why the air-cooled, horizontally opposed piston engine became the dominant engine for this class of aircraft. Current engines are fairly efficient, and their designs have been updated through the years, but their basic design and operational characteristics are archaic in comparison to modem engine designs, such as those used in the automotive industry. There have been some innovative engine developments, but in general they have not been commercially successful. This paper gives some insight into the reasons for this lack of success. There is now renewed interest in developing modem propulsion systems for light aircraft, in the fore-front of which is NASA's General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program. This paper gives an overview of the engines being developed in the GAP program, what they will mean to the general aviation community, and why NASA and its industry partners believe that these new engine developments will bring about a new era in general aviation light aircraft.

  1. 49 CFR 173.27 - General requirements for transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for transportation by aircraft. 173.27 Section 173.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  2. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  3. A pilot study of human response to general aviation aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J.; Brown, R.; Neiswander, P.

    1983-01-01

    A pilot study, conducted to evaluate procedures for measuring the noise impact and community response to general aviation aircraft around Torrance Municipal Airport, a typical large GA airport, employed Torrance Airport's computer-based aircraft noise monitoring system, which includes nine permanent monitor stations surrounding the airport. Some 18 residences near these monitor stations were equipped with digital noise level recorders to measure indoor noise levels. Residents were instructed to fill out annoyance diaries for periods of 5-6 days, logging the time of each annoying aircraft overflight noise event and judging its degree of annoyance on a seven-point scale. Among the noise metrics studied, the differential between outdoor maximum A-weighted noise level of the aircraft and the outdoor background level showed the best correlation with annoyance; this correlation was clearly seen at only high noise levels, And was only slightly better than that using outdoor aircraft noise level alone. The results indicate that, on a national basis, a telephone survey coupled with outdoor noise measurements would provide an efficient and practical means of assessing the noise impact of general aviation aircraft.

  4. Landing approach evaluation of an integrated CRT display for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, P. D.; Stinnett, G. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A flight director adaptable to general aviation aircraft was evaluated for the landing approach task in a twin turbojet business aircraft. The flight director combined aircraft heading, pitch and roll atitude, and ILS (Instrument Landing System) signals into a single picture on a small cathode ray tube (CRT) to give the pilot an integrated picture of the aircraft situation. The display is unique in that it presents the information on a CRT and gives quasi-command signals to the pilot. The particular display investigated was a preproduction version of the Kaiser Model FP-50 flight director. Approaches made with visual references only, with a conventional ILS displacement instrument, and with the CRT display were compared in terms of tracking performance and pilot workload. Tracking performance of three research pilots using the CRT display was superior to that using the conventional ILS instrument and comparable to that under VFR conditions. Pilot workload (based on pilot comments) was not clearly decreased.

  5. Experimental study of noise transmission into a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Bofilios, D. A.; Eisler, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of add-on treatments on noise transmission into a cabin of a light aircraft was studied under laboratory conditions for diffuse and localized noise inputs. Results indicate that stiffening skin panels with honeycomb would provide on the average 3dB to 7 dB insertion loss over the most of selected frequency range H1 to 1000 Hz. Addition of damping tape on top of the honeycomb treatment increases insertion loss by 2dB to 3dB. Porous acoustic blankets show no attenuation of transmitted noise for frequencies below 300 Hz. Insertion of impervious vinyl septa between the layers of porous acoustic blankets do not provide additional noise reduction for frequencies up to about 500 Hz. Similar behavior was observed for noise barriers composed of urethane elastomer, decoupler foam and acoustic foam. A treatment composed from several layers of acoustic foams does not increase noise attenuation for the entire frequency range studied. An acoustic treatment composed of honeycomb panels, constrained layer damping tape, 2 to 3 inches of porous acoustic blankets, and limptrim which is isolated from the vibrations of the main fuselage structure seems to provide the best option for noise control.

  6. Verifying Algorithms for Autonomous Aircraft by Simulation Generalities and Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2010-01-01

    An open question in Air Traffic Management is what procedures can be validated by simulation where the simulation shows that the probability of undesirable events is below the required level at some confidence level. The problem is including enough realism to be convincing while retaining enough efficiency to run the large number of trials needed for high confidence. The paper first examines the probabilistic interpretation of a typical requirement by a regulatory agency and computes the number of trials needed to establish the requirement at an equivalent confidence level. Since any simulation is likely to consider only one type of event and there are several types of events, the paper examines under what conditions this separate consideration is valid. The paper establishes a separation algorithm at the required confidence level where the aircraft operates under feedback control as is subject to perturbations. There is a discussion where it is shown that a scenario three of four orders of magnitude more complex is feasible. The question of what can be validated by simulation remains open, but there is reason to be optimistic.

  7. An Active Flow Circulation Controlled Flap Concept for General Aviation Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Viken, Sally A.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2002-01-01

    A recent focus on revolutionary aerodynamic concepts has highlighted the technology needs of general aviation and personal aircraft. New and stringent restrictions on these types of aircraft have placed high demands on aerodynamic performance, noise, and environmental issues. Improved high lift performance of these aircraft can lead to slower takeoff and landing speeds that can be related to reduced noise and crash survivability issues. Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, yet have been avoided due to trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, perceived noise etc. The need to improve the circulation control technology for general aviation and personal air-vehicle applications is the focus of this paper. This report will describe the development of a 2-D General Aviation Circulation Control (GACC) wing concept that utilizes a pulsed pneumatic flap.

  8. A measurement model for general noise reaction in response to aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Maarten; Schreckenberg, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a measurement model for general noise reaction (GNR) in response to aircraft noise is developed to assess the performance of aircraft noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction as indicators of this concept. For this purpose GNR is conceptualized as a superordinate latent construct underlying particular manifestations. This conceptualization is empirically tested through estimation of a second-order factor model. Data from a community survey at Frankfurt Airport are used for this purpose (N=2206). The data fit the hypothesized factor structure well and support the conceptualization of GNR as a superordinate construct. It is concluded that noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction to noise capture a large part of the negative feelings and emotions in response to aircraft noise but are unable to capture all relevant variance. The paper concludes with recommendations for the valid measurement of community reaction and several directions for further research. PMID:21303002

  9. Aircraft Electrical Repairman, 2-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-volume textbook and three student workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary level course in aircraft electrical repair comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the individualized, self-paced…

  10. Analytic Solution to the Problem of Aircraft Electric Field Mill Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William

    2003-01-01

    It is by no means a simple task to retrieve storm electric fields from an aircraft instrumented with electric field mill sensors. The presence of the aircraft distorts the ambient field in a complicated way. Before retrievals of the storm field can be made, the field mill measurement system must be "calibrated". In other words, a relationship between impressed (i.e., ambient) electric field and mill output must be established. If this relationship can be determined, it is mathematically inverted so that ambient field can be inferred from the mill outputs. Previous studies have primarily focused on linear theories where the relationship between ambient field and mill output is described by a "calibration matrix" M. Each element of the matrix describes how a particular component of the ambient field is enhanced by the aircraft. For example the product M(sub ix), E(sub x), is the contribution of the E(sub x) field to the i(th) mill output. Similarly, net aircraft charge (described by a "charge field component" E(sub q)) contributes an amount M(sub iq)E(sub q) to the output of the i(th) sensor. The central difficulty in obtaining M stems from the fact that the impressed field (E(sub x), E(sub y), E(sub z), E(sub q) is not known but is instead estimated. Typically, the aircraft is flown through a series of roll and pitch maneuvers in fair weather, and the values of the fair weather field and aircraft charge are estimated at each point along the aircraft trajectory. These initial estimates are often highly inadequate, but several investigators have improved the estimates by implementing various (ad hoc) iterative methods. Unfortunately, none of the iterative methods guarantee absolute convergence to correct values (i.e., absolute convergence to correct values has not been rigorously proven). In this work, the mathematical problem is solved directly by analytic means. For m mills installed on an arbitrary aircraft, it is shown that it is possible to solve for a single 2m

  11. Estimating electric field enhancement factors on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model: A method evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Calvin C.; Rudolph, Terence; Easterbrook, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    A method for obtaining field enhancement factors at specific points on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model was evaluated by measuring several canonical shapes. Comparison of the form factors obtained by analytical means with measurements indicate that the experimental method has serious flaws. Errors of 200 to 300 percent were found between analytical values and measured values. As a result of the study, the analytical method is not recommended for calibration of field meters located on aircraft, and should not be relied upon in any application where the local spatial derivatives of the electric field on the model are large over the dimensions of the sensing probe.

  12. A test technique for measuring lightning-induced voltages on aircraft electrical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walko, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a test technique used for the measurement of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of a complete aircraft is described. The resultant technique utilizes a portable device known as a transient analyzer capable of generating unidirectional current impulses similar to lightning current surges, but at a lower current level. A linear relationship between the magnitude of lightning current and the magnitude of induced voltage permitted the scaling up of measured induced values to full threat levels. The test technique was found to be practical when used on a complete aircraft.

  13. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  14. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  15. 14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION MOTOR IN SERIES BETWEEN PELTON-DOBLE IMPULSE WHEEL AND GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. Summary of the general aviation manufacturers' position on aircraft piston engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The General Aviation Manufacturers recommended that the EPA rescind the aircraft piston engine emissions regulations currently on the books. The reason was the very small emission reduction potential and the very poor benefit-cost ratio involved in this form of emission reduction. The limited resources of this industry can far better be devoted to items of much greater benefit to the citizens of this country - reducing noise, improving fuel efficiency (which will incidently reduce exhaust emissions), and improving the safety, operational, and economic aspects of aircraft, all far greater contributions to our total national transportation system.

  17. New airfoil sections for general aviation aircraft. [cruising and flap development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A program has been undertaken to develop new airfoil sections suitable for general aviation aircraft, utilizing theoretical and experimental advanced technology developed in recent years primarily for subsonic jet transport and military aircraft. The airfoil development program is one component of the Advanced Technology Light Twin program sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center. Two-dimensional tests of a new airfoil have demonstrated high cruising performance over a fairly wide C sub 1 range, and a C sub 1 max value of 3.69 with Fowler flap and no leading-edge devices. Experimental and theoretical development of additional configurations is under way.

  18. Design developments for advanced general aviation aircraft. [using Fly By Light Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Design study results are presented for two advanced general-aviation aircraft incorporating fly-by-light/fly-by-wire controls and digital avionics and cockpit displays. The design exercise proceeded from a database of information derived from a market survey for the 4-10 passenger aircraft range. Pusher and tractor propeller configurations were treated, and attention was given to the maximization of passenger comfort. 'Outside-in' tooling methods were assumed for the primary structures of both configurations, in order to achieve surface tolerances which maximize the rearward extent of laminar flow.

  19. Experimental investigation of the high angle of attack characteristics of a high performance general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. F.; Yip, L. P.; Perkins, J. N.; Vess, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Scale model wind tunnel tests and full scale flight tests have been conducted for the Questair Venture general aviation aircraft configuration in order to investigate its high angle-of-attack aerodynamics. Attention is given to the formulation of a wing leading-edge modification capable of enhancing stall departure characteristics. This modification, which involved both outboard wing leading-edge droop and two chordwise leading-edge slots, is found to produce almost no wing-rock tendency when tested on a wind tunnel free-to-roll apparatus; in the full-scale aircraft, the modification yielded gentle, controllable stall characteristics with little cruise and climb performance penalty.

  20. NEMP Qualification of Electrically Simple Equipment on Aircraft via Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockerse, J.; Flessa, C.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a theoretical analysis method for analysing the NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse) qualification status of electrically simple equipment or devices. (e.g., switches, actuators, sensors, etc.) The method is transparent to the certification authorities. This is in order to release them from the (costly) requirement for actual NEMP testing of these parts. This work is based on the experience gained in the successful certification of an advanced, all-carbon- fibre-composite (CFC) military helicopter. The method has been validated by testing.

  1. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  2. Profile design for an advanced-technology airfoil for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welte, D.

    1978-01-01

    A profile from the NASA General Aviation Whitcomb series and NACA profiles are used as a starting point in designing an advanced airfoil for general aviation aircraft. Potential theory pressure distribution calculations, together with boundary layer calculations, permit a decrease in the null moment and an optimization of the lift characteristics of the wing. Trailing edge flap design is also improved. Wind tunnel tests are used to compare the conventional profiles, the NASA profile, and the improved design.

  3. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  4. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  5. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  6. Icarus Rewaxed: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrens, Bryan; Hueckel, Macy; Fulkerson, Dan; Barents, Matt; Capozzi, Brian; Ramsey, Keri

    1994-01-01

    Icarus Rewaxed is a single engine, six passenger, general aviation airplane. With a cruise velocity of 72 ft/s, the Icarus can compete with the performance of any other airplane in its class with an eye on economics and safety. It has a very competitive initial price ($3498.00) and cost per flight ($6.36-8.40). Icarus can serve all airports in Aeroworld with a takeoff distance of 25.4 feet and maximum range of 38,000 feet. It is capable of taking off from an unprepared field with a grass depth of 3 inches. Icarus Rewaxed fills the market need for a high-speed, low cost aircraft. It provides customers with a general aviation craft that can compete in the existing performance market with the added security of an advanced structure. With the use of advanced materials, the maneuvering capability of the Icarus is increased, as it can withstand greater load factors than previous aircraft.

  7. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical...

  8. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical...

  9. 14 CFR 151.86 - Lighting and electrical work: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: General. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.86 Lighting and electrical work: General. (a) The installing of lighting facilities and related electrical work, as provided...

  10. 14 CFR 151.86 - Lighting and electrical work: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: General. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.86 Lighting and electrical work: General. (a) The installing of lighting facilities and related electrical work, as provided...

  11. 14 CFR 151.86 - Lighting and electrical work: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: General. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.86 Lighting and electrical work: General. (a) The installing of lighting facilities and related electrical work, as provided...

  12. 14 CFR 151.86 - Lighting and electrical work: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: General. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.86 Lighting and electrical work: General. (a) The installing of lighting facilities and related electrical work, as provided...

  13. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845 Section 28.845 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical...

  14. The P/POD project: Programmable/Pilot Oriented Display. [general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pilot orientated display system was developed for general aviation aircraft in order to reduce cockpit workloads. Emphasis was placed on the optimization of flight procedural aspects (i.e., interpretation of Loran data). Low cost hardware/software were utilized in the system to reduce developmental costs. Parallel development and testing were conducted on the ground (simulator) and in the air using the same hardware.

  15. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  17. Analysis of technology requirements and potential demand for general aviation avionics systems in the 1980's. [technology assessment and technological forecasting of the aircraft industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, D. M.; Kayser, J. H.; Senko, G. M.; Glenn, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The trend for the increasing need for aircraft-in-general as a major source of transportation in the United States is presented (military and commercial aircraft are excluded). Social, political, and economic factors that affect the aircraft industry are considered, and cost estimates are given. Aircraft equipment and navigation systems are discussed.

  18. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicers.

    PubMed

    Corsi, S R; Hall, D W; Geis, S W

    2001-07-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased. PMID:11434288

  19. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven; Hall, David W.; Geis, Steven W.

    2001-01-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox® were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased.

  20. An evaluation and force gradient determination of mechanically linked reversible sidestick controllers for General Aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the increase in air traffic, IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) flight in the air traffic control system has become very demanding. It has, therefore, become imperative to optimize the pilot's skills in his management of the various aircraft systems. The present investigation is concerned with the human factors aspects of the use of sidesticks in direct mechanical linkage (reversible) control systems in a production General Aviation (G.A.) aircraft. A total of 140 fifteen to twenty minute flight tasks were flown on the NASA Langley G.A. motion base simulator. The study involved a comparison of three locations of the sidestick, left side, center, and right side, and the standard yoke. It was found that the sidestick is preferable to the standard yoke. However, some of the design and installation features of the sidestick are critical for pilot acceptance.

  1. A model following inverse controller with adaptive compensation for General Aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Hugh S.

    The theory for an adaptive inverse flight controller, suitable for use on General Aviation aircraft, is developed in this research. The objectives of this controller are to separate the normally coupled modes of the basic aircraft and thereby permit direct control of airspeed and flight-path angle, meet prescribed performance characteristics as defined by damping ratio and natural frequency, adapt to uncertainties in the physical plant, and be computationally efficient. The three basic elements of the controller are a linear prefilter, an inverse transfer function, and an adaptive neural network compensator. The linear prefilter shapes accelerations required of the overall system in order to achieve the desired system performance characteristics. The inverse transfer function is used to compute the aircraft control inputs required to achieve the necessary accelerations. The adaptive neural network compensator is used to compensate for modeling errors during design or real-time changes in the physical plant. This architecture is patterned after the work of Calise, but differs by not requiring dynamic feedback of the state variables. The controller is coded in ANSI C and integrated with a simulation of a typical General Aviation aircraft. Twenty-three cases are simulated to prove that the objectives for the controller are met. Among these cases are simulated stability and controllability failures in the physical plant, as well as several simulated failures of the neural network. With the exception of some bounded speed-tracking error, the controller is capable of continued flight with any foreseeable failure of the neural network. Recommendations are provided for follow-on investigations by other researchers.

  2. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with carbon fibers released from commercial aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Rosenfield, D.; Richardson, D. L.; Hagopian, J.

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with electrical effects arising from carbon fibers released from commercial aviation aircraft fires were estimated for 1993. The expected annual losses were estimated to be about $470 (1977 dollars) in 1993. The chances of total losses from electrical effects exceeding $100,000 (1977 dollars) in 1993 were established to be about one in ten thousand.

  3. [Permanent percutaneous electric connection. General principles].

    PubMed

    Sabin, P; Labbé, D; Levillain, D; Cazin, L; Caston, J

    1997-01-01

    The Swedes for more than twenty years, and the Germans for over five years have been able to maintain inert or active prostheses with permanent percutaneous connections, thanks to the dependable and proven material and techniques of extraoral implants. The significant improvement extra-oral implants have brought about is not only in a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of important facial defects or transmission deafness; it is also because for some twenty old years now, the few millimeter wide cylinders of Titanium, the affixed on the implants, have crossed the cutaneous barrier for extended periods without complications. The percutaneous abutment thus creates a permanent communication between the interior and the exterior of the organism. If the abutment, instead of simply carrying a Maxillo-Facial Prosthesis or an auditive prosthesis, is modified by placing an electric conductor inside it, the simple "percutaneous peg" will turn out to be, in a way, a "percutaneous electric plug". By adapting classic "mechanical" abutments and implants, authors have created a Permanent Percutaneous Electric Connection (PPEC) which has been successfully experimented on rabbits to record EEG. Clinical applications on humans would make it possible either to receive "bio-electrical information" coming from within the organism, or to send electrical energy into the organism. This last application opens vast perspectives of improvement both in diagnosis and therapy in many fields. PMID:9687654

  4. Low-cost approach of a 3D display for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman; Karl, Wunibald

    2001-08-01

    A low cost 3D-display and navigation system is described which presents guidance information in a 3-dimensional format to the pilot. For achieving the low cost goal, Commercial-off-the-Shelf components are used. The visual information provided by the 3D-display includes a presentation of the future flight path and other guidance elements as well as an image of the outside world. For generating the displayed information, a PC will be used. An appropriate computer software is available to generate the displayed information in real-time with an adequately high update rate. Precision navigation data which is required for accurately adjusting the displayed guidance information are provided by an integrated low cost navigation system. This navigation system consists of a differential global positioning system and an inertial measurement unit. Data from the navigation system is fed into an onboard-computer, using terrain elevation and feature analysis data to generate a synthetic image of the outside world. The system is intended to contribute to the safety of General Aviation aircraft, providing an affordable guidance and navigation aid for this type of aircraft. The low cost 3D display and navigation system will be installed in a two-seat Grob 109B aircraft which is operated by the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Flight Control of the Technische Universitchen as a research vehicle.

  5. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft. [pilot bailout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    An emergency in-flight egress system was installed in a light general aviation airplane. The airplane had no provision for egress on the left side. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add on 11.2 kg (24.6 lb) pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The skin of the airplane was explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel was jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mockups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics. This technology is applicable to any aircraft of similar construction.

  6. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Aeroelastic Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Bennett, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aeroelasticity Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has a long and substantive history of tiltrotor aeroelastic research. That research has included a broad range of experimental investigations in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) using a variety of scale models and the development of essential analyses. Since 1994, the tiltrotor research program has been using a 1/5-scale, semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 designed and built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) in 1981. That model has been refurbished to form a tiltrotor research testbed called the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) for use in the TDT. In collaboration with BHTI, studies under the current tiltrotor research program are focused on aeroelastic technology areas having the potential for enhancing the commercial and military viability of tiltrotor aircraft. Among the areas being addressed, considerable emphasis is being directed to the evaluation of modern adaptive multi-input multi- output (MIMO) control techniques for active stability augmentation and vibration control of tiltrotor aircraft. As part of this investigation, a predictive control technique known as Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is being studied to assess its potential for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in both helicopter and airplane modes of flight. This paper summarizes the exploratory numerical and experimental studies that were conducted as part of that investigation.

  7. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical... waterproof or watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  8. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical... waterproof or watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  9. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

  10. A Theoretical Investigation of the Drag of Generalized Aircraft Configurations in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, E. W.; Lagerstrom, P. A.; Licher, R. M.; Beane, B. J.

    1957-01-01

    It seems possible that, in supersonic flight, unconventional arrangements of wings and bodies may offer advantages in the form of drag reduction. It is the purpose of this report to consider the methods for determining the pressure drag for such unconventional configurations, and to consider a few of the possibilities for drag reduction in highly idealized aircraft. The idealized aircraft are defined by distributions of lift and volume in three-dimensional space, and Hayes' method of drag evaluation, which is well adapted to such problems, is the fundamental tool employed. Other methods of drag evaluation are considered also wherever they appear to offer amplifications. The basic singularities such as sources, dipoles, lifting elements and volume elements are discussed, and some of the useful inter-relations between these elements are presented. Hayes' method of drag evaluation is derived in detail starting with the general momentum theorem. In going from planar systems to spatial systems certain new problems arise. For example, interference between lift and thickness distributions generally appears, and such effects are used to explain the difference between the non-zero wave drag of Sears-Haack bodies and the zero wave drag of Ferrari's ring wing plus central body. Another new feature of the spatial systems is that optimum configurations generally are not unique, there being an infinite family of lift or thickness distributions producing the same minimum drag. However it is shown that all members of an optimum family produce the same flow field in a certain region external to the singularity distribution. Other results of the study indicate that certain spatial distributions may produce materially less wave drag and vortex drag than comparable planar systems. It is not at all certain that such advantages can be realized in practical aircraft designs, but further investigation seems to be warranted.

  11. High-Altitude Aircraft-Based Electric-Field Measurements above Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Stewart, M. F.; Blair, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new set of eight electric field mills that were flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. During the Third Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX- 3; Fall, 1998), measurements of electric field, storm dynamics, and ice microphysics were made over several hurricanes. Concurrently, the TExas-FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN) program was being conducted to make the same measurements over Gulf Coast thunderstorms. Sample measurements will be shown. Our new mills have an internal 16-bit A/D, with a resolution of 0.25 V/m per bit at high gain, with a noise level less than the least significant bit. A second, lower gain channel gives us the ability to measure fields as high as 150 kV/m.

  12. High-Altitude Aircraft-Based Electric-Field Measurements Above Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Stewart, M. F.; Blair, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new set of eight electric field mills that were flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. During the Third Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX-3; Fall, 1998), measurements of electric field, storm dynamics, and ice microphysics were made over several hurricanes. Concurrently, the TExas-FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN) program was being conducted to make the same measurements over Gulf Coast thunderstorms. Sample measurements are shown: typical flight altitude is 20km. Our new mills have an internal 16-bit A/D, with a resolution of 0.25V/m per bit at high gain, with a noise level less than the least significant bit. A second, lower gain channel gives us the ability to measure fields as high as 150 kV/m.

  13. National General Aviation Roadmap for a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration, as well as state, industry, and academia partners have joined forces to pursue the NASA National General Aviation Roadmap leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This long-term strategic undertaking has a goal to bring next-generation technologies and improve air access to small communities. The envisioned outcome is to improve travel between remote communities and transportation centers in urban areas by utilizing a new generation of single-pilot light planes for personal and business transportation between the nation's 5,400 public use general aviation airports. Current NASA investments in aircraft technologies are enabling industry to bring affordable, safe, and easy-to-use features to the marketplace, including "Highway in the Sky" glass cockpit operating capabilities, affordable crash worthy composite airframes, more efficient IFR flight training, and revolutionary engines. To facilitate this initiative, a comprehensive upgrade of public infrastructure must be planned, coordinated, and implemented within the framework of the national air transportation system. State partnerships are proposed to coordinate research support in key public infrastructure areas. Ultimately, SATS may permit more than tripling aviation system throughput capacity by tapping the under-utilized general aviation facilities to achieve the national goal of doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways for the nation's suburban, rural, and remote communities.

  14. Aircraft measurements of the atmospheric electrical global circuit during the period 1971-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report will update an investigation of the global circuit conducted over the last 14 years through aircraft measurements of the variation of ionospheric potential and associated parameters. The data base included electric field, conductivity, and air-earth current density profiles from the tropics (25 deg N) to the Arctic (79 deg N). Almost all of the data have been obtained over the ocean to reduce noise associated with local generators, aerosols, and convection. Recently, two aircraft have been utilized to obtain, for the first time, quasi-periodic sets of simultaneous ionospheric potential (VI) soundings at remote locations and extending over time spans sufficiently long so that the universal time diurnal variation (Carnegie curve) could be observed. In additon, these measurements provided the first detection of the modulation of electric fields in the troposphere caused by the double vortex ionospheric convection pattern. Besides summarizing these measurements and comparing them to similar data obtained by other groups, this report discusses meteorological sources of error and criteria for determining if the global circuit is being measured rather than variations caused by local meteorological processes.

  15. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields From Aircraft Field Mill Data. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory and "pitch down method" developed in Part I of this study are applied to complete the calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m and a 5 V/m error in the mean fair weather field function, the 3-D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V/m, the method retrieves the 3-D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair weather field estimate is typically within 1 V/m of the true fair weather field. Using this side constraint and data from fair weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. The resulting calibration matrix was then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably with the results obtained from earlier calibration analyses that were based on iterative techniques.

  16. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  17. Flight test investigation of certification issues pertaining to general-aviation-type aircraft with natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    Development of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) technology for application to general aviation-type aircraft has raised some question as to the adequacy of FAR Part 23 for certification of aircraft with significant NLF. A series of flight tests were conducted with a modified Cessna T210R to allow quantitative comparison of the aircraft's ability to meet certification requirements with significant NLF and with boundary layer transition fixed near the leading edge. There were no significant differences between the two conditions except an increasing in drag, which resulted in longer takeoff distances and reduced climb performance.

  18. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  19. Further generalization of an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments from a continuing effort to provide an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis are described. Previous work provided an equivalent plate analysis formulation that is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. However, the modeling is restricted to representing wing boxes having symmetric cross sections. Further developments, which are described in this paper, allow modeling of wing cross section having asymmetries that can arise from airfoil camber or from thicknesses being different in the upper and lower cover skins. An implementation of thermal loadings, which are described as temperature distributions over the planform of the cover skins, has been included. Spring supports have been added to provide for a more general set of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to assess the effect of wing camber on the static and dynamic response of an example wing structure under pressure and thermal loading. These results are compared with results from a finite element analysis program to indicate how well a cambered wing box can be represented with an equivalent plate formulation.

  20. Further generalization of an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments from a continuing effort to provide an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis are described. Previous work provided an equivalent plate analysis formulation that is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. However, the modeling is restricted to representing wing boxes having symmetric cross sections. Further developments, which are described, allow modeling of wing cross sections having asymmetries that can arise from airfoil camber or from thicknesses being different in the upper and lower cover skins. An implementation of thermal loadings, which are described as temperature distributions over the planform of the cover skins, has been included. Spring supports have been added to provide for a more general set of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to assess the effect of wing camber on the static and dynamic response of an example wing structure under pressure and thermal loading. These results are compared with results from a finite element analysis program to indicate how well a cambered wing box can be represented with an equivalent plate formulation.

  1. The Balsa bullet: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, Kevin; Greenwood, Sean; Kelly, Dan; Leonard, Chuck; Rooff, John; Scherock, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    The Balsa Bullet is a high speed, low cost six passenger general aviation aircraft. It will cruise at a speed of 55 ft/s with a maximum speed of 75 ft/s for distances in excess of 27000 feet. This range and speed combination provide The Balsa Bullet with the capability to service any two existing airports in Aeroworld in an efficient and timely manner. Overall, three major design drivers have been identified by the design team. The first is to provide a low cost airplane to the Aeroworld market. Maintaining the low cost objective will not simply meet the mission objective, but will also make the Bullet an economically viable option for a wide number of consumers. The Balsa Bullet has a total manufacturing cost of $1000 with a price to the consumer of only $2562. The second major driver is high speed performance. Once again this driver exists not only to meet the mission objective given Long Shot Aeronautics but it provides a desirable feature to the consumer, pride in owning the fastest aircraft in Aeroworld. The third design driver identified is the capability to service any runway in Aeroworld necessitating the ability to takeoff within 28 ft, the length of the shortest runways in Aeroworld. These design drivers provide three great reasons for the general public to purchase a Bullet.

  2. Orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio test for failure detection and isolation. [for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven R.; Walker, Bruce K.

    1990-01-01

    A new failure detection and isolation algorithm for linear dynamic systems is presented. This algorithm, the Orthogonal Series Generalized Likelihood Ratio (OSGLR) test, is based on the assumption that the failure modes of interest can be represented by truncated series expansions. This assumption leads to a failure detection algorithm with several desirable properties. Computer simulation results are presented for the detection of the failures of actuators and sensors of a C-130 aircraft. The results show that the OSGLR test generally performs as well as the GLR test in terms of time to detect a failure and is more robust to failure mode uncertainty. However, the OSGLR test is also somewhat more sensitive to modeling errors than the GLR test.

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.

    PubMed

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520590

  5. 28. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND EARTH BLAST BERM; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 29. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. GENERAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PROTECTED BY CONCRETE AND EARTH BLAST BERM; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. General Electric and the Team Approach to Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Joseph M.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of corporate educational relations at the General Electric Company describes their current career education programs, including minority engineering programs, motivational publicity for secondary students, and summer institutes for guidance counselors at various universities. (MF)

  8. Closeup view of a general electric company demand meter which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of a general electric company demand meter which formerly monitored railroad power usage obtained from Philadelphia Electric Company sources. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Energy-Absorbing Keel Beams for General Aviation Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A lightweight energy-absorbing keel-beam concept was developed and retrofitted in a general aviation type aircraft to improve crashworthiness performance. The energy-absorbing beam consisted of a foam-filled cellular structure with glass fiber and hybrid glass/kevlar cell walls. Design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the keel beams prior to installation and subsequent full-scale crash testing of the aircraft are described. Factors such as material and fabrication constraints, damage tolerance, crush stress/strain response, seat-rail loading, and post crush integrity, which influenced the course of the design process are also presented. A theory similar to the one often used for ductile metal box structures was employed with appropriate modifications to estimate the sustained crush loads for the beams. This, analytical tool, coupled with dynamic finite element simulation using MSC.Dytran were the prime design and analysis tools. The validity of the theory as a reliable design tool was examined against test data from static crush tests of beam sections while the overall performance of the energy-absorbing subfloor was assessed through dynamic testing of 24 in long subfloor assemblies.

  10. Influence of the energy management on the sizing of Electrical Energy Storage Systems in an aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillers, Nathalie; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Bienaimé, Daniel; Grojo, Marie-Laure

    2014-12-01

    In an aircraft, Electrical Energy Storage Systems (EESS) are used as support to other sources in few mission phases in order to ensure the energy availability. They are also used as electrical smoothing devices in order to guarantee the required levels of reliability, stability and quality for an embedded electrical network. This paper deals with the association of two EESS: supercapacitors and secondary battery, which exhibit complementary properties. In this paper, a sizing method for both EESS is developed by taking into account their hybridization and their characteristics (such as capacity or depth-of-discharge) so as to minimize the global storage system weight. Moreover, an energy management based on a frequency approach is implemented to dispatch the power between all the sources. The influence of this management on the sizing is studied. Indeed the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter is used as a setting parameter of the sizing algorithm. Finally, the sizing validity is assessed and discussed according to temperature constraints. Although battery performances are reduced at low temperature, the sizing determined with the algorithm at 20 °C is still valid on all the temperature range thanks to an adaptation of the energy management parameter.

  11. Equivalent plate analysis of aircraft wing box structures with general planform geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new equivalent plate analysis formulation is described which is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. Multiple trapezoidal segments are used to represent such planforms. A Ritz solution technique is used in conjunction with global displacement functions which encompass all the segments. This Ritz solution procedure is implemented efficiently into a computer program so that it can be used by rigorous optimization algorithms for application in early preliminary design. A direct method to interface this structural analysis procedure with aerodynamic programs for use in aeroelastic calculations is described. This equivalent plate analysis procedure is used to calculate the static deflections and stresses and vibration frequencies and modes of an example wing configuration. The numerical results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same configuration to illustrate typical levels of accuracy and computation times resulting from use of this procedure.

  12. Equivalent plate analysis of aircraft wing box structures with general planform geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new equilvalent plate analysis formulation is described which is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. Multiple trapezoidal segments are used to represent such planforms. A Ritz solution technique is used in conjunction with global displacement functions which encompass all the segments. This Ritz solution procedure is implemented efficiently into a computer program so that it can be used by rigorous optimization algorithms for application in early preliminary design. A direct method to interface this structural analysis procedure with aerodynamic programs for use in aeroelastic calculations is described. This equivalent plate analysis procedure is used to calculate the static deflections and stresses and vibration frequencies and modes of an example wing configuration. The numerical results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same configuration to illustrate typical levels of accuracy and computation times resulting from use of this procedure.

  13. Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

  14. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  15. Incorporating Data Link Messaging into a Multi-function Display for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  16. 142. ARAIII General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. ARA-III General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution plan for power and lighting. Includes detail of floodlight and security lighting poles and fixtures. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-406-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0406-00-013-102539. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Electric fields, conductivity, and estimated currents from aircraft overflights of electrified clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2009-05-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of clouds and thunderstorms. The measurements were made with NASA ER-2 and Altus-II aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m-1 to 16. kV m-1, with a mean value of 0.9 kV m-1. The median peak field was 0.29 kV m-1. Flash rates ranged from 0 to over 27 flashes min-1 with the mean flash rate of 1.2 flashes min-1. The median flash rate for an overpass was 0.25 flashes min-1. The positive plus negative conductivity ranged from 0.6 pS m-1 to 3.6 pS m-1 at the nominal flight altitudes of 15 to 20 km. The mean and median total conductivity was 2.2 pS m-1. Peak current densities during the overpasses ranged from -2.0 nA m-2 to 33. nA m-2. The mean peak current density was 1.9 nA m-2, and the median value was 0.6 nA m-2. Using the peak electric fields, a median field falloff with distance based on all overflights, and cylindrical storm symmetry, the total upward current flow from storms in our data set ranges from -1.3 to 9.4 A with a mean value of 0.8 A. The median total current was 0.27 A. The contributions from lightning field changes do not significantly affect the total derived currents. We found that 7% of the storms were producing current flows above the storms that were opposite in polarity from the standard role that thunderstorms play in the global electric circuit. Approximately one third of the storms had no detectable lightning during the overpasses but still had significant electric fields. Owing to a possible sampling bias, the fraction of nonlightning storms with electric fields may not reflect the global probability of these clouds.

  18. Small V/STOL aircraft analysis. Volume 2: Appendices. [to determine current and future general aviation missions and performance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R., Jr.; Belina, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of general aviation activities in the United States was principally conducted through interviews with users, manufacturers, trade associations, and government organizations. A list of the organizations interviews is presented. The data became the basis for defining the current and future general aviation missions and performance. The economic characteristics of general aviation are examined. The desires of each organization regarding future aircraft characteristics are summarized.

  19. Application of surface electrical discharges to the study of lightning strikes on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulay, J. L.; Larigaldie, S.

    1991-01-01

    Considered here is the characterization of surface discharges which provide a facility complementary to that of artificially triggered lightning. General characteristics of a simplified surface discharge, including current waveforms and the constitution of a surface discharge are outlined, and the application of this approach to the study of aircraft lightning strikes is considered. Representations of leader-streamer and return-stroke phases are discussed, and the application to the two-dimensional discharge phase is covered. It is noted that the fact that the initiation times of surface discharges could be controlled, and the path followed by the discharge channels could be predetermined, indicates that it is possible to produce a highly dedicated high performance instrumentation system.

  20. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  1. 14 CFR 65.63 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Application, duration, and other general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN... the practical test on their first attempt; and (2) The aircraft dispatcher certification...

  2. Aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 aircraft. Part 1: General characteristics at low speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karling, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 and its performances, especially at low speeds is presented. The aerodynamic requirements for the design of the Viggen 37 aircraft are given, including the basic design, performance requirement, and aerodynamic characteristics, static and dynamic load test results and flight test results. The Viggen 37 aircraft is designed to be used for air attack, surveillance, pursuit, and training applications. It is shown that this aircraft is suitable for short runways, and has good maneuvering, acceleration, and climbing characteristics. The design objectives for this aircraft were met by utilizing the effect produced by the interference between two triangular wings, positioned in tandem.

  3. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  4. Design, implementation and flight testing of PIF autopilots for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The designs of Proportional-Integrated-Filter (PIF) auto-pilots for a General Aviation (NAVION) aircraft are presented. The PIF autopilot uses the sampled-data regulator and command generator tracking to determine roll select, pitch select, heading select, altitude select and localizer/glideslope capture and hold autopilot modes. The PIF control law uses typical General Aviation sensors for state feedback, command error integration for command tracking, digital complementary filtering and analog prefiltering for sensor noise suppression, a control filter for computation delay accommodation and the incremental form to eliminate trim values in implementation. Theoretical developments described in detail, were needed to combine the sampled-data regulator with command generator tracking for use as a digital flight control system. The digital PIF autopilots are evaluated using closed-loop eigenvalues and linear simulations. The implementation of the PIF autopilots in a digital flight computer using a high order language (FORTRAN) is briefly described. The successful flight test results for each PIF autopilot mode is presented.

  5. Occupant injury and fatality in general aviation aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is certification-mandated.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-06-01

    Towards further improving general aviation aircraft crashworthiness, multi-axis dynamic tests have been required for aircraft certification (14CFR23.562) since 1985. The objective of this study was to determine if occupants in aircraft certified to these higher crashworthiness standards show a mitigated fraction of fatal accidents and/or injury severity. The NTSB aviation database was queried for accidents occurring between 2002 and 2012 involving aircraft certified to, or immune from, dynamic crash testing and manufactured after 1999. Only operations conducted under 14CFR Part 91 were considered. Statistical analysis employed proportion tests and logistic regression. Off-airport landings are associated with high decelerative forces; however for off-airport landings, the fraction of fatal accidents for aircraft subject to, or exempt from, dynamic crash testing was similar (0.53 and 0.60, respectively). Unexpectedly, for on-airport landings a higher fraction of fatalities was evident for aircraft whose certification mandated dynamic crash testing. Improved crashworthiness standards would be expected to translate into a reduced severity of accident injuries. For all accidents, as well as for those deemed survivable, the fraction of minor and serious injuries was reduced for occupants in aircraft certified to the higher crashworthiness standards. Surprisingly, the fraction of occupants fatally injured was not decreased for aircraft subject to dynamic crash tests. To shed light on this unexpected finding flight history, airman demographics and post-impact fires for aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is mandatory or exempt was examined. For the former cohort the median distance of the accident flight was nearly 44% higher. Aircraft subject to dynamic crash testing were also involved in a greater fraction (0.25 versus 0.12, respectively) of post-impact fires. Our data suggest that while the more stringent crashworthiness standards have mitigated minor and serious

  6. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G102 Fundamentals of Aircraft Maintenance. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain four instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: identifying basic components of aircraft, performing aircraft cleaning and corrosion control, interpreting blueprints and drawing sketches, identifying structural materials, and performing basic…

  7. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation using High-Altitude Aircraft Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Cecil, Daniel J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas m.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Zipser, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 2001 hurricane seasons of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes, tropical storms, and other precipitation systems were sampled during these experiments. An oceanic rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these systems collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz. This technique combines the information content of the four AMPR frequencies regarding the gross vertical structure of hydrometeors into an intuitive and easily executable precipitation mapping format. The results have been verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower-altitude horizontal reflectivity scans collected by the NOAA WP3D Orion radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electric field information collected by the LIP readily identifies convective rain regions within the precipitation fields. This technique shows promise as a real-time research and analysis tool for monitoring vertical updraft strength and convective intensity from airborne platforms such as remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicles. The technique is analyzed and discussed for a wide variety of precipitation types using the 26 August 1998 observations of Hurricane Bonnie near landfall.

  8. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation using High Altitude Aircraft: Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Cecil, Daniel; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Gerald; Marks, Frank, Jr.; Zipser, Edward

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 2001 hurricane seasons of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes, tropical storms, and other precipitation systems were sampled during these experiments. An oceanic rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these systems collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35,37.1, and 85.5 GHz. This technique combines the information content of the four AMPR frequencies regarding the gross vertical structure of hydrometeors into an intuitive and easily executable precipitation mapping format. The results have been verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower altitude horizontal reflectivity scans collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D Orion radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electric field information collected by the LIP readily identifies convective rain regions within the precipitation fields. This technique shows promise as a real-time research and analysis tool for monitoring vertical updraft strength and convective intensity from airborne platforms such as remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicles. The technique is analyzed and discussed for a wide variety of precipitation types using the 26 August 1998 observations of Hurricane Bonnie near landfall.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Types and Electrical Field Information Observed by High Altitude Aircraft Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Cecil, Daniel; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Marks, Frank

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 200 1 hurricane seasons of the Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes and tropical storms were sampled during these experiments. A rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these tropical cyclones (TC) collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35,37.1, and 85.5 GHz and verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower altitude horizontal reflectivity scam collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOM) P-3 radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electrical field information collected by the LIP readily identifl convective rain regions within the TC precipitation fields. Strengths and weaknesses of the rainfall classification procedure will be discussed as well as its potential as a real-time analysis tool for monitoring vertical updrafl strength and convective intensity from a remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicle.

  10. 42. Photocopy of original print construction drawing by General Electric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of original print construction drawing by General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y., dated Jan. 10, 1917 (original print located at Yosemite National Park 104/60264) OUTLINE - GENERATOR, EXCITER & MACHINE - Yosemite Hydroelectric Power Plant, Highways 120 & 140, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. Countries: General, Electricity, Geography, Health, Literature: Children's, Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of Web site educational resources kindergarten through eighth grade. The Web sites this month cover the following subjects: countries (general); electricity; geography; health; children's literature; and plants. Includes a list of "Calendar Connections" to Web site sources of information on Earth Day in April and other…

  12. 102. VIEW OF GRANETZ 'EVENTRECORDER' COMPUTER AND GENERAL ELECTRIC PRINTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF GRANETZ 'EVENT-RECORDER' COMPUTER AND GENERAL ELECTRIC PRINTERS FOR GRANETZ OUTPUT LOCATED NEAR EAST WALL OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 77 FR 74125 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska..., MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513- 552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; and Web site: www.GE.com... General Electric, One Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513-552-2913; email:...

  14. 14 CFR 151.86 - Lighting and electrical work: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: General. 151.86 Section 151.86 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.86 Lighting and...

  15. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF FLIGHT LINE SUPPORT BUILDINGS (ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF FLIGHT LINE SUPPORT BUILDINGS (ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION, BUILDING 2775; SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT SHOP (PARACHUTE AND DINGY SHOP), BUILDING 2784; MAINTENANCE DOCK (BUILDING 2785) AND BUILDING 2783 WAR). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  17. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  18. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  19. NASA/General Electric broad-specification fuels combustion technology program - Phase I results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Bahr, D. W.; Fear, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop the technology required to utilize fuels with broadened properties in aircraft gas turbine engines. The first phase of this program consisted of the experimental evaluation of three different combustor concepts to determine their potential for meeting several specific emissions and performance goals, when operated on broadened property fuels. The three concepts were a single annular combustor; a double annular combustor; and a short single annular combustor with variable geometry. All of these concepts were sized for the General Electric CF6-80 engine. A total of 24 different configurations of these concepts were evaluated in a high pressure test facility, using four test fuels having hydrogen contents between 11.8 and 14%. Fuel effects on combustor performance, durability and emissions, and combustor design features to offset these effects were demonstrated.

  20. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  1. 77 FR 3088 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF34-10E series turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by a report of heavy wear found on the seating surface of the center vent duct (CVD) (commonly referred to as center vent tube) support ring and on the inside diameter of the fan drive shaft at the mating location. This AD requires removing from service......

  2. An electric control for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.; Edson, R.

    1979-01-01

    An electronic controller for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear was developed. Drop tests of a modified gear from a 2722 Kg (6000 lbm) class of airplane were conducted to illustrate controller performance. The results indicate that the active gear effects a force reduction, relative to that of the passive gear, from 9 to 31 percent depending on the aircraft sink speed and the static gear pressure.

  3. Development and validation of a general purpose linearization program for rigid aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Antoniewicz, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that provides the user with a powerful and flexible tool for the linearization of aircraft models is discussed. The program LINEAR numerically determines a linear systems model using nonlinear equations of motion and a user-supplied, nonlinear aerodynamic model. The system model determined by LINEAR consists of matrices for both the state and observation equations. The program has been designed to allow easy selection and definition of the state, control, and observation variables to be used in a particular model. Also, included in the report is a comparison of linear and nonlinear models for a high performance aircraft.

  4. Effect of propeller slipstream on the drag and performance of the engine cooling system for a general aviation twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.; Corsiglia, V. R.; Barlow, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure recovery of incoming cooling air and the drag associated with engine cooling of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was investigated experimentally. The semispan model was mounted vertically in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The propeller was driven by an electric motor to provide thrust with low vibration levels for the cold-flow configuration. It was found that the propeller slipstream reduces the frontal air spillage around the blunt nacelle shape. Consequently, this slipstream effect promotes flow reattachment at the rear section of the engine nacelle and improves inlet pressure recovery. These effects are most pronounced at high angles of attack, that is, climb condition. For the cruise condition those improvements were more moderate.

  5. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  6. National General Aviation Roadmap Definition for a Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents trends and forces that shape 21 st century demand for higher-speed personal air transportation and outlines guidance developed by NASA in partnership with other federal and state government and industry partners, for Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) investment and partnership planning.

  7. Investigation of the Applicability of the Free-wing Principle to Light, General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Luce, R. G.; Brown, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Gust-alleviation benefits for aircraft employing an unconventional wing, free to pivot about a spanwise axis forward of its aerodynamic center and subject only to aerodynamic pitching moments imposed by lift and drag forces and a trailing-edge control surface are reviewed.

  8. 49 CFR 173.27 - General requirements for transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation aboard aircraft. Except for materials not subject to performance packaging requirements in subpart E of this part, a packaging containing a Packing Group III material with a primary or subsidiary... inner packaging which does not itself meet the pressure requirement provided that the inner packaging...

  9. End-to-end testing. [to verify electrical equipment failure due to carbon fibers released in aircraft-fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The principle objective of the kinds of demonstration tests that are discussed is to try to verify whether or not carbon fibers that are released by burning composite parts in an aircraft-fuel fires can produce failures in electrical equipment. A secondary objective discussed is to experimentally validate the analytical models for some of the key elements in the risk analysis. The approach to this demonstration testing is twofold: limited end-to-end test are to be conducted in a shock tube; and planning for some large outdoor burn tests is being done.

  10. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  11. Multiparameter radar and aircraft based studies of microphysical, kinematic, and electrical structure of convective clouds during CaPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringi, V. N.

    1994-03-01

    Two storms from the 9 August, 1991 CaPE case were analyzed in-depth focusing on multiparameter radar signature evolution over 60 min. in coordination with 24 aircraft penetrations which provided particle image and electric field data together with vertical air motion, cloud water and other state parameters. A total of five discrete 'cells' were identified in the two storms and their life cycle fully documented. Collaboration with South Dakota School of Mines and University of Alabama at Huntsville has resulted in a full integration of aircraft image and field mill data (from SDSM&T T-28 aircraft) with vertical air motion from dual-Doppler wind synthesis (UAH). The cellular evolution starts with a warm rain phase where updrafts and a very low concentration of large drops dominate the cloud. As the supercooled drops rise in the updraft they freeze and acquire a water-coat possibly by collisions with other liquid drops. The multi-parameter radar signatures clearly identify this mixed-phase zone. The cloud thereafter gets electrified which may intensify to produce lightning depending on cloud vertical growth, and generation of updraft/ downdrafts.

  12. Large 15-in. flat-panel display glass cockpit for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Lyle H.

    2002-08-01

    The large format Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) brings new possibilities to the aircraft cockpit environment. Broad-based format flexibility, enhanced situational awareness, sharp contrast and brilliant chromaticity are all features inherent in this product. This paper reviews cockpit instrument design, traces the evolution of electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and describes an optimized format of a large format cockpit display from an engineering test pilot's perspective. Additional potential uses for the large format display are described.

  13. The Air Quality and Economic Impact of Atmospheric Lead from General Aviation Aircraft in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, P. J.; Selin, N. E.; Barrett, S. R. H.

    2015-12-01

    While leaded fuels for automobiles were phased-out of use in the United States by 1996, lead (Pb) continues to be used as an anti-knock additive for piston-driven aircraft. We model the annual concentration of atmospheric lead attributable to piston driven aircraft emissions in the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Using aircraft emissions inventories for 2008, we then calculate annual economic damages from lead as lifetime employment losses for a one-year cohort exposed to elevated atmospheric lead concentrations using a range of concentration response functions from literature. Mean and median estimates of annual damages attributable to lifetime lost earnings are 1.06 and 0.60 billion respectively. Economy-wide impacts of IQ-deficits on productivity and labor increase expected damages by 54%. Damages are sensitive to background lead concentrations; as emissions decrease from other sources, the damages attributable to aviation are expected to increase holding aviation emissions constant. The monetary impact of General Aviation lead emissions on the environment is the same order of magnitude as noise, climate change, and air quality degradation from all commercial operations.

  14. Effect of advanced location methods on search and rescue duration for general aviation aircraft accidents in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization ceasing satellite monitoring for 121.5 MHz ELTs in 2009 was factored into the study. Additionally, the effect of using radar forensic analysis and cellular phone forensic search methods were also assessed. The study's data was derived from an Air Force Rescue Coordination Center database and included 365 historical general aviation search and rescue missions conducted between 2006 and 2011. Highly skewed data was transformed to meet normality requirements for parametric testing. The significance of each ELT model was assessed using a combination of Brown-Forsythe Means Testing or Orthogonal Contrast Testing. ANOVA and Brown-Forsythe Means testing was used to evaluate cellular phone and radar forensic search methods. A Spearman's Rho test was used to determine if the use of multiple search methods produced an additive effect in search efficiency. Aircraft which utilized an Emergency Locator Transmitter resulted in a shorter search duration than those which did not use such devices. Aircraft utilizing GPS-Aided 406 MHz ELTs appeared to require less time to locate than if equipped with other ELT models, however, this assessment requires further study due to limited data. Aircraft equipped with 406 MHz ELTs required slightly less time to locate than aircraft equipped with older 121.5 MHz ELTs. The study found no substantial difference in the search durations for 121.5 MHz ELTs monitored by COSPAS-SARSAT verses those which were not. Significance testing revealed that the use of cellular phone forensic data and radar forensic data both resulted in substantially higher mission search durations. Some possible explanations for this

  15. Low-order nonlinear dynamic model of IC engine-variable pitch propeller system for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Jacques C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine coupled to a variable pitch propeller. The low-order, nonlinear time-dependent model is useful for simulating the propulsion system of general aviation single-engine light aircraft. This model is suitable for investigating engine diagnostics and monitoring and for control design and development. Furthermore, the model may be extended to provide a tool for the study of engine emissions, fuel economy, component effects, alternative fuels, alternative engine cycles, flight simulators, sensors, and actuators. Results show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the propulsion system dynamics from zero to 10 Hertz.

  16. Tuning a resonant energy harvester using a generalized electrical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarano, A.; Burrow, S. G.; Barton, D. A. W.; Carrella, A.; Clare, L. R.

    2010-05-01

    A fundamental drawback of vibration-based energy harvesters is that they typically feature a resonant mass/spring mechanical system to amplify the small source vibrations; the limited bandwidth of the mechanical amplifier restricts the effectiveness of the energy harvester considerably. By extending the range of input frequencies over which a vibration energy harvester can generate useful power, e.g. through adaptive tuning, it is not only possible to open up a wider range of applications, such as those where the source frequency changes over time, but also possible to relax the requirements for precision manufacture or the need for mechanical adjustment in situ. In this paper, a vibration-based energy harvester connected to a generalized electrical load (containing both real and reactive impedance) is presented. It is demonstrated that the reactive component of the electrical load can be used to tune the harvester system to significantly increase the output power away from the resonant peak of the device. An analytical model of the system is developed, which includes non-ideal components arising from the physical implementation, and the results are confirmed by experiment. The - 3 dB (half-power) bandwidth of the prototype energy harvester is shown to be over three times greater when presented with an optimized load impedance compared to that for the same harvester presented with an optimized resistive only load.

  17. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  18. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  19. Generalize aerodynamic coefficient table storage, checkout and interpolation for aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Warner, N.

    1973-01-01

    The set of programs described has been used for rapidly introducing, checking out and very efficiently using aerodynamic tables in complex aircraft simulations on the IBM 360. The preprocessor program reads in tables with different names and dimensions and stores then on disc storage according to the specified dimensions. The tables are read in from IBM cards in a format which is convenient to reduce the data from the original graphs. During table processing, new auxiliary tables are generated which are required for table cataloging and for efficient interpolation. In addition, DIMENSION statements for the tables as well as READ statements are punched so that they may be used in other programs for readout of the data from disc without chance of programming errors. A quick data checking graphical output for all tables is provided in a separate program.

  20. Noise Annoyance Is Associated with Depression and Anxiety in the General Population- The Contribution of Aircraft Noise

    PubMed Central

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Jünger, Claus; Klein, Eva M.; Wild, Philipp; Lackner, Karl; Blettner, Maria; Binder, Harald; Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Brähler, Elmar; Münzel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background While noise annoyance has become recognized as an important environmental stressor, its association to mental health has hardly been studied. We therefore determined the association of noise annoyance to anxiety and depression and explored the contribution of diverse environmental sources to overall noise annoyance. Patients and Methods We investigated cross-sectional data of n = 15.010 participants of the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS), a population-based, prospective, single-center cohort study in Mid-Germany (age 35 to 74 years). Noise annoyance was assessed separately for road traffic, aircraft, railways, industrial, neighborhood indoor and outdoor noise (“during the day”; “in your sleep”) on 5-point scales (“not at all” to “extremely”); depression and anxiety were assessed by the PHQ-9, resp. GAD-2. Results Depression and anxiety increased with the degree of overall noise annoyance. Compared to no annoyance, prevalence ratios for depression, respectively anxiety increased from moderate (PR depression 1.20; 95%CI 1.00 to 1.45; PR anxiety 1.42; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.74) to extreme annoyance (PR depression 1.97; 95%CI 1.62 to 2.39; PR anxiety 2.14; 95% CI 1.71 to 2.67). Compared to other sources, aircraft noise annoyance was prominent affecting almost 60% of the population. Interpretation Strong noise annoyance was associated with a two-fold higher prevalence of depression and anxiety in the general population. While we could not relate annoyance due to aircraft noise directly to depression and anxiety, we established that it was the major source of annoyance in the sample, exceeding the other sources in those strongly annoyed. Prospective follow-up data will address the issue of causal relationships between annoyance and mental health. PMID:27195894

  1. Integrated topology for an aircraft electric power distribution system using MATLAB and ILP optimization technique and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhikar, Pratik Ravindra

    The most important and crucial design feature while designing an Aircraft Electric Power Distribution System (EPDS) is reliability. In EPDS, the distribution of power is from top level generators to bottom level loads through various sensors, actuators and rectifiers with the help of AC & DC buses and control switches. As the demands of the consumer is never ending and the safety is utmost important, there is an increase in loads and as a result increase in power management. Therefore, the design of an EPDS should be optimized to have maximum efficiency. This thesis discusses an integrated tool that is based on a Need Based Design method and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to achieve the optimum design of an EPDS to provide maximum reliability in terms of continuous connectivity, power management and minimum cost. If an EPDS is formulated as an optimization problem then it can be solved with the help of connectivity, cost and power constraints by using a linear solver to get the desired output of maximum reliability at minimum cost. Furthermore, the thesis also discusses the viability and implementation of the resulted topology on typical large aircraft specifications.

  2. Results of the NASA/General Electric Experimental Clean Combustor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, C. C.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/General Electric Experimental Clean Combustor Program is a multi-year, major contract effort. Primary program objectives are the generation of technology for development of advanced commercial CTOL engines with lower exhaust emissions than current aircraft and, demonstrations of this technology in a full-scale CF6-50C engine in 1976. This paper describes pollution and performance goals, Phase I and II test results and Phase III hardware, pollution sampling techniques and test plans. Pollution results are presented in emission index and Environmental Protection Agency 1979 Standard Parameters (EPAP). Best results were obtained with a double annular combustor concept. This concept, which incorporates multistage burning, produced EPAP values extrapolated to CF6-50C engine conditions for CO, HC, and NOx of 3.3, 0.3 and 4.5, respectively. These represent respective CO, HC and NOx percentage reductions of 69, 93 and 42%, compared to current CF6-50 engine values. The combustor also met development engine performance requirements.

  3. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert A.; Schrag, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of modelling a system consisting of a cylindrical coil with its axis perpendicular to a metal plate of finite thickness, and a simple electrical circuit for producing a transient current in the coil, is discussed in the context of using such a system for de-icing aircraft surfaces. A transmission line model of the coil and metal plate is developed as the heart of the system model. It is shown that this transmission model is central to calculation of the coil impedance, the coil current, the magnetic fields established on the surfaces of the metal plate, and the resultant total force between the coil and the plate. FORTRAN algorithms were developed for numerical calculation of each of these quantities, and the algorithms were applied to an experimental prototype system in which these quantities had been measured. Good agreement is seen to exist between the predicted and measured results.

  4. 77 FR 53880 - Portland General Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Portland General Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... Electric Company. e. Name of Project: Clackamas River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Oak Grove..., Director of Hydro Licensing and Water Rights, Portland General Electric Company, 121 SW Salmon...

  5. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SGEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from the SGEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  6. Generic risk insights for General Electric boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Taylor, J. ); Chung, J. . Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation)

    1991-05-01

    A methodology has been developed to extract generic risk-based information from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of General Electric boiling water rectors and applying the insights gained to plants that have not been subjected to a PRA. The available risk assessments (six plants) were examined to identify the most probable, i.e., dominant accident sequences at each plants. The goal was to include all sequences which represented at least 80% of core damage frequency. If the same plant specific dominant accident sequence appeared within this boundary in at least two plant PRAs, the sequence was considered to be a representative sequence. Eight sequences met this definition. From these sequences, the most important component failures and human error that contributed to each sequence have been prioritized. Guidance is provided to prioritize the representative sequences and modify selected basic events that have been shown to be sensitive to the plant specific design or operating variations of the contributing PRAs. This risk-based guidance can be used for utility and NRC activities including operator training, maintenance, design review, and inspections. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Direct Electricity from Heat: A Solution to Assist Aircraft Power Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A thermionic device produces an electrical current with the application of a thermal gradient whereby the temperature at one electrode provides enough thermal energy to eject electrons. The system is totally predicated on the thermal gradient and the work function of the electrode collector relative to the emitter electrode. Combined with a standard thermoelectric device high efficiencies may result, capable of providing electrical energy from the waste heat of gas turbine engines.

  8. General Electric/Pratt and Whitney summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilkey, Samuel C.; Hines, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The views of GE and P&W on the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) are presented in viewgraph format. The technology developments needed to address the environmental issues of airport noise and engine emissions represent the threshold level for a viable program. These technologies must be introduced in concert with the propulsion system materials technologies and other aircraft technologies to reduce both the cost of ownership and the direct operating cost of the HSCT. They are key to the environmental compatibility and economic viability of a HSCT for entry into service in the year 2005.

  9. General Electric ATS program technical review: Phase 2 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, T.; Smith, D.

    1995-10-01

    In response to the industrial and utility objectives specified for the ATS, the GE Power Generation ATS Phase 2 Program consisted of a dual approach. These were (1) development of an Industrial ATS (aircraft engine based) led by GE Aircraft Engines, and (2) development of a Utility ATS which was already underway at GEPG. Both programs required the identification and resolution of critical technical issues. Both systems were studied in Tasks 3-7, and both have resulted in designs that meet all ATS goals. The Industrial ATS as defined (130 MW) did not meet projected market power size requirements, and emphasis has remained on the Utility ATS development. The design and testing effort has been focused on the MS7001H combined cycle gas turbine, as the next product evolution in GE Power Generation`s product line. Common technology derived from the ATS Program is also being incorporated into the 50 Hz version of the ATS utility machine designated as the MS9001H.

  10. Investigation of Flight Test Methods for measuring the performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, G.; Bridges, P.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of methods for measuring the performance of general aviation airplanes was conducted using relatively simple instrumentation currently available and data extraction techniques established from efforts in other disciplines. The possibilities of improving flight test data by use of improved modern instrumentation and digital data recording and data analysis were considered.

  11. 14 CFR 27.1351 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 27.1351 Section 27.1351 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1351 General. (a) Electrical system capacity. Electrical...

  12. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 1: General description and theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs has been developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This part presents a general description of the system and describes the theoretical methods used.

  13. Novel approaches for alleviation of electrical hazards of graphite-fiber composites. [aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1979-01-01

    Four basically different approaches were considered: gasification of fibers, retention in the matrix, clumping to prevent entrainment, and electrical insulation of fibers. The techniques used to achieve them are described in some detail. These involved surface treatment of fibers to improve the wettability of fibers and coating the fibers with the selected substances before laying them up for composite fabrication. Thermogravimetric analyses were performed on the plain and treated fibers in inert (nitrogen, argon) and reactive (air) atmospheres. The treated fibers embedded in epoxy were ignited in a Bunsen flame to determine the efficiency of these treatments. A simple apparatus was assembled to detect the time for the first short circuit (in a typical electrical circuit) when exposed to the combustion products from a graphite fiber composite fire. The state-of-the-art and treated fibers cast in typical epoxy were burned and ranked for potential success. It was inferred that the gasification schemes appear promising when reduction or oxidation is tried. It was also found that some very promising candidates were available for the clumping and for the electrical insulation of fibers.

  14. The General Electric MOD-1 wind turbine generator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poor, R. H.; Hobbs, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, installation and checkout of MOD-1, a megawatt class wind turbine generator which generates utility grade electrical power, is described. A MOD-1/MOD-1A tradeoff study is discussed.

  15. Advanced low emissions catalytic combustor program at General Electric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Advanced Low Emissions Catalytic Combustors Program (ALECC) is being undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of employing catalytic combustion technology in aircraft gas turbine engines as a means to control emission of oxides of nitrogen during subsonic stratospheric cruise operation. The ALECC Program is being conducted in three phases. The first phase, which was completed in November, 1978, consisted of a design study to identify catalytic combustor designs having the greatest potential to meet the emissions and performance goals specified. The primary emissions goal of this program was to obtain cruise NO emissions of less than 1g/kg (compared with levels of 15 to 20 g/x obtained with current designs)/ However, good overall performance and feasibility for engine development were heavily weighted in the evaluation of combustor designs.

  16. Penetration of High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Into General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros V.; Panaretos, Anastasios H.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to design and achieve electromagnetic compatibility is becoming more challenging with the rapid development of new electronic products and technologies. The importance of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues stems from the fact that the ambient electromagnetic environment has become very hostile; that is, it increases both in density and intensity, while the current trend in technology suggests the number of electronic devices increases in homes, businesses, factories, and transportation vehicles. Furthermore, the operating frequency of products coming into the market continuously increases. While cell phone technology has exceeded 1 GHz and Bluetooth operates at 2.4 GHz, products involving satellite communications operate near 10 GHz and automobile radar systems involve frequencies above 40 GHz. The concern about higher frequencies is that they correspond to smaller wavelengths, therefore electromagnetic waves are able to penetrate equipment enclosure through apertures or even small cracks more easily. In addition, electronic circuits have become small in size, and they are usually placed on motherboards or housed in boxes in very close proximity. Cosite interference and coupling in all electrical and electronic circuit assemblies are two essential issues that have to be examined in every design.

  17. General aviation approach and landing practices. [by pilots of light aircraft at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.; Goode, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of air traffic patterns at uncontrolled airports and techniques used by a group of general aviation pilots in landing light airplanes are documented. The results of some 1,600 radar tracks taken at four uncontrolled airports and some 600 landings made by 22 pilots in two, four place, single engine light airplanes show that the uncontrolled traffic pattern is highly variable. The altitudes, distances, and piloting procedures utilized may affect the ability for pilots to see-and-avoid in this environment. Most landing approaches were conducted at an airspeed above recommended, resulting in significant floating during flare and touchdowns that were relatively flat and often nose-low.

  18. An in-flight simulation of lateral control nonlinearities. [for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. R.; Tilak, N. W.

    1975-01-01

    An in-flight simulation program was conducted to explore, in a generalized way, the influence of spoiler-type roll-control nonlinearities on handling qualities. The roll responses studied typically featured a dead zone or very small effectiveness for small control inputs, a very high effectiveness for mid-range deflections, and low effectiveness again for large inputs. A linear force gradient with no detectable breakout force was provided. Given otherwise good handling characteristics, it was found that moderate nonlinearities of the types tested might yield acceptable roll control, but the best level of handling qualities is obtained with linear, aileron-like control.

  19. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  20. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  1. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  2. Wind-tunnel investigation of a full-scale canard-configured general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Coy, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a broad research program to provide a data base on advanced airplane configurations, a wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 30-by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced canard-configured general aviation airplane. The investigation included measurements of forces and moments of the complete configuration, isolated canard loads, and pressure distributions on the wing, winglet, and canard. Flow visualization was obtained by using surface tufts to determine regions of flow separation and by using a chemical sublimation technique to determine boundary-layer transition locations. Additionally, other tests were conducted to determine simulated rain effects on boundary layer transition. Investigation of configuration effects included variations of canard locations, canard airfoil section, winglet size, and use of a leading-edge droop on the out-board section of the wing.

  3. General Electric ATS Program technical review Phase 2 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, T.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program Phase 2 objectives are to select a cycle, and to identify and resolve technical issues required to realize the ATS Program goals of 60% net combined cycle efficiency, single digit NOx, and a 10% electric power cost reduction, compared to current technology. The Phase 2 efforts have showns that the ATS Program goals are achievable. The GE Power Generation advanced gas turbine will use closed-loop steam cooling in the first two turbine stages and advanced coatings, seals and cooling designs to meet ATS performance and cost of electricity goals.

  4. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  5. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  6. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  7. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  8. 46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded. (f) Each vessel with a nonmetallic hull must have a continuous, non-current carrying... waterproof, watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing. (b) Aluminum must not be used for...

  9. 78 FR 21578 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Electric, One Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513- 552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; and Web...: 513-552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; and Web site: www.GE.com . You may view this...

  10. 78 FR 19628 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent... Electric Company, One Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513-552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com... Neumann Way, MD Y-75, Cincinnati, OH; phone: 513-552-2913; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; and Web site:...

  11. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  12. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation Using High Altitude Aircraft Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    A physically intuitive and computationally simple precipitation mapping algorithm has been developed for use with the airborne Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR). The algorithm is based on microwave emission and scattering properties of precipitation. Specifically, emission by liquid water allows increasing brightness temperatures at low frequencies to be interpreted as increasing rain rates. Scattering by large hydrometeors (particularly graupel and hail) causes relative minima in the brightness temperatures, with progressively larger hydrometeors scattering progressively longer wavelengths. The vigor of convection is therefore ascertained according to which wavelengths are being significantly scattered. The combination of emission and scattering information from four microwave channels is used to assign a precipitation category, which is related to the liquid rain rate, the vertical extent of precipitation, and the vigor of convection. The qualitative precipitation categories output by the passive microwave algorithm have been verified using coincident radar (ER-2 Doppler Radar - EDOP) and electric field measurements (Lightning Instrument Package - LIP). These coincident measurements can subsequently be used to quantify rain rates, hydrometeor contents, and vertical profiles that are typical for each precipitation category. This algorithm has been developed using an airborne platform. Comparisons are being made with other airborne, satellite, and ground-based radar and radiometer data. This technique shows promise both as a research tool and potentially as a real-time analysis tool, which could be applied to either traditional or uninhabited aerial vehicles.

  13. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  14. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  15. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  16. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  17. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  18. 78 FR 37212 - Portland General Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Water Rights, Portland General Electric Company, 121 SW Salmon Street, Portland, OR 97204, (503) 464... locations: 1) a powerhouse at the base of Timothy Lake Dam housing two approximately 0.85-megawatt...

  19. SILHIL Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Teubert, Christopher Allen; Cuong Chi, Quach; Hogge, Edward; Vazquez, Sixto; Goebel, Kai; George, Vachtsevanos

    2013-01-01

    Software-in-the-loop and Hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and cost-effective testing than what is practical to conduct with flight tests. A framework is described for the offline recreation of dynamic loads on simulated or physical aircraft powertrain components based on a real-time simulation of airframe dynamics running on a flight simulator, an inner-loop flight control policy executed by either an autopilot routine or a human pilot, and a supervisory fault management control policy. The creation of an offline framework for verifying and validating supervisory failure prognostics and decision making routines is described for the example of battery charge depletion failure scenarios onboard a prototype electric unmanned aerial vehicle.

  20. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  1. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  2. The NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP): Research in atmospheric electricity from an instrumented U-2 aircraft platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP) is presented. The various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used to collect optical and electronic signature from the lightning events, are discussed. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 6400 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed.

  3. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  4. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  5. General Electric composite ring-disk flywheel: Recent and potential developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppa, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments of the General Electric hybrid rotor design are described. The relation of the hybrid rotor design to flywheel designs that are especially suitable for spacecraft applications is discussed. Potential performance gains that can be achieved in such rotor designs by applying latest developments in materials, processing, and design methodology are projected. Indications are that substantial improvements can be obtained.

  6. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC (GEFP) AND KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (KAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE SPACE. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1293, 1958. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020209, REV. K. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING END. NOTE BOLTS AND SPRINGS OF BRAKE BAND, HEAVY-WIRE ARMATURE WINDINGS, AND TIGHTLY WOUND STATOR (FIELD) COILS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. An update of solid polymer electrolyte water electolysis programs at General Electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. H.

    At the previous two world hydrogen energy conferences in 1976 and 1978 the status of General Electric solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis development program for large scale hydrogen generator was presented (Nuttall 1976, 1978). This paper updates the progress of this ongoing development program and also describes several new associated programs aimed at gaining early field experience on prototype systems.

  9. 75 FR 5151 - General Electric Company Transportation Division; Erie, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Electric Company Transportation Division; Erie, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration By application dated October 28, 2009, the petitioners requested administrative reconsideration of...

  10. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  12. Propulsion system study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Warren, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion system technologies applicable to the generation of commuter airline aircraft expected to enter service in the 1990's are identified and evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. The most promising technologies in the areas of engine, propeller, gearbox, and nacelle design are recommended for future research. Each item under consideration is evaluated relative to a modern baseline engine, the General Electric CT7-5, in a current technology aircraft flying a fixed range and payload. The analysis is presented for two aircraft sizes (30 and 50 passenger), over a range of mission lengths (100 to 1100 km) and fuel costs ($264 to $396 per cu m).

  13. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  14. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  15. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Corsi, S R; Booth, N L; Hall, D W

    2001-07-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries. PMID:11434287

  16. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  17. Self-Directed Violence Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: An Examination of General and Shipboard-Specific Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Saitzyk, Arlene; Vorm, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Self-directed violence (SDV), which includes suicidal ideation with and without intent, suicidal preparatory behaviors and attempts with and without harm, non-suicidal self-directed violence, and completed suicide, has been a rising concern in the military. Military shipboard personnel may represent a unique subset of this population due to the distinct nature of deployment stressors and embedded supports. As such, one might expect differences in the prevalence of SDV between this group and other active duty personnel, signifying a distinct operational impact. This study analyzed the prevalence of SDV among personnel assigned or deployed to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, and examined whether occurrences varied by descriptors commonly identified in the literature (e.g., age, gender, marital status, pay grade/rank). This study also examined characteristics specific to life aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier in order to better understand the issues particular to this population. Descriptive analyses and relative risk findings suggested similarities in demographic risk factors to the general military population, but also striking differences related to occupational specialty and assigned department. This study is the first to shed light on risk and protective factors relevant to shipboard personnel. PMID:27046180

  18. Electrical Stimulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Ken; Van Dort, Christa J.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Taylor, Norman E.; Kenny, Jonathan D.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methylphenidate or a D1 dopamine receptor agonist induce reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia. We tested whether electrical stimulation of dopaminergic nuclei also induces reanimation from general anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, a bipolar insulated stainless steel electrode was placed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, n = 5) or substantia nigra (SN, n = 5). After a minimum 7-day recovery period, the isoflurane dose sufficient to maintain loss of righting was established. Electrical stimulation was initiated and increased in intensity every 3 min to a maximum of 120μA. If stimulation restored the righting reflex, an additional experiment was performed at least 3 days later during continuous propofol anesthesia. Histological analysis was conducted to identify the location of the electrode tip. In separate experiments, stimulation was performed in the prone position during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol, and the electroencephalogram was recorded. RESULTS To maintain loss of righting, the dose of isoflurane was 0.9% ± 0.1 vol%, and the target plasma dose of propofol was 4.4 μg/ml ± 1.1 μg/ml (mean ± SD). In all rats with VTA electrodes, electrical stimulation induced a graded arousal response including righting that increased with current intensity. VTA stimulation induced a shift in electroencephalogram peak power from δ (<4 Hz) to θ (4–8 Hz). In all rats with SN electrodes, stimulation did not elicit an arousal response or significant electroencephalogram changes. CONCLUSIONS Electrical stimulation of the VTA, but not the SN, induces reanimation during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine release by VTA, but not SN, neurons induces reanimation from general anesthesia. PMID:24398816

  19. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  20. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  1. Reliable prediction of electric spark sensitivity of nitramines: a general correlation with detonation pressure.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Pouretedal, Hamid Reza; Semnani, Abolfazl

    2009-08-15

    For nitramines, a general correlation has been introduced to predict electric spark sensitivity through detonation pressure. New method uses maximum obtainable detonation pressure as a fundamental relation so that it can be corrected for some nitramines which have some specific molecular structure. There is no need to use crystal density and heat of formation of nitramine explosives for predicting detonation pressure and electric spark sensitivity. The predicted electric spark sensitivities are compared with calculated results on the basis of quantum mechanical computations for some nitramines that latter can be applied. The root mean square (rms) deviations from experiment for new method and the predicted results of complicated quantum mechanical method are 1.18 and 3.49J, respectively. PMID:19188021

  2. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  3. Steady and Oscillatory, Subsonic and Supersonic, Aerodynamic Pressure and Generalized Forces for Complex Aircraft Configurations and Applications to Flutter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    A general method for analyzing aerodynamic flows around complex configurations is presented. By applying the Green function method, a linear integral equation relating the unknown, small perturbation potential on the surface of the body, to the known downwash is obtained. The surfaces of the aircraft, wake and diaphragm (if necessary) are divided into small quadrilateral elements which are approximated with hyperboloidal surfaces. The potential and its normal derivative are assumed to be constant within each element. This yields a set of linear algebraic equations and the coefficients are evaluated analytically. By using Gaussian elimination method, equations are solved for the potentials at the centroids of elements. The pressure coefficient is evaluated by the finite different method; the lift and moment coefficients are evaluated by numerical integration. Numerical results are presented, and applications to flutter are also included.

  4. An experimental study of the effect of tail configuration on the spinning characteristics of general aviation aircraft. M.S. Thesis; [static wind tunnel force measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using static wind tunnel tests to obtain information about spin damping characteristics of an isolated general aviation aircraft tail was investigated. A representative tail section was oriented to the tunnel free streamline at angles simulating an equilibrium spin. A full range of normally encountered spin conditions was employed. Results of parametric studies performed to determine the effect of spin damping on several tail design parameters show satisfactory agreement with NASA rotary balance tests. Wing and body interference effects are present in the NASA studies at steep spin attitudes, but agreement improves with increasing pitch angle and spin rate, suggesting that rotational flow effects are minimal. Vertical position of the horizontal stabilizer is found to be a primary parameter affecting yaw damping, and horizontal tail chordwise position induces a substantial effect on pitching moment.

  5. Electrical stimulation of the parabrachial nucleus induces reanimation from isoflurane general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Fanuel; Kenny, Jonathan D; Taylor, Norman E; Solt, Ken; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N; Van Dort, Christa J

    2016-06-01

    Clinically, emergence from general anesthesia is viewed as a passive process where anesthetics are discontinued at the end of surgery and anesthesiologists wait for the drugs to wear off. The mechanisms involved in emergence are not well understood and there are currently no drugs that can actively reverse the state of general anesthesia. An emerging hypothesis states that brain regions that control arousal become active during emergence and are a key part of the return to wakefulness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that electrical activation of the glutamatergic parabrachial nucleus (PBN) in the brainstem is sufficient to induce reanimation (active emergence) during continuous isoflurane general anesthesia. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neural activity, we first show a selective increase in active neurons in the PBN during passive emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then electrically stimulated the PBN to assess whether it is sufficient to induce reanimation from isoflurane general anesthesia. Stimulation induced behavioral arousal and restoration of the righting reflex during continuous isoflurane general anesthesia. In contrast, stimulation of the nearby central inferior colliculus (CIC) did not restore the righting reflex. Spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed that stimulation produced a significant decrease in EEG delta power during PBN stimulation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the PBN provides critical arousal input during emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26971629

  6. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  7. 76 FR 17447 - Penske Logistics LLC a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Determination was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4729). The subject firm supplies... Employment and Training Administration Penske Logistics LLC a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske... former workers of Penske Logistics LLC, a subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation, El...

  8. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use...

  9. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  12. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  14. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  15. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  16. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  17. Fabric filters for the Electric Utility Industry: Volume 1, General concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Cushing, K.M.; Pontius, D.H.; Smith, W.B.; Carr, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This publication is the first in a series presenting results of EPRI's research and development work applying baghouse technology to the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series, Fabric Filters for the Electric Utility Industry, is intended as a practical, hands-on reference for plant operators, engineers, and home office managers. Multiple volumes are planned, each to be produced sequentially over the period 1987-1989. Topics to be addressed include operating principles and terminology, baghouse design considerations, bags and fabrics, flue gas dynamics, reverse-gas cleaning, reverse-gas cleaning with sonic assistance, shake/deflate cleaning, pulse-jet cleaning, combined SO/sub 2/ collection, and operation and maintenance. Volume 1, General Concepts contains a discussion of fly ash formation, technologies for particulate control, baghouse operating principles and terminology, filtration mechanisms, the filtration process, and baghouse application in the US utility industry. 24 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  19. Aircraft Photovoltaic Power-Generating System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet -engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are--in themselves --favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project. This new electrical power-generating system offers solid-state reliability with electrical power-output capability comparable to that of existing aircraft electromechanical power-generating systems (alternators and generators). In addition to improvements in aircraft performance, significant aircraft fuel- and weight-saving advantages are projected.

  20. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  1. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  2. Design and certification of low-cost distributed Control-By-Light aircraft control systems for part 25 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Brian D.; Robillard, Michael N.

    1996-10-01

    Raytheon has developed and is certifying fault-tolerant low- cost distributed Control-By-LightTM technology for use in the next generation of Civil, Regional, and General Aviation aircraft. Distributed Control-By-LightTM holds significant promise when applied to complex sensor/actuator systems such as aircraft controls. CBLTM systems replace mechanical, hydraulic and electrical controls presently used to monitor, control and display flight, engine, and utility functions, and has substantial weight, cost, safety, and performance advantages over today's mechanical and Fly-By- Wire techniques. This paper describes the system concepts and outlines the formal certification program presently underway.

  3. Multiple object tracking with non-unique data-to-object association via generalized hypothesis testing. [tracking several aircraft near each other or ships at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, D. W.; Lefler, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized hypothesis testing approach is applied to the problem of tracking several objects where several different associations of data with objects are possible. Such problems occur, for instance, when attempting to distinctly track several aircraft maneuvering near each other or when tracking ships at sea. Conceptually, the problem is solved by first, associating data with objects in a statistically reasonable fashion and then, tracking with a bank of Kalman filters. The objects are assumed to have motion characterized by a fixed but unknown deterministic portion plus a random process portion modeled by a shaping filter. For example, the object might be assumed to have a mean straight line path about which it maneuvers in a random manner. Several hypothesized associations of data with objects are possible because of ambiguity as to which object the data comes from, false alarm/detection errors, and possible uncertainty in the number of objects being tracked. The statistical likelihood function is computed for each possible hypothesized association of data with objects. Then the generalized likelihood is computed by maximizing the likelihood over parameters that define the deterministic motion of the object.

  4. Impact of General Physics Laboratory II Course on Recognizing Electricity Experiments' Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ege, Y.; Çirkinoǧlu, A. G.; Aytaç, N.; Özcan, H.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the abilities related to the tools and their functions that are used in electrical experiments in the general physics laboratory II courses by the 1st grade students attending the education of science teaching in Balikesir University, in 2005-2006 education year has been researched. The measuring tool used in our research consists of 3 parts and it has been applied to 82 students as pre-test and post- test. Also semi-constructed interviews have been conducted with 8 students among them. The data obtained at the end of the research have been analyzed and discussed with the aim.

  5. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  6. Design and evaluation of an integrated Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engine and aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    German, J.; Fogel, P.; Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The design was based on the LTS-101 engine family for the core engine. A high bypass fan design (BPR=9.4) was incorporated to provide reduced fuel consumption for the design mission. All acoustic and pollutant emissions goals were achieved. A discussion of the preliminary design of a business jet suitable for the developed propulsion system is included. It is concluded that large engine technology can be successfully applied to small turbofans, and noise or pollutant levels need not be constraints for the design of future small general aviation turbofan engines.

  7. 32 CFR 705.5 - Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members of the general public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft... AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.5 Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members... wish to take photos within naval jurisdictions will be advised of areas where photography is...

  8. 32 CFR 705.5 - Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members of the general public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft... AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.5 Taking of photos on board naval ships, aircraft and installations by members... wish to take photos within naval jurisdictions will be advised of areas where photography is...

  9. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  10. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  11. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  12. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  13. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  14. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  15. Electrically charged small soot particles in the exhaust of an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor: comparison of model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    The emission of electrically charged soot particles by an aircraft gas-turbine combustor is investigated using a theoretical model. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of the fuel sulfur content (FSC). The model considers the production of primary "combustion" electrons and ions in the flame zone and their following interaction with molecular oxygen, sulfur-bearing molecules (e.g. O 2, SO 2, SO 3, etc.) and soot particles. The soot particle size distribution is approximated by two different populations of mono-dispersed large and small soot particles with diameters of 20-30 and 5-7 nm, respectively. The effect of thermal ionization of soot and its interaction with electrons and positive and negative ions is included in the model. The computed positive and negative chemiion (CI) concentrations at the combustor exit and relative fractions of small neutral and charged soot particles were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The results show that the FSC indeed may influence the concentration of negative CI at low fuel flow into combustor. Importantly the simulation indicates a very efficient mutual interaction of electrons and ions with soot particles with a large effect on both ion and charged soot particle concentrations. This result may be interpreted as a possible indirect effect of FSC on the growth and size distribution of soot particles.

  16. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  17. General model with experimental validation of electrical resonant frequency tuning of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Roberts, Stephen; Mouille, Thomas; Tudor, Michael J.; Beeby, Stephen P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a general model and its experimental validation for electrically tunable electromagnetic energy harvesters. Electrical tuning relies on the adjustment of the electrical load so that the maximum output power of the energy harvester occurs at a frequency which is different from the mechanical resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Theoretical analysis shows that for this approach to be feasible the electromagnetic vibration energy harvester’s coupling factor must be maximized so that its resonant frequency can be tuned with the minimum decrease of output power. Two different-sized electromagnetic energy harvesters were built and tested to validate the model. Experimentally, the micro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 0.0035 and an untuned resonant frequency of 70.05 Hz. When excited at 30 mg, it was tuned by 0.23 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 4000 nF its effective tuning range is 0.15 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1500 nF. The macro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 552.25 and an untuned resonant frequency of 95.1 Hz and 95.5 Hz when excited at 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively. When excited at 10 mg, it was tuned by 3.8 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of 3.5 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1200 nF. When excited at 25 mg, its resonant frequency was tuned by 4.2 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of about 5 Hz. Experimental results were found to agree with the theoretical analysis to within 10%.

  18. General equations for the motions of ice crystals and water drops in gravitational and electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nisbet, John S.

    1988-01-01

    General equations for the Reynolds number of a variety of types of ice crystals and water drops are given in terms of the Davies, Bond, and Knudsen numbers. The equations are in terms of the basic physical parameters of the system and are valid for calculating velocities in gravitational and electric fields over a very wide range of sizes and atmospheric conditions. The equations are asymptotically matched at the bottom and top of the size spectrum, useful when checking large computer codes. A numerical system for specifying the dimensional properties of ice crystals is introduced. Within the limits imposed by such variables as particle density, which have large deviations, the accuracy of velocities appears to be within 10 percent over the entire range of sizes of interest.

  19. An Evaluation of the General Dynamics 20 Khz 5 Kw Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The results and observations are discussed of tests made on the General Dynamics 20 kHz Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power. The General Dynamics 20 kHz system only is considered, and not the issue of the use of 20 kHz ac Power for Spacecraft Applications.

  20. General electrokinetic model for concentrated suspensions in aqueous electrolyte solutions: Electrophoretic mobility and electrical conductivity in static electric fields.

    PubMed

    Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Roa, Rafael; Arroyo, Francisco J; Delgado, Ángel V

    2015-10-01

    In recent years different electrokinetic cell models for concentrated colloidal suspensions in aqueous electrolyte solutions have been developed. They share some of its premises with the standard electrokinetic model for dilute colloidal suspensions, in particular, neglecting both the specific role of the so-called added counterions (i.e., those released by the particles to the solution as they get charged), and the realistic chemistry of the aqueous solution on such electrokinetic phenomena as electrophoresis and electrical conductivity. These assumptions, while having been accepted for dilute conditions (volume fractions of solids well below 1%, say), are now questioned when dealing with concentrated suspensions. In this work, we present a general electrokinetic cell model for such kind of systems, including the mentioned effects, and we also carry out a comparative study with the standard treatment (the standard solution only contains the ions that one purposely adds, without ionic contributions from particle charging or water chemistry). We also consider an intermediate model that neglects the realistic aqueous chemistry of the solution but accounts for the correct contribution of the added counterions. The results show the limits of applicability of the classical assumptions and allow one to better understand the relative role of the added counterions and ions stemming from the electrolyte in a realistic aqueous solution, on electrokinetic properties. For example, at low salt concentrations the realistic effects of the aqueous solution are the dominant ones, while as salt concentration is increased, it is this that progressively takes the control of the electrokinetic response for low to moderate volume fractions. As expected, if the solids concentration is high enough the added counterions will play the dominant role (more important the higher the particle surface charge), no matter the salt concentration if it is not too high. We hope this work can help in

  1. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  2. 78 FR 45194 - General Electric Company; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ..., designs and manufactures jet engines for commercial and military aircraft. GE sells narrow-body commercial... use the mechanical power of the rotating turbine shaft in a jet engine to power various accessory... development work on a critical engine component--the accessory gearbox (``AGB'')--on the Pratt &...

  3. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  4. General indices to characterize the electrical response of the cerebral cortex to TMS.

    PubMed

    Casali, Adenauer G; Casarotto, Silvia; Rosanova, Mario; Mariotti, Maurizio; Massimini, Marcello

    2010-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with simultaneous high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) represents a straightforward way to gauge cortical excitability and connectivity in humans. However, the analysis, classification and interpretation of TMS-evoked potentials are hampered by scarce a priori knowledge about the physiological effect of TMS and by lack of an established data analysis framework. Here, we implemented a standardized, data-driven procedure to characterize the electrical response of the cerebral cortex to TMS by means of three synthetic indices: significant current density (SCD), phase-locking (PL) and significant current scattering (SCS). SCD sums up the amplitude of all significant currents induced by TMS, PL reflects the ability of TMS to reset the phase of ongoing cortical oscillations, while SCS measures the average distance of significantly activated sources from the site of stimulation. These indices are aimed at capturing different aspects of brain responsiveness, ranging from global cortical excitability towards global cortical connectivity. We analyzed the EEG responses to TMS of Brodmann's area 19 at increasing intensities in five healthy subjects. The spatial distribution and time course of SCD, PL and SCS revealed a reproducible profile of excitability and connectivity, characterized by a local activation threshold around a TMS-induced electric field of 50 V/m and by a selective propagation of TMS-evoked activation from occipital to ipsilateral frontal areas that reached a maximum at 70-100 ms. These general indices may be used to characterize the effects of TMS on any cortical area and to quantitatively evaluate cortical excitability and connectivity in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:19770048

  5. 14 CFR 36.13 - Acoustical change: Tiltrotor aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acoustical change: Tiltrotor aircraft. 36... AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.13 Acoustical change: Tiltrotor aircraft. The following requirements apply to tiltrotors in any category for which an...

  6. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for...

  7. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for...

  8. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for...

  9. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or...

  10. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for...

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... General Note 6, HTSUS, as a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or ground flight simulator, or their parts... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  12. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  13. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  14. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  19. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  20. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  1. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  2. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) staff evaluation of the General Electric Company Nuclear Reactor Study (''Reed Report'')

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-01

    In 1975, the General Electric Company (GE) published a Nuclear Reactor Study, also referred to as ''the Reed Report,'' an internal product-improvement study. GE considered the document ''proprietary'' and thus, under the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), exempt from mandatory public disclosure. Nonetheless, members of the NRC staff reviewed the document in 1976 and determined that it did not raise any significant new safety issues. The staff also reached the same conclusion in subsequent reviews. However, in response to recent inquiries about the report, the staff reevaluated the Reed Report from a 1987 perspective. This re-evaluation, documented in this staff report, concluded that: (1) there are no issues raised in the Reed Report that support a need to curtail the operation of any GE boiling water reactor (BWR); (2) there are no new safety issues raised in the Reed Report of which the staff was unaware; and (3) although certain issues addressed by the Reed Report are still being studied by the NRC and the industry, there is no basis for suspending licensing and operation of GE BWR plants while these issues are being resolved.

  3. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  4. A Generalized Model for Transport of Contaminants in Soil by Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Garcia, Juan M.; Baek, Kitae; Alshawabkeh, Iyad D.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized model applicable to soils contaminated with multiple species under enhanced boundary conditions during treatment by electric fields is presented. The partial differential equations describing species transport are developed by applying the law of mass conservation to their fluxes. Transport, due to migration, advection and diffusion, of each aqueous component and complex species are combined to produce one partial differential equation hat describes transport of the total analytical concentrations of component species which are the primary dependent variables. This transport couples with geochemical reactions such as aqueous equilibrium, sorption, precipitation and dissolution. The enhanced model is used to simulate electrokinetic cleanup of lead and copper contaminants at an Army Firing Range. Acid enhancement is achieved by the use of adipic acid to neutralize the basic front produced for the cathode electrochemical reaction. The model is able to simulate enhanced application of the process by modifying the boundary conditions. The model showed that kinetics of geochemical reactions, such as metals dissolution/leaching and redox reactions might be significant for realistic prediction of enhanced electrokinetic extraction of metals in real world applications. PMID:22242884

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-423-1904, General Electric Company, Evendale, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.; Singal, M.; Hartle, R.; Rondinelli, R.

    1988-06-01

    A study was made of possible health hazards at the General Electric Company, Evendale, Ohio. Workers were exposed to dusts generated during the grinding of tools and other components containing tungsten carbide. Employee exposure to cobalt, nickel, chromium, tungsten, and total and respirable dust levels were evaluated for 15 machinists working in two cutting and grinding areas. Concentrations of nickel ranged from nondetectable to 20 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/m/sup 3/), time weighted average, which exceeded the NIOSH recommended level of 15 microg/m/sup 3/). Other metals were below permissible levels. A group of 41 individuals participated in a medical study including chest x-ray and determination of blood and urine cobalt concentrations. No evidence of hard-metal disease was noted on the 38 x-rays taken. Only two of ten participants had detectable blood cobalt levels. Of 63 urine specimens, 19 showed detectable cobalt. The authors conclude that a potential hazard existed from airborne exposure to nickel in cutter/grinding areas, and that a potential health hazard from cobalt exposure existed in Building 500.

  6. A generalized model for transport of contaminants in soil by electric fields.

    PubMed

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Baek, Kitae; Alshawabkeh, Iyad D; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-01-01

    A generalized model applicable to soils contaminated with multiple species under enhanced boundary conditions during treatment by electric fields is presented. The partial differential equations describing species transport are developed by applying the law of mass conservation to their fluxes. Transport, due to migration, advection and diffusion, of each aqueous component and complex species are combined to produce one partial differential equation that describes transport of the total analytical concentrations of component species which are the primary dependent variables. This transport couples with geochemical reactions such as aqueous equilibrium, sorption, precipitation and dissolution. The enhanced model is used to simulate electrokinetic cleanup of lead and copper contaminants at an Army Firing Range. Acid enhancement is achieved by the use of adipic acid to neutralize the basic front produced for the cathode electrochemical reaction. The model is able to simulate enhanced application of the process by modifying the boundary conditions. The model showed that kinetics of geochemical reactions, such as metals dissolution/leaching and redox reactions, may be significant for realistic prediction of enhanced electrokinetic extraction of metals in real-world applications. PMID:22242884

  7. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  8. NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - ROBERT E POST - STUDYING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF A GENERAL ELECTRIC GE ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - ROBERT E POST - STUDYING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF A GENERAL ELECTRIC GE ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL - THIS IS ONE OF SEVERAL TYPES OF FUEL CELLS BEING STUDIED AT NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER FOR SUITABILITY FOR USE IN THE

  9. 76 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...-07, Amendment 39-15085 (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), and adding the following new AD: General Electric... (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), for all GE CF6-80C2B series turbofan engines. That AD requires installing... 2007-12-07 (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), we received two reports of ice crystal condition flameouts...

  10. 75 FR 1622 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for the General Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... evaluation, is as follows: Facility: General Electric Company. Location: Evendale, Ohio. Job Titles and/or Job Duties: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stuart L. Hinnefeld, Interim Director, Office of Compensation Analysis and...

  11. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted...

  12. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  13. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  14. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  15. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  16. Baseline tests of the AM General DJ-5E electruck electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Tryon, H. B.; Sargent, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    An electric quarter ton truck designed for use as a postal delivery vehicle was tested to characterize the state of the art of electric vehicles. Vehicle performance test results are presented. It is powered by a single-module, 54 volt industrial battery through a silicon controlled rectifier continuously adjustable controller with regenerative braking applied to a direct current compound wound motor.

  17. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  18. 77 FR 20012 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Corporate Aircraft Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning corporate aircraft costs. Public comments are particularly invited on..., Corporate Aircraft Costs, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  19. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment, phase 1. [simulating vulnerability to airports and communities from fibers released during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L. S.; Kaplan, L. D.; Cornell, M. E.; Greenstone, R.

    1979-01-01

    A model was developed to generate quantitative estimates of the risk associated with the release of graphite fibers during fires involving commercial aircraft constructed with graphite fiber composite materials. The model was used to estimate the risk associated with accidents at several U.S. airports. These results were then combined to provide an estimate of the total risk to the nation.

  20. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  1. General models for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeCaër, G.; Brand, R. A.

    1998-11-01

    Hyperfine studies of disordered materials often yield the distribution of the electric field gradient (EFG) or related quadrupole splitting (QS). The question of the structural information that may be extracted from such distributions has been considered for more than fifteen years. Experimentally most studies have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy, especially on 0953-8984/10/47/020/img5. However, NMR, NQR, EPR and PAC methods have also received some attention. The EFG distribution for a random distribution of electric charges was for instance first investigated by Czjzek et al [1] and a general functional form was derived for the joint (bivariate) distribution of the principal EFG tensor component 0953-8984/10/47/020/img6 and the asymmetry parameter 0953-8984/10/47/020/img7. The importance of the Gauss distribution for such rotationally invariant structural models was thus evidenced. Extensions of that model which are based on degenerate multivariate Gauss distributions for the elements of the EFG tensor were proposed by Czjzek. The latter extensions have been used since that time, more particularly in Mössbauer spectroscopy, under the name `shell models'. The mathematical foundations of all the previous models are presented and critically discussed as they are evidenced by simple calculations in the case of the EFG tensor. The present article only focuses on those aspects of the EFG distribution in disordered solids which can be discussed without explicitly looking at particular physical mechanisms. We present studies of three different model systems. A reference model directly related to the first model of Czjzek, called the Gaussian isotropic model (GIM), is shown to be the limiting case for many different models with a large number of independent contributions to the EFG tensor and not restricted to a point-charge model. The extended validity of the marginal distribution of 0953-8984/10/47/020/img7 in the GIM model is discussed. It is also shown

  2. Aircraft photovoltaic power-generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet-engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are - in themselves - favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project.

  3. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  4. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  5. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  6. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  7. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  8. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  9. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  10. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  11. Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment.

    PubMed

    Mantiply, E D; Pohl, K R; Poppell, S W; Murphy, J A

    1997-01-01

    We have plotted data from a number of studies on the range of radiofrequency (RF) field levels associated with a variety of environmental and occupational sources. Field intensity is shown in units of volts/meter (V/m) for electric field strength and amps/meter (A/m) for magnetic field strength. Duty factors, modulation frequencies, and modulation indices are also reported for some sources. This paper is organized into seven sections, each cataloging sources into appropriate RF frequency bands from very-low frequency (VLF) to super-high frequency (SHF), and covers frequencies from 10 kHz to 30 GHz. Sources included in this summary are the following: Coast Guard navigational transmitters, a Navy VLF transmitter, computer visual display terminals (VDTs), induction stoves or range tops, industrial induction and dielectric heaters, radio and television broadcast transmitters, amateur and citizens band (CB) transmitters, medical diathermy and electrosurgical units, mobile and handheld transmitters, cordless and cellular telephones, microwave ovens, microwave terrestrial relay and satellite uplinks, and police, air traffic, and aircraft onboard radars. For the sources included in this summary, the strongest fields are found near industrial induction and dielectric heaters, and close to the radiating elements or transmitter leads of high power antenna systems. Handheld transmitters can produce near fields of about 500 V/m at the antenna. Fields in the general urban environment are principally associated with radio and TV broadcast services and measure about 0.1 V/m root-mean-square (rms). Peak fields from air traffic radars sampled in one urban environment were about 10 V/m, 300 times greater than the rms value of 0.03 V/m when the duty factor associated with antenna rotation and pulsing are factored in. PMID:9383245

  12. CID Aircraft post-impact lakebed skid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Moments after hitting and sliding through the wing openers the aircraft burst into flame, with a spectacular fireball seen emanating from the right inboard engine area. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four

  13. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid turboelectric aircraft-with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors-have the potential to transform aircraft design. Decoupling power generation from propulsion enables innovative aircraft designs, such as blended-wing bodies, with distributed propulsion. These hybrid turboelectric aircraft have the potential to significantly reduce emissions, decrease fuel burn, and reduce noise, all of which are required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers.

  14. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  15. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  16. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  17. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G105 Aviation Electricity and Electronics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain five instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: determining the relationship of voltage, current, resistance, and power in electrical circuits; computing and measuring capacitance and inductance; measuring voltage, current, resistance, and…

  18. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  19. A parametric determination of transport aircraft price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Cost per unit weight and other airframe and engine cost relations are given. Power equations representing these relations are presented for six airplane groups: general aircraft, turboprop transports, small jet transports, conventional jet transports, wide-body transports, supersonic transports, and for reciprocating, turboshaft, and turbothrust engines. Market prices calculated for a number of aircraft by use of the equations together with the aircraft characteristics are in reasonably good agreement with actual prices. Such price analyses are of value in the assessment of new aircraft devices and designs and potential research and development programs.

  20. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  1. Effect of depth of general anesthesia on the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Eftekharian, Ali; Amizadeh, Maryam; Mottaghi, Kamran; Safari, Farhad; Mahani, Mozhgan Hosseinerezai; Ranjbar, Leila Azadeh; Abdi, Ali; Mokari, Nooshin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effect of depth of general anesthesia on the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential in cochlear implantation. A prospective clinical study in a single-subject design was conducted in the cochlear implant center of a tertiary care University-based hospital. Sixty-one cochlear-implanted children with bilateral, severe to profound sensory neural hearing loss were enrolled in the study. During the operation electrically evoked compound action potentials (e-ECAP) were measured in two phase of general anesthesia; in deep and in light anesthesia. Thresholds of e-ECAP in these two phases of anesthesia were compared. Thirty-one children received HiRes90k1j prosthesis and 30 children received CI24RE prosthesis. Thresholds difference of electrically evoked compound action potential between light and deep anesthesia in all tested electrodes in either group were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Non-measurable e-ECAP in some electrodes at deep anesthesia was measurable in light phase of anesthesia. Depth of anesthesia can have significant influence on e-ECAP threshold and it is important to reduce the depth of anesthesia to achieve better results. PMID:25145642

  2. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  3. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  4. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  5. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  6. CID Aircraft pre-impact lakebed skid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The B-720 is seen viewed moments after impact and just before hitting the wing openers. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and

  7. Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.

  8. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  9. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  10. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  11. Self-gravitating rotating anisotropic pressure plasma in presence of Hall current and electrical resistivity using generalized polytrope laws

    SciTech Connect

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.; Soni, G. D.

    2008-06-15

    The effects of uniform rotation, finite electrical resistivity, electron inertia, and Hall current on the self-gravitational instability of anisotropic pressure plasma with generalized polytrope laws have been studied. A general dispersion relation is obtained with the help of the relevant linearized perturbed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations incorporating the relevant contributions of various effects of the problem using the method of normal mode analysis. The general dispersion relation is further reduced for the special cases of rotation; i.e., parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The longitudinal and transverse modes of propagation are discussed separately for investigation of condition of instability. The effects of rotation, Hall current, finite electron inertia, and polytropic indices are discussed on the gravitational, ''firehose,'' and ''mirror'' instabilities. The numerical calculations have been performed to obtain the dependence of the growth rate of the gravitational unstable mode on the various physical parameters involved. The finite electrical resistivity, rotation, and Hall current have a stabilizing influence on the growth rate of the unstable mode of wave propagation. The finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field and polytropic index from the condition of instability in the transverse mode of propagation for both the cases of rotation. It is also found that the Jeans criterion of gravitational instability depends upon rotation, electron inertia, and polytropic indices. In the case of transverse mode of propagation with the axis of rotation parallel to the magnetic field, it is observed that the region of instability and the value of the critical Jeans wavenumber are larger for the Chew-Goldberger-Low set of equations in comparison with the MHD set of equations. The stability of the system is discussed by applying Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The inclusion of rotation or Hall current or both

  12. Use of optimization to predict the effect of selected parameters on commuter aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, V. L.; Shevell, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between field length and cruise speed and aircraft direct operating cost were determined. A gradient optimizing computer program was developed to minimize direct operating cost (DOC) as a function of airplane geometry. In this way, the best airplane operating under one set of constraints can be compared with the best operating under another. A constant 30-passenger fuselage and rubberized engines based on the General Electric CT-7 were used as a baseline. All aircraft had to have a 600 nautical mile maximum range and were designed to FAR part 25 structural integrity and climb gradient regulations. Direct operating cost was minimized for a typical design mission of 150 nautical miles. For purposes of C sub L sub max calculation, all aircraft had double-slotted flaps but with no Fowler action.

  13. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  14. Annoyance caused by light aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The correlation between objective and noise stresses and subjectively perceived disturbance from general aviation aircraft was studied at 6 Swiss airports. Noise levels calculated for these airports are given. Survey results are analyzed.

  15. Annoyance caused by light aircraft noise

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The correlation between objective and noise stresses and subjectively perceived disturbance from general aviation aircraft was studied at 6 Swiss airports. Noise levels calculated for these airports are given. Survey results are analyzed.

  16. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013), 10.1039/c3py00263b]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain.

  17. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain. PMID:24730866

  18. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.N.; Lerner, J.; Shie, R.

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  19. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  20. Wind-tunnel investigation of effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the high angle-of-attack characteristics of a T-tail low-wing general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory tests have been conducted in the NASA-Langley Research Center's 12-Foot Low-Speed wind Tunnel to evaluate the application of wing-leading-edge devices on the stall-departure and spin resistance characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of a T-tail general-aviation aircraft. The model was force tested with an internal strain-gauge balance to obtain aerodynamic data on the complete configuration and with a separate wing balance to obtain aerodynamic data on the outer portion of the wing. The addition of the outboard leading-edge droop eliminated the abrupt stall of the windtip and maintained or increased the resultant-force coefficient up to about alpha = 32 degrees. This change in slope of the resultant-force coefficient curve with angle of attack has been shown to be important for eliminating autorotation and for providing spin resistance.

  1. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  2. Simulations of Cyclic Voltammetry for Electric Double Layers in Asymmetric Electrolytes: A Generalized Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hainan; Thiele, Alexander; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents a generalized modified Poisson–Nernst–Planck (MPNP) model derived from first principles based on excess chemical potential and Langmuir activity coefficient to simulate electric double-layer dynamics in asymmetric electrolytes. The model accounts simultaneously for (1) asymmetric electrolytes with (2) multiple ion species, (3) finite ion sizes, and (4) Stern and diffuse layers along with Ohmic potential drop in the electrode. It was used to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements for binary asymmetric electrolytes. The results demonstrated that the current density increased significantly with decreasing ion diameter and/or increasing valency |zi| of either ion species. By contrast, the ion diffusion coefficients affected the CV curves and capacitance only at large scan rates. Dimensional analysis was also performed, and 11 dimensionless numbers were identified to govern the CV measurements of the electric double layer in binary asymmetric electrolytes between two identical planar electrodes of finite thickness. A self-similar behavior was identified for the electric double-layer integral capacitance estimated from CV measurement simulations. Two regimes were identified by comparing the half cycle period τCV and the “RC time scale” τRC corresponding to the characteristic time of ions’ electrodiffusion. For τRC ← τCV, quasi-equilibrium conditions prevailed and the capacitance was diffusion-independent while for τRC → τCV, the capacitance was diffusion-limited. The effect of the electrode was captured by the dimensionless electrode electrical conductivity representing the ratio of characteristic times associated with charge transport in the electrolyte and that in the electrode. The model developed here will be useful for simulating and designing various practical electrochemical, colloidal, and biological systems for a wide range of applications.

  3. Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, L P

    1946-01-01

    A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.

  4. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorville, Nicolas Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-15

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115–121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958–1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251–317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541–1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present

  5. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115-121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958-1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251-317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541-1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present) 20

  6. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  7. Effects of general depressant drugs on the electrical responses of isolated slabs of cat's cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Frank, G B; Jhamandas, K

    1970-08-01

    1. In the neuronally isolated cortex of the cat, local application of diphenhydramine, promethazine, gammahydroxybutyrate, gammabutyrolactone, gamma aminobutyric acid, hyoscine and pethidine, and the intravenous injection of diazepam and meprobamate depressed or abolished the surface negative and surface positive response to direct stimulation and raised the stimulus threshold of the positive burst response. These effects were the same as previously demonstrated for general and local anaesthetics on the same preparation.2. Chlorpromazine produced a similar depression in small concentrations but caused spontaneous activity in higher concentrations.3. In contrast to local application, pethidine when given by intravenous injection in a high dose produced convulsant activity in the isolated cortical slab. The possibility was suggested that the convulsant activity was produced by a metabolite of pethidine.4. The results of this investigation suggest that the central depression produced by a number of structurally unrelated drugs is indicative of an anaesthetic-like property of these drugs. PMID:5485146

  8. Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.

  9. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  10. Very Light Aircraft: Revitalization through Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    As the future of the general aviation industry seems to be improving, a cultural paradigm shift may be imminent with the implementation of an advanced, revolutionary transportation system within the United States. By observing the support of government and industry for this idea, near and long term effects must be addressed if this change is going to occur. The high certification costs associated with general aviation aircraft must be reduced without compromising safety if a new transportation system is to be developed in the future. With the advent of new, streamlined rules recently issued for the certification of small aircraft, it seems as though new opportunities are now available to the general aviation industry. Not only will immediate benefits be realized with increased sales of certified small aircraft, but there would now be a way of introducing the advanced concepts of future aircraft at varying degrees of technology and cost as options to the customer.

  11. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  12. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  13. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  14. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  15. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  16. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  17. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  18. Remote sensor digital image data analysis using the General Electric Image 100 analysis system (a study of analysis speed, cost, and performance)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that the high speed man machine interaction capability is a distinct advantage of the image 100; however, the small size of the digital computer in the system is a definite limitation. The system can be highly useful in an analysis mode in which it complements a large general purpose computer. The image 100 was found to be extremely valuable in the analysis of aircraft MSS data where the spatial resolution begins to approach photographic quality and the analyst can exercise interpretation judgements and readily interact with the machine.

  19. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  20. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  1. GenLocDip: A Generalized Program to Calculate and Visualize Local Electric Dipole Moments.

    PubMed

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    Local dipole moments (i.e., dipole moments of atomic or molecular subsystems) are essential for understanding various phenomena in nanoscience, such as solvent effects on the conductance of single molecules in break junctions or the interaction between the tip and the adsorbate in atomic force microscopy. We introduce GenLocDip, a program for calculating and visualizing local dipole moments of molecular subsystems. GenLocDip currently uses the Atoms-In-Molecules (AIM) partitioning scheme and is interfaced to various AIM programs. This enables postprocessing of a variety of electronic structure output formats including cube and wavefunction files, and, in general, output from any other code capable of writing the electron density on a three-dimensional grid. It uses a modified version of Bader's and Laidig's approach for achieving origin-independence of local dipoles by referring to internal reference points which can (but do not need to be) bond critical points (BCPs). Furthermore, the code allows the export of critical points and local dipole moments into a POVray readable input format. It is particularly designed for fragments of large systems, for which no BCPs have been calculated for computational efficiency reasons, because large interfragment distances prevent their identification, or because a local partitioning scheme different from AIM was used. The program requires only minimal user input and is written in the Fortran90 programming language. To demonstrate the capabilities of the program, examples are given for covalently and non-covalently bound systems, in particular molecular adsorbates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27416879

  2. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    PubMed Central

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  3. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  4. Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

  5. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft during take off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 709, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  6. An Analysis of Ball Lightning-Aircraft Incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R. K.; Keul, A. G.; Bychkov, V.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Research and design have created aircraft that withstand average lightning strikes. Ball lightning (BL), a metastable, rare lightning type, is also observed from (and within) aircraft. Science and the media focused on individual BL incidents and did not analyze general patterns. Lacking established incident reporting channels, most BL observations are still passed on as “aviation lore”. To overcome this unsatisfactory condition, the authors collected and analyzed an international data bank of 87 BL-aircraft case histories from 1938 to 2007. 37 Russian military and civil BL reports were provided by the third author. Of the whole sample, 36 (41%) cases occurred over Russia/RF/SU, 24 (28%) over USA/Canada, 23 (26%) over Europe, and 4 (5%) over Asia/Pacific. Various types of military (US: C-54/141, B-52, KC-97/135 Stratotankers, C130, P-3 Orion, RF/SU: PO-2, IL, SU, TU, MIG; Nimrod, Saab-105) and civilian aircraft (US: DC-3/6, Metroliner, B-727/737/757/777, RF/SU: AN, TU; VC-10, Fokker F-28, CRJ-200), as well as general aviation (C-172, Falcon-20), were involved. BL reports show a flat annual April to August maximum. At BL impact, 15 aircraft were climbing, 7 descending; most were at cruising altitude. 42 (48%) reported BL outside the aircraft, 37 (43%) inside, 7 (8%) both in-and outside. No damage was reported in 34 (39%) cases, 39 objects (45%) caused minor damage, 11 major damage (13%), 3 even resulted in military aircraft losses. 3 objects caused minor, 1 major crew injury. 23 damage cases were associated with BL inside the fuselage; all 4 crew injury cases were of that BL type. Mean size is described as 25 cm, sometimes over 1 m, color 30% in the yellow-red, 10% in the blue-green spectral region, 8% white, duration around 10 seconds, sometimes over 1 minute. 33 (38%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. Thunderstorm conditions were reported by 25 (29%) of the observers, 9 (10%) said there

  7. Qualification Testing of General Electric 50 Ah Nickel-Cadmium Cells with New Separator and New Positive Plate Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985, for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a new nylon separator material Pellon 2536, and the new GE Positive Plate Nickel Attack Control Passivation process. Testing began in May, 1985, at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985, with approximately 1200 LEO cycles complete at this writting. Early test results show that cells with positive plate passivation exhibit higher than normal charge voltage characteristics. Other aspects of performance were nominal.

  8. Qualification testing of General Electric 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells with Pellon 2536 separator and passivated positive plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985 for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a nonwoven nylon separator material, Pellon 2536, and the GE positive plate nickel attack control gas passivation process. Testing began May, 1985 at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with GSFC standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985 with approximately 6500 LEO cycles and three GEO eclipse seasons completed. After early problems in maintaining test pack temperature control, all packs are performing well but are exhibiting higher than normal charge voltage characteristics.

  9. Digital snow mapping technique using LANDSAT data and General Electric IMAGE 100 system. [Dinwoody Creek in Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallam, W. C.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    In this study, a technique and procedures using General Electric IMAGE 100 system were derived for performing a snow cover analysis of small watersheds for quasi-operational application. The study area was the Wind River Mountains of west central Wyoming. A small watershed, namely, Dinwoody Creek was selected as a test site. LANDSAT data and U-2 imagery were used in the analysis. From a minimal snowcover LANDSAT scene, multispectral analysis was performed yielding the distribution of forest, bare rock, grassland, water, and snow within the watershed. The forest and bare rock themes were saved and registered with other scenes containing greater snow cover. Likewise, elevation contours from a digitized map were stored and superimposed over the snowpack areas.

  10. Optimal Topology and Experimental Evaluation of Piezoelectric Materials for Actively Shunted General Electric Polymer Matrix Fiber Composite Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Duffy, Kirsten; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with GE Aviation, has begun the development of a smart adaptive structure system with piezoelectric (PE) transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at resonances. Traditional resonant damping approaches may not be realistic for rotating frame applications such as engine blades. The limited space in which the blades reside in the engine makes it impossible to accommodate the circuit size required to implement passive resonant damping. Thus, a novel digital shunt scheme has been developed to replace the conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates strain energy through the load resistor on a power amplifier. General Electric (GE) designed and fabricated a variety of polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) test specimens. Investigating the optimal topology of PE sensors and actuators for each test specimen has revealed the best PE transducer location for each target mode. Also a variety of flexible patches, which can conform to the blade surface, have been tested to identify the best performing PE patch. The active damping control achieved significant performance at target modes. This work has been highlighted by successful spin testing up to 5000 rpm of subscale GEnx composite blades in Glenn s Dynamic Spin Rig.

  11. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  12. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  13. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  14. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  15. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  16. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  17. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  18. 14 CFR 33.3 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General. 33.3 Section 33.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES General § 33.3 General. Each applicant must show that the aircraft engine concerned...

  19. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  20. Torsional vibration of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurenbaum, Karl

    1932-01-01

    Exhaustive torsional-vibration investigations are required to determine the reliability of aircraft engines. A general outline of the methods used for such investigations and of the theoretical and mechanical means now available for this purpose is given, illustrated by example. True vibration diagrams are usually obtained from vibration measurements on the completed engine. Two devices for this purpose and supplementing each other, the D.V.L. torsiograph and the D.V.L. torsion recorder, are described in this report.

  1. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section 91.817 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No...

  2. Flight test of a stall sensor and evaluation of its application to an aircraft stall deterrent system using the NASA LRC general aviation simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.

    1976-01-01

    A series of flight maneuvers were developed to cover the range of flight conditions and to define the repeatability and hysteresis of the sensors. Initial flights were made with two sensors at the + or - 68 percent span and 60 percent and 70 percent chord stations. The primary effort in simulation program development was to modify the LRC General Aviation Simulator (GAS) Fortran programs to allow execution on the MSU UNIVAC 1106. A simple model of the sensor-servo stall deterrent system was developed. A one degree of freedom model of pitch dynamics of the airplane and stall deterrent system was developed to make initial estimates of the control system gains. A position error plus rate damping control algorithm was found to have acceptable characteristics.

  3. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Feng, Guang; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui; Meunier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero

  4. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  5. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  6. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  7. Residents' annoyance responses to aircraft noise events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Stephens, D. G.; Fields, J. M.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-weighted sound pressure level. A significant difference was found between the ratings of commercial jet aircraft and general aviation propeller aircraft, with the latter being judged less annoying. After the effects of noise level were accounted for, no significant differences were found between the ratings of landings and takeoffs. Aircraft noise annoyance reactions are stronger in lowered ambient noise conditions. This is consistent with the theory that reduced nighttime and evening ambient levels could create different reactions at different times of day. After controlling for ambient noise in a multiple regression analysis, no significant differences were found between the ratings of single events obtained during the three time periods: morning, afternoon, and evenings.

  8. 76 FR 55111 - United States v. General Electric Co., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Complaint, requires GE to divest the Converteam Electric Machinery Business, which produces low-speed... the three leading North American suppliers of low-speed synchronous electric motors used in... electric motors consist of a stator and a rotor, with the speed (rotation per minute) of the...

  9. General aviation activity survey. Annual summary report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of the annual General Aviation Activity Survey. The survey is conducted by the FAA to obtain information on the flight activity of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet. The report contains breakdowns of active aircraft, annual flight hours, average flight hours and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, engine hours, miles flown estimates, estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and grade of fuel consumed by the general aviation fleet. Aircraft, Aircraft activity, Aircraft use, Fuel consumption, General aviation, Hours flown, Miles flown.

  10. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  11. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  12. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS.

  13. The paradoxes of patenting at General Electric: Isador Ladoff's journey from Siberian exile to the heart of corporate capitalism.

    PubMed

    Miller, David Philip

    2011-12-01

    Isador Ladoff (1857-1918) worked briefly in the General Electric Company Research Laboratory, from 1901 to 1903. Since he was not employed to invent, Ladoff maintained that he, not the company, owned his invention of a new arc lamp electrode, eventually winning his case on appeal in 1911. The conduct and course of this patent litigation are examined in the light of Ladoff's remarkable life as a prisoner of the czar in Siberia before his escape to the United States in 1891 and as a socialist activist and writer thereafter. In showing that Ladoff's socialist principles activated his struggle with GE, the essay brings out the ironies of his defense of individualism against the incipient socialism of the laboratory supposedly espoused by officials of the company. The case is interesting in relation to the shift from the ideology, and the reality, of heroic individual invention to that of corporate invention in U.S. industrial research. That shift in turn was a crucial landmark in the longer history of the place of science in negotiation and contest about the relationship between creativity and intellectual property. PMID:22448541

  14. Heat transfer research in General Electric, 1910-1960; Examples of the product-driven innovation cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, G. )

    1991-01-01

    General Electric has a long and varied history of doing research on heat transfer, and using the results in its products and processes. Lessons it has learned during the half-century from 1910 to 1950 suggest a need for revision in the standard models used by economists to describe the way industry generates new technology and uses it to achieve innovations. The generation of new technology or the better use of old technology begins, not with a demand from the marketplace or a push from research, but from consideration of an already existing product. Problems or opportunities involving that product drive engineers or scientists to search for new knowledge. That knowledge proves useful in the development of a product, perhaps the one that initiated the search for knowledge, or perhaps a very different one. The important point is that however esoteric or mundane is the research in the middle of the cycle, the beginning and end are always products (or the processes used to make products), not scientists' ideas or customers demands.

  15. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  16. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  17. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  18. Energy absorption studied to reduce aircraft crash forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/FAA aircraft safety reseach programs for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Energy absorption of aircraft subflooring and redesign of interior flooring are being studied. The testing of energy absorbing configurations is described. The three NASA advanced concepts performed at neary the maximum possible amount of energy absorption, and one of two minimum modifications concepts performed well. Planned full scale tests are described. Airplane seat concepts are being considered.

  19. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  20. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  1. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  2. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  3. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  4. Skin friction measuring device for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.

  5. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  6. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  7. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  8. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  9. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  10. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  11. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  12. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each component... installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  13. 14 CFR 33.42 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.42 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each... of installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  14. 14 CFR 33.42 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.42 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each... of installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  15. 14 CFR 33.42 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.42 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each... of installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  16. 14 CFR 33.42 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.42 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each... of installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  17. 14 CFR 33.42 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.42 General. Before each endurance test required by this subpart, the adjustment setting and functioning characteristic of each... of installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  18. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  19. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  20. Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.