Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft health monitoring

  1. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring of AN Aircraft Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, T.; Schulz, M.; Sundaresan, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Naser, A. S.; Reichmeider, R.

    2003-03-01

    A major concern with ageing aircraft is the deterioration of structural components in the form of fatigue cracks at fastener holes, loose rivets and debonding of joints. These faults in conjunction with corrosion can lead to multiple-site damage and pose a hazard to flight. Developing a simple vibration-based method of damage detection for monitoring ageing structures is considered in this paper. The method is intended to detect damage during operation of the vehicle before the damage can propagate and cause catastrophic failure of aircraft components. It is typical that only a limited number of sensors could be used on the structure and damage can occur anywhere on the surface or inside the structure. The research performed was to investigate use of the chirp vibration responses of an aircraft wing tip to detect, locate and approximately quantify damage. The technique uses four piezoelectric patches alternatively as actuators and sensors to send and receive vibration diagnostic signals.Loosening of selected screws simulated damage to the wing tip. The results obtained from the testing led to the concept of a sensor tape to detect damage at joints in an aircraft structure.

  3. Aircraft fiber optic structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Nezih

    2012-06-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a sought after concept that is expected to advance military maintenance programs, increase platform operational safety and reduce its life cycle cost. Such concept is further considered to constitute a major building block of any Integrated Health Management (IHM) capability. Since 65% to 80% of military assets' Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is devoted to operations and support (O&S), the aerospace industry and military sectors continue to look for opportunities to exploit SHM systems, capability and tools. Over the past several years, countless SHM concepts and technologies have emerged. Among those, fiber optic based systems were identified of significant potential. This paper introduces the elements of an SHM system and investigates key issues impeding the commercial implementation of fiber optic based SHM capability. In particular, this paper presents an experimental study of short gauge, intrinsic, spectrometric-based in-fiber Bragg grating sensors, for potential use as a component of an SHM system. Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors are evaluated against resistance strain gauges for strain monitoring, sensitivity, accuracy, reliability, and fatigue durability. Strain field disturbance is also investigated by "embedding" the sensors under a photoelastic coating in order to illustrate sensor intrusiveness in an embedded configuration.

  4. Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy; Wood, Karen; Childers, Brooks; Cano, Roberto; Jensen, Brian; Rogowski, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors. These sensors will measure load and vibration signatures that will be used to infer structural integrity. Sine the aircraft morphing program assumes that future aircraft will be aerodynamically reconfigurable there is also a requirement for pressure, flow and shape sensors. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring several different parameters. The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service structural integrity of the composite structure. Graphite-epoxy panels were fabricated with integrated optical fibers of various types. The panels were mechanically and thermally tested to evaluate composite strength and sensor durability. Finally the performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined. Experimental results are presented evaluating the performance of embedded and surface mounted optical fibers for measuring strain, temperature and chemical composition. The performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined by direct comparison with results from more conventional instrumentation. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

  5. Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0094 Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring. Thomas Henderson UNIVERSITY OF UTAH SALT...The major goal of this work was to provide rigorous Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks to quantify uncertainty in (1) model-based state...estimates incorporating sensor data, (2) model parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients), (3) sensor node model parameter values (e.g., location, bias

  6. Optical Fiber Sensors for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    García, Iker; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Illarramendi, María Asunción; Villatoro, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft structures require periodic and scheduled inspection and maintenance operations due to their special operating conditions and the principles of design employed to develop them. Therefore, structural health monitoring has a great potential to reduce the costs related to these operations. Optical fiber sensors applied to the monitoring of aircraft structures provide some advantages over traditional sensors. Several practical applications for structures and engines we have been working on are reported in this article. Fiber Bragg gratings have been analyzed in detail, because they have proved to constitute the most promising technology in this field, and two different alternatives for strain measurements are also described. With regard to engine condition evaluation, we present some results obtained with a reflected intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a turbine assembled in a wind tunnel. PMID:26134107

  7. Optical Fiber Sensors for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    García, Iker; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Illarramendi, María Asunción; Villatoro, Joel

    2015-06-30

    Aircraft structures require periodic and scheduled inspection and maintenance operations due to their special operating conditions and the principles of design employed to develop them. Therefore, structural health monitoring has a great potential to reduce the costs related to these operations. Optical fiber sensors applied to the monitoring of aircraft structures provide some advantages over traditional sensors. Several practical applications for structures and engines we have been working on are reported in this article. Fiber Bragg gratings have been analyzed in detail, because they have proved to constitute the most promising technology in this field, and two different alternatives for strain measurements are also described. With regard to engine condition evaluation, we present some results obtained with a reflected intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a turbine assembled in a wind tunnel.

  8. Changes in Structural Health Monitoring System Capability Due to Aircraft Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    A design of experiments approach is used to build and execute an experiment to determine the effect of one aircraft envi- ronmental factor (cyclic...Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Designing a SHM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 General Structural Health Monitoring Require...and Data Collection Equipment . . . . . . 58 3.6 Experimental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.6.1 Defining Experimental Factors

  9. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  10. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  11. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-07-30

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

  12. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  13. A Wireless Ultrasonic Guided Wave Structural Health Monitoring System for Aircraft Wing Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Qian, T.; Popovic, Z.; Zane, R.; Mei, G.; Walsh, C.; Paing, T.; Kwan, C.

    2007-03-01

    A wireless, in-situ ultrasonic guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) system was developed and tested for aircraft wing inspection. It applies small, low cost and light weight piezoelectric (PZT) disc transducer network bonded to the surface of a structure, and an embedded miniature diagnosis device that can generate 350 kHz, 70 V peak-to-peak tone-burst signal; collect, amplify and digitize multiple channel ultrasonic signals; and process the data on-board and transfer them wirelessly to a ground station. The whole system could be powered by an X-band microwave rectenna that converts illuminating microwave energy into DC. The data collected with this device are almost identical with those collected through a direct-wire connection.

  14. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  15. Development of a Corrosion Sensor for AN Aircraft Vehicle Health Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. A.; Price, D. C.; Edwards, G. C.; Batten, A. B.; Kolmeder, J.; Muster, T. H.; Corrigan, P.; Cole, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    A Rayleigh-wave-based sensor has been developed to measure corrosion damage in aircraft. This sensor forms an important part of a corrosion monitoring system being developed for a major aircraft manufacturer. This system measures the corrosion rate at the location of its sensors, and through a model predicts the corrosion rates in nearby places on an aircraft into which no sensors can be placed. In order to calibrate this model, which yields corrosion rates rather than the accumulated effect, an absolute measure of the damage is required. In this paper the development of a surface wave sensor capable of measuring accumulated damage will be described in detail. This sensor allows the system to measure material loss due to corrosion regardless of the possible loss of historical corrosion rate data, and can provide, at any stage, a benchmark for the predictive model that would allow a good estimate of the accumulated corrosion damage in similar locations on an aircraft. This system may obviate the need for costly inspection of difficult-to-access places in aircraft, where presently the only way to check for corrosion is by periodic dismantling and reassembly.

  16. Local-area health monitoring of aircraft via piezoelectric actuator/sensor patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Joseph, T.; Sun, Fanping P.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1995-05-01

    A high-frequency-electrical-impedance-signature-based technique for structural integrity monitoring is presented. The technique which has been under investigation at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures at Virginia Tech for the last 18 months is unique and different from conventional non-destructive damage identification and structural integrity monitoring methods. It relies on tracking the high-frequency (typically > 50 kHz) point impedance of the structure to identify damage. At such high frequencies, the technique is comparable in sensitivity to sophisticated traditional NDE techniques, such as ultrasonics, and is capable of qualitatively detecting incipient-type damage by looking at changes in structural impedance. As yet, it can be implemented in a remote sensing scenario with small non- intrusive piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The structure's high-frequency electrical impedance signature, which is functionally equivalent to its mechanical impedance signature, is obtained through a bonded PZT functioning both as actuator and sensor. A statistic algorithm based on the difference in the electrical impedance of a healthy and a damaged structure, is then applied to extract an index of the health of the structure. High-frequency excitation, which is greatly facilitated by the electrically driven low-power compact PZT patch, assures a clearly visible change in the impedance/vibration signature even for very minor damage/changes. It also limits the actuation/sensing area to a small region, `local-area', close to the PZT patch. Because of the limited actuation/sensing area, the impedance signature is affected only by changes in the structural properties close to the sensor-actuator and is insensitive to changes in far-field boundary conditions, mass loading, etc., which may be part of the normal usage of the structure. As a case study, an application to a real complex aircraft structure is presented. Experimental proof that very minor alterations

  17. Aircraft structural health monitoring system development: overview of the Air Force/Navy smart metallic structures program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Way, Craig B.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Zeigler, Michael L.; Alper, James M.

    1995-05-01

    Significant progress in fulfilling the current joint Air Force/Navy `Smart Metallic Structures (SMS)' program primary objective, to demonstrate a viable structural health monitoring system (SHMS) for a large structural aircraft component, is presented. Structural health monitoring and its relation to current Force Management (FM) and Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) procedures are first reviewed together with a brief status overview of the relevant sensor technologies (e.g. AE, fiber-optic, corrosion, etc.). Key features of the SHMS architecture are described for the selected F/A-18 bulkhead and T-38 wing spar structural demonstration articles, highlighting sensors, processors, data busses, hardware, and software. Results from acoustic monitoring of the program sub-element structural tests are presented in some detail along with a status review of the SHMS multiplex bus component hardware and software. Finally, structural requirements for an SHMS meeting minimum ASIP guidelines for damage detection are discussed along with foals for future testing and development of the SHMS under the SMS program.

  18. Sensor-Only System Identification for Structural Health Monitoring of Advanced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Bernstein, Dennis S.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions, cyclic loading, and aging contribute to structural wear and degradation, and thus potentially catastrophic events. The challenge of health monitoring technology is to determine incipient changes accurately and efficiently. This project addresses this challenge by developing health monitoring techniques that depend only on sensor measurements. Since actively controlled excitation is not needed, sensor-to-sensor identification (S2SID) provides an in-flight diagnostic tool that exploits ambient excitation to provide advance warning of significant changes. S2SID can subsequently be followed up by ground testing to localize and quantify structural changes. The conceptual foundation of S2SID is the notion of a pseudo-transfer function, where one sensor is viewed as the pseudo-input and another is viewed as the pseudo-output, is approach is less restrictive than transmissibility identification and operational modal analysis since no assumption is made about the locations of the sensors relative to the excitation.

  19. System-on-chip integration of a new electromechanical impedance calculation method for aircraft structure health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-10-11

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  20. System-on-Chip Integration of a New Electromechanical Impedance Calculation Method for Aircraft Structure Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-01-01

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline. PMID:23202013

  1. PVDF array sensor for Lamb wave reception: Aircraft structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2016-02-01

    Fracture critical structures need structural health monitoring (SHM) to improve safety and reliability as well as reduce downtime and maintenance costs. Lamb waves provide promising techniques for on-line SHM systems because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Extensive research has focused on using features derived from time signals obtained at sparse locations distributed across the structure. Commonly used features are wave amplitude, energy, and time of arrival. However, the modal content of received Lamb waves contains valuable information about the existence and characteristics of defects, but cannot be determined from these signal features. Wave scattering at a defect often results in mode conversions in both transmitted and reflected waves. Features like change in time of arrival or amplitude reduction can be interpreted as being a result of mode conversion. This work is focused on the design of a 1D array sensor such that received wave signals at equally spaced locations are available for modal analysis in the wavenumber-frequency domain. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) is selected as the active material of the sensor because of its low interference with wave fields in structures. The PVDF array sensor is fabricated to have 16 independent channels and its capability to detect and characterize different types of defects is demonstrated experimentally.

  2. Modal content based damage indicators and phased array transducers for structural health monitoring of aircraft structures using ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baiyang

    Composite materials, especially carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), have been widely used in the aircraft industry because of their high specific strength and stiffness, resistance to corrosion and good fatigue life. Due to their highly anisotropic material properties and laminated structures, joining methods like bolting and riveting are no longer appropriate for joining CFRP since they initiate defects during the assembly and severely compromise the integrity of the structure; thus new techniques for joining CFRP are highly demanded. Adhesive bonding is a promising method because it relieves stress concentration, reduces weight and provides smooth surfaces. Additionally, it is a low-cost alternative to the co-cured method which is currently used to manufacture components of aircraft fuselage. Adhesive defects, disbonds at the interface between adherend and adhesive layer, are focused on in this thesis because they can be initialized by either poor surface preparation during the manufacturing or fatigue loads during service. Aircraft need structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to increase safety and reduce loss, and adhesive bonds usually represent the hotspots of the assembled structure. There are many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for bond inspection. However, these methods cannot be readily integrated into an SHM system because of the bulk size and weight of the equipment and requirement of accessibility to one side of the bonded joint. The first objective of this work is to develop instruments, actuators, sensors and a data acquisition system for SHM of bond lines using ultrasonic guided waves which are well known to be able to cover large volume of the structure and inaccessible regions. Different from widely used guided wave sensors like PZT disks, the new actuators, piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC) phased array transducers0 (PAT), can control the modal content of the excited waves and the new sensors, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  5. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  6. Directional monitoring terminal for aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genescà, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a concept of an aircraft noise monitoring terminal (NMT) that reduces background noise and the influence of ground reflection, in comparison with a single microphone. Also, it automatically identifies aircraft sound events based on the direction of arrival of the sound rather than on the sound pressure level (or radar data). And moreover, it provides an indicator of the quality of the sound pressure level measurement, i.e. if it is possibly disturbed by extraneous sources. The performance of this NMT is experimentally tested under real conditions in a measurement site close to Zurich airport. The results show that the NMT unambiguously identifies the noise events generated by the target aircraft, correctly detects those aircraft noise events that may be disturbed by the presence of other sources, and offers a substantial reduction in background and ground reflected sound.

  7. Inflight Rotor Stability Monitor. [for Sikorsky aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczynski, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    An inflight rotor stability monitor developed at Sikorsky Aircraft to support stability testing of new rotorcraft is described. The monitor has as its core a damping estimation algorithm which embodies spectral analysis techniques. The interactive system is activated and controlled from a cathode ray tube (CRT) and operates on-line in a flight test telemetry environment. Accurate estimates of the level of damping of critical system modes are generated within one minute of the completion of a prescribed test maneuver. The stability monitor was used successfully to support various Sikorsky research and development flight programs including the UTTAS, CH-53E, S-67 Fan-in-Fin, and ABC.

  8. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  9. Bayesian Software Health Management for Aircraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mbaya, Timmy; Menghoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft, both piloted fly-by-wire commercial aircraft as well as UAVs, more and more depend on highly complex safety critical software systems with many sensors and computer-controlled actuators. Despite careful design and V&V of the software, severe incidents have happened due to malfunctioning software. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to monitor the health of the on-board software and sensor system, and to perform advanced on-board diagnostic reasoning. We will focus on the approach to develop reliable and robust health models for the combined software and sensor systems.

  10. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  11. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  12. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  13. Pollutant monitoring of aircraft exhaust with multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-10-01

    Communities surrounding local airports are becoming increasingly concerned about the aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle, and their potential for negative health effects. Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston and London have all recently been featured in the news regarding concerns over the amount of airport pollution being emitted on a daily basis, and several studies have been published on the increased risks of cancer for those living near airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors that can monitor the spatial and temporal nature of jet engine exhaust plumes. In this work we seek to design a multispectral imaging system that is capable of tracking exhaust plumes during the engine idle phase, with a specific focus on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. UHCs are especially potent to local air quality, and their strong absorption features allow them to act as a spatial and temporal plume tracer. Using a Gaussian plume to radiometrically model jet engine exhaust, we have begun designing an inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive imaging system to monitor the relative amount of pollutants emitted by aircraft in the idle phase. The LWIR system will use two broadband filters to detect emitted UHCs. This paper presents the spatial and temporal radiometric models of the exhaust plume from a typical jet engine used on 737s. We also select filters for plume tracking, and propose an imaging system layout for optimal detectibility. In terms of feasibility, a multispectral imaging system will be two orders of magnitude cheaper than current unobtrusive methods (PTR-MS) used to monitor jet engine emissions. Large-scale impacts of this work will include increased capabilities to monitor local airport pollution, and the potential for better-informed decision-making regarding future developments to airports.

  14. Integrated structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the authors opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  15. Integrated structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Charles R.; Sohn, Hoon; Fugate, Michael L.; Czarnecki, Jerry J.

    2001-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the author's opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  16. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  17. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  18. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  19. Integrated Software Health Management for Aircraft GN and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft rely heavily on dependable operation of many safety-critical software components. Despite careful design, verification and validation (V&V), on-board software can fail with disastrous consequences if it encounters problematic software/hardware interaction or must operate in an unexpected environment. We are using a Bayesian approach to monitor the software and its behavior during operation and provide up-to-date information about the health of the software and its components. The powerful reasoning mechanism provided by our model-based Bayesian approach makes reliable diagnosis of the root causes possible and minimizes the number of false alarms. Compilation of the Bayesian model into compact arithmetic circuits makes SWHM feasible even on platforms with limited CPU power. We show initial results of SWHM on a small simulator of an embedded aircraft software system, where software and sensor faults can be injected.

  20. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring of Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    monitoring, the monitoring system consists of several design elements with defined interfaces. The raw monitoring signals are generated by a sensor with...is directly connected or integrated in the structure or repair. In Figure 2.3-1, the design element 1 is showing a surface mounted sensor. The...aircraft bus system. The monitoring data from the bus system are transferred to the next design element (element 4), where an onboard processing

  2. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  3. Methods for Expanding Rotary Wing Aircraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems to the Rotating Frame through Real-time Rotor Blade Kinematics Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Charles Jefferson

    Since the advent of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) in the early 1990's, there has been a steady decrease in the number of component failure related helicopter accidents. Additionally, measurable cost benefits due to improved maintenance practices based on HUMS data has led to a desire to expand HUMS from its traditional area of helicopter drive train monitoring. One of the areas of greatest interest for this expansion of HUMS is monitoring of the helicopter rotor head loads. Studies of rotor head load and blade motions have primarily focused on wind tunnel testing with technology which would not be applicable for production helicopter HUMS deployment, or measuring bending along the blade, rather than where it is attached to the rotor head and the location through which all the helicopter loads pass. This dissertation details research into finding methods for real time methods of estimating rotor blade motion which could be applied across helicopter fleets as an expansion of current HUMS technology. First, there is a brief exploration of supporting technologies which will be crucial in enabling the expansion of HUMS from the fuselage of helicopters to the rotor head: wireless data transmission and energy harvesting. A brief overview of the commercially available low power wireless technology selected for this research is presented. The development of a relatively high-powered energy harvester specific to the motion of helicopter rotor blades is presented and two different prototypes of the device are shown. Following the overview of supporting technologies, two novel methods of monitoring rotor blade motion in real time are developed. The first method employs linear displacement sensors embedded in the elastomer layers of a high-capacity laminate bearing of the type commonly used in fully articulated rotors throughout the helicopter industry. The configuration of these displacement sensors allows modeling of the sensing system as a robotic parallel

  4. Health monitoring of a composite wingbox structure.

    PubMed

    Grondel, S; Assaad, J; Delebarre, C; Moulin, E

    2004-04-01

    This work was devoted to the development of a health monitoring system assigned to aerospace applications. Those applications concerned the detection of damaging impacts and debonding between stiffeners and composite skins, since they are the major causes of in-service damage of aircraft structures. The chosen health monitoring system was first based on the excitation and reception of Lamb waves along the structure by using thin piezoelectric transducers (active mode) and secondly on a continuous monitoring taking the same transducers used as acoustic emission sensors (passive mode). The composite specimen used was consistent with aircraft wingbox in terms of structure and loading. Several impacts with increasing energy increments were applied on the composite specimen. In passive mode, the study showed the ability of using the acoustic signature of an impact to detect possible damage. Moreover, the damage emergence in the case of damaging impact was confirmed in active mode. Further measurements during fatigue testing were performed. The aim was to demonstrate the ability of the system to monitor disbond growth between the stiffener and the composite skin. The sensitivity of the health monitoring system to the disbond growth was further demonstrated.

  5. Deployment of a wireless corrosion monitoring system for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demo, J.; Andrews, C.; Friedersdorf, F.; Morgan, A.; Jostes, L.

    With its extremely negative effects on critical military assets, corrosion continues to be one of the top maintenance cost drivers for the Department of Defense. As of 2010, an estimated $22.9B was required to cover the costs associated with corrosion in the DoD annually. Proper management of corrosion on high value military assets such as aircraft can significantly reduce costs associated with maintenance, component removal, and aircraft availability. This paper will discuss the design, validation, and deployment of a wireless, flight qualified corrosion monitoring system as well as analysis of data collected during field trials.

  6. A route generator concept for aircraft onboard fault monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. T.; Abbott, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    Because of the increasingly complex environments in which the flight crews of commercial aviation aircraft must operate, a research effort is currently underway at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate the potential benefits of intelligent cockpit aids, and to establish guidelines for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to advanced flight management concepts. The segment of this research area that concentrates on automated fault monitoring and diagnosis requires that a reference frame exist, against which the current state of the aircraft may be compared to determine the existence of a fault. This paper describes a computer program which generates the position of that reference frame that specifies the horizontal flight route.

  7. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  9. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  10. Health Monitoring for Airframe Structural Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munns, Thomas E.; Kent, Renee M.; Bartolini, Antony; Gause, Charles B.; Borinski, Jason W.; Dietz, Jason; Elster, Jennifer L.; Boyd, Clark; Vicari, Larry; Ray, Asok; Cooper, E. G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study established requirements for structural health monitoring systems, identified and characterized a prototype structural sensor system, developed sensor interpretation algorithms, and demonstrated the sensor systems on operationally realistic test articles. Fiber-optic corrosion sensors (i.e., moisture and metal ion sensors) and low-cycle fatigue sensors (i.e., strain and acoustic emission sensors) were evaluated to validate their suitability for monitoring aging degradation; characterize the sensor performance in aircraft environments; and demonstrate placement processes and multiplexing schemes. In addition, a unique micromachined multimeasure and sensor concept was developed and demonstrated. The results show that structural degradation of aircraft materials could be effectively detected and characterized using available and emerging sensors. A key component of the structural health monitoring capability is the ability to interpret the information provided by sensor system in order to characterize the structural condition. Novel deterministic and stochastic fatigue damage development and growth models were developed for this program. These models enable real time characterization and assessment of structural fatigue damage.

  11. Role of commercial aircraft in global monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, R

    1973-04-27

    The role of commercial aircraft in monitoring meteorological parameters and atmospheric constituents has been limited in the former case and virtually nonexistent in the latter. I have tried to point out that this situation can and should be changed now. The new family of wide-bodied jets such as the 747, DC-10, and L-1011 aircraft can be used to supply important global atmospheric and tropical meteorological data for which there is a pressing need. While scientists are not in total agreement on the magnitude of the effect of particulates and gases on the atmosphere, there is almost unanimous concurrence that we are severely limited in information, and that global baseline concentrations must be established for particulates and gases in the troposphere and lower stratosphere as soon as possible. Also, more synoptic meteorological information from the tropical troposphere is highly desirable. In the final analysis, commercial aircraft may offer the most inexpensive way to monitor our atmosphere in the near future. Much of the instrumentation technology is here and the rest is certainly within our grasp. The fact of the matter is that there are now over 220 Boeing 747's and Douglas DC-10's in service, flying an average of 10 hours a day. Long-range flights, such as those from Tokyo to Anchorage to London in the Northern Hemisphere and from Hawaii to Pago Pago to Sydney in the Southern Hemisphere, are commonplace. These aircraft are equipped with inertial navigation systems and central air data computers coupled to advanced data storage systems which can readily be interrogated by satellite. This means that there is now a large amount of snyoptic weather information which can be obtained with a minimum of effort and cost. Likewise, a start at obtaining measurements of atmospheric constituents on a global basis can be made now. All we need to do is make the effort.

  12. An autonomous structural health monitoring solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.

  13. Ultrasonic wireless health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Lionel; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Guy, Philippe; Yuse, Kaori; Monnier, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The integration of autonomous wireless elements in health monitoring network increases the reliability by suppressing power supplies and data transmission wiring. Micro-power piezoelectric generators are an attractive alternative to primary batteries which are limited by a finite amount of energy, a limited capacity retention and a short shelf life (few years). Our goal is to implement such an energy harvesting system for powering a single AWT (Autonomous Wireless Transmitter) using our SSH (Synchronized Switch Harvesting) method. Based on a non linear process of the piezoelement voltage, this SSH method optimizes the energy extraction from the mechanical vibrations. This AWT has two main functions : The generation of an identifier code by RF transmission to the central receiver and the Lamb wave generation for the health monitoring of the host structure. A damage index is derived from the variation between the transmitted wave spectrum and a reference spectrum. The same piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting function and the Lamb wave generation, thus reducing mass and cost. A micro-controller drives the energy balance and synchronizes the functions. Such an autonomous transmitter has been evaluated on a 300x50x2 mm 3 composite cantilever beam. Four 33x11x0.3 mm 3 piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting and for the wave lamb generation. A piezoelectric sensor is placed at the free end of the beam to track the transmitted Lamb wave. In this configuration, the needed energy for the RF emission is 0.1 mJ for a 1 byte-information and the Lamb wave emission requires less than 0.1mJ. The AWT can harvested an energy quantity of approximately 20 mJ (for a 1.5 Mpa lateral stress) with a 470 μF storage capacitor. This corresponds to a power density near to 6mW/cm 3. The experimental AWT energy abilities are presented and the damage detection process is discussed. Finally, some envisaged solutions are introduced for the implementation of the required data

  14. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  15. Jellyfish monitoring on coastlines using remote piloted aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado, C.; Fuentes, J. A.; Salamí, E.; Royo, P.; Olariaga, A. D.; López, J.; Fuentes, V. L.; Gili, J. M.; Pastor, E.

    2014-03-01

    In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term "Jellyfish" refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.

  16. Fatigue in aerostructures--where structural health monitoring can contribute to a complex subject.

    PubMed

    Boller, Christian; Buderath, Matthias

    2007-02-15

    An overview of the aircraft design and maintenance process is given with specific emphasis on the fatigue design as well as the phenomenon of the ageing aircraft observed over the life cycle. The different measures taken to guarantee structural integrity along the maintenance process are addressed. The impact of structural health monitoring as a means of possibly revolutionizing the current aircraft structural monitoring and design process is emphasized and comparison is made to jet engines and helicopters, where health monitoring has already found the respective breakthrough.

  17. Monitoring Your Kidney Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. ​​September 17, 2014​​ ​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  18. Adaptable System for Vehicle Health and Usage Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodart, Stanley E.; Woodman, Keith L.; Coffey, Neil C.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft and other vehicles are often kept in service beyond their original design lives. As they age, they become susceptible to system malfunctions and fatigue. Unlike future aircraft that will include health-monitoring capabilities as integral parts in their designs, older aircraft have not been so equipped. The Adaptable Vehicle Health and Usage Monitoring System is designed to be retrofitted into a preexisting fleet of military and commercial aircraft, ships, or ground vehicles to provide them with state-of-the-art health- and usage-monitoring capabilities. The monitoring system is self-contained, and the integration of it into existing systems entails limited intrusion. In essence, it has bolt-on/ bolt-off simplicity that makes it easy to install on any preexisting vehicle or structure. Because the system is completely independent of the vehicle, it can be certified for airworthiness as an independent system. The purpose served by the health-monitoring system is to reduce vehicle operating costs and to increase safety and reliability. The monitoring system is a means to identify damage to, or deterioration of, vehicle subsystems, before such damage or deterioration becomes costly and/or disastrous. Frequent monitoring of a vehicle enables identification of the embryonic stages of damage or deterioration. The knowledge thus gained can be used to correct anomalies while they are still somewhat minor. Maintenance can be performed as needed, instead of having the need for maintenance identified during cyclic inspections that take vehicles off duty even when there are no maintenance problems. Measurements and analyses acquired by the health-monitoring system also can be used to analyze mishaps. Overall, vehicles can be made more reliable and kept on duty for longer times. Figure 1 schematically depicts the system as applied to a fleet of n vehicles. The system has three operational levels. All communication between system components is by use of wireless

  19. [Monitoring social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    Espelt, Albert; Continente, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Monge, Susana; Ruiz-Cantero, M Teresa; Perez, Glòria; Borrell, Carme

    2016-11-01

    Public health surveillance is the systematic and continuous collection, analysis, dissemination and interpretation of health-related data for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health initiatives. Apart from the health system, social determinants of health include the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and they go a long way to explaining health inequalities. A surveillance system of the social determinants of health requires a comprehensive and social overview of health. This paper analyses the importance of monitoring social determinants of health and health inequalities, and describes some relevant aspects concerning the implementation of surveillance during the data collection, compilation and analysis phases, as well as dissemination of information and evaluation of the surveillance system. It is important to have indicators from sources designed for this purpose, such as continuous records or periodic surveys, explicitly describing its limitations and strengths. The results should be published periodically in a communicative format that both enhances the public's ability to understand the problems that affect them, whilst at the same time empowering the population, with the ultimate goal of guiding health-related initiatives at different levels of intervention.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  1. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  2. Real-time monitoring system of composite aircraft wings utilizing Fibre Bragg Grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorathin, E.; Hafizi, Z. M.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Lim, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Embedment of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in composite aircraft wings leads to the advancement of structural condition monitoring. The monitored aircraft wings have the capability to give real-time response under critical loading circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to develop a real-time FBG monitoring system for composite aircraft wings to view real-time changes when the structure undergoes some static loadings and dynamic impact. The implementation of matched edge filter FBG interrogation system to convert wavelength variations to strain readings shows that the structure is able to response instantly in real-time when undergoing few loadings and dynamic impact. This smart monitoring system is capable of updating the changes instantly in real-time and shows the weight induced on the composite aircraft wings instantly without any error. It also has a good agreement with acoustic emission (AE) sensor in the dynamic test.

  3. Wearable sensors for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, George; Butca, Cristina; Ochian, Adelina; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe several wearable sensors, designed for monitoring the health condition of the patients, based on an experimental model. Wearable sensors enable long-term continuous physiological monitoring, which is important for the treatment and management of many chronic illnesses, neurological disorders, and mental health issues. The system is based on a wearable sensors network, which is connected to a computer or smartphone. The wearable sensor network integrates several wearable sensors that can measure different parameters such as body temperature, heart rate and carbon monoxide quantity from the air. After the portable sensors measuring parameter values, they are transmitted by microprocessor through the Bluetooth to the application developed on computer or smartphone, to be interpreted.

  4. In situ monitoring of the integrity of bonded repair patches on aircraft and civil infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amrita; Roach, Dennis; Beard, Shawn; Qing, Xinlin; Hannum, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Monitoring the continued health of aircraft subsystems and identifying problems before they affect airworthiness has been a long-term goal of the aviation industry. Because in-service conditions and failure modes experienced by structures are generally complex and unknown, conservative calendar-based or usage-based scheduled maintenance practices are overly time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive. Metal structures such as helicopters and other transportation systems are likely to develop fatigue cracks under cyclic loads and corrosive service environments. Early detection of cracks is a key element to prevent catastrophic failure and prolong structural life. Furthermore, as structures age, maintenance service frequency and costs increase while performance and availability decrease. Current non-destructive inspection (NDI) techniques that can potentially be used for this purpose typically involve complex, time-intensive procedures, which are labor-intensive and expensive. Most techniques require access to the damaged area on at least one side, and sometimes on both sides. This can be very difficult for monitoring of certain inaccessible regions. In those cases, inspection may require removal of access panels or even structural disassembly. Once access has been obtained, automated inspection techniques likely will not be practical due to the bulk of the required equipment. Results obtained from these techniques may also be sensitive to the sweep speed, tool orientation, and downward pressure. This can be especially problematic for hand-held inspection tools where none of these parameters is mechanically controlled. As a result, data can vary drastically from one inspection to the next, from one technician to the next, and even from one sweep to the next. Structural health monitoring (SHM) offers the promise of a paradigm shift from schedule-driven maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) of assets. Sensors embedded permanently in aircraft safety

  5. Monitoring Disasters by Use of Instrumented Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Dunagan, Steven E.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Buechel, Sally W.; Stoneburner, Jay; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop data-acquisition, data-processing, and data-communication systems for monitoring disasters over large geographic areas by use of uninhabited aerial systems (UAS) robotic aircraft that are typically piloted by remote control. As integral parts of advanced, comprehensive disaster- management programs, these systems would provide (1) real-time data that would be used to coordinate responses to current disasters and (2) recorded data that would be used to model disasters for the purpose of mitigating the effects of future disasters and planning responses to them. The basic idea is to equip UAS with sensors (e.g., conventional video cameras and/or multispectral imaging instruments) and to fly them over disaster areas, where they could transmit data by radio to command centers. Transmission could occur along direct line-of-sight paths and/or along over-the-horizon paths by relay via spacecraft in orbit around the Earth. The initial focus is on demonstrating systems for monitoring wildfires; other disasters to which these developments are expected to be applicable include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, leaks of toxic chemicals, and military attacks. The figure depicts a typical system for monitoring a wildfire. In this case, instruments aboard a UAS would generate calibrated thermal-infrared digital image data of terrain affected by a wildfire. The data would be sent by radio via satellite to a data-archive server and image-processing computers. In the image-processing computers, the data would be rapidly geo-rectified for processing by one or more of a large variety of geographic-information- system (GIS) and/or image-analysis software packages. After processing by this software, the data would be both stored in the archive and distributed through standard Internet connections to a disaster-mitigation center, an investigator, and/or command center at the scene of the fire. Ground assets (in this case

  6. Propulsion Health Monitoring for Enhanced Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, Mark G.; Rodriguez, Hector M.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the NASA contract Propulsion System Health Management for Enhanced Safety performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GE AE), General Electric Global Research (GE GR), and Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory (PSU ARL) under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This activity supports the overall goal of enhanced civil aviation safety through a reduction in the occurrence of safety-significant propulsion system malfunctions. Specific objectives are to develop and demonstrate vibration diagnostics techniques for the on-line detection of turbine rotor disk cracks, and model-based fault tolerant control techniques for the prevention and mitigation of in-flight engine shutdown, surge/stall, and flameout events. The disk crack detection work was performed by GE GR which focused on a radial-mode vibration monitoring technique, and PSU ARL which focused on a torsional-mode vibration monitoring technique. GE AE performed the Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control work which focused on the development of analytical techniques for detecting, isolating, and accommodating gas-path faults.

  7. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  8. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  9. Crack propagation monitoring in a full-scale aircraft fatigue test based on guided wave-Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei; Ren, Yuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    For aerospace application of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions must be addressed and the SHM technology has to be fully validated on real aircraft structures under realistic load conditions on ground before it can reach the status of flight test. In this paper, the guided wave (GW) based SHM method is applied to a full-scale aircraft fatigue test which is one of the most similar test status to the flight test. To deal with the time-varying problem, a GW-Gaussian mixture model (GW-GMM) is proposed. The probability characteristic of GW features, which is introduced by time-varying conditions is modeled by GW-GMM. The weak cumulative variation trend of the crack propagation, which is mixed in time-varying influence can be tracked by the GW-GMM migration during on-line damage monitoring process. A best match based Kullback-Leibler divergence is proposed to measure the GW-GMM migration degree to reveal the crack propagation. The method is validated in the full-scale aircraft fatigue test. The validation results indicate that the reliable crack propagation monitoring of the left landing gear spar and the right wing panel under realistic load conditions are achieved.

  10. Baseline monitoring using aircraft laser ranging. [spaceborne laser simulation and aircraft laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Hoge, F. E.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of aircraft laser ranging for the determination of baselines between ground based retroreflectors was investigated via simulations and with tests at Wallops Flight Center using the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) on the Wallops C-54 aircraft ranging to a reflector array deployed around one of the Wallops runways. The aircraft altitude and reflector spacing were chosen on the basis of scaled down modeling of spacecraft tracking from 1000 km of reflectors separated by some 52 km, or of high altitude (10 km) aircraft tracking of reflectors separated by some 500 m. Aircraft altitudes flown for different passes across the runway reflector array varied from 800 m to 1350 m, with 32 reflectors deployed over an approximtely 300 m x 500 m ground pattern. The AOL transmitted 400 pulses/sec with a scan rate of 5/sec in a near circular pattern, so that the majority of the pulses were reflected by the runway surface or its environs rather than by retroreflectors. The return pulse characteristics clearly showed the high reflectivity of portions of the runway, with several returns indistinguishable in amplitude from reflector returns. For each pass across the reflector field, typically six to ten reflector hits were identified, consistent with that predicted by simulations and the observed transmitted elliptical pulse size.

  11. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  12. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.; Flynn, James G.; Browder, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    A method of monitoring the health of selected solder joints, called SJ-BIST, has been developed by Ridgetop Group Inc. under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. The primary goal of this research program is to test and validate this method in a flight environment using realistically seeded faults in selected solder joints. An additional objective is to gather environmental data for future development of physics-based and data-driven prognostics algorithms. A test board is being designed using a Xilinx FPGA. These boards will be tested both in flight and on the ground using a shaker table and an altitude chamber.

  13. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  14. Health Monitoring Survey of Bell 412EP Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian E.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) use vibration-based Condition Indicators (CI) to assess the health of helicopter powertrain components. A fault is detected when a CI exceeds its threshold value. The effectiveness of fault detection can be judged on the basis of assessing the condition of actual components from fleet aircraft. The Bell 412 HUMS-equipped helicopter is chosen for such an evaluation. A sample of 20 aircraft included 12 aircraft with confirmed transmission and gearbox faults (detected by CIs) and eight aircraft with no known faults. The associated CI data is classified into "healthy" and "faulted" populations based on actual condition and these populations are compared against their CI thresholds to quantify the probability of false alarm and the probability of missed detection. Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis is used to optimize thresholds. Based on the results of the analysis, shortcomings in the classification method are identified for slow-moving CI trends. Recommendations for improving classification using time-dependent receiver-operator characteristic methods are put forth. Finally, lessons learned regarding OEM-operator communication are presented.

  15. Canada's first fixed-site aircraft noise monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Standen, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of aircraft noise management in Canada as it is presently evolving is discussed. The population of aircraft operating in Canada is similar to most western nations with regard to aircraft type. Canada's airport system includes major airports owned and operated by the federal Department of Transport (Transport Canada), airports owned and operated by provinces, municipalities or local commissions, and privately owned and operated airports, largely catering to general aviation. In addition, there are airports which are owned by Transport Canada, but operated by another agency. The consequence of this arrangement is that the major jet transport traffic is handled by airports which are owned and operated by either Transport Canada or another government agency.

  16. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  17. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  18. Evaluation of a Damage Accumulation Monitoring System as an Individual Aircraft Tracking Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Report MONITORING SYSTEM AS AN INDIVIDUAL 9 1 (1- -20, AIRCRAFT TRACKING CONCEPT •. PERFORMINS ODG. RLpoy "UMmeR NOR 82- 58 7. AUJTNH)R(’q) -S CONTRACT OR...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE PAGE 17 Major IAT and Force Management Data Item Classes 89 18 Comparison of Individual Aircraft Crack...months or years at which time the critical crack length will be reached. L The full fatigue life of the aircraft or component (either based on test or

  19. Enhanced Composites Integrity Through Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Soutis, Constantinos

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses the topic of how the integrity of safety-critical structural composites can be enhanced by the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques. The paper starts with a presentation of how the certification of flight-critical composite structures can be achieved within the framework of civil aviation safety authority requirements. Typical composites damage mechanisms, which make this process substantially different from that for metallic materials are discussed. The opportunities presented by the use of SHM techniques in future civil aircraft developments are explained. The paper then focuses on active SHM with piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS). After reviewing the PWAS-based SHM options, the paper follows with a discussion of the specifics of guided wave propagation in composites and PWAS-tuning effects. The paper presents a number of experimental results for damage detection in simple flat unidirectional and quasi-isotropic composite specimens. Calibrated through holes of increasing diameter and impact damage of various energies and velocities are considered. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  20. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  1. Aircraft versus spacecraft for remote monitoring of water quality in U.S. coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    To provide guidance for conducting future water monitoring missions over U.S. coasts, aircraft and spacecraft approaches were defined and quantitatively compared. Sensors, aircraft and spacecraft were selected from current or developmental types for the hardware concepts and monitoring was assumed to begin in 1981-1983. Comparative data are presented on capabilities and costs to monitor both recognized pollution sites and broad shelf areas. For these mission requirements, a large fleet of light aircraft provided better coverage and at lower costs generally than one spacecraft, assuming a single, multi-spectral sensor on each platform. This result could change, however, should additional useful sensors with low cost penalties be found for the spacecraft.

  2. Monitoring of hidden fatigue crack growth in multi-layer aircraft structures using high frequency guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H.; Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.

    2015-03-01

    Varying loading conditions of aircraft structures result in stress concentration at fastener holes, where multi-layered components are connected, potentially leading to the development of hidden fatigue cracks in inaccessible layers. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of such components, e.g., aircraft wings. Experimentally the required guided wave modes can be easily excited using standard ultrasonic wedge transducers. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small, potentially hidden, fatigue cracks has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminum plate-strips with a sealant layer. Fatigue experiments were carried out and the growth of fatigue cracks at the fastener hole in one of the metallic layers was monitored optically during cyclic loading. The influence of the fatigue cracks of increasing size on the scattered guided wave field was evaluated. The sensitivity and repeatability of the high frequency guided wave modes to detect and monitor the fatigue crack growth was investigated, using both standard pulse-echo equipment and a laser interferometer. The potential for hidden fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance was ascertained. The robustness of the methodology for practical in situ ultrasonic monitoring of fatigue crack growth is discussed.

  3. Continuous Structural Monitoring of Aging Aircraft without using Reference Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-31

    changes and ambient loading, that in-service aircraft is subject to, will be explicitly taken into consideration through laboratory specimen tests and...plate was simulated using the combination of plain strain, piezo plain strain, and electrostatics modules in COMSOL softw m collocated but on the other...MPa. Circular PZTs (6.35 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm in thickness) were purchased from American Piezo Ltd. They had a Curie temperature of 3600C and

  4. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  5. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

  7. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Systems: Overview and Lessons Learned from Six Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    engines of both groups. EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 󈨐 - MAY 󈨑 INSIRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL ENGINES NUMBER OF ENGINES 26 26 TOTAL...Kreviews the experience gained from several aircraft turbine engine monitoring systems used over the last decade and a half and examines the...the supporting research. -,Two different approaches to engine monitoring have evolved in attempts to achieve the goals of improved engine operations

  8. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  9. Monitoring microbial populations on wide-body commercial passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Burge, Harriet; Rogers, Christine A; Herrick, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Although exposure to bacteria has been assessed in cabin air previously, minimal numbers of samples have been collected in-flight. The purpose of this research was to comprehensively characterize bacterial concentrations in the aircraft cabin. Twelve randomly selected flights were sampled on Boeing-767 aircraft, each with a flight duration between 4.5 and 6.5 h. N-6 impactors were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities. The MIXED procedure in SAS was used to model the mean and the covariance matrix of the natural log-transformed bacterial concentrations. A total of 513 airborne culturable bacterial samples were collected. During flight (mid-climb and cruise intervals), a model-adjusted geometric mean (GM) of 136 total colony-forming units per cubic meter of air sampled (CFU x m(-3)) and geometric standard deviation of 2.1 were observed. Bacterial concentrations were highest during the boarding (GM 290 CFU x m(-3)) and deplaning (GM 549 CFU x m(-3)) processes. Total bacterial concentrations observed during flight were significantly lower than GMs for boarding and deplaning (P values <0.0001-0.021) in the modeled results. Our findings highlight the fact that aerobiological concentrations can be dynamic and underscore the importance of appropriate sample size and design. The genera analysis indicates that passenger activity and high occupant density contribute to airborne bacterial generation. Overall, our research demonstrates that the bacteria recovered on observed flights were either common skin-surface organisms (primarily gram-positive cocci) or organisms common in dust and outdoor air.

  10. Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

  11. An Apparatus for Monitoring the Health of Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Devdas M.; Tatum, Paul; Pace, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    As with most elements of infrastructure, electrical wiring is innocuous; usually hidden away and unnoticed until it fails. Failure of infrastructure, however, sometimes leads to serious health and safety hazards. Electrical wiring fails when the polymeric (usually rubber) insulation material that sheathes the conductor gets embrittled with age from exposure to pressure, temperature or radiation cycling or when the insulation gets removed by the chafing of wires against each other. Miles of such wiring can be found in typical aircraft, with significant lengths of the wiring immersed in aviation fuel - a recipe for an explosion if a spark were to occur. Diagnosing the health of wiring is thus an important aspect of monitoring the health of aging aircraft. Stress wave propagation through wiring affords a quick and non-invasive method for health monitoring. The extent to which a stress wave propagating through the cable core gets attenuated depends on the condition of the surrounding insulation. When the insulation is in good condition - supple and pliable, there is more damping or attenuation of the waveform. As the insulation gets embrittled and cracked, the attenuation is likely to reduce and the waveform of the propagating stress wave is likely to change. The monitoring of these changes provides a potential tool to evaluate wiring or cabling in service that is not accessible for visual inspection. This experiment has been designed for use in an introductory mechanical or materials engineering instrumentation lab. Initial setup (after procuring all the materials) should take the lab instructor about 4 hours. A single measurement can be initiated and saved to disk in less than 3 minutes, allowing for all the students in a typical lab section to take their own data rather than share a single set of data for the entire class.

  12. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    PubMed

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3).

  13. Health Monitoring System for Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, S. S.; Riccardella, P. C.; Andrews, R. J.; Grady, J. E.; Mucciaradi, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    An automated system was developed to monitor the health status of composites. It uses the vibration characteristics of composites to identify a component's damage condition. The vibration responses are characterized by a set of signal features defined in the time, frequency and spatial domains. The identification of these changes in the vibration characteristics corresponding to different health conditions was performed using pattern recognition principles. This allows efficient data reduction and interpretation of vast amounts of information. Test components were manufactured from isogrid panels to evaluate performance of the monitoring system. The components were damaged by impact to simulate different health conditions. Free vibration response was induced by a tap test on the test components. The monitoring system was trained using these free vibration responses to identify three different health conditions. They are undamaged vs. damaged, damage location and damage zone size. High reliability in identifying the correct component health condition was achieved by the monitoring system.

  14. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  15. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  16. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  17. Challenges in wearable personal health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insoo; Lai, Po-Hsiang; Lobo, Ryan; Gluckman, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Wearable sensors give the users convenience in daily health monitoring, though several challenges in such sensor systems should be overcome. This paper discusses the challenges in wearable health monitoring sensors and solutions for multi-modal and multi-functional wrist-worn devices based on novel circuit design techniques to reject DC offset. This paper also presents a novel sophisticated algorithm to reject motion artifacts. The system has the capability to simultaneously acquire several biomedical signals (i.e. electrocardiogram, PPG, and body-electrode impedance). The system can also help patients who want to monitor their psychological signals to mitigate health risks.

  18. Mission and sensor concepts for coastal and ocean monitoring using spacecraft and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A concept developed for a 1990 oceanic mission which places strong emphasis on coastal monitoring needs is described and analysed. The concept assumes that use of one active spacecraft in orbit and one on standby plus airplanes and data collection platforms which provide continuing complementary coverage and surface truth. The coastal measurement requirements and goals, the prospective oceanic and coastal sensors, the spacecraft and aircraft data platforms, and the prospective orbit designs are discussed.

  19. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: Implications for the F100 Engine Diagnostic System Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    malfunction re- port data were obtained from the Program Office. -8- EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 76 - MAY 77 INSTRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL...interesting to note that the J85 was a mature engine and that the number of engine problems encountered was not very great. Also, the EHMS was not a new...copyright notation hereon. Library of Congress Cataloging In PObNiation Data Birkier, John L Aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. ([Report

  20. Results of T56 Engine Performance Monitoring Trial in Hercules Aircraft, February-July 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Engine Removals/Rejections 2 3.1.1 Resume 5 3.2 Faults not Associated with Engine Removals 5 * NOTATION REFERENCES I TABLES FIGURES APPENDIX 1 ANNEX A...in those cases in which performance monitoring could have been expected to reflect the fault , the appropriate engine performance trend plots were...the appropriate EL 500. (ihis form is used by aircrew and maiintenazice personnel to record any aircraft/ engine fault and its subsequent

  1. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  2. Continuous health monitoring of graphite epoxy motorcases (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Luzio, Marco A.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Pollock, Adrian A.

    2003-08-01

    With the increasing use of advanced composite materials in aircraft, automobiles, military hardware, and aerospace composites (such as rocket motorcases) a sizable need for composite health assessment measures exist, particularly where there is risk of failure due to high mechanical and thermal stresses. For most epoxy-based laminate composites, even low-momentum impacts can lead to "barely visible impact damage" (BVD), corresponding to a significant weakening of the composite. This weakening can lead to sudden and catastrophic failure when the material is subjected to normal operating loads. Following the explosion of Delta 241 (IIR-1) on Jaunary 17th, 1997, the failure investigation board concluded that an entire fleet of Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEMs) should be instrumented with a health monitoring system. This system would provide continuous structural health data on the GEM from initial acceptance testing through final erection on the launch pad. The result presented here contribute significantly to the understanding of the acoustic properties of the GEM casing, and make a substantial advancement in the theoretical phase of the source location algorithm development. When the system is complete it will continuously monitor the structural health of the GEMs, communicate wirelessly with base stations, operate autonomously for extended periods, and fit unobtrusively on the GEM itself.

  3. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  4. Analysis of Regulatory Guidance for Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munns, Thomas E.; Beard, Richard E.; Culp, Aubrey M.; Murphy, Dennis A.; Kent, Renee M.; Cooper, Eric G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the connection between current FAA regulations and the incorporation of Health Management (HM) systems into commercial aircraft. To address the overall objectives ARINC: (1) investigated FAA regulatory guidance, (2) investigated airline maintenance practices, (3) systematically identified regulations and practices that would be affected or could act as barriers to the introduction of HM technology, and (4) assessed regulatory and operational tradeoffs that should be considered for implementation. The assessment procedure was validated on a postulated structural HM capability for the B757 horizontal stabilizer.

  5. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF WELDED CONNECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; C. FARRAR; M. FUGATE; J. CZARNECKI

    2001-05-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective monitoring system for welded beam-column connections in a moment resisting frame structure. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  6. Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Airframes. Part 1; Bragg Grating Strain and Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen; Brown, Timothy; Rogowski, Robert; Jensen, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors to infer integrity of the aircraft structure. Part 1 of this two part series describes sensors that will measure load and temperature signatures of these structures. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring these parameters. Part 2 will describe techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service integrity of composite structures using a single fiber optic sensor capable of measuring multiple chemical and physical parameters. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and the methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

  7. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  8. Surface-mounted periodic field eddy current sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfine, Neil J.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.; Schlicker, Darrell E.; Sheiretov, Yanko; Walrath, Karen; Washabaugh, Andrew P.; Van Otterloo, Douglas

    2001-07-01

    Surface mountable eddy current sensors are a revolutionary new concept in nondestructive inspection. These eddy current sensors can be mounted, like a strain gage, at critical locations for detection of crack initiation and monitoring of crack growth. This can be accomplished on a fatigue test article, as well as on in-service aircraft or other structures (patents pending). The mountable periodic field eddy current sensors, described in this paper, can be used as a replacement for standard eddy-current sensors without introducing new requirements. This is not the case with other proposed health monitoring sensors. For critical structures, substantially reduced inspection costs and life extension is possible with permanently mounted eddy current sensors. This is particularly true for difficult-to-access locations that require surface preparation (e.g., sealant or insulation removal) and disassembly when conventional eddy current testing is performed. By enabling eddy current testing in areas currently not accessible to conventional inspection, such as locations deep in an aircraft structure, damage tolerance can be achieved with low cost inspections. Embedded versions might even be mounted between layers, such as in a lapjoint. Surface mountable eddy current sensors are suitable for on-line monitoring and in-service inspections. This paper provides an introduction to surface mountable eddy current sensors, presents specific results from fatigue coupon tests and describes upcoming full-scale aircraft fatigue tests. Also, ongoing efforts to implement this technology on commercial and military aircraft are described. This research has been funded in part by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, JENTEK Sensors, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company. The goal of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of surface mounted eddy current sensor capabilities and potential, and to promote their broader use in fatigue testing, aircraft health monitoring as well as for

  9. Intelligent Mobile Health Monitoring System (IMHMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriyar, Rifat; Bari, Md. Faizul; Kundu, Gourab; Ahamed, Sheikh Iqbal; Akbar, Md. Mostofa

    Health monitoring is repeatedly mentioned as one of the main application areas for Pervasive computing. Mobile Health Care is the integration of mobile computing and health monitoring. It is the application of mobile computing technologies for improving communication among patients, physicians, and other health care workers. As mobile devices have become an inseparable part of our life it can integrate health care more seamlessly to our everyday life. It enables the delivery of accurate medical information anytime anywhere by means of mobile devices. Recent technological advances in sensors, low-power integrated circuits, and wireless communications have enabled the design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight and intelligent bio-sensor nodes. These nodes, capable of sensing, processing, and communicating one or more vital signs, can be seamlessly integrated into wireless personal or body area networks for mobile health monitoring. In this paper we present Intelligent Mobile Health Monitoring System (IMHMS), which can provide medical feedback to the patients through mobile devices based on the biomedical and environmental data collected by deployed sensors.

  10. Optical Structural Health Monitoring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Markov, Vladimir; Earthman, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This non-destructive, optical fatigue detection and monitoring system relies on a small and unobtrusive light-scattering sensor that is installed on a component at the beginning of its life in order to periodically scan the component in situ. The method involves using a laser beam to scan the surface of the monitored component. The device scans a laser spot over a metal surface to which it is attached. As the laser beam scans the surface, disruptions in the surface cause increases in scattered light intensity. As the disruptions in the surface grow, they will cause the light to scatter more. Over time, the scattering intensities over the scanned line can be compared to detect changes in the metal surface to find cracks, crack precursors, or corrosion. This periodic monitoring of the surface can be used to indicate the degree of fatigue damage on a component and allow one to predict the remaining life and/or incipient mechanical failure of the monitored component. This wireless, compact device can operate for long periods under its own battery power and could one day use harvested power. The prototype device uses the popular open-source TinyOS operating system on an off-the-shelf Mica2 sensor mote, which allows wireless command and control through dynamically reconfigurable multi-node sensor networks. The small size and long life of this device could make it possible for the nodes to be installed and left in place over the course of years, and with wireless communication, data can be extracted from the nodes by operators without physical access to the devices. While a prototype has been demonstrated at the time of this reporting, further work is required in the system s development to take this technology into the field, especially to improve its power management and ruggedness. It should be possible to reduce the size and sensitivity as well. Establishment of better prognostic methods based on these data is also needed. The increase of surface roughness with

  11. Maintaining the Health of Software Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Software health management (SWHM) techniques complement the rigorous verification and validation processes that are applied to safety-critical systems prior to their deployment. These techniques are used to monitor deployed software in its execution environment, serving as the last line of defense against the effects of a critical fault. SWHM monitors use information from the specification and implementation of the monitored software to detect violations, predict possible failures, and help the system recover from faults. Changes to the monitored software, such as adding new functionality or fixing defects, therefore, have the potential to impact the correctness of both the monitored software and the SWHM monitor. In this work, we describe how the results of a software change impact analysis technique, Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), can be applied to monitored software to identify the potential impact of the changes on the SWHM monitor software. The results of DiSE can then be used by other analysis techniques, e.g., testing, debugging, to help preserve and improve the integrity of the SWHM monitor as the monitored software evolves.

  12. In-service health monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, Gino A.; Ventres, C. S.; Ginty, Carol A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    The aerospace industry is witnessing a vast utilization of composites in critical structural applications and anticipates even more use of them in future aircraft. Therefore, a definite need exists for a composite health monitoring expert system to meet today's current needs and tomorrow's future demands. The primary goal for this conceptual health monitoring system is functional reliably for in-service operation in the environments of various composite structures. The underlying philosophy of this system is to utilize proven vibration techniques to assess the structural integrity of a fibrous composite. Statistical methods are used to determine if the variances in the measured data are acceptable for making a reliable decision on the health status of the composite. The flexible system allows for algorithms describing any composite fatigue or damage behavior characteristic to be provided as an input to the system. Alert thresholds and variances can also be provided as an input to this system and may be updated to allow for future changes/refinements in the composite's structural integrity behavior.

  13. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  14. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  15. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-26

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  16. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  17. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  18. Health Monitoring of Composite Material Structures using a Vibrometry Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    Large composite material structures such as aircraft and Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) operate in severe environments comprised of vehicle dynamic loads, aerodynamic loads, engine vibration, foreign object impact, lightning strikes, corrosion, and moisture absorption. These structures are susceptible to damage such as delamination, fiber breaking/pullout, matrix cracking, and hygrothermal strain. To ensure human safety and load-bearing integrity, these structures must be inspected to detect and locate often invisible damage and faults before becoming catastrophic. Moreover, nearly all future structures will need some type of in-service inspection technique to increase their useful life and reduce maintenance and overall costs. Possible techniques for monitoring the health and indicating damage on composite structures include: c-scan, thermography, acoustic emissions using piezoceramic actuators or fiber-optic wires with gratings, laser ultrasound, shearography, holography, x-ray, and others. These techniques have limitations in detecting damage that is beneath the surface of the structure, far away from a sensor location, or during operation of the vehicle. The objective of this project is to develop a more global method for damage detection that is based on structural dynamics principles, and can inspect for damage when the structure is subjected to vibratory loads to expose faults that may not be evident by static inspection. A Transmittance Function Monitoring (TFM) method is being developed in this project for ground-based inspection and operational health monitoring of large composite structures as a RLV. A comparison of the features of existing health monitoring approaches and the proposed TFM method is given.

  19. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  20. Continuous health monitoring of Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Schaafsma, David T.; Shen, H. Warren; Carlos, Mark F.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Shepherd, Brent

    2001-07-01

    Following the explosion of Delta 241 (IIR-1) on January 17th, 1997, the failure investigation board concluded that the Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM's) should be inspected for damage just prior to launch. Subsequent investigations and feedback from industry led to an Aerospace Corporation proposal to instrument the entire fleet of GEM's with a continuous health monitoring system. The period of monitoring would extend from the initial acceptance testing through final erection on the launch pad. As this proposal demonstrates, (along with the increasing use of advanced composite materials in aircraft, automobiles, military hardware, and aerospace components such as rocket motorcases) a sizable need for composite health assessment measures exist. Particularly where continuous monitoring is required for the detection of damage from impacts and other sources of high mechanical and thermal stresses. Even low-momentum impacts can lead to barely visible impact damage (BVID), corresponding to a significant weakening of the composite. This damage, undetectable by visual inspection, can in turn lead to sudden and catastrophic failure when the material is subjected to a normal operating load. There is perhaps no system with as much potential for truly catastrophic failure as a rocket motor. We will present an update on our ongoing efforts with the United States Air Force Delta II Program Office, and The Aerospace Corporation. This will cover the development of a local, portable, surface-mounted, fiberoptic sensor based impact damage monitor designed to operate on a Delta II GEM during transport, storage, and handling. This system is designed to continuously monitor the GEMs, to communicate wirelessly with base stations and maintenance personnel, to operate autonomously for extended periods, and to fit unobtrusively on the GEM itself.

  1. Acoustic Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenstein, B.; Augustin, J.; Hentschel, D.; Schubert, F.; Köhler, B.; Meyendorf, N.

    2008-02-01

    Future safety and maintenance strategies for industrial components and vehicles are based on combinations of monitoring systems that are permanently attached to or embedded in the structure, and periodic inspections. The latter belongs to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and can be enhanced or partially replaced by structural health monitoring systems. However, the main benefit of this technology for the future will consist of systems that can be differently designed based on improved safety philosophies, including continuous monitoring. This approach will increase the efficiency of inspection procedures at reduced inspection times. The Fraunhofer IZFP Dresden Branch has developed network nodes, miniaturized transmitter and receiver systems for active and passive acoustical techniques and sensor systems that can be attached to or embedded into components or structures. These systems have been used to demonstrate intelligent sensor networks for the monitoring of aerospace structures, railway systems, wind energy generators, piping system and other components. Material discontinuities and flaws have been detected and monitored during full scale fatigue testing. This paper will discuss opportunities and future trends in nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring based on new sensor principles and advanced microelectronics. It will outline various application examples of monitoring systems based on acoustic techniques and will indicate further needs for research and development.

  2. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  3. Stabilizing Health Monitoring for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    protocol as part of enabling a network health status service that is tightly integrated with a remotely accessible wireless sensor network testbed, Kansei ...tation on a heterogenous WSN testbed, Kansei , comprising hundreds of Motes (of multiple types, specifically XSMs and TMoteSkys), Stargates, and PCs...predicted by the analysis. It is also necessary for enabling a health monitoring service that is a crucial and tightly integrated component of Kansei

  4. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125 and 135 Policy Statement on Occupational Safety... a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  5. On-farm udder health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lam, T J G M; van Veersen, J C L; Sampimon, O C; Olde Riekerink, R G M

    2011-01-01

    In this article an on-farm monitoring approach on udder health is presented. Monitoring of udder health consists of regular collection and analysis of data and of the regular evaluation of management practices. The ultimate goal is to manage critical control points in udder health management, such as hygiene, body condition, teat ends and treatments, in such a way that results (udder health parameters) are always optimal. Mastitis, however, is a multifactorial disease, and in real life it is not possible to fully prevent all mastitis problems. Therefore udder health data are also monitored with the goal to pick up deviations before they lead to (clinical) problems. By quantifying udder health data and management, a farm is approached as a business, with much attention for efficiency, thought over processes, clear agreements and goals, and including evaluation of processes and results. The whole approach starts with setting SMART (Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time-bound) goals, followed by an action plan to realize these goals.

  6. Robust Strategy for Rocket Engine Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring the health of rocket engine systems is essentially a two-phase process. The acquisition phase involves sensing physical conditions at selected locations, converting physical inputs to electrical signals, conditioning the signals as appropriate to establish scale or filter interference, and recording results in a form that is easy to interpret. The inference phase involves analysis of results from the acquisition phase, comparison of analysis results to established health measures, and assessment of health indications. A variety of analytical tools may be employed in the inference phase of health monitoring. These tools can be separated into three broad categories: statistical, rule based, and model based. Statistical methods can provide excellent comparative measures of engine operating health. They require well-characterized data from an ensemble of "typical" engines, or "golden" data from a specific test assumed to define the operating norm in order to establish reliable comparative measures. Statistical methods are generally suitable for real-time health monitoring because they do not deal with the physical complexities of engine operation. The utility of statistical methods in rocket engine health monitoring is hindered by practical limits on the quantity and quality of available data. This is due to the difficulty and high cost of data acquisition, the limited number of available test engines, and the problem of simulating flight conditions in ground test facilities. In addition, statistical methods incur a penalty for disregarding flow complexity and are therefore limited in their ability to define performance shift causality. Rule based methods infer the health state of the engine system based on comparison of individual measurements or combinations of measurements with defined health norms or rules. This does not mean that rule based methods are necessarily simple. Although binary yes-no health assessment can sometimes be established by

  7. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: An Overview and Lessons Learned from Selected Case Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Engines DMMH/FH 1.12 0.80 Removal rate/1000 hr 1.74 1.85 The OPTEVFOR analysis was limited on several counts: (1) The evaluation failed to consider or...investigate aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. Conducted under the Project AIR FORCE project, "Methods and Applications of Life-Cycle Analysis for...for hot-section parts; o Hot-section parts vary in age and accumulated creep ; o Other failure modes (low cycle fatigue , thermal shock, etc.) were

  8. Acoustic emission fatigue crack monitoring of a simulated aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Jeremy James

    The purpose of this research was to replicate the fatigue cracking that occurs in aircraft placed under loads from cyclical compression and decompression. As a fatigue crack grows, it releases energy in the form of acoustic emissions. These emissions are transmitted through the structure in waves, which can be recorded using acoustic emission (AE) transducers. This research employed a pressure vessel constructed out of aluminum and placed under cyclical loads at 1 Hz in order to simulate the loads placed on an aircraft fuselage in flight. The AE signals were recorded by four resonant AE transducers. These were placed on the pressure vessel such that it was possible to determine the location of each AE signal. These signals were then classified using a Kohonen self organizing map (SOM) neural network. By using proper data filtering before the SOM was run and using the correct classification parameters, it was shown that this is a highly accurate method of classifying AE waveforms from fatigue crack growth. This initial classification was done using AE waveform quantification parameters. The method was then validated by using both source location and then examining the waveforms in order to ensure that the waveforms classified into each category were the expected waveform types associated with each of the AE sources. Thus, acoustic emission nondestructive testing (NDT), in combination with a SOM neural network, proved to be an excellent means of fatigue crack growth monitoring in a simulated aluminum aircraft structure.

  9. Wearable Sensors for Remote Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sumit; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-01-12

    Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant  burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed.

  10. Wearable Sensors for Remote Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Sumit; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M. Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant  burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed. PMID:28085085

  11. Design Optimization of Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Eric B.

    2014-03-06

    Sensor networks drive decisions. Approach: Design networks to minimize the expected total cost (in a statistical sense, i.e. Bayes Risk) associated with making wrong decisions and with installing maintaining and running the sensor network itself. Search for optimal solutions using Monte-Carlo-Sampling-Adapted Genetic Algorithm. Applications include structural health monitoring and surveillance.

  12. Structural health monitoring using parameter identification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengxiang; Rao, Vittal S.

    2000-06-01

    A structural health monitoring method for determination of damages in structural system is developed using state variable model. A time-domain identification method, the subspace system identification algorithm, is first applied to get a state-space model of the structure. The identified state-space model is then transformed to two special realization forms, for determination of the equation of motion of multiple- degrees-freedom of the structure. The parameters of equation of motion, mass and stiffness matrices or damage indices are used to determine the location and extent of the damage. This method is also extended for the health monitoring of substructural system. Unlike the health monitoring of the whole structure, the health monitoring of substructure uses localized parameter identification which only involves the measurement of substructure parameters. Using this method, the number of unknown parameters and the computational requirement for each identification can be significantly reduced, hence the accuracy of estimation can be improved. Illustrative cases studies using both numerical and experimental structures are presented.

  13. Wearable sensors for human health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, H. Harry; Reisner, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Wearable sensors for continuous monitoring of vital signs for extended periods of weeks or months are expected to revolutionize healthcare services in the home and workplace as well as in hospitals and nursing homes. This invited paper describes recent research progress in wearable health monitoring technology and its clinical applications, with emphasis on blood pressure and circulatory monitoring. First, a finger ring-type wearable blood pressure sensor based on photo plethysmogram is presented. Technical issues, including motion artifact reduction, power saving, and wearability enhancement, will be addressed. Second, sensor fusion and sensor networking for integrating multiple sensors with diverse modalities will be discussed for comprehensive monitoring and diagnosis of health status. Unlike traditional snap-shot measurements, continuous monitoring with wearable sensors opens up the possibility to treat the physiological system as a dynamical process. This allows us to apply powerful system dynamics and control methodologies, such as adaptive filtering, single- and multi-channel system identification, active noise cancellation, and adaptive control, to the monitoring and treatment of highly complex physiological systems. A few clinical trials illustrate the potentials of the wearable sensor technology for future heath care services.

  14. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  15. A Hybrid Numerical Analysis Method for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Staroselsky, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    A new hybrid surface-integral-finite-element numerical scheme has been developed to model a three-dimensional crack propagating through a thin, multi-layered coating. The finite element method was used to model the physical state of the coating (far field), and the surface integral method was used to model the fatigue crack growth. The two formulations are coupled through the need to satisfy boundary conditions on the crack surface and the external boundary. The coupling is sufficiently weak that the surface integral mesh of the crack surface and the finite element mesh of the uncracked volume can be set up independently. Thus when modeling crack growth, the finite element mesh can remain fixed for the duration of the simulation as the crack mesh is advanced. This method was implemented to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating a structural health monitoring system for real-time detection of surface cracks propagating in engine components. In this work, the authors formulate the hybrid surface-integral-finite-element method and discuss the mechanical issues of implementing a structural health monitoring system in an aircraft engine environment.

  16. Identification, analysis and monitoring of risks of freezing affecting aircraft flying over the Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Freezing is one of the main causes of aircraft accidents registered over the last few decades. This means it is very important to be able to predict this situation so that aircraft can change their routes to avoid freezing risk areas. Also, by using satellites it is possible to observe changes in the horizontal and vertical extension of cloud cover likely to cause freezing in real time as well as microphysical changes in the clouds. The METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) makes it possible to create different red-green-blue (RGB) compositions that provide a large amount of information associated with the microphysics of clouds, in order to identify super-cooled water clouds that pose a high risk of freezing to aircraft. During the winter of 2011/12 in the Guadarrama Mountains, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, a series of scientific flights (conducted by INTA) were organised in order to study the cloud systems that affected this region during the winter. On the flight of the 1st of February 2012, the aircraft was affected by freezing after crossing over a mountain ridge with supercooled large drops (SLD). Although freezing was not expected during that day's flight, the orography caused a series of mesoscale factors that led to the appearance of localised freezing conditions. By analysing this case, we have been able to conclude that the use of satellite images makes it possible to monitor the risk of freezing, especially under specific mesoscale circumstances. Acknowledgements S. Fernández-González acknowledges the grant supported from the FPU program (AP 2010-2093). This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the INTA for its scientific flights.

  17. Monitoring estuarine circulation and ocean waste dispersion using an integrated satellite-aircraft-drogue approach. [Continental Shelf and Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G. R.; Wang, H.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An integrated satellite-aircraft-drogue approach was developed which employs remotely tracked expendable drogues together with satellite and aircraft observations of oil slicks, waste plumes, and natural tracers, such as suspended sediment. Tests conducted on the Continental Shelf and in Delaware Bay indicate that the system provides a cost effective means of monitoring current circulation and verifying oil slick and ocean waste dispersion models even under severe environmental conditions.

  18. Simulation evaluation of the control system command monitoring concept for the NASA V/STOL research aircraft (VSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Moralez, E.; Merrick, V. K.

    1987-01-01

    A control-system monitoring concept is described that has the potential of rapidly detecting computer command failures (hardware or software) in fly-by-wire control systems. The concept has been successfully tested on the NASA Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing Research Aircraft (VSRA) in the Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. The test was particularly stringent, since the VSRA is required to operate in a hazardous environment. The fidelity of the aircraft model used in the simulation was verified by flying both the simulated and actual aircraft in a precision hover task using specially designed targets.

  19. Monitoring California's forage resource using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    NASA's Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched July 23, 1972, offers for the first time the unique capabilities for regional monitoring of forage plant conditions. The repetitive coverage every 18 days, the synoptic view and the real-time recovery of the imagery for immediate analysis, combine to make the ERTS satellite a valuable tool for improving the evaluation of our rangeland resources. Studies presently underway at the University of California, Berkeley (sponsored jointly by NASA and the Bureau of Land Management), seek to determine if imagery obtained from high altitude aircraft and spacecraft (ERTS) can provide: (1) a means for monitoring the growth and development of annual and perennial range plants in California, and for determining the time and the rate of initial plant growth (germination) and terminal plant growth (maturation and senescence); (2) a means for determining or predicting the relative amount of forage that is produced; and (3) a means for mapping rangeland areas having different forage producing capabilities.

  20. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  1. Principles in wireless building health monitoring systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Makris, J. P.; Stonham, J.; Vallianatos, F.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the structural state of a building is essential for the safety of the people who work, live, visit or just use it as well as for the civil protection of urban areas. Many factors can affect the state of the health of a structure, namely man made, like mistakes in the construction, traffic, heavy loads on the structures, explosions, environmental impacts like wind loads, humidity, chemical reactions, temperature changes and saltiness, and natural hazards like earthquakes and landslides. Monitoring the health of a structure provides the ability to anticipate structural failures and secure the safe use of buildings especially those of public services. This work reviews the state of the art and the challenges of a wireless Structural Health Monitoring (WiSHM). Literature review reveals that although there is significant evolution in wireless structural health monitoring, in many cases, monitoring by itself is not enough to predict when a structure becomes inappropriate and/or unsafe for use, and the damage or low durability of a structure cannot be revealed (Chintalapudi, et al., 2006; Ramos, Aguilar, & Lourenço, 2011). Several features and specifications of WiSHM like wireless sensor networking, reliability and autonomy of sensors, algorithms of data transmission and analysis should still be evolved and improved in order to increase the predictive effectiveness of the SHM (Jinping Ou & Hui Li, 2010; Lu & Loh, 2010) . Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the ARCHEMEDES III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) ».

  2. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and... responder safety and health by monitoring and conducting surveillance of their health and safety during the... of a response. The proposed system is referred to as the ``Emergency Responder Health Monitoring...

  3. Vibration health monitoring for tensegrity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwear, Nasseradeen; Eriksson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Tensegrities are assembly structures, getting their equilibrium from the interaction between tension in cables and compression in bars. During their service life, slacking in their cables and nearness to buckling in their bars need to be monitored to avoid a sudden collapse. This paper discusses how to design the tensegrities to make them feasible for vibrational health monitoring methods. Four topics are discussed; suitable finite elements formulation, pre-measurements analysis to find the locations of excitation and sensors for the interesting modes, the effects from some environmental conditions, and the pre-understanding of the effects from different slacking scenarios.

  4. INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

  5. Human Health Effects of Ozone Depletion From Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents EPA's initial response to NASA's request to advise on potential environmental policy issues associated with the future development of supersonic flight technologies. Consistent with the scope of the study to which NASA and EPA agreed, EPA has evaluated only the environmental concerns related to the stratospheric ozone impacts of a hypothetical HSCT fleet, although recent research indicates that a fleet of HSCT is predicted to contribute to climate warming as well. This report also briefly describes the international and domestic institutional frameworks established to address stratospheric ozone depletion, as well as those established to control pollution from aircraft engine exhaust emissions.

  6. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  7. Health Monitoring of a Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert H.; Ng, Hok K.; Speyer, Jason L.; Guntur, Lokeshkumar S.; Carpenter, Russell

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system based on analytical redundancy is developed for satellites on elliptical orbits. First, the dynamics of the satellite including orbital mechanics and attitude dynamics is modelled as a periodic system. Then, periodic fault detection filters are designed to detect and identify the satellite's actuator and sensor faults. In addition, parity equations are constructed using the algebraic redundant relationship among the actuators and sensors. Furthermore, a residual processor is designed to generate the probability of each of the actuator and sensor faults by using a sequential probability test. Finally, the health monitoring system, consisting of periodic fault detection lters, parity equations and residual processor, is evaluated in the simulation in the presence of disturbances and uncertainty.

  8. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  9. Flexible Structural-Health-Monitoring Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kuo, Fuo

    2008-01-01

    A generic design for a type of flexible structural-health-monitoring sheet with multiple sensor/actuator types and a method of manufacturing such sheets has been developed. A sheet of this type contains an array of sensing and/or actuation elements, associated wires, and any other associated circuit elements incorporated into various flexible layers on a thin, flexible substrate. The sheet can be affixed to a structure so that the array of sensing and/or actuation elements can be used to analyze the structure in accordance with structural-health-monitoring techniques. Alternatively, the sheet can be designed to be incorporated into the body of the structure, especially if the structure is made of a composite material. Customarily, structural-health monitoring is accomplished by use of sensors and actuators arrayed at various locations on a structure. In contrast, a sheet of the present type can contain an entire sensor/actuator array, making it unnecessary to install each sensor and actuator individually on or in a structure. Sensors of different types such as piezoelectric and fiber-optic can be embedded in the sheet to form a hybrid sensor network. Similarly, the traces for electric communication can be deposited on one or two layers as required, and an entirely separate layer can be employed to shield the sensor elements and traces.

  10. Smart actuators: Valve Health Monitor (VHM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, José; Lucena, Angel; Burns, Bradley

    2006-05-01

    The health of electromechanical systems (actuators) and specifically of solenoid valves is a primary concern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These systems control the storage and transfer of such commodities as liquid hydrogen. The potential for the failure of electromechanical systems to delay a scheduled launch or to cause personnel injury requires continual maintenance and testing of the systems to ensure their readiness. Monitoring devices need to be incorporated into these systems to verify the health and performance of the valves during real operating conditions. It is very advantageous to detect degradation and/or potential problems before they happen. This feature will not only provide safer operation but save the cost of unnecessary maintenance and inspections. Solenoid valve status indicators are often based upon microswitches that work by physically contacting a valve's poppet assembly. All of the physical contact and movement tends to be very unreliable and is subject to wear and tear of the assemblies, friction, breakage of the switch, and even leakage of the fluid (gas or liquid) in the valve. The NASA Instrumentation Branch, together with its contractor, ASRC Aerospace, has developed a solenoid valve smart current signature sensor that monitors valves in a noninvasive mode. The smart system monitors specific electrical parameters of the solenoid valves and detects and predicts the performance and health of the device. The information obtained from the electrical signatures of these valves points to not only electrical components failures in the valves but also mechanical failures and/or degradations.

  11. [Evaluating health state and professional adaptation of young workers and students on aircraft-construction plant].

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, T M; D'iakovich, M P; Shaiakhmetov, S F

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with materials on parameters of health and functional cardiovascular resources, some psychophysiologic functions, social and psychologic characteristics in young workers of aircraft-construction plant and in potential workers - technical school and college students. The authors evaluate efficiency of occupational adaptation of the youth.

  12. Artificial Neural Networks Applications: from Aircraft Design Optimization to Orbiting Spacecraft On-board Environment Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.

  13. Instrumented composite turbine blade for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, Kevin E.; Watkins, Steve E.; Nicholas, James; Chandrashekhara, K.; Rovey, Joshua L.

    2012-04-01

    A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blade applications. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs have advantages that include long life in marine environments and great control over mechanical properties. Experimental strain characteristics are determined for static loads and free-vibration loads. These experiments are designed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of hydrokinetic turbine blades. Carbon/epoxy symmetric composite laminates are manufactured using an autoclave process. Four-layer composite beams, eight-layer composite beams, and two-dimensional eight-layer composite blades are instrumented for strain. Experimental results for strain measurements from electrical resistance gages are validated with theoretical characteristics obtained from in-house finite-element analysis for all sample cases. These preliminary tests on the composite samples show good correlation between experimental and finite-element strain results. A health monitoring system is proposed in which damage to a composite structure, e.g. delamination and fiber breakage, causes changes in the strain signature behavior. The system is based on embedded strain sensors and embedded motes in which strain information is demodulated for wireless transmission.

  14. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  15. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-04-01

    Washington Department of Fisheries has divided the sampling and data collection into three major groups: adult analysis, juvenile analysis and database development. The adult analysis done at spawning includes screening for viral pathogens and Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD). Pre-spawning mortalities are sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens and parasites to determine causes of pre-spawning loss. Juvenile analysis involves monthly monitoring; pre-release examinations for viral pathogens, BKD and, where appropriate, whirling disease (M. cerebralis); completion of the Organosomatic analysis on four index stocks, and midterm exams on yearling groups for BKD and M. cerebralis. Database development required constructing fish health monitoring forms and a computer based data entry and retrieval system. We have completed a full year of sampling and data collection, January, 1987 to January, 1988. This report will present and analyze this information.

  17. Structural health monitoring using piezoelectric impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an overview and recent advances in impedance-based structural health monitoring. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply high-frequency structural excitations (typically greater than 30kHz) through surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers, and measure the impedance of structures by monitoring the current and voltage applied to the piezoelectric transducers. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the structure, which in turn can indicate that damage has occurred. An experimental study is presented to demonstrate how this technique can be used to detect structural damage in real time. Signal processing methods that address damage classifications and data compression issues associated with the use of the impedance methods are also summarized. Finally, a modified frequency-domain autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is described. The frequency-domain ARX model, constructed by measured impedance data, is used to diagnose structural damage with levels of statistical confidence.

  18. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  19. Health monitoring techniques using integrated sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, Klaus; Stoessel, Rainer; Busse, Gerhard

    2003-08-01

    Advanced high performance materials and components such as CFRP, GFRP and Smart Structures require improved testing techniques. The first part of our contribution deals with nonlinear vibrometry as a defect selective non-destructive testing method. This method uses higher harmonics (which are generated only at defects) to locate the defect by scanning across the surface of the sample with a laser interferometer. For input coupling of the elastic wave both an external (like ultrasound welding converters) or internal (integrated piezo actuators) excitation source can be used. The external detection tools are a microphone or a scanning laser vibrometer. With this technique, we characterized Smart Structures made of aerospace materials and composites with embedded piezoelectric actuators. The next part is about health monitoring techniques and diagnostics where integrated elements are used for excitation and detection. Thus, we monitored the transfer function over a large frequency spectrum and especially its changes caused e.g. by defects. Changes in the properties of structures by fatigue, impacts, and thermoplasticity have been successfully observed. Also the changes in reinforced plastics under tensile stress have been monitored. The results were correlated with destructive measurements. For health monitoring we also present the impedance analysis of embedded piezo ceramic sensors. A defect causes changes in the modal response of the hole structure and that effect can be detected using the phase angle of the electric impedance of the piezo element. Additionally some types of defects cause a non-linear behavior of the structure which was verified by extracting higher harmonics as a reaction to sinusoidal single frequency excitation.

  20. Aircraft noise, health, and residential sorting: evidence from two quasi-experiments.

    PubMed

    Boes, Stefan; Nüesch, Stephan; Stillman, Steven

    2013-09-01

    We explore two unexpected changes in flight regulations to estimate the causal effect of aircraft noise on health. Detailed measures of noise are linked with longitudinal data on individual health outcomes based on the exact address information. Controlling for individual heterogeneity and spatial sorting into different neighborhoods, we find that aircraft noise significantly increases sleeping problems and headaches. Models that do not control for such heterogeneity and sorting substantially underestimate the negative health effects, which suggests that individuals self-select into residence based on their unobserved sensitivity to noise. Our study demonstrates that the combination of quasi-experimental variation and panel data is very powerful for identifying causal effects in epidemiological field studies.

  1. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, the International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  2. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expandable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  3. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J.

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  4. Sensors and Rotordynamics Health Management Research for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, J.; Abdul-Aziz, A.; Adamovsky, G.; Berger, D.; Fralick, G.; Gyekenyesi, A.; Hunter, G.; Tokars, R.; Venti, M.; Woike, M.; Wrbanek, J.; Wrbanek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Develop Advanced Sensor Technology and rotordynamic structural diagnostics to address existing Aviation Safety Propulsion Health Management needs as well as proactively begin to address anticipated safety issues for new technologies.

  5. Monitoring the performance of occupational health laboratories.

    PubMed

    Abell, M T; Doemeny, L J

    1991-08-01

    To monitor the performance of occupational health laboratories analyzing workplace air, the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), with assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has established four national quality assurance programs. They are the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program, the AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Program, the Asbestos Analysts Registry, and the Bulk Quality Assurance Program. This paper focuses on the PAT program, a quality audit program that provides samples of asbestos, silica, metals, and solvents to laboratories quarterly. PAT data for asbestos, silica, and lead were examined for trends in precision. Simple graphs of coefficient of variation during the 18-yr history of the program provide evidence of improved agreement among laboratories performing these analyses. The improvement took place in spite of growth in the number of laboratories and decreases in the levels being analyzed. The improvement is attributed to several factors, including improved analytical methods and the very existence of the PAT and AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Programs.

  6. Incorporation of texture, intensity, hue, and saturation for rangeland monitoring with unmanned aircraft imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into rangeland health monitoring protocols, and object-based image analysis is well suited for this hyperspatial imagery. A major drawback, however, is the low spectral resolution of the imagery, b...

  7. [Problems of child health monitoring in connection with environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R

    1993-11-01

    Analysis of population health is necessary for sanitary and epidemiological service. Monitoring scheme is recommended for population health investigation. It includes: measuring--analysis--description--modelling--optimization. Computer system should be developed for analysis of health data.

  8. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  9. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  11. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  12. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  13. Monitoring water transparency and diver visibility in ports and harbors using aircraft hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trees, Charles C.; Bissett, Paul W.; Dierssen, Heidi; Kohler, David D. R.; Moline, Mark A.; Mueller, James L.; Pieper, Richard E.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.

    2005-05-01

    Diver visibility analyses and predictions, and water transparency in general, are of significant military and commercial interest. This is especially true in our current state, where ports and harbors are vulnerable to terrorist attacks from a variety of platforms both on and below the water (swimmers, divers, AUVs, ships, submarines, etc.). Aircraft hyperspectral imagery has been previously used successfully to classify coastal bottom types and map bathymetry and it is time to transition this observational tool to harbor and port security. Hyperspectral imagery is ideally suited for monitoring small-scale features and processes in these optically complex waters, because of its enhanced spectral (1-3 nm) and spatial (1-3 meters) resolutions. Under an existing NOAA project (CICORE), a field experiment was carried out (November 2004) in coordination with airborne hyperspectral ocean color overflights to develop methods and models for relating hyperspectral remote sensing reflectances to water transparency and diver visibility in San Pedro and San Diego Bays. These bays were focused areas because: (1) San Pedro harbor, with its ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, is the busiest port in the U.S. and ranks 3rd in the world and (2) San Diego Harbor is one of the largest Naval ports, serving a diverse mix of commercial, recreational and military traffic, including more than 190 cruise ships annual. Maintaining harbor and port security has added complexity for these Southern California bays, because of the close proximity to the Mexican border. We will present in situ optical data and hyperspectral aircraft ocean color imagery from these two bays and compare and contrast the differences and similarities. This preliminary data will then be used to discuss how water transparency and diver visibility predictions improve harbor and port security.

  14. Temperature effects in ultrasonic Lamb wave structural health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Salamone, Salvatore

    2008-07-01

    There is a need to better understand the effect of temperature changes on the response of ultrasonic guided-wave pitch-catch systems used for structural health monitoring. A model is proposed to account for all relevant temperature-dependent parameters of a pitch-catch system on an isotropic plate, including the actuator-plate and plate-sensor interactions through shear-lag behavior, the piezoelectric and dielectric permittivity properties of the transducers, and the Lamb wave dispersion properties of the substrate plate. The model is used to predict the S(0) and A(0) response spectra in aluminum plates for the temperature range of -40-+60 degrees C, which accounts for normal aircraft operations. The transducers examined are monolithic PZT-5A [PZT denotes Pb(Zr-Ti)O3] patches and flexible macrofiber composite type P1 patches. The study shows substantial changes in Lamb wave amplitude response caused solely by temperature excursions. It is also shown that, for the transducers considered, the response amplitude changes follow two opposite trends below and above ambient temperature (20 degrees C), respectively. These results can provide a basis for the compensation of temperature effects in guided-wave damage detection systems.

  15. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  16. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    PubMed

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  18. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  19. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  20. Flow cytometry for health monitoring in space

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.; Martin, J.C.; Saunders, G.C.; Stewart, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring the health of space station or lunar base residents will be necessary to provide knowledge of the physiological status of astronauts. Flow cytometric techniques are uniquely capable of providing cellular, chromosome, hormone level and enzyme level information. The use of dyes provides the basis for fluorescently labeling specific cellular components. Laser induced fluorescence from stained cells is quantitated in a flow cytometer to measure cellular components such as DNA, RNA and protein. One major application of a flow cytometer will be to perform a complete blood count including hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and numbers of platelets, erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. A newly developed flow cytometry based fluoroimmunoassay will be able to measure levels of serum enzymes and hormones. It will also be possible to quantitate radiation exposure and some forms of chromosome damage with flow cytometric measurements. With relatively simple modifications to existing technology, it will be possible to construct a flight rated cytometer. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  1. [The research and expectation on wearable health monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Chang, Feiba; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hehua; Yan, Lexian; Li, Shuying; Zhou, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wearable health monitoring systems that use wearable biosensors capturing human motion and physiological parameters, to achieve the wearer's movement and health management needs. Wearable health monitoring system is a noninvasive continuous detection of human physiological information, data wireless transmission and real-time processing capabilities of integrated system, can satisfy physiological condition monitoring under the condition of low physiological and psychological load. This paper first describes the wearable health monitoring system structure and the relevant technology applied to wearable health monitoring system, and focuses on the current research work what we have done associated with wearable monitoring that wearable respiration and ECG acquisition and construction of electric multi-parameter body area network. Finally, the wearable monitoring system for the future development direction is put forward a simple expectation.

  2. Sensor Needs for Control and Health Management of Intelligent Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Gang, Sanjay; Hunter, Gary W.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Semega, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense are conducting programs which support the future vision of "intelligent" aircraft engines for enhancing the affordability, performance, operability, safety, and reliability of aircraft propulsion systems. Intelligent engines will have advanced control and health management capabilities enabling these engines to be self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, and adaptive to optimize performance based upon the current condition of the engine or the current mission of the vehicle. Sensors are a critical technology necessary to enable the intelligent engine vision as they are relied upon to accurately collect the data required for engine control and health management. This paper reviews the anticipated sensor requirements to support the future vision of intelligent engines from a control and health management perspective. Propulsion control and health management technologies are discussed in the broad areas of active component controls, propulsion health management and distributed controls. In each of these three areas individual technologies will be described, input parameters necessary for control feedback or health management will be discussed, and sensor performance specifications for measuring these parameters will be summarized.

  3. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    PubMed

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  4. Aircraft Turbofan Engine Health Estimation Using Constrained Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops an analytic method of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results obtained from application to a turbofan engine model. This model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.

  5. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  6. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Brownjohn, J M W

    2007-02-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a term increasingly used in the last decade to describe a range of systems implemented on full-scale civil infrastructures and whose purposes are to assist and inform operators about continued 'fitness for purpose' of structures under gradual or sudden changes to their state, to learn about either or both of the load and response mechanisms. Arguably, various forms of SHM have been employed in civil infrastructure for at least half a century, but it is only in the last decade or two that computer-based systems are being designed for the purpose of assisting owners/operators of ageing infrastructure with timely information for their continued safe and economic operation. This paper describes the motivations for and recent history of SHM applications to various forms of civil infrastructure and provides case studies on specific types of structure. It ends with a discussion of the present state-of-the-art and future developments in terms of instrumentation, data acquisition, communication systems and data mining and presentation procedures for diagnosis of infrastructural 'health'.

  7. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  8. NDE using sensor based approach to propulsion health monitoring of a turbine engine disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Abumeri, G.; Lekki, John D.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2009-03-01

    Rotor health monitoring and on-line damage detection have been increasingly gaining interest to manufacturers of aircraft engines, primarily to increase safety of operation and lower the high maintenance costs. But health monitoring in the presence of scatter in the loading conditions, crack size, disk geometry, and material property is rather challenging. However, detection factors that cause fractures and hidden internal cracks can be implemented via noninvasive types of health monitoring and or nondestructive evaluation techniques. These evaluations go further to inspect materials discontinuities and other anomalies that have grown to become critical defects that can lead to failure. To address the bulk of these concerning issues and understand the technical aspects leading to these outcomes, a combined analytical and experimental study is being thought. Results produced from the experiments such as blade tip displacement and other data collected from tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory, a high precision spin rig, are evaluated, discussed and compared with data predicted from finite element analysis simulating the engine rotor disk spinning at various rotational speeds. Further computations using the progressive failure analysis (PFA) approach with GENOA code [6] to additionally assess the structural response, damage initiation, propagation, and failure criterion are also performed. This study presents an inclusive evaluation of an on-line health monitoring of a rotating disk and an examination for the capability of the in-house spin system in support of ongoing research under the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program.

  9. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  10. Assessment of satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data for strip-mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Dooley, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to describe the mining and reclamation changes of a hilltop surface coal mine in the rugged, mountainous area of eastern Kentucky is presented. Original single band satellite imagery, computer enhanced single band imagery, and computer classified imagery are presented for four different data sets in order to demonstrate the land cover changes that can be detected. Data obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner on board a C-47 aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters are also presented. Comparing the satellite data with color, infrared aerial photography, and ground survey data shows that significant changes in the disrupted area can be detected from LANDSAT band 5 satellite imagery for mines with more than 100 acres of disturbed area. However, band-ratio (bands 5/6) imagery provides greater contrast than single band imagery and can provide a qualitative level 1 classification of the land cover that may be useful for monitoring either the disturbed mining area or the revegetation progress. However, if a quantitative, accurate classification of the barren or revegetated classes is required, it is necessary to perform a detailed, four band computer classification of the data.

  11. A Systematic Approach to Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Health Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    A systematic approach for selecting an optimal suite of sensors for on-board aircraft gas turbine engine health estimation is presented. The methodology optimally chooses the engine sensor suite and the model tuning parameter vector to minimize the Kalman filter mean squared estimation error in the engine s health parameters or other unmeasured engine outputs. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem where there are more unknown system health parameters representing degradation than available sensor measurements. This paper presents the theoretical estimation error equations, and describes the optimization approach that is applied to select the sensors and model tuning parameters to minimize these errors. Two different model tuning parameter vector selection approaches are evaluated: the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuning parameters, and an alternative approach that selects tuning parameters as a linear combination of all health parameters. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented, and compared to those from an alternative sensor selection strategy.

  12. Propulsion health monitoring of a turbine engine disk using spin test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark; Oza, Nikunj; Matthews, Bryan; Baakilini, George

    2010-03-01

    On line detection techniques to monitor the health of rotating engine components are becoming increasingly attractive options to aircraft engine companies in order to increase safety of operation and lower maintenance costs. Health monitoring remains a challenging feature to easily implement, especially, in the presence of scattered loading conditions, crack size, component geometry and materials properties. The current trend, however, is to utilize noninvasive types of health monitoring or nondestructive techniques to detect hidden flaws and mini cracks before any catastrophic event occurs. These techniques go further to evaluate materials' discontinuities and other anomalies that have grown to the level of critical defects which can lead to failure. Generally, health monitoring is highly dependent on sensor systems that are capable of performing in various engine environmental conditions and able to transmit a signal upon a predetermined crack length, while acting in a neutral form upon the overall performance of the engine system. Efforts are under way at NASA Glenn Research Center through support of the Intelligent Vehicle Health Management Project (IVHM) to develop and implement such sensor technology for a wide variety of applications. These efforts are focused on developing high temperature, wireless, low cost and durable products. Therefore, in an effort to address the technical issues concerning health monitoring of a rotor disk, this paper considers data collected from an experimental study using high frequency capacitive sensor technology to capture blade tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a rotating engine-like-disk-to predict the disk faults and assess its structural integrity. The experimental results collected at a range of rotational speeds from tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory will be evaluated using multiple data-driven anomaly detection techniques to identify anomalies in the disk. This study

  13. Noncontact laser sensing technology for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Noncontact sensing techniques is gaining prominence for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive testing (NDT) due to (1) their noncontact and nonintrusive natures, (2) their spatial resolution much higher than conventional discrete sensors can achieve, (3) their less dependency on baseline data obtained from the pristine condition of a target structure (reference-free diagnosis), (4) cost and labor reduction in sensor installation and maintenance. In this talk, a suite of noncontact sensing techniques particularly based on laser technology will be presented for SHM and NDT of aircraft, wind turbine blades, high-speed trains, nuclear power plants, bridges, automobile manufacturing facilities and semiconductors.

  14. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  15. Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft data and a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeke, Nicholas L.; Marshall, Julian D.; Alvarez, Sergio; Chance, Kelly V.; Fried, Alan; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Millet, Dylan B.

    2011-03-01

    We combine aircraft measurements (Second Texas Air Quality Study, Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations, Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: Phase B) over the United States, Mexico, and the Pacific with a 3-D model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate formaldehyde column (ΩHCHO) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and assess the information they provide on HCHO across local to regional scales and urban to background regimes. OMI ΩHCHO correlates well with columns derived from aircraft measurements and GEOS-Chem (R = 0.80). For the full data ensemble, OMI's mean bias is -3% relative to aircraft-derived ΩHCHO (-17% where ΩHCHO > 5 × 1015 molecules cm-2) and -8% relative to GEOS-Chem, within expected uncertainty for the retrieval. Some negative bias is expected for the satellite and model, given the plume sampling of many flights and averaging over the satellite and model footprints. Major axis regression for OMI versus aircraft and model columns yields slopes (95% confidence intervals) of 0.80 (0.62-1.03) and 0.98 (0.73-1.35), respectively, with no significant intercept. Aircraft measurements indicate that the normalized vertical HCHO distribution, required by the satellite retrieval, is well captured by GEOS-Chem, except near Mexico City. Using measured HCHO profiles in the retrieval algorithm does not improve satellite-aircraft agreement, suggesting that use of a global model to specify shape factors does not substantially degrade retrievals over polluted areas. While the OMI measurements show that biogenic volatile organic compounds dominate intra-annual and regional ΩHCHO variability across the United States, smaller anthropogenic ΩHCHO gradients are detectable at finer spatial scales (˜20-200 km) near many urban areas.

  16. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  17. An introduction to structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Charles R; Worden, Keith

    2007-02-15

    The process of implementing a damage identification strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here, damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's performance. A wide variety of highly effective local non-destructive evaluation tools are available for such monitoring. However, the majority of SHM research conducted over the last 30 years has attempted to identify damage in structures on a more global basis. The past 10 years have seen a rapid increase in the amount of research related to SHM as quantified by the significant escalation in papers published on this subject. The increased interest in SHM and its associated potential for significant life-safety and economic benefits has motivated the need for this theme issue. This introduction begins with a brief history of SHM technology development. Recent research has begun to recognize that the SHM problem is fundamentally one of the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) and a paradigm to address such a problem is described in detail herein as it forms the basis for organization of this theme issue. In the process of providing the historical overview and summarizing the SPR paradigm, the subsequent articles in this theme issue are cited in an effort to show how they fit into this overview of SHM. In conclusion, technical challenges that must be addressed if SHM is to gain wider application are discussed in a general manner.

  18. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  19. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  20. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Angel, Marian; Bement, Matthew; Salvino, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  1. Quantitative structural health monitoring using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Paul D.; Lee, Chee Kin; Scholey, Jonathan J.; Friswell, Michael I.; Wisnom, Michael R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2006-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing is potentially a highly suitable technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications due to its ability to achieve high sensitivity from a sparse array of sensors. For AE to be deployed as part of an SHM system it is essential that its capability is understood. This is the motivation for developing a forward model, referred to as QAE-Forward, of the complete AE process in real structures which is described in the first part of this paper. QAE-Forward is based around a modular and expandable architecture of frequency domain transfer functions to describe various aspects of the AE process, such as AE signal generation, wave propagation and signal detection. The intention is to build additional functionality into QAE-Forward as further data becomes available, whether this is through new analytic tools, numerical models or experimental measurements. QAE-Forward currently contains functions that implement (1) the excitation of multimodal guided waves by arbitrarily orientated point sources, (2) multi-modal wave propagation through generally anisotropic multi-layered media, and (3) the detection of waves by circular transducers of finite size. Results from the current implementation of QAE-Forward are compared to experimental data obtained from Hsu-Neilson tests on aluminum plate and good agreement is obtained. The paper then describes an experimental technique and a finite element modeling technique to obtain quantitative AE data from fatigue crack growth that will feed into QAE-Forward.

  2. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  3. FOREWORD: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhishen; Fujino, Yozo

    2005-06-01

    This special issue collects together 19 papers that were originally presented at the First International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-1'2003), held in Tokyo, Japan, on 13-15 November 2003. This conference was organized by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) with partial financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology, Japan. Many related organizations supported the conference. A total of 16 keynote papers including six state-of-the-art reports from different counties, six invited papers and 154 contributed papers were presented at the conference. The conference was attended by a diverse group of about 300 people from a variety of disciplines in academia, industry and government from all over the world. Structural health monitoring (SHM) and intelligent materials, structures and systems have been the subject of intense research and development in the last two decades and, in recent years, an increasing range of applications in infrastructure have been discovered both for existing structures and for new constructions. SHMII-1'2003 addressed progress in the development of building, transportation, marine, underground and energy-generating structures, and other civilian infrastructures that are periodically, continuously and/or actively monitored where there is a need to optimize their performance. In order to focus the current needs on SHM and intelligent technologies, the conference theme was set as 'Structures/Infrastructures Sustainability'. We are pleased to have the privilege to edit this special issue on SHM and intelligent infrastructure based on SHMII-1'2003. We invited some of the presenters to submit a revised/extended version of their paper that was included in the SHMII-1'2003 proceedings for possible publication in the special issue. Each paper included in this special issue was edited with the same

  4. Structural Health Monitoring Considering Internal Beam Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    According to Dr. Ajit Mal, Corrosion usually occurs when the aircraft is on the ground and fatigue is associated with pressurization /depressurization...the field are not easily reproduced in the laboratory. Artificially accelerating one corrosion mode may retard another mode. 4) Small coupon size...gallons, no more than 25 gallons were ever used. The water used was Reverse Osmosis (RO) 18 mega- 81 Ohm pure water acquired from the environmental

  5. Development of lightweight structural health monitoring systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew

    This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy

  6. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  7. Structural health monitoring system/method using electroactive polymer fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for monitoring the structural health of a structure of interest by coupling one or more electroactive polymer fibers to the structure and monitoring the electroactive responses of the polymer fiber(s). Load changes that are experienced by the structure cause changes in the baseline responses of the polymer fiber(s). A system for monitoring the structural health of the structure is also provided.

  8. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of Request..., APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS), which collects...

  9. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of Request..., APHIS operates the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS), which collects...

  10. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  11. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  12. Structural Health Management of Damaged Aircraft Structures Using the Digital Twin Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Banavara R.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    The development of multidisciplinary integrated Structural Health Management (SHM) tools will enable accurate detection, and prognosis of damaged aircraft under normal and adverse conditions during flight. As part of the digital twin concept, methodologies are developed by using integrated multiphysics models, sensor information and input data from an in-service vehicle to mirror and predict the life of its corresponding physical twin. SHM tools are necessary for both damage diagnostics and prognostics for continued safe operation of damaged aircraft structures. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and structural damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage/cracks due to fatigue and low velocity foreign object impact that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. To avoid unstable, catastrophic propagation of damage during a flight, load levels must be maintained that are below a reduced load-carrying capacity for continued safe operation of an aircraft. Hence, a capability is needed for accurate real-time predictions of damage size and safe load carrying capacity for structures with complex damage configurations. In the present work, a procedure is developed that uses guided wave responses to interrogate damage. As the guided wave interacts with damage, the signal attenuates in some directions and reflects in others. This results in a difference in signal magnitude as well as phase shifts between signal responses for damaged and undamaged structures. Accurate estimation of damage size, location, and orientation is made by evaluating the cumulative signal responses at various pre-selected sensor locations using a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. The damage size, location, and orientation is obtained by minimizing the difference between the reference responses and the

  13. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  14. A prototype ground support system security monitor for space based power system health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Donald F.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    This paper reports on the work Rocketdyne is performing in the area of power system security monitoring for space-based system health monitoring. The Integrated Power Advisory Controller, which represents a portion of a ground-based system security monitor and uses an object-oriented knowledge design, is discussed. The simulation environment used to develop and test the system is described.

  15. The Combat-Wireless Health Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Navy, the smart shirt uses optical fibers to detect bullet and shrapnel wounds, using special interconnected sensors to moni- tor the body’s vital signs ...soldier’s vital signs . The control box receives vital signs from the three-lead EKG monitor- ing system, then forwards sensed data to the SLS—a wearable ...Status Monitor (WPSM). The WPSM will provide commanders and medics with the ability to actively monitor vital signs , core temperatures, and skin

  16. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  17. Investigation of an expert health monitoring system for aeronautical structures based on pattern recognition and acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaduiza-Burgos, Diego Alexander; Torres-Arredondo, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Aeronautical structures are subjected to damage during their service raising the necessity for periodic inspection and maintenance of their components so that structural integrity and safe operation can be guaranteed. Cost reduction related to minimizing the out-of-service time of the aircraft, together with the advantages offered by real-time and safe-life service monitoring, have led to a boom in the design of inexpensive and structurally integrated transducer networks comprising actuators, sensors, signal processing units and controllers. These kinds of automated systems are normally referred to as smart structures and offer a multitude of new solutions to engineering problems and multi-functional capabilities. It is thus expected that structural health monitoring (SHM) systems will become one of the leading technologies for assessing and assuring the structural integrity of future aircraft. This study is devoted to the development and experimental investigation of an SHM methodology for the detection of damage in real scale complex aeronautical structures. The work focuses on each aspect of the SHM system and highlights the potentialities of the health monitoring technique based on acousto-ultrasonics and data-driven modelling within the concepts of sensor data fusion, feature extraction and pattern recognition. The methodology is experimentally demonstrated on an aircraft skin panel and fuselage panel for which several damage scenarios are analysed. The detection performance in both structures is quantified and presented.

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume I of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. a Survey on Health Effects due to Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around Kadena Air Base in the Ryukyus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Taira, K.; Ito, A.; Nakasone, T.

    1997-08-01

    Results are reported of a questionnaire survey relating to a scale for general health, the Todai Health Index, in a town, bordering on a large U.S. airbase in the Ryukyus. The level of aircraft noise exposure, in the town, expressed by WECPNL, ranges from 75 to 95 or more. The sample size was 1200, including a 200 person “control” group. Results of the analysis of the responses in terms of the noise exposure suggest that the exposed residents suffer psychosomatic effects, especially perceived psychological disorders, due to the noise exposure to military aircraft, and that such responses increase with the level of noise exposure.

  20. Damage monitoring of aircraft structures made of composite materials using wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, D.; Safin, A.; Luhyna, N.

    2016-10-01

    The present article is dedicated to the study of the acoustic properties of composite materials and the application of non-destructive testing methods to aircraft components. A mathematical model of a wavelet transformed signal is presented. The main acoustic (vibration) properties of different composite material structures were researched. Multiple vibration parameter dependencies on the noise reduction factor were derived. The main steps of a research procedure and new method algorithm are presented. The data obtained was compared with the data from a three dimensional laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer, to validate the results. The new technique was tested in the laboratory and on civil aircraft at a training airfield.

  1. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations the CSIRO (Australia) monitoring program from aircraft 1972 - 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsmore, D.J.; Pearman, G.I.

    1984-09-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Australia-New Zealand region and as far south as Antarctica for the period 1972-1981. The samples were collected from aircraft over a large range of latitudes and altitudes. The sampling program has been based on the cooperation of the Australia Department of Transport, Quantas Airways, Trans Australia Airlines, the United States, New Zealand and Australian Air Forces and occasional chartering of light aircraft for special purposes.

  2. Secure Remote Health Monitoring with Unreliable Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minho

    2012-01-01

    As the nation's healthcare information infrastructure continues to evolve, new technologies promise to provide readily accessible health information that can help people address personal and community health concerns. In particular, wearable and implantable medical sensors and portable computing devices present many opportunities for providing timely health information to health providers, public health professionals, and consumers. Concerns about privacy and information quality, however, may impede the development and deployment of these technologies for remote health monitoring. Patients may fail to apply sensors correctly, device can be stolen or compromised (exposing the medical data therein to a malicious party), low-cost sensors controlled by a capable attacker might generate falsified data, and sensor data sent to the server can be captured in the air by an eavesdropper; there are many opportunities for sensitive health data to be lost, forged, or exposed. In this paper, we design a framework for secure remote health-monitoring systems; we build a realistic risk model for sensor-data quality and propose a new health-monitoring architecture that is secure despite the weaknesses of common personal devices. For evaluation, we plan to implement a proof of concept for secure health monitoring. PMID:22910449

  3. Piezoelectric Sensor Evaluation for Structural Health Monitoring of Cryogenic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, John; Engberg, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), and profiles piezoelectric sensors useful for SHM of cryogenic structures. The presentation also profiles impedance tests and other SHM tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and... information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study. OMB Number:...

  5. Structural Health Monitoring 2007: Quantification, Validation, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    Bent F. Sørensen, Ris National Laboratory 14:45 ~ 15:05 Fundamentals for Remote Condition Monitoring of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades p. 1913...11:20 ~ 11:40 A Novel MEMS Strain Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring Applications under Harsh Environmental Conditions p. 121 Matthew Malkin...Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) 14:25 ~ 14:45 Integrated Monitoring Systems for Offshore Wind Turbines p. 1897 Malcolm McGugan and

  6. Design of smart neonatal health monitoring system using SMCC.

    PubMed

    De, Debashis; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Sau, Arkaprabha; Bhakta, Ishita

    2017-02-01

    Automated health monitoring and alert system development is a demanding research area today. Most of the currently available monitoring and controlling medical devices are wired which limits freeness of working environment. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a better alternative in such an environment. Neonatal intensive care unit is used to take care of sick and premature neonates. Hypothermia is an independent risk factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity. To prevent it an automated monitoring system is required. In this Letter, an automated neonatal health monitoring system is designed using sensor mobile cloud computing (SMCC). SMCC is based on WSN and MCC. In the authors' system temperature sensor, acceleration sensor and heart rate measurement sensor are used to monitor body temperature, acceleration due to body movement and heart rate of neonates. The sensor data are stored inside the cloud. The health person continuously monitors and accesses these data through the mobile device using an Android Application for neonatal monitoring. When an abnormal situation arises, an alert is generated in the mobile device of the health person. By alerting health professional using such an automated system, early care is provided to the affected babies and the probability of recovery is increased.

  7. Statistical principles of monitoring and surveillance in public health*

    PubMed Central

    Lwanga, S.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring and surveillance are seen as statistical procedures that will help health authorities to achieve better health services with the existing resources—monitoring being an integrated system of making observations on health and environmental factors and of scrutinizing, storing, and retrieving those data, and surveillance being a closely associated system for collating and interpreting the data. Monitoring should be an action oriented activity and may encompass a wide range of health activities, for example, communicable and noncommunicable diseases, environmental pollutants, and specific problems in health care delivery systems. Both monitoring and surveillance systems have to be related to control measures, and, since the available resources are usually limited, a scale of priorities has to be developed by the statistician in cooperation with the competent authorities. Monitoring may be performed on either the individual or aggregate level and should be planned to take into account the course of the disease under consideration: it is concerned with monitoring stimuli and events. Collection of data, for example, on exposure to a pollutant, may be continuous and automatically recorded, or regular or irregular through population sampling or registries. The statistical requirements of monitoring and surveillance systems are discussed and a checklist of features to be considered is given in an annex. PMID:310717

  8. Innovative Methods for Engine Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-30

    36 2.5.1 Histogram .............................................................. 36 2.5.2 Kernel Density Distribution...signals, oil debris, foreign object damage, and other engine health indicators, interpreting the signals and making diagnostic and prognostics decisions...detecting vibration signals, oil debris, foreign object damage, and other engine health indicators, interpreting the signals and making diagnostic and

  9. Impact of ultrasonic guided wave transducer design on health monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huidong; Rose, Joseph L.

    2007-04-01

    Structural health monitoring of composite materials will lead to a significant safety and economic impact on the aircraft and aerospace industries. Ultrasonic guided wave based methods are becoming popular because of an excellent compromise between coverage area and sensitivity for localized damage detection. The transducers currently used in composite health monitoring are designed mostly in an empirical manner. The work presented in this paper provides an analytical procedure to study the wave excitation phenomenon in composite laminates. A hybrid semi-analytical finite element method and global matrix method is used to obtained the guided wave modal solutions. A normal mode expansion technique is then used to simulate the guided waves excited from a surface mounted piezoelectric transducer with transient loading. Parametric studies are performed to obtain the guided wave mode tuning characteristics and to study the influence of piezoelectric wafer geometry on wave excitation. In an inverse problem, an appropriate loading pattern can be designed to achieve selective guided wave mode excitation for improved sensitivity and/or penetration power in the health monitoring of composites. A wave field reconstruction algorithm based on normal mode expansion is also introduced in this paper. This method is also very computationally efficient compared with the commonly used finite element method in wave field excitation simulation.

  10. Comparison of aerial imagery from manned and unmanned aircraft platforms for monitoring cotton growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have emerged as a low-cost and versatile remote sensing platform in recent years, but little work has been done on comparing imagery from manned and unmanned platforms for crop assessment. The objective of this study was to compare imagery taken from multiple cameras ...

  11. A survey on wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pantelopoulos, Alexandros; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    Wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring are an emerging trend and are expected to enable proactive personal health management and better treatment of various medical conditions. These systems, comprising various types of small physiological sensors, transmission modules and processing capabilities, promise to change the future of health care, by providing low-cost wearable unobtrusive solutions for continuous all-day and any-place health, mental and activity status monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the research and development done so far on wearable biosensor systems for health-monitoring, by comparing a variety of current system implementations and approaches and identifying their technological shortcomings. A set of significant features, that best describe the functionality and the characteristics of wearable biosensor systems, has been selected to derive a thorough study. The aim of this survey is not to criticize, but to serve as a reference for current achievements and their maturity level and to provide direction for future research improvements.

  12. Action monitoring for equity and gender in health.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila

    2008-09-01

    Equity and gender, despite being universal concerns for all health programmes in Bangladesh, are often missing in many of the health agenda. The health programmes fail to address these important dimensions unless these are specifically included in the planning stage of a programme and are continually monitored for progress. This paper presents the situation of equity in health in Bangladesh, innovations in monitoring equity in the use of health services in general and by the poor in particular, and impact of targeted non-health interventions on health outcomes of the poor. It was argued that an equitable use of health services might also result in enhanced overall coverage of the services. The findings show that government services at the upazila level are used by the poor proportionately more than they are in the community, while at the private facilities, the situation is reverse. Commonly-used monitoring tools, at times, are not very useful for the programme managers to know how well they are doing in reaching the poor. Use of benefit-incidence ratio may provide a quick feedback to the health facility managers about their extent of serving the poor. Similarly, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling can be an easy-to-use tool for monitoring coverage at the community level requiring a very small sample size. Although health problems are biomedical phenomena, their solutions may include actions beyond the biomedical framework. Studies have shown that non-health interventions targeted towards the poor improve the use of health services and reduce mortality among children in poor households. The study on equity and health deals with various interlocking issues, and the examples and views presented in this paper intend to introduce their importance in designing and managing health and development programmes.

  13. Micro-Accelerometers Monitor Equipment Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Evigia Systems to develop a miniaturized accelerometer to account for gravitational effects in space experiments. The company has gone on to implement the technology in its suite of prognostic sensors, which are used to monitor the integrity of industrial machinery. As a result, five employees have been hired.

  14. Monitoring Rangeland Health by Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a land-cover classification from NASA’s MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rangelands cover 48% of the Earth’s land surface, not including Antarctica. Nearly all analyses imply the most economical means of monitoring large areas of rangelands worldwide is with remote s...

  15. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  16. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  17. An Epidemiological Prospective Study of Children’s Health and Annoyance Reactions to Aircraft Noise Exposure in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8–14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9–15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10–16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children’s self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children’s annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. PMID:23823713

  18. An epidemiological prospective study of children's health and annoyance reactions to aircraft noise exposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8-14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9-15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10-16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children's self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport.

  19. Optimal Sensor Selection for Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael; Sowers, T. Shane; Aguilar, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Sensor data are the basis for performance and health assessment of most complex systems. Careful selection and implementation of sensors is critical to enable high fidelity system health assessment. A model-based procedure that systematically selects an optimal sensor suite for overall health assessment of a designated host system is described. This procedure, termed the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4), was developed at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center in order to enhance design phase planning and preparations for in-space propulsion health management systems (HMS). Information and capabilities required to utilize the S4 approach in support of design phase development of robust health diagnostics are outlined. A merit metric that quantifies diagnostic performance and overall risk reduction potential of individual sensor suites is introduced. The conceptual foundation for this merit metric is presented and the algorithmic organization of the S4 optimization process is described. Representative results from S4 analyses of a boost stage rocket engine previously under development as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program are presented.

  20. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Datong; Zhang, Yujie; Peng, Yu

    2016-04-29

    In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM) can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor) to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  1. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Datong; Zhang, Yujie; Peng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM) can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor) to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved. PMID:27136561

  2. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  3. Vulnerability analysis for design of bridge health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. M.; Yu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The recent engineering implementation of health monitoring system for long span bridges show difficulties for precisely assessing structural physical condition as well as for accurately alarming on structural damages, although hundreds of sensors were installed on a structure and a great amount of data were collected from the monitoring system. The allocation of sensors and the alarming algorithm are still two of the most important tasks to be considered when designing the structural health monitoring system. Vulnerability, in its original meaning, is the system susceptibility to local damage. For a structural system, the vulnerability can thus be regarded as structural performance susceptibility to local damage of structure. The purpose of this study is to propose concepts and methods of structural vulnerability for determining monitoring components which are more vulnerable than others and the corresponding warning threshold once the damages occur. The structural vulnerability performances to various damage scenarios depend upon structural geometrical topology, loading pattern on the structure and the degradation of component performance. A two-parameters structural vulnerability evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The parameters are the damage consequence and the relative magnitude of the damage scenarios to the structural system, respectively. Structural vulnerability to various damage scenarios can be regarded as the tradeoff between the two parameters. Based on the results of structural vulnerability analysis, the limited structural information from health monitoring can be utilized efficiently. The approach of the design of bridge health monitoring system is illustrated for a cable-stayed bridge.

  4. An Integrated Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, H. M.; Shumaker, B. D.; McCulley, J. R.; Morton, G. W.

    Based on such criteria as safety and mission success, programmatic risk, affordability, and extensibility/flexibility, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has chosen fission surface power (FSP) as the primary energy source for building a sustained human presence on the Moon, exploring Mars, and extremely long-duration space missions. The current benchmark FSP system has a mission life of at least 8 years during which time there is no opportunity for repair, sensor calibrations, or periodic maintenance tasks that are normally performed on terrestrial-based nuclear power plants during scheduled outages. Current technology relies heavily on real-time human interaction, monitoring and control. However; due to the long communication times between the Earth and Moon, or Mars, real-time human control is not possible, resulting in a critical need to develop autonomous health monitoring technology for FSP systems.This paper describes the design and development of an autonomous health monitoring system that will (1) provide on-line calibration monitoring, (2) reduce uncertainties in sensor measurements, and (3) provide sensor validation and fault detection capabilities for the control systems of various FSP subsystems. The health monitoring system design integrates a number of signal processing algorithms and techniques such as cross-calibration, empirical modeling using neural networks, and physical modeling under a modular signal processing platform that will enable robust sensor and system monitoring without the need for human interaction. Prototypes of the health monitoring system have been tested and validated on data acquired from preliminary subsystem testing of NASA's FSP Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) as well as simulated laboratory data. Results from this testing have demonstrated the utility and benefits that such autonomous health monitoring systems can provide to FSP subsystems and other potential applications within NASA such as launch

  5. Implications of the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study results for classroom acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    Studies in West London have found associations between aircraft noise exposure and childrens' cognitive performance. This has culminated in the RANCH Study examining exposure-effect associations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and cognitive performance and health. The RANCH project, the largest cross-sectional study of noise and childrens health, examined 2844 children, 9-10 years old, from 89 schools around three major airports: in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Children were selected by external aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school predicted from noise contour maps, modeling and on-site measurements. A substudy indicated high internal levels of noise within classrooms. Schools were matched for socioeconomic position within countries. Cognitive and health outcomes were measured by standardized tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. A parental questionnaire collected information on socioeconomic position, parental education and ethnicity. Linear exposure-effect associations were found between chronic aircraft noise exposure and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, maintained after adjustment for mothers education, socioeconomic factors, longstanding illness and classroom insulation. Road traffic noise exposure was linearly associated with episodic memory. The implications of these results for childrens' learning environments will be discussed. [Work supported by European Community (QLRT-2000-00197) Vth framework program.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Tri-Service Meeting for Aircraft Engine Monitoring and Diagnostics (7th) Held on 5-7 December 1978, at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFS, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Annual Tri-Service meeting on Aircraft Engine Monitoring and Diagnostics held last fall. 2. For all turbojet and turbofan engines , low cycle fatigue...7 December 1978. Each presentation contains an over-, view of the results and conclusions of the aircraft turbine engine diagnostic efforts that have... AIRCRAFT ENGINE 2-41 MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC MEETING T-38 EHMS UPDATE 2-43 A-10 TURBINE ENGINE EVALUATION (TEMS) 2-47 USAF TERMINOLOGY FOR SCORING

  7. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  8. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  9. Damage detection in composite materials using PZT actuators and sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Michelle DuBose

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges, buildings, aircrafts, and spacecraft using a network of sensors has gained popularity over recent years. In this thesis, the use of piezoelectric actuators and sensors is described for detecting damage in a composite panel. The composite panels are fabricated using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process. The panels are cut into small coupons (254 mm x 25.4 mm) to test various properties of the composite. A piezoelectric actuator is surface mounted on the composite coupon to generate Lamb waves while a surface mounted piezoelectric sensor measures the response. Data is collected from an undamaged composite coupon, and then the process is repeated for a damaged coupon. The existing damage is quantified by comparing the response of the damaged and undamaged composite coupons.

  10. Ultrasonic Sensor Placement Optimization in Structural Health Monitoring Using Evolutionary Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Rose, J. L.

    2006-03-01

    In structural health monitoring (SHM), sensor network scale and sensor distribution decisions are critical since sensor network performance and system cost are greatly affected. A quantitative sensor placement optimization method with covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy (CMAES) is presented in this paper. A damage detection probability model is developed for ultrasonic guided wave sensor networks. Two sample problems are presented in this paper. One is for structure with irregular damage distribution probability, and the other is for an E2 aircraft wing section. The reliability of this genetic and evolutionary optimization method is proved in this study. Sensor network configurations with minimum missed-detection probability are obtained from the results of evolutionary optimization. The tradeoff relationship between optimized sensor network performance and the number of sensors is also presented in this paper.

  11. I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems

    SciTech Connect

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-23

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  12. Health risk assessment of exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) in aircraft: a commentary.

    PubMed

    de Ree, Hans; van den Berg, Martin; Brand, Teus; Mulder, Gerard J; Simons, Ries; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Brinio; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-12-01

    Possible exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) has led to concerns among airline crew members. One isomer, Tri-ortho-Cresyl Phosphate (ToCP) is known to be neurotoxic and exposure to ToCP via contaminated cabin air has been suggested to be associated with the alleged Aerotoxic syndrome. The symptoms associated with Aerotoxic syndrome are diverse, including headaches, loss of balance, numbness and neurobehavioral abnormalities such as emotional instability, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Other ortho-isomers are toxic as well, but the non-ortho isomers are regarded as less toxic. In a collaborative effort to increase insight into the possible association between exposure to TCPs via contaminated cabin air and Aerotoxic syndrome, we performed an exposure- and toxicological risk assessment. Measurements in KLM 737 aircraft have demonstrated the presence of non-ortho isomers in low concentrations, though ToCP and other ortho-isomers could not be detected. Based on this exposure assessment, we established a toxicological risk model that also takes into account human differences in bioactivation and detoxification to derive a hazard quotient. From this model it appears unlikely that the health effects and alleged Aerotoxic syndrome are due to exposure to ToCP. Alternative explanations for the reported symptoms are discussed, but evaluation of the current findings in light of the criteria for occupational disease leads to the conclusion that the Aerotoxic Syndrome cannot be regarded as such. Additional research is thus required to unravel the underlying causes for the reported health complaints.

  13. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yap, Keng C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  14. Sensing platforms for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Naik, Gautam; Chen, Zhongbi; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2013-04-01

    The emerging concept of structural health management relies on extensive onboard diagnostic sensors that can provide near real-time information about the state of a structure so that informed prognostic assessment can be made of the continuing reliability of the structure. In this paper, we will discuss two types of sensing platforms that can provide valuable information about the state of a structure: 1D fiber-optic sensors and 2D thin-film sensors. Both fiber-optic and thin film sensors are easily integrated with structures, and can offer local and/or distributed sensing capabilities. Parameters that can be sensed include: static and dynamic strain, acoustic emission, vibration, corrosion products, moisture ingression etc. We will first describe some recent developments in dynamic strain sensing using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Applications to detection of acoustic emission and impact will be described. In the area of chemical sensing, we will describe a nanofilm-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) long-period grating (LPG) sensing platform. PCF-LPG sensors can be designed to provide greater interaction between the analyte of interest and the light propagating in the fiber, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. Applications to humidity sensing will be described. Finally, 2D thin-film sensors on polymer substrates will be discussed. One type of sensor we have been fabricating is based on reduced graphene oxide for large-area chemical sensing applications. It is expected that these 1D and 2D sensing platforms will form part of a suite of sensors that can provide diagnostic structural health information.

  15. mHealthMon: toward energy-efficient and distributed mobile health monitoring using parallel offloading.

    PubMed

    Ahnn, Jong Hoon; Potkonjak, Miodrag

    2013-10-01

    Although mobile health monitoring where mobile sensors continuously gather, process, and update sensor readings (e.g. vital signals) from patient's sensors is emerging, little effort has been investigated in an energy-efficient management of sensor information gathering and processing. Mobile health monitoring with the focus of energy consumption may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as a global solution to optimization subproblems. This paper presents an attempt to decompose the very complex mobile health monitoring system whose layer in the system corresponds to decomposed subproblems, and interfaces between them are quantified as functions of the optimization variables in order to orchestrate the subproblems. We propose a distributed and energy-saving mobile health platform, called mHealthMon where mobile users publish/access sensor data via a cloud computing-based distributed P2P overlay network. The key objective is to satisfy the mobile health monitoring application's quality of service requirements by modeling each subsystem: mobile clients with medical sensors, wireless network medium, and distributed cloud services. By simulations based on experimental data, we present the proposed system can achieve up to 10.1 times more energy-efficient and 20.2 times faster compared to a standalone mobile health monitoring application, in various mobile health monitoring scenarios applying a realistic mobility model.

  16. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  17. Statistical Process Control Charts for Public Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    process performance, remove existing sources of natural and unnatural variability, and identify any new sources of variability [1]. Control charts are SPC...can be used and refined over time [4]. The causes of any Phase I points outside the established control limits should be investigated. If the cause is...U.S. Army Public Health Command Statistical Process Control Charts for Public Health Monitoring PHR No. S.0023112 General Medical: 500A, Public

  18. In situ health monitoring of bonded composite repairs using a novel fiber Bragg grating sensing arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Claire; Baker, Wayne; Moss, Scott D.; Galea, Stephen C.; Jones, Rhys

    2002-11-01

    As the replacement costs of military aircraft escalate, there is an increasing trend to operate existing aircraft well beyond their original design life. As the fleet ages, structural problems such as airframe corrosion and cracking are becoming significant issues. In recent years, bonded composite patches or doublers have been developed to repair or reinforce defective regions of the airframe. However certification concerns have limited most application of these bonded composite repairs to secondary structures. In order to alleviate certification concerns, and thus facilitate the implementation of this repair technology to critical damage in primary structure, the 'smart patch' approach has been proposed. This approach involves incorporating sensors into the composite patch to self-monitor patch health. This paper describes the use of optical fibre Bragg gratings to measure the changes in thermal residual strain that occur when a composite patch starts to disbond from the parent structure. Conventionally, the Bragg sensing mechanism relies on a shift in reflected wavelength, which requires the use of costly optical measurement tools. A modified sensing arrangement is proposed, which incorporates two Bragg gratings, and a fibre optic coupler. The reflection from the first Bragg grating acts as a reference source for an active Bragg grating on the patch. This modified arrangement allows a relative wavelength shift to be translated into a change in the optical power, which can be measured easily using a low cost interrogation system. The modified sensing arrangement also allows us to more readily miniaturise the opto-electrical interrogation system, thus enabling these systems to be more easily implemented on operational aircraft.

  19. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes trained to follow ultralight aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Czekala, Nancy M.; Olsen, G.H.; Langenberg, J.A.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The use of fecal corticoid assays to measure stress in North American cranes has been limited to laboratory validation and a single field project involving reintroduced sandhill cranes (Ludders et aI., 1998, 2001; Hartup et aI., 2004). In 2001, we documented trends in corticoid concentrations among a cohort of ten costume-reared whooping cranes subjected to ultralight aircraft training and migration. All samples were analyzed by a validated corticosterone 1251 radioimmunoassay for determination of corticoid levels. Fecal corticoid concentrations in chicks exhibited a logarithmic decline over the first 14 days after hatching (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Fecal corticoid concentrations then stabilized at baseline levels (median 68 ng/g, range 17-186 ng/g, n = 116) during the subsequent six weeks of costume-rearing and aircraft habituation in captivity. Fecal corticoid concentrations of eight cranes increased 8-34 fold during shipment in crates to Wisconsin for field training. Increases in fecal corticoid concentrations were positively correlated with age (r = 0.81, p = 0.01), but not body weight (r = 0.44, P = 0.28) at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations returned to baseline levels within seven days, and were sustained throughout the remainder of the training period (median 77 ng/g, range 22- 292 ng/g, n=190). Elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations were observed one (p = 0.035) and four days (p = 0.003) following physical examination and placement of leg bands compared to three days prior to the procedures (median 176 ng/g, range 116 - 553 ng/g, n = 19). Fecal corticoid concentrations decreased to pre-procedure levels within seven days. Fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the 50 day migration period were similar to training levels in Wisconsin, except for a one day increase observed following a violent storm and escape from the temporary holding pen the preceding night (median 243 ng/g, range 228 - 280 ng/g, n = 7). There was an

  20. Monitoring snowpack properties by passive microwave sensors on board of aircraft and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.

    1980-01-01

    Snowpack properties such as water equivalent and snow wetness may be inferred from variations in measured microwave brightness temperatures. This is because the emerged microwave radiation interacts directly with snow crystals within the snowpack. Using vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures obtained from the multifrequency microwave radiometer (MFMR) on board a NASA research aircraft and the electrical scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 5, 6, and 7 satellites, linear relationships between snow depth or water equivalent and microwave brightness temperature were developed. The presence of melt water in the snowpack generally increases the brightness temperatures, which can be used to predict snowpack priming and timing of runoff.

  1. Close range, aircraft and satellite monitoring trophic status of inland, estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Berdnikov, S. V.; Saprygin, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of models used red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral regions (NIR-red models) for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We focused on determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentrations below 20 mg m-3, which are typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using NIR-red models. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in making informed decisions on

  2. Smart patches: self-monitoring composite patches for the repair of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Samuel D.; Marioli-Riga, Zaira; Tsamasphyros, George; Kanderakis, George; Furnarakis, Nikos; Ikiades, Aris; Konstantaki, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Conventional aircraft repair techniques employ bolted or riveted metallic reinforcements, which frequently introduce additional stress concentrations leading to further cracking and creating areas difficult or impossible to inspect. Bonded composite repairs ("patches") result in the elimination of stress concentrations caused by additional fastener holes, improved strength to weight ratio and present a sealed interface. This reduces even further the danger of corrosion and fretting under the repair, gives greater flexibility in design and lessens application time while lengthening fatigue life. Embedding optical fibres and sensors into the patch, and combining this with advanced data collection and processing systems, creating a so-called "smart patch", will enable the real-time assessment of aircraft structural integrity resulting in reliable prediction of maintenance requirements for repaired structures. This paper describes the current state of the art in smart patch technology, and includes a detailed description of the measurement problem and of the work being undertaken to solve it, at both the component and system level. An analysis of typical crack behaviour, based on FE modelling is presented and this demonstrates the need for optical strain sensors having a very short gauge length. The paper discusses the advantages and limitations of very short Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in this context and also provides early experimental data from 1mm and 2mm gratings which have been fabricated for this purpose. The paper also describes the impact of the measurement and environmental constraints on the design of the FBG interrogation system and presents the results of initial trials. The work is being undertaken in the framework of a collaborative project (ACIDS) which is co-funded by the European Commission.

  3. [Sociohygienic monitoring of the working conditions of workers at an aircraft engine factory].

    PubMed

    Usatov, A N; Demchenko, V G; Rod'kin, V P

    2011-01-01

    The authors have improved, modified, and introduced a sociohygienic monitoring model proposed by Yu. V. Erofeyev, V. V. Dalmatov, and D. V. Turchaninov (2007) in the P. I. Baranov engine association and proposed objective criteria for evaluating the work space.

  4. Universal trace pollutant detector for aircraft monitoring of the ozone layer and industrial areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filiouguine, I. V.; Kostiouchenko, S. V.; Koudriavtsev, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A method of monitoring the trace impurities of nitrogen oxides based on controlling of luminescence of NO molecules excited by nanosecond gas discharge have been developed having pptv-ppbv sensitivity and temporal resolution less than 0.01 s.

  5. From intensive care monitoring to personal health monitoring to ambient intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, Otto

    2013-01-01

    The historical roots of IT-based monitoring in health care are described. Since the 1970ies monitoring has been spreading to more and more domains of health care and public health. Today one can observe monitoring of persons in many environments and regarding widely different questions. While these monitoring applications have been introduced ethical questions have been raised to balance the possible positive and negative outcomes of the approaches. Today IT-technology is entering many parts of our life - IT eventually became what had been coined already in the last century by IBM as "electronic dust" which one can find in every part of our environment. As most of these "dust-particles" are able to observe something one can also understand this development as a development into ubiquitous monitoring of nearly everything at any time. The foreseen ambient intelligence worlds are also spaces of ambient monitoring. This article describes this historical development. It emphasizes why ethical and data protection questions are an absolute must in most IT activities today.

  6. Nonlinear feature identification of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, A. C.; Park, G. H.; Sohn, H.; Farrar, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The impedance-based structural health monitoring technique, which utilizes electromechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric materials, has shown feasibility for use in a variety of structural health monitoring applications. Relying on high frequency local excitations (typically > 30 kHz), this technique is very sensitive to minor changes in structural integrity in the near field of piezoelectric sensors. Several damage sensitive features have been identified and used coupled with the impedance methods. Most of these methods are, however, limited to linearity assumptions of a structure. This paper presents the use of experimentally identified nonlinear features, combined with impedance methods, for structural health monitoring. Their applicability to damage detection in various frequency ranges is demonstrated using actual impedance signals measured from a portal frame structure. The performance of the nonlinear feature is compared with those of conventional impedance methods. This paper reinforces the utility of nonlinear features in structural health monitoring and suggests that their varying sensitivity in different frequency ranges may be leveraged for certain applications.

  7. Course Modules on Structural Health Monitoring with Smart Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Hui-Ru; Walters, Wilbur L.; Zheng, Wei; Everett, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an emerging technology that has multiple applications. SHM emerged from the wide field of smart structures, and it also encompasses disciplines such as structural dynamics, materials and structures, nondestructive testing, sensors and actuators, data acquisition, signal processing, and possibly much more. To…

  8. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH EMBEDDED PIEZOELECTRIC FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Puthillath, Padma K.; Blackshire, James L.

    2009-03-03

    The actuation of ultrasonic guided waves in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer plate from embedded metal core piezoelectric fibers is studied for structural health monitoring applications. A linear array of fibers embedded at the midplane can generate guided waves transverse to the fiber direction. Finite element simulations show that a significant source influence is associated with the small diameter piezoelectric fibers.

  9. Health Profile of U.S. Navy Pilots of Electronically Modified Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cardiovascular disease and alcoholism in the control group whereas no significant increases were noted for pilots of electronic models. Pilots in the latter group had low rates for conditions postulated as related to radiation exposure. Such results indicated that pilots of electronically modified aircraft were not at increased risk for illness or injury because of the aircraft models they primarily flew.

  10. Dynamic Structural Health Monitoring of Slender Structures Using Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Paulo; Travanca, Rui; Rodrigues, Hugo; Melo, José; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto; André, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the research activities at the Instituto de Telecomunicações—Pólo de Aveiro and University of Aveiro, in the field of fiber Bragg grating based sensors and their applications in dynamic measurements for Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures such as towers. In this work we describe the implementation of an optical biaxial accelerometer based on fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on optical fibers. The proof-of-concept was done with the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete structure and a slender metallic telecommunication tower. Those structures were found to be suitable to demonstrate the feasibility of FBG accelerometers to obtain the structures' natural frequencies, which are the key parameters in Structural Health Monitoring and in the calibration of numerical models used to simulate the structure behavior. PMID:22778661

  11. Dynamic Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures using optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Paulo; Travanca, Rui; Rodrigues, Hugo; Melo, José; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto; André, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the research activities at the Instituto de Telecomunicações--Pólo de Aveiro and University of Aveiro, in the field of fiber Bragg grating based sensors and their applications in dynamic measurements for Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures such as towers. In this work we describe the implementation of an optical biaxial accelerometer based on fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on optical fibers. The proof-of-concept was done with the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete structure and a slender metallic telecommunication tower. Those structures were found to be suitable to demonstrate the feasibility of FBG accelerometers to obtain the structures' natural frequencies, which are the key parameters in Structural Health Monitoring and in the calibration of numerical models used to simulate the structure behavior.

  12. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  13. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Results of Operator's Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Raylund; Summers, Harold; Cronkhite, James

    1996-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) to provide monitoring of critical mechanical systems on the helicopter, including motors, drive train, engines, and life-limited components. The implementation of HUMS and cost integration with current maintenance procedures was assessed from the operator's viewpoint in order to achieve expected benefits from these systems, such as enhanced safety, reduced maintenance cost, and increased availability. An operational HUMS that was installed and operated under an independent flight trial program was used as a basis for this study. The HUMS equipment and software were commercially available. Based on the results of the feasibility study, the HUMS used in the flight trial program generally demonstrated a high level of reliability in monitoring the rotor system, engines, drive train, and life-limited components. The system acted as a sentinel to warn of impending failures. A worn tail rotor pitch bearing was detected by HUMS, which had the capability for self testing to diagnose system and sensor faults. Examples of potential payback to the operator with HUMS were identified, including reduced insurance cost through enhanced safety, lower operating costs derived from maintenance credits, increased aircraft availability, and improved operating efficiency. The interfacing of HUMS with current operational procedures was assessed to require only minimal revisions to the operator's maintenance manuals. Finally the success in realizing the potential benefits from HUMS technology was found to depend on the operator, helicopter manufacturer, regulator (FAA), and HUMS supplier working together.

  14. Multi-metric model-based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hongki; Spencer, B. F.

    2014-04-01

    ABSTRACT The inspection and maintenance of bridges of all types is critical to the public safety and often critical to the economy of a region. Recent advanced sensor technologies provide accurate and easy-to-deploy means for structural health monitoring and, if the critical locations are known a priori, can be monitored by direct measurements. However, for today's complex civil infrastructure, the critical locations are numerous and often difficult to identify. This paper presents an innovative framework for structural monitoring at arbitrary locations on the structure combining computational models and limited physical sensor information. The use of multi-metric measurements is advocated to improve the accuracy of the approach. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed hybrid monitoring framework, particularly focusing on fatigue life assessment of steel structures.

  15. Modeling & Verifying Aircraft Paint Hangar Airflow to Reduce Green House Gas and Energy Usage while Protecting Occupational Health Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-30

    savings and better worker protection . Site visits determined that ventilation configuration and the design of aircraft corrosion control and paint...alongside the appropriateness of the existing respiratory protection program. Exposure must be addressed because the paint used to coat the...HANGAR AIRFLOW TO REDUCE GREEN HOUSE GAS AND ENERGY USAGE WHILE PROTECTING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Edwin Chiang P.E. NAVFAC EXWC James S. Bennett Ph.D

  16. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987-1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1988-08-01

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract DE-AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. First year highlights included remodeling of the Olympia (WA) Fish Health Center to provide laboratory space for histopathological support services to participating state agencies, acquisition of gas monitoring equipment for hatchery water systems, expanded disease detection work for bacterial kidney disease and erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome in fish stocks at 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries and advancements in computerized case history data storage and analysis. This report summarizes the health status of fish reared at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin, briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar years 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987. 1 ref.

  17. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  18. Challenges in Data Quality Assurance in Pervasive Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Janani; Shin, Minho; Kotz, David; Rajan, Anand; Sastry, Manoj; Yarvis, Mark

    Wearable, portable, and implantable medical sensors have ushered in a new paradigm for healthcare in which patients can take greater responsibility and caregivers can make well-informed, timely decisions. Health-monitoring systems built on such sensors have huge potential benefit to the quality of healthcare and quality of life for many people, such as patients with chronic medical conditions (such as blood-sugar sensors for diabetics), people seeking to change unhealthy behavior (such as losing weight or quitting smoking), or athletes wishing to monitor their condition and performance. To be effective, however, these systems must provide assurances about the quality of the sensor data. The sensors must be applied to the patient by a human, and the sensor data may be transported across multiple networks and devices before it is presented to the medical team. While no system can guarantee data quality, we anticipate that it will help for the system to annotate data with some measure of confidence. In this paper, we take a deeper look at potential health-monitoring usage scenarios and highlight research challenges required to ensure and assess quality of sensor data in health-monitoring systems.

  19. An overview of SAE ARP 1587: Aircraft gas turbine engine monitoring system guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to developing an engine monitoring system (EMS) is outlined. An extensive shopping list of EMS capabilities and benefits are included. A team approach to developing an EMS is emphasized with a description of the responsibilities of each team member.

  20. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups.

  1. PRISM: A DATA-DRIVEN PLATFORM FOR MONITORING MENTAL HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Wu, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and there is no gold standard currently available for the measurement of mental health. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that the information physicians use to diagnose these disorders is episodic and often subjective. Current methods to monitor mental health involve the use of subjective DSM-5 guidelines, and advances in EEG and video monitoring technologies have not been widely adopted due to invasiveness and inconvenience. Wearable technologies have surfaced as a ubiquitous and unobtrusive method for providing continuous, quantitative data about a patient. Here, we introduce PRISM-Passive, Real-time Information for Sensing Mental Health. This platform integrates motion, light and heart rate data from a smart watch application with user interactions and text entries from a web application. We have demonstrated a proof of concept by collecting preliminary data through a pilot study of 13 subjects. We have engineered appropriate features and applied both unsupervised and supervised learning to develop models that are predictive of user-reported ratings of their emotional state, demonstrating that the data has the potential to be useful for evaluating mental health. This platform could allow patients and clinicians to leverage continuous streams of passive data for early and accurate diagnosis as well as constant monitoring of patients suffering from mental disorders.

  2. Integrated controls and health monitoring for chemical transfer propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Binder, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is reviewing various propulsion technologies for exploring space. The requirements are examined for one enabling propulsion technology: Integrated Controls and Health Monitoring (ICHM) for Chemical Transfer Propulsion (CTP). Functional requirements for a CTP-ICHM system are proposed from tentative mission scenarios, vehicle configurations, CTP specifications, and technical feasibility. These CTP-ICHM requirements go beyond traditional reliable operation and emergency shutoff control to include: (1) enhanced mission flexibility; (2) continuously variable throttling; (3) tank-head start control; (4) automated prestart and post-shutoff engine check; (5) monitoring of space exposure degradation; and (6) product evolution flexibility. Technology development plans are also discussed.

  3. FBG sensor for physiologic monitoring in M-health application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hung, Kevin; Chan, Wai-Man; Wu, Y. K.; Choy, Sheung-On; Kwok, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a wearable physiologic monitoring system using FBG sensors is investigated. The FBG sensors with the capability of sensing temperature, movement, and respiration are connected to the wireless transceiver, microcontroller and server for wireless and long distance physiologic monitoring and analysis. Biosignals recorded experimentally are analyzed and compared with the data obtained in the traditional medical data acquisition system. The system investigated in this paper can be used in an m-health shirt, which has the capability to measure and wirelessly transmit electrocardiogram, respiration, movement, and body temperature signal to a remote station, with other plug-in modules.

  4. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  5. Mobile health-monitoring system through visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee-Yong; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Promising development in the light emitting diode (LED) technology has spurred the interest to adapt LED for both illumination and data transmission. This has fostered the growth of interest in visible light communication (VLC), with on-going research to utilize VLC in various applications. This paper presents a mobile-health monitoring system, where healthcare information such as biomedical signals and patient information are transmitted via the LED lighting. A small and portable receiver module is designed and developed to be attached to the mobile device, providing a seamless monitoring environment. Three different healthcare information including ECG, PPG signals and HL7 text information is transmitted simultaneously, using a single channel VLC. This allows for a more precise and accurate monitoring and diagnosis. The data packet size is carefully designed, to transmit information in a minimal packet error rate. A comprehensive monitoring application is designed and developed through the use of a tablet computer in our study. Monitoring and evaluation such as heart rate and arterial blood pressure measurement can be performed concurrently. Real-time monitoring is demonstrated through experiment, where non-hazardous transmission method can be implemented alongside a portable device for better and safer healthcare service.

  6. Fiber optical sensors for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechstedt, Ralf D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper selected fiber optical point sensors that are of potential interest for deployment in aircraft are discussed. The operating principles together with recent measurement results are described. Examples include a high-temperature combined pressure and temperature sensor for engine health, hydraulics and landing gear monitoring, an ultra-high sensitive pressure sensor for oil, pneumatic and fluid aero systems applications and a combined acceleration and temperature sensor for condition monitoring of rotating components.

  7. Exposure to vibration and self-reported health complaints of riveters in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Burdorf, A; Monster, A

    1991-06-01

    Workers using vibrating tools may experience neurological and vascular symptoms in the fingers and hands. The effect of vibration exposure on bone and joint disorders in the hand, arm and shoulder is less clear. In a cross-sectional study, riveters and controls in an aircraft company were investigated for vibration exposure and health complaints. Vibration measurements showed that frequency-weighted acceleration levels for riveting hammers and bucking bars ranged from 5.5 to 12.3 m s -2. The calculated equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration for a period of 4 h was the questionnaire survey 101 riveters reported statistically significant more complaints of pain and stiffness in their hands and arms when compared with 76 controls with no, or little, exposure to vibration. After 10 years of exposure statistically significant age-adjusted odds ratios (P less than 0.05) were found for vibration-induced white finger (VWF) (1.9) and pain or stiffness of the wrist (3.2). Although they were not statistically significant (0.05 less than P less than 0.10) odds ratios appreciably greater than 1 were found for numbness in fingers (1.6) and pain or stiffness in the elbow (1.6) and the shoulder (1.5), and these complaints were strongly associated with duration of exposure to vibration. With logistic regression the probabilities for a riveter of having symptoms of VWF after 10 and 20 years of exposure was estimated to be P = 0.18 and P = 0.29, respectively, which can be compared with the prevalences predicted by the dose-response relationship for VWF in ISO 5349, which are 10 and 30%. The results of this study suggest that exposure to vibration from working with impact power tools can contribute to complaints of pain and stiffness in the hand, arm and shoulder, and especially in the wrist.

  8. Monitoring wound healing in the home health arena.

    PubMed

    Eager, C A

    1997-09-01

    To determine the type and quality of documentation in home health care agencies in the United States, a 15-question survey was sent to 500 agencies. The returned surveys revealed the following: (1) narrative notes were the most consistently used documentation tool; (2) 74% of agencies take photographs of the wound as part of their documentation; (3) 87% of agencies stage pressure ulcers according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) staging system; (4) 7% use reverse staging to document improvement in wounds; (5) 32% use standard protocols to treat different types of wounds; (6) 96% to 98% monitored healing by measuring length times width, as well as drainage and wound bed changes. The results indicate that most home health care agencies use the NPUAP staging system but do not track healing in a consistent way. They do not follow a consistent documentation standard, nor do their wound assessments bring together all the monitored factors indicative of healing progress.

  9. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-12

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  10. TPS In-Flight Health Monitoring Project Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, Chris; Richards, Lance; Hudston, Larry; Prosser, William

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the development of new thermal protection systems (TPS) is reported. New approaches use embedded lightweight, sensitive, fiber optic strain and temperature sensors within the TPS. Goals of the program are to develop and demonstrate a prototype TPS health monitoring system, develop a thermal-based damage detection algorithm, characterize limits of sensor/system performance, and develop ea methodology transferable to new designs of TPS health monitoring systems. Tasks completed during the project helped establish confidence in understanding of both test setup and the model and validated system/sensor performance in a simple TPS structure. Other progress included complete initial system testing, commencement of the algorithm development effort, generation of a damaged thermal response characteristics database, initial development of a test plan for integration testing of proven FBG sensors in simple TPS structure, and development of partnerships to apply the technology.

  11. Thermal sensitivity of Lamb waves for structural health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Dodson, J C; Inman, D J

    2013-03-01

    One of the drawbacks of the current Lamb wave structural health monitoring methods are the false positives due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature. To create an environmental insensitive damage detection scheme, the physics of thermal effects on Lamb waves must be understood. Dispersion and thermal sensitivity curves for an isotropic plate with thermal stress and thermally varying elastic modulus are presented. The thermal sensitivity of dispersion curves is analytically developed and validated by experimental measurements. The group velocity thermal sensitivity highlights temperature insensitive features at two critical frequencies. The thermal sensitivity gives us insight to how temperature affects Lamb wave speeds in different frequency ranges and will help those developing structural health monitoring algorithms.

  12. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  13. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions. PMID:27973450

  14. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  15. Health monitoring in composite materials via peak strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Larry D.; Westermo, Bruce D.

    1996-11-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are beginning to be employed in applications related to retrofit and repair of large-scale civil structures. This paper discusses the utilization of a passive, pea, strain monitoring technology to the damage and health assessment of composite structures. Applications considered include epoxy-matrix composite materials reinforced with chopped glass, continuous glass fibers, carbon-fiber mat as well as continuous carbon-fiber. The advantages of the various material applications are discussed as they apply to large civil structures with peak strain monitoring data presented to illustrate how the systems can be field monitored. Full-scale structural component testing as well as subscale laboratory testing results will be presented and discussed. Recommendations are provided to guide the engineering community in such composite applications and to provide a design framework for the inclusion of simple and reliable sensor systems to detect both short-term and long-term damage.

  16. Health Technologies for Monitoring and Managing Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Minda, Elizabeth; Jutai, Jeffrey; Speechley, Mark; Bradley, Kaitlin; Chudyk, Anna; Petrella, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this review was to determine the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of self-monitoring devices and technologies for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on specific health-related outcome measures. Self-monitoring devices included those that assist patients with managing diabetes and preventing cardiovascular complications (CVCs). A secondary objective was to explore issues of feasibility, usability, and compliance among patients and providers. Methods Study criteria included individuals ≥14 years and youth (7–14 years) with T1DM or T2DM, intervention with a self-monitoring device, assessment of clinical outcomes with the device, literature in English, and ≥10 participants. Relevant published literature was searched from 1985 to 2008. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. Data were extracted for clinical outcomes, feasibility and compliance methods, and results. Selected studies were independently evaluated with a validated instrument for assessing methodological quality. Results Eighteen trials were selected. Predominant types of device interventions included self-monitoring of blood glucose, pedometers, and cell phone or wireless technologies. Feasibility and compliance were measured in the majority of studies. Conclusions Self-monitoring of blood glucose continues to be an effective tool for the management of diabetes. Wireless technologies can improve diabetes self-care, and pedometers are effective lifestyle modification tools. The results of this review indicate a need for additional controlled trial research on existing and novel technologies for diabetes self-monitoring, on health outcomes associated with diabetes and CVCs, and device feasibility and compliance. PMID:20144402

  17. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chong, Pek Ching Jenny; Li, Bingqing; Asundi, Anand K.

    2008-01-01

    Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for non-invasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control. PMID:27879874

  18. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  19. Ultra low power signal oriented approach for wireless health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). We present the implementation of a novel Wake Up Receiver (WUR) in the context of standardised wireless protocols, in a signal-oriented WBAN environment and present a novel protocol intended for wireless health monitoring (WhMAC). WhMAC is a TDMA-based protocol with very low power consumption. It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level. A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios.

  20. Health monitoring of composite structures throughout the life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilles, James; Croxford, Anthony; Bond, Ian

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the capability of inductively coupled piezoelectric sensors to monitor the state of health throughout the lifetime of composite structures. A single sensor which generated guided elastic waves was embedded into the stacking sequence of a large glass fiber reinforced plastic plate. The progress of cure was monitored by measuring variations in the amplitude and velocity of the waveforms reflected from the plate's edges. Baseline subtraction techniques were then implemented to detect barely visible impact damage (BVID) created by a 10 Joule impact, at a distance of 350 mm from the sensor embedded in the cured plate. To investigate the influence of mechanical loading on sensor performance, a single sensor was embedded within a glass fiber panel and subjected to tensile load. The panel was loaded up to a maximum strain of 1%, in increments of 0.1% strain. Guided wave measurements were recorded by the embedded sensor before testing, when the panel was under load, and after testing. The ultrasonic measurements showed a strong dependence on the applied load. Upon removal of the mechanical load the guided wave measurements returned to their original values recorded before testing. The results in this work show that embedded piezoelectric sensors can be used to monitor the state of health throughout the life-cycle of composite parts, even when subjected to relatively large strains. However the influence of load on guided wave measurements has implications for online monitoring using embedded piezoelectric transducers.

  1. Piezoelectric based sensing in wireless steel bridge health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Ziehl, Paul; Ozevin, Didem

    2009-03-01

    rent routine inspection practices for bridge health monitoring are not sufficient for the timely identification of areas of concern or to provide enough information to bridge owners to make informed decisions for maintenance prioritization. Continuous monitoring is needed for long term evaluation from an integrated sensing system that would act as a monitoring and early warning alarm system and be able to communicate the information from the bridge directly to the bridge owners for potential and immediate action. To address this urgent highway bridge health monitoring need, a joint venture research has been initiated by incorporating novel and promising sensing approach based on piezoelectricity together with energy harvesting to reduce the dramatic uncertainty inherent into any inspection and maintenance plan. In the system, the damage detection and classification is focused on the use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) at both active (Lamb wave interrogation) mode and passive (acoustic emission) mode on steel bridge. For efficient energy usage, the active mode will be triggered when acoustic emission caused by the structural change is detected. In the active sensing mode, computed array imaging will be used to detect the presence of crack and to track its growth. To further quantify the crack growth, damage physics based damage indicator will be defined and used to trace the crack growth as well.

  2. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  3. Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

  4. Multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin; Dong, Liang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming the main structural materials of next generation of aircraft because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, and excellent designability. As key components of large composite structures, joints play important roles to ensure the integrity of the composite structures. However, it is very difficult to analyze the strength and failure modes of composite joints due to their complex nonlinear coupling factors. Therefore, there is a need to monitor, diagnose, evaluate and predict the structure state of composite joints. This paper proposes a multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joints. Major work of this paper includes: 1) The concept of multifunctional sensor layer integrated with eddy current sensors, Rogowski coil and arrayed piezoelectric sensors; 2) Development of the process for integrating the eddy current sensor foil, Rogowski coil and piezoelectric sensor array in multifunctional sensor layer; 3) A new concept of smart composite joint with multifunctional sensing capability. The challenges for building such a structural state sensing system and some solutions to address the challenges are also discussed in the study.

  5. A Model-based Health Monitoring and Diagnostic System for the UH-60 Helicopter. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hindson, William; Sanderfer, Dwight; Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning techniques hold much promise in providing comprehensive monitoring and diagnostics capabilities for complex systems. We are exploring the use of one of these techniques, which utilizes multi-signal modeling and the TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine, on the UH-60 Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) flight research aircraft. We focus on the engine and transmission systems, and acquire sensor data across the 1553 bus as well as by direct analog-to-digital conversion from sensors to the QHuMS (Qualtech health and usage monitoring system) computer. The QHuMS computer uses commercially available components and is rack-mounted in the RASCAL facility. A multi-signal model of the transmission and engine subsystems enables studies of system testability and analysis of the degree of fault isolation available with various instrumentation suites. The model and examples of these analyses will be described and the data architectures enumerated. Flight tests of this system will validate the data architecture and provide real-time flight profiles to be further analyzed in the laboratory.

  6. Engine health monitoring systems: Tools for improved maintenance management in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The performance monitoring aspect of maintenance, characteristic of the engine health monitoring system are discussed. An overview of the system activities is presented and a summary of programs for improved monitoring in the 1980's are discussed.

  7. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ng, Marie; Fullman, Nancy; Dieleman, Joseph L; Flaxman, Abraham D; Murray, Christopher J L; Lim, Stephen S

    2014-09-01

    A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  8. Aircraft and satellite monitoring of water quality in Lake Superior near Duluth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Sydor, M.; Vandomelen, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite images and low altitude aerial photographs often show vivid discolorations in water bodies. Extensive laboratory analysis shows that water reflectance, which causes brightness on aerial images, positively correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity, which on a particular day correlates to suspended solids. Work with low altitude photography on three overcast days and with ERTS images on five clear days provides positive correlation of image brightness to the high turbidity and solids which are present in Lake Superior near Duluth over 50% of the time. Proper use of aerial images would have shown that an $8,000,000 drinking water intake constructed in the midst of this unpotable, turbid water should have been located 6 miles north in clear, usable water. Noise effects such as skylight reflection, atmospheric effects, and depth penetration also must be understood for operational use of remote sensing for water quality monitoring and are considered in the paper.

  9. Autonomous self-powered structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Anton, Steven R.; Zhang, David; Kumar, Amrita; Inman, Daniel J.; Ooi, Teng K.

    2010-03-01

    Structural health monitoring technology is perceived as a revolutionary method of determining the integrity of structures involving the use of multidisciplinary fields including sensors, materials, system integration, signal processing and interpretation. The core of the technology is the development of self-sufficient systems for the continuous monitoring, inspection and damage detection of structures with minimal labor involvement. A major drawback of the existing technology for real-time structural health monitoring is the requirement for external electrical power input. For some applications, such as missiles or combat vehicles in the field, this factor can drastically limit the use of the technology. Having an on-board electrical power source that is independent of the vehicle power system can greatly enhance the SHM system and make it a completely self-contained system. In this paper, using the SMART layer technology as a basis, an Autonomous Self-powered (ASP) Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been developed to solve the major challenge facing the transition of SHM systems into field applications. The architecture of the self-powered SHM system was first designed. There are four major components included in the SHM system: SMART Layer with sensor network, low power consumption diagnostic hardware, rechargeable battery with energy harvesting device, and host computer with supporting software. A prototype of the integrated self-powered active SHM system was built for performance and functionality testing. Results from the evaluation tests demonstrated that a fully charged battery system is capable of powering the SHM system for active scanning up to 10 hours.

  10. Wireless Zigbee strain gage sensor system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Abdi, Frank; Miraj, Rashid; Dang, Chau; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Sauer, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    A compact cell phone size radio frequency (ZigBee) wireless strain measurement sensor system to measure the structural strain deformation was developed. The developed system provides an accurate strain measurement data stream to the Internet for further Diagnostic and Prognostic (DPS) correlation. Existing methods of structural measurement by strain sensors (gauges) do not completely satisfy problems posed by continuous structural health monitoring. The need for efficient health monitoring methods with real-time requirements to bidirectional data flow from sensors and to a commanding device is becoming critical for keeping our daily life safety. The use of full-field strain measurement techniques could reduce costly experimental programs through better understanding of material behavior. Wireless sensor-network technology is a monitoring method that is estimated to grow rapidly providing potential for cost savings over traditional wired sensors. The many of currently available wireless monitoring methods have: the proactive and constant data rate character of the data streams rather than traditional reactive, event-driven data delivery; mostly static node placement on structures with limited number of nodes. Alpha STAR Electronics' wireless sensor network system, ASWN, addresses some of these deficiencies, making the system easier to operate. The ASWN strain measurement system utilizes off-the-shelf sensors, namely strain gauges, with an analog-to-digital converter/amplifier and ZigBee radio chips to keep cost lower. Strain data is captured by the sensor, converted to digital form and delivered to the ZigBee radio chip, which in turn broadcasts the information using wireless protocols to a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) or Laptop/Desktop computers. From here, data is forwarded to remote computers for higher-level analysis and feedback using traditional cellular and satellite communication or the Ethernet infrastructure. This system offers a compact size, lower cost

  11. Progress Monitoring in an Integrated Health Care System: Tracking Behavioral Health Vital Signs.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.

  12. Inflatable Habitat Health Monitoring: Implementation, Lessons Learned, and Application to Lunar or Martian Habitat Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Hong, Todd; Hafermalz, Scott; Hunkins, Robert; Valle, Gerald; Toups, Larry

    2009-01-01

    NASA's exploration mission is to send humans to the Moon and Mars, in which the purpose is to learn how to live and work safely in those harsh environments. A critical aspect of living in an extreme environment is habitation, and within that habitation element there are key systems which monitor the habitation environment to provide a safe and comfortable living and working space for humans. Expandable habitats are one of the options currently being considered due to their potential mass and volume efficiencies. This paper discusses a joint project between the National Science Foundation (NSF), ILC Dover, and NASA in which an expandable habitat was deployed in the extreme environment of Antarctica to better understand the performance and operations over a one-year period. This project was conducted through the Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) where the NSF provided the location at McMurdo Station in Antarctica and support at the location, ILC Dover provided the inflatable habitat, and NASA provided the instrumentation and data system for monitoring the habitat. The outcome of this project provided lessons learned in the implementation of an inflatable habitat and the systems that support that habitat. These lessons learned will be used to improve current habitation capabilities and systems to meet the objectives of exploration missions to the moon and Mars.

  13. Remote health monitoring for elderly through interactive television

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Providing remote health monitoring to specific groups of patients represents an issue of great relevance for the national health systems, because of the costs related to moving health operators, the time spent to reach remote sites, and the high number of people needing health assistance. At the same time, some assistance activities, like those related to chronical diseases, may be satisfied through a remote interaction with the patient, without a direct medical examination. Methods Moving from this considerations, our paper proposes a system architecture for the provisioning of remote health assistance to older adults, based on a blind management of a network of wireless medical devices, and an interactive TV Set Top Box for accessing health related data. The selection of TV as the interface between the user and the system is specifically targeted to older adults. Due to the private nature of the information exchanged, a certified procedure is implemented for data delivery, through the use of non conditional smart cards. All these functions may be accomplished through a proper design of the system management, and a suitable interactive application. Results The interactive application acting as the interface between the user and the system on the TV monitor has been evaluated able to help readability and clear understanding of the contents and functions proposed. Thanks to the limited amount of data to transfer, even a Set Top Box equipped with a traditional PSTN modem may be used to support the proposed service at a basic level; more advanced features, like audio/video connection, may be activated if the Set Top Box enables a broadband connection (e.g. ADSL). Conclusions The proposed layered architecture for a remote health monitoring system can be tailored to address a wide range of needs, according with each patient’s conditions and capabilities. The system exploits the potentialities offered by Digital Television receivers, a friendly MHP interface

  14. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure; Czech experience and results 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Malušek, A; Ploc, O; Kovář, I; Brabcová, K; Spurný, F

    2011-03-01

    Individual monitoring of aircrew of airline operators registered in the Czech Republic has been performed since 1998. In this work, annual effective doses and annual collective effective doses of aircrew from occupational exposure in the period from 1998 to 2008 are presented, methods used for their evaluation and verification are described, and general trends observed in the data are discussed. Annual effective doses were calculated using the computer code CARI from flight schedules provided by airline operators and typical flight profiles. The method was verified via a comparison with (i) measurements using different types of detectors and (ii) calculations using the CARI and EPCARD codes with actual flight data. It was found that average annual effective doses in the period from 1998 to 2008 were in the range from 1.2 to 2.0 mSv and followed the trend of the solar cycle. Annual collective effective doses increased from 1.4 manSv in 1998 to 4.1 manSv in 2008 as the number of aircrew increased from 857 to 2158 during this period. Combined relative uncertainties (coverage factor ) of reported individual and collective effective doses were ∼ 25 %, which is well within the range given by the factor of 1.5. More work is needed to achieve a higher accuracy of this estimate.

  15. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    PubMed

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  16. Remote health monitoring system for detecting cardiac disorders.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ayush; Kumar, Sunil; Bajpai, Anurag; Tiwari, Vijay N; Nayak, Mithun; Venkatesan, Shankar; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-12-01

    Remote health monitoring system with clinical decision support system as a key component could potentially quicken the response of medical specialists to critical health emergencies experienced by their patients. A monitoring system, specifically designed for cardiac care with electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis as the core diagnostic technique, could play a vital role in early detection of a wide range of cardiac ailments, from a simple arrhythmia to life threatening conditions such as myocardial infarction. The system that the authors have developed consists of three major components, namely, (a) mobile gateway, deployed on patient's mobile device, that receives 12-lead ECG signals from any ECG sensor, (b) remote server component that hosts algorithms for accurate annotation and analysis of the ECG signal and (c) point of care device of the doctor to receive a diagnostic report from the server based on the analysis of ECG signals. In the present study, their focus has been toward developing a system capable of detecting critical cardiac events well in advance using an advanced remote monitoring system. A system of this kind is expected to have applications ranging from tracking wellness/fitness to detection of symptoms leading to fatal cardiac events.

  17. A qualitative review for wireless health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

    2013-12-01

    A proliferating interest has been being observed over the past years in accurate wireless system development in order to monitor incessant human activities in health care centres. Furthermore because of the swelling number of elderly population and the inadequate number of competent staffs for nursing homes there is a big market petition for health care monitoring system. In order to detect human researchers developed different methods namely which include Field Identification technique, Visual Sensor Network, radar detection, e-mobile techniques and so on. An all-encompassing overview of the non-wired human detection application advancement is presented in this paper. Inductive links are used for human detection application while wiring an electronic system has become impractical in recent times. Keeping in mind the shortcomings, an Inductive Intelligent Sensor (IIS) has been proposed as a novel human monitoring system for future implementation. The proposed sensor works towards exploring the signature signals of human body movement and size. This proposed sensor is fundamentally based on inductive loop that senses the presence and a passing human resulting an inductive change.

  18. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M.; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-15

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  19. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M.; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  20. Reducing the cost of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peairs, Daniel M.; Park, Gyuhae; Inman, Daniel J.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the current research on impedance-based structural health monitoring technique at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply high frequency structural excitations (typically higher than 30 kHz) through the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers, and measure the impedance of structures by monitoring the current and voltage applied to the piezoelectric transducers. Changes in impedance indicate changes in the structure, which in turn can indicate that damage has occurred. Three examples, including a bolted joint, gas pipeline and composite structure, are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this health monitoring technique to the wide variety of practical field applications. Although many proof-of-concept experiments have been performed using the impedance methods, the impedance-measuring device (HP4194A) is still bulky and expensive. Therefore, we have developed an operational amplifier-based turnkey device that can measure and record the electric impedance of a PZT. The performance of this miniaturized and portable device has been compared to our previous results and its effectiveness has been demonstrated. This paper summarizes the experimental setup, procedures, considerations needed to implement the device in field applications.

  1. A Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensor for Propulsion Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave sensor technology is being investigated by the NASA Glenn Research Center as a means of making non-contact structural health measurements in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. This type of sensor technology is beneficial in that it is accurate, it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures, and is unaffected by contaminants that are present in turbine engines. It is specifically being targeted for use in the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) and High Pressure Compressor (HPC) sections to monitor the structural health of the rotating components. It is intended to use blade tip clearance to monitor blade growth and wear and blade tip timing to monitor blade vibration and deflection. The use of microwave sensors for this application is an emerging concept. Techniques on their use and calibration needed to be developed. As a means of better understanding the issues associated with the microwave sensors, a series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate their performance for aero engine applications. This paper presents the results of these experiments.

  2. Implementation of foetal e-health monitoring system through biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Vijay S; Tiwari, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Continuous foetal monitoring of physiological signals is of particular importance for early detection of complexities related to the foetus or the mother's health. The available conventional methods of monitoring mostly perform off-line analysis and restrict the mobility of subjects within a hospital or a room. Hence, the aim of this paper is to develop a foetal e-health monitoring system using mobile phones and wireless sensors for providing advanced healthcare services in the home environment. The system is tested by recording the real-time Foetal Phonocardiography (fPCG) signals from 15 subjects with different gestational periods. The performance of the developed system is compared with the existing ultrasound based Doppler shift technique, ensuring an overall accuracy of 98% of the developed system. The developed framework is non-invasive, cost-effective and simple enough to be used in home care application. It offers advanced healthcare facilities even to the pregnant women living in rural areas and avoids their unnecessary visits at the healthcare centres.

  3. Towards personalised ambient monitoring of mental health via mobile technologies.

    PubMed

    Prociow, Pawel A; Crowe, John A

    2010-01-01

    Managing bipolar disorder is an important health issue that can strongly affect the patient's quality of life during occurrences of depressive or manic episodes and is therefore a growing burden to healthcare systems. A widely practised method of monitoring the course of the disorder is by mood and general mental health questionnaires, which are nowadays often implemented on mobile electronic devices.Detecting changes to daily routine and behaviour is of crucial importance as they can be symptomatic of an ongoing episode, or in the case of an external cause, may trigger such an episode.Current mobile phones and geospatial technology provide a means of monitoring aspects of daily routine and lifestyle which may be valuable in facilitating self-management of the condition.This manuscript introduces a methodology for analysing data obtained from a simple wearable system based on a mid-range mobile phone, along with trial results from a control group of three participants with no history of Bipolar Disorder. It is suggested that such an approach offers an unobtrusive, acceptable and low cost means of monitoring bipolar disorder patients that could significantly improve their care.

  4. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  5. A Simple Demonstration of Concrete Structural Health Monitoring Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Cai, Guowei; Nath, Paromita; Bao, Yanqing; Bru Brea, Jose Maria; Koester, David; Adams, Douglas; Kosson, David

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This ongoing research project is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in a nuclear power plant subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report describes a proof-of-concept example on a small concrete slab subjected to a freeze-thaw experiment that explores techniques in each of the four elements of the framework and their integration. An experimental set-up at Vanderbilt University’s Laboratory for Systems Integrity and Reliability is used to research effective combination of full-field techniques that include infrared thermography, digital image correlation, and ultrasonic measurement. The measured data are linked to the probabilistic framework: the thermography, digital image correlation data, and ultrasonic measurement data are used for Bayesian calibration of model parameters, for diagnosis of damage, and for prognosis of future damage. The proof-of-concept demonstration presented in this report highlights the significance of each element of the framework and their integration.

  6. Health Monitoring System for the SSME-fault detection algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, S.; Galinaitis, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    A Health Monitoring System (HMS) Framework for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been developed by United Technologies Corporation (UTC) for the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this effort, fault detection algorithms have been developed to detect the SSME faults with sufficient time to shutdown the engine. These algorithms have been designed to provide monitoring coverage during the startup, mainstage and shutdown phases of the SSME operation. The algorithms have the capability to detect multiple SSME faults, and are based on time series, regression and clustering techniques. This paper presents a discussion of candidate algorithms suitable for fault detection followed by a description of the algorithms selected for implementation in the HMS and the results of testing these algorithms with the SSME test stand data.

  7. Wake-up transceivers for structural health monitoring of bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumberg, T.; Kokert, J.; Younesi, V.; Koenig, S.; Reindl, L. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we present a wireless sensor network to monitor the structural health of a large-scale highway bridge in Germany. The wireless sensor network consists of several sensor nodes that use wake-up receivers to realize latency free and low-power communication. The sensor nodes are either equipped with very accurate tilt sensor developed by Northrop Grumman LITEF GmbH or with a Novatel OEM615 GNSS receiver. Relay nodes are required to forward measurement data to a base station located on the bridge. The base station is a gateway that transmits the local measurement data to a remote server where it can be further analyzed and processed. Further on, we present an energy harvesting system to supply the energy demanding GNSS sensor nodes to realize long term monitoring.

  8. Probabilistic Structural Health Monitoring of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yap, Keng C.; Macias, Jesus; Kaouk, Mohamed; Gafka, Tammy L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) system can contribute to the risk management of a structure operating under hazardous conditions. An example is the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) that monitors the debris hazards to the Space Shuttle Orbiter s Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. Since Return-to-Flight (RTF) after the Columbia accident, WLEIDS was developed and subsequently deployed on board the Orbiter to detect ascent and on-orbit debris impacts, so as to support the assessment of wing leading edge structural integrity prior to Orbiter re-entry. As SHM is inherently an inverse problem, the analyses involved, including those performed for WLEIDS, tend to be associated with significant uncertainty. The use of probabilistic approaches to handle the uncertainty has resulted in the successful implementation of many development and application milestones.

  9. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rajamony, Ram

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating and Piezo Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Ferey; Moslehi, Behzad; Sotoudeh, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is one of the most important tools available for the maintenance, safety, and integrity of aerospace structural systems. Lightweight, electromagnetic-interference- immune, fiber-optic sensor-based SHM will play an increasing role in more secure air transportation systems. Manufacturers and maintenance personnel have pressing needs for significantly improving safety and reliability while providing for lower inspection and maintenance costs. Undetected or untreated damage may grow and lead to catastrophic structural failure. Damage can originate from the strain/stress history of the material, imperfections of domain boundaries in metals, delamination in multi-layer materials, or the impact of machine tools in the manufacturing process. Damage can likewise develop during service life from wear and tear, or under extraordinary circumstances such as with unusual forces, temperature cycling, or impact of flying objects. Monitoring and early detection are key to preventing a catastrophic failure of structures, especially when these are expected to perform near their limit conditions.

  11. Skin-mountable stretch sensor for wearable health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pegan, Jonathan D; Zhang, Jasmine; Chu, Michael; Nguyen, Thao; Park, Sun-Jun; Paul, Akshay; Kim, Joshua; Bachman, Mark; Khine, Michelle

    2016-10-06

    This work presents a wrinkled Platinum (wPt) strain sensor with tunable strain sensitivity for applications in wearable health monitoring. These stretchable sensors show a dynamic range of up to 185% strain and gauge factor (GF) of 42. This is believed to be the highest reported GF of any metal thin film strain sensor over a physiologically relevant dynamic range to date. Importantly, sensitivity and dynamic range are tunable to the application by adjusting wPt film thickness. Performance is reliable over 1000 cycles with low hysteresis after sensor conditioning. The possibility of using such a sensor for real-time respiratory monitoring by measuring chest wall displacement and correlating with lung volume is demonstrated.

  12. A nonlinear cointegration approach with applications to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Worden, K.; Cross, E. J.

    2016-09-01

    One major obstacle to the implementation of structural health monitoring (SHM) is the effect of operational and environmental variabilities, which may corrupt the signal of structural degradation. Recently, an approach inspired from the community of econometrics, called cointegration, has been employed to eliminate the adverse influence from operational and environmental changes and still maintain sensitivity to structural damage. However, the linear nature of cointegration may limit its application when confronting nonlinear relations between system responses. This paper proposes a nonlinear cointegration method based on Gaussian process regression (GPR); the method is constructed under the Engle-Granger framework, and tests for unit root processes are conducted both before and after the GPR is applied. The proposed approach is examined with real engineering data from the monitoring of the Z24 Bridge.

  13. Pipelining in structural health monitoring wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Dorvash, Siavash; Cheng, Liang; Pakzad, Shamim

    2010-04-01

    Application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring (SHM), is becoming widespread due to its implementation ease and economic advantage over traditional sensor networks. Beside advantages that have made wireless network preferable, there are some concerns regarding their performance in some applications. In long-span Bridge monitoring the need to transfer data over long distance causes some challenges in design of WSN platforms. Due to the geometry of bridge structures, using multi-hop data transfer between remote nodes and base station is essential. This paper focuses on the performances of pipelining algorithms. We summarize several prevent pipelining approaches, discuss their performances, and propose a new pipelining algorithm, which gives consideration to both boosting of channel usage and the simplicity in deployment.

  14. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  15. Monitoring a correctional mental health care system: the role of the mental health expert.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Class action litigation has been instrumental in jail and prison reform over the past four decades. This article provides a very brief introduction underlying the legal basis for such litigation. It focuses on the role of the mental health expert in monitoring a correctional mental health care system as a result of class action litigation including issues related to selection of the expert, development of the remedial plan, and monitoring of the implementation of the remedial plan. The importance of policies and procedures and a quality improvement process is emphasized. Essential elements of the monitoring process, prior to and during the site assessment, are described. Inmates and correctional staff alike have benefited substantially from such litigation in the form of increased resources and positive changes in institutional culture.

  16. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  17. Toward flexible and wearable human-interactive health-monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Takei, Kuniharu; Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2015-03-11

    This Progress Report introduces flexible wearable health-monitoring devices that interact with a person by detecting from and stimulating the body. Interactive health-monitoring devices should be highly flexible and attach to the body without awareness like a bandage. This type of wearable health-monitoring device will realize a new class of electronics, which will be applicable not only to health monitoring, but also to other electrical devices. However, to realize wearable health-monitoring devices, many obstacles must be overcome to economically form the active electrical components on a flexible substrate using macroscale fabrication processes. In particular, health-monitoring sensors and curing functions need to be integrated. Here recent developments and advancements toward flexible health-monitoring devices are presented, including conceptual designs of human-interactive devices.

  18. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    PubMed Central

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the

  19. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in

  20. [Brazilian men's integral health attention: using indicators for monitoring health's promotion and attention].

    PubMed

    Moura, Erly Catarina de; Lima, Aline Maria Peixoto; Urdaneta, Margarita

    2012-10-01

    This article presents and discusses the initial actions of Brazilian National Men's Health Policy (PNAISH) concerning indicators used for monitoring promotion and assistance actions of men's health. This multiple case study was developed among five Brazilian cities which had implanted the PNAISH: (Goiânia (GO), Joinville (SC), Petrolina (PE), Rio Branco (AC) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). A questionnaire was applied to verify the use of data and information required to calculate the indicators recommended by the PNAISH, concerning health's promotion, implementation and expansion of the men's health assistance system, according to the planned goals contained in the cities' local action plans. The results revealed a critical situation concerning monitoring of the activities through the proposed indicators taking into account the lack of standardized procedures to calculate them. Another specific limitation encountered was the limited access to or availability of data by age and sex in the health information systems. These results point out a lack of necessary indicators to define a base line situation, which weakens the systematic monitoring and future evaluation of the actions.

  1. Information systems for health sector monitoring in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Cibulskis, R. E.; Hiawalyer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes (i). how a national health information System was designed, tested and implemented in Papua New Guinea, (ii). how the system was integrated with other management information systems, and (iii). how information has been used to support decision-making. It concludes that central coordination of systems design is essential to make sure that information systems are aligned with government priorities and can deliver the information required by managers. While there is often scope for improving the performance of existing information systems, too much emphasis can be placed on revising data collection procedures and creating the perfect information system. Data analysis, even from imperfect systems, can stimulate greater interest in information, which can improve the quality and completeness of reporting and encourage a more methodical approach to planning and monitoring services. Our experience suggests that senior decision-makers and political leaders can play an important role in creating a culture of information use. By demanding health information, using it to formulate policy, and disseminating it through the channels open to them, they can exert greater influence in negotiations with donors and other government departments, encourage a more rational approach to decision-making that will improve the operation of health services, and stimulate greater use of information at lower levels of the health system. The ability of information systems to deliver these benefits is critical to their sustainability. PMID:12378295

  2. Logic-centered architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Jacek; Arochena, Hisbel E; Naguib, Raouf N G; Chao, Kuo-Ming; Garcia-Perez, Alexeis

    2014-09-01

    One of the key points to maintain and boost research and development in the area of smart wearable systems (SWS) is the development of integrated architectures for intelligent services, as well as wearable systems and devices for health and wellness management. This paper presents such a generic architecture for multiparametric, intelligent and ubiquitous wireless sensing platforms. It is a transparent, smartphone-based sensing framework with customizable wireless interfaces and plug'n'play capability to easily interconnect third party sensor devices. It caters to wireless body, personal, and near-me area networks. A pivotal part of the platform is the integrated inference engine/runtime environment that allows the mobile device to serve as a user-adaptable personal health assistant. The novelty of this system lays in a rapid visual development and remote deployment model. The complementary visual Inference Engine Editor that comes with the package enables artificial intelligence specialists, alongside with medical experts, to build data processing models by assembling different components and instantly deploying them (remotely) on patient mobile devices. In this paper, the new logic-centered software architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring applications is described, followed by a discussion as to how it helps to shift focus from software and hardware development, to medical and health process-centered design of new SWS applications.

  3. Automated ingestion detection for a health monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh K

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that imposes a financial burden and increased risk for a myriad of chronic diseases. Presented here is an overview of a prototype automated ingestion detection (AID) process implemented in a health monitoring system (HMS). The automated detection of ingestion supports personal record keeping which is essential during obesity management. Personal record keeping allows the care provider to monitor the therapeutic progress of a patient. The AID-HMS determines the levels of ingestion activity from sounds captured by an external throat microphone. Features are extracted from the sound recording and presented to machine learning classifiers, where a simple voting procedure is employed to determine instances of ingestion. Using a dataset acquired from seven individuals consisting of consumption of liquid and solid, speech, and miscellaneous sounds, > 94% of ingestion sounds are correctly identified with false positive rates around 9% based on 10-fold cross validation. The detected levels of ingestion activity are transmitted and stored on a remote web server, where information is displayed through a web application operating in a web browser. This information allows remote users (health provider) determine meal lengths and levels of ingestion activity during the meal. The AID-HMS also provides a basis for automated reinforcement for the patient.

  4. Wireless system for structural health monitoring based on Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, U.; Dietrich, A.; Schubert, L.; Frankenstein, B.

    2012-04-01

    Structural health monitoring systems are increasingly used for comprehensive fatigue tests and surveillance of large scale structures. In this paper we describe the development and validation of a wireless system for SHM application based on Lamb-waves. The system is based on a wireless sensor network and focuses especially on low power measurement, signal processing and communication. The sensor nodes were realized by compact, sensor near signal processing structures containing components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization and network communication. The core component is a digital microprocessor ARM Cortex-M3 von STMicroelectronics, which performs the basic algorithms necessary for data acquisition synchronization and filtering. The system provides network discovery and multi-hop and self-healing mechanisms. If the distance between two communicating devices is too big for direct radio transmission, packets are routed over intermediate devices automatically. The system represents a low-power and low-cost active structural health monitoring solution. As a first application, the system was installed on a CFRP structure.

  5. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions.

  6. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  7. Wireless health data exchange for home healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Malrey; Gatton, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous home healthcare systems have been playing an increasingly significant role in the treatment and management of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, but progress has been hampered by the lack of standardization in the exchange of medical health care information. In an effort to establish standardization, this paper proposes a home healthcare monitoring system data exchange scheme between the HL7 standard and the IEEE1451 standard. IEEE1451 is a standard for special sensor networks, such as industrial control and smart homes, and defines a suite of interfaces that communicate among heterogeneous networks. HL7 is the standard for medical information exchange among medical organizations and medical personnel. While it provides a flexible data exchange in health care domains, it does not provide for data exchange with sensors. Thus, it is necessary to develop a data exchange schema to convert data between the HL7 and the IEEE1451 standard. This paper proposes a schema that can exchange data between HL7 devices and the monitoring device, and conforms to the IEEE 1451 standard. The experimental results and conclusions of this approach are presented and show the feasibility of the proposed exchange schema.

  8. Structural Health Monitoring of a Bridge with Energy Dissipators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaddeo, Carmen; Benzoni, Gianmario; D'Amore, Enzo

    2008-07-01

    After natural events like the 1994 Northridge (USA), the 1995 Kobe (Japan), the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) and the 1999 Duzce (Turkey) earthquakes it became evident that the demand for bridge structures could greatly benefit from the application of isolation/energy dissipation techniques. Despite the level of maturity achieved in the field of seismic isolation, open questions still remain on the durability of seismic response modification devices (SRMD) under working conditions. The option of removal of sample devices from the bridge structure to verify their performance characteristics involves a significant economical effort, particularly if associated to disruption of the regular traffic. It provides also a device response verification difficult to correlate to the global structural performance. Health monitoring techniques offer a valuable alternative. The main objective of this research is the definition of an effective health monitoring approach to be applied to bridges protected with the most common seismic response modification devices (SRMD). The proposed methodology was validated with the use of records from a bridge equipped with viscous dampers. The record were obtained before and after damage occurred. The procedure proved to be accurate in detecting early degradations of the device characteristics as well as of the structural elements directly connected to the devices.

  9. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  10. Reusable rocket engine turbopump health monitoring system, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms and sensor identification/selection resulted in a list of degradation modes and a list of sensors that are utilized in the diagnosis of these degradation modes. The sensor list is divided into primary and secondary indicators of the corresponding degradation modes. The signal conditioning requirements are discussed, describing the methods of producing the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) post-hot-fire test data to be utilized by the Health Monitoring System. Development of the diagnostic logic and algorithms is also presented. The knowledge engineering approach, as utilized, includes the knowledge acquisition effort, characterization of the expert's problem solving strategy, conceptually defining the form of the applicable knowledge base, and rule base, and identifying an appropriate inferencing mechanism for the problem domain. The resulting logic flow graphs detail the diagnosis/prognosis procedure as followed by the experts. The nature and content of required support data and databases is also presented. The distinction between deep and shallow types of knowledge is identified. Computer coding of the Health Monitoring System is shown to follow the logical inferencing of the logic flow graphs/algorithms.

  11. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Dustin Y.; Todd, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems.

  12. Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell; Jordan, Jeffrey; Oglesby, Donald; Watkins, Anthony; Patry, JoAnne; Smits, Jan; Williams, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) can be embedded in structures of all geometries to monitor conditions both inside and at the surface of the structure to continuously sense changes. These CNTs can be manipulated into specific orientations to create small, powerful, and flexible sensors. One of the sensors is a highly flexible sensor for crack growth detection and strain field mapping that features a very dense and highly ordered array of single-walled CNTs. CNT structural health sensors can be mass-produced, are inexpensive, can be packaged in small sizes (0.5 micron(sup 2)), require less power than electronic or piezoelectric transducers, and produce less waste heat per square centimeter than electronic or piezoelectric transducers. Chemically functionalized lithographic patterns are used to deposit and align the CNTs onto metallic electrodes. This method consistently produces aligned CNTs in the defined locations. Using photo- and electron-beam lithography, simple Cr/Au thin-film circuits are patterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The samples are then re-patterned with a CNT-attracting, self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to delineate the desired CNT locations between electrodes. During the deposition of the solution-suspended single- wall CNTs, the application of an electric field to the metallic contacts causes alignment of the CNTs along the field direction. This innovation is a prime candidate for smart skin technologies with applications ranging from military, to aerospace, to private industry.

  13. An overview of wireless structural health monitoring for civil structures.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jerome Peter

    2007-02-15

    Wireless monitoring has emerged in recent years as a promising technology that could greatly impact the field of structural monitoring and infrastructure asset management. This paper is a summary of research efforts that have resulted in the design of numerous wireless sensing unit prototypes explicitly intended for implementation in civil structures. Wireless sensing units integrate wireless communications and mobile computing with sensors to deliver a relatively inexpensive sensor platform. A key design feature of wireless sensing units is the collocation of computational power and sensors; the tight integration of computing with a wireless sensing unit provides sensors with the opportunity to self-interrogate measurement data. In particular, there is strong interest in using wireless sensing units to build structural health monitoring systems that interrogate structural data for signs of damage. After the hardware and the software designs of wireless sensing units are completed, the Alamosa Canyon Bridge in New Mexico is utilized to validate their accuracy and reliability. To improve the ability of low-cost wireless sensing units to detect the onset of structural damage, the wireless sensing unit paradigm is extended to include the capability to command actuators and active sensors.

  14. Insitu electrical sensing and material health monitoring in concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabipour, Farshad

    While several structural health monitoring methods are available for assessing the applied loads, displacements, stresses, and strains in a concrete structure, very few techniques are available to enable condition assessment from a material durability viewpoint. Material health monitoring provides a valuable tool in assessing the current durability condition of a concrete structure (i.e., diagnosis), determining if and what preventative measures need to be taken to reduce future maintenance (i.e., prescription), and evaluating the remaining life and the future performance of the material (i.e., prognosis). The objective of this research is development of a new material sensing system that is designed to measure several properties and state parameters of concrete necessary for evaluation of the material's performance. This sensing system is composed of three electrical conductivity-based sensors and a temperature sensor. The electrical sensors include a concrete conductivity (sigma t) sensor (that monitors setting and hardening and measures microstructural and transport properties of concrete), a pore solution conductivity (sigma o) sensor (that monitors changes in the internal chemistry of the system due to ion penetration or carbonation), and a conductivity-based relative humidity (RH) sensor (to monitor moisture transport and shrinkage of the material). The temperature (T) sensor enables determination of the rate of hydration and strength development of concrete while it provides information needed for temperature calibration of the electrical sensors. It is shown that the combined measurements of the three electrical sensors and the temperature sensor provide sufficient calibration information that enables determination of the desired material properties and state parameters of concrete. This document provides a comprehensive description of several phases of the process used for development of the three conductivity-based sensors. To develop the prototype of

  15. Treatment of psychiatric disorders onboard an aircraft carrier assisted with psychotropic medication: a retrospective review describing one aspect of Navy Force health protection.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Walker, Errika; Moses, Kennett; Gilleran, Louis

    2006-04-01

    Navy clinical psychologists, assigned to aircraft carriers, are playing an increasing role in not only implementing Navy force health protection, but also in further specializing the delivery of mental health evaluation, treatment, and disposition services at the "tip of the spear." An aircraft carrier's medical department, augmented with a clinical psychologist, is now better able to coordinate diagnostic, psychotropic, and psychotherapeutic treatments for both shipboard and air wing personnel. This retrospective review reports the outcomes of a 6-month treatment program for personnel, assigned to the USS Constellation (CV-64), who were prescribed a psychotropic medication while receiving psychotherapy. We concluded that psychotropic medications can be safely and effectively used onboard an aircraft carrier. Furthermore, personnel prescribed psychotropic medication successfully completed their assigned duties and obtained recommendations for advancement and retention. Lastly, our medical department proactively fulfilled the Navy force health protection tenet of preserving a healthy and fit force.

  16. Structural health monitoring of co-cured composite structures using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Ramesh; Kamath, G. M.; Gupta, Nitesh; Rao, M. Subba

    2005-05-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aircraft structures, especially composite structures, has assumed increased significance on considerations of safety and costs. With the advent of co-cured structures, wherein bonded joints are replacing bolted joints there is a concern regarding skin-stiffener separation, which might not be detected unless a rigorous non-destructive testing (NDT) is done. It would hence be necessary to be able to detect and assess skin-stiffener separation in composite structures before it reaches the critical size. One of the health monitoring strategies is through strain monitoring using fibre optic strain sensors such as Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The first aspect that needs to be addressed is the characterization of the FBG sensors. Issues of embedment in composites have also to be addressed. Before evolving a damage detection strategy, the sensitivity of the structural strain to skin-stiffener separations must be clearly understood and quantified. This paper presents the analysis and experiments done with a composite test box to study the effect of skin-stiffener separation on the strain behaviour. The box consists of two skins stiffened with spars made of Bi-Directional (BD) glass-epoxy prepreg material. The spars are bolted to the skins and removing suitable number of bolts simulates 'de-bonds'. The strains of the healthy box are compared with the unhealthy box. The strains in the experiments are monitored using both strain gauges and Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The experimental results show that there is significant change in the measured strain near and away from the debond location. The finite element analysis of the box is done using ABAQUS and the analysis is validated with the experimental results. A neural network based methodology is developed here to detect skin-stiffener debonds in structures. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a feed forward back propagation algorithm is used to determine the

  17. Health Monitoring System Based on Intra-Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model

  18. Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit

    2002-01-01

    We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems, the prevention of associated human illness, and by implication, the development of products to enhance human well-being. The tight connection between research and monitoring is essential to develop such an indicator-based effort. PMID:12204815

  19. Health monitoring of pipeline girth weld using empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-05-01

    In the present paper the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), as a time-series analysis technique, has been combined with a local diagnostic approach in an effort to identify flaws in pipeline girth welds. This method is based on monitoring the free vibration signals of the pipe at its healthy and flawed states, and processing the signals through the HHT and its associated signal decomposition technique, known as empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The EMD method decomposes the vibration signals into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The deviations in structural integrity, measured from a healthy-state baseline, are subsequently evaluated by two damage sensitive parameters. The first is a damage index, referred to as the EM-EDI, which is established based on an energy comparison of the first or second IMF of the vibration signals, before and after occurrence of damage. The second parameter is the evaluation of the lag in instantaneous phase, a quantity derived from the HHT. In the developed methodologies, the pipe's free vibration is monitored by piezoceramic sensors and a laser Doppler vibrometer. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is demonstrated through a set of numerical and experimental studies on a steel pipe with a mid-span girth weld, for both pressurized and nonpressurized conditions. To simulate a crack, a narrow notch is cut on one side of the girth weld. Several damage scenarios, including notches of different depths and at various locations on the pipe, are investigated. Results from both numerical and experimental studies reveal that in all damage cases the sensor located at the notch vicinity could successfully detect the notch and qualitatively predict its severity. The effect of internal pressure on the damage identification method is also monitored. Overall, the results are encouraging and promise the effectiveness of the proposed approaches as inexpensive systems for structural health monitoring purposes.

  20. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  1. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Needs Assessment study, contact Mr. Chris...

  2. Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-6922 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage...Laboratory Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification by Natasha C Bradley...October 2009–April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification

  3. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  4. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  5. Time-Frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pyayt, Alexander L.; Kozionov, Alexey P.; Mokhov, Ilya I.; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V.; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany). PMID:24625740

  6. Ballistocardiogram: Mechanism and Potential for Unobtrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ober, Stephanie L.; McMurtry, M. Sean; Finegan, Barry A.; Inan, Omer T.; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, it has been known that the body recoils each time the heart ejects blood into the arteries. These subtle cardiogenic body movements have been measured with increasingly convenient ballistocardiography (BCG) instruments over the years. A typical BCG measurement shows several waves, most notably the “I”, “J”, and “K” waves. However, the mechanism for the genesis of these waves has remained elusive. We formulated a simple mathematical model of the BCG waveform. We showed that the model could predict the BCG waves as well as physiologic timings and amplitudes of the major waves. The validated model reveals that the principal mechanism for the genesis of the BCG waves is blood pressure gradients in the ascending and descending aorta. This new mechanistic insight may be exploited to allow BCG to realize its potential for unobtrusive monitoring and diagnosis of cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:27503664

  7. Analysis of remote reflectin spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  8. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  9. Bio-inspired sensor skins for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Uday; Deshmukh, S.; Chiao, J. C.; Carter, Ronald; Huang, H.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the simulation and experimental work that proved the feasibility of using a patch antenna for strain measurement. A patch antenna, besides serving as a data transmitting device, can function as a transducer that directly encodes the strain experienced into its resonant frequency. Printed on a flexible substrate, the antenna sensor is small in size, has a low profile and can be conformal to any attached surface. The technique for interrogating the antenna sensor using a wireless non-contact method is also demonstrated. Without needing electric wiring for power supply and data transmitting, the antenna sensor has a great potential for the realization of engineered sensor skins that imitate the sense of pain for structural health monitoring purposes.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring: Leveraging Pain in the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Subhadarshi

    2012-07-01

    Tissue damage, or the perception thereof, is managed through pain experience. The neurobiological process of pain triggers most effective defense mechanisms for our safety. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also a very similar function, albeit in engineering systems. SHM technology can leverage many aspects of pain mechanisms to progress in several critical areas. Discrimination between features from the undamaged and damaged structures can follow the threshold gate mechanism of the pain perception. Furthermore, the sensing mechanisms can be adaptive to changes by adjusting the threshold as does the pain perception. A distributed sensor network, often advanced by SHM, can be made fault-tolerant and robust by following the perception way of self-organization and redundancy. Data handling in real life is a huge challenge for large-scale SHM. As sensory data of pain is first cleaned, the threshold is then processed through experiential information gathering and use.

  11. Receptance-based structural health monitoring approach for bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S. A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    A number of structural health monitoring strategies have been proposed recently that can be implemented in smart sensor networks. Many are based on changes in the experimentally determined flexibility matrix for the structure under consideration. However, the flexibility matrix contains only static information; much richer information is potentially available by considering the dynamic flexibility, or receptance, of the structure. Recently, the stochastic dynamic DLV method was proposed based on the changes in the dynamic flexibility matrix employing centrally collected output-only measurements. This paper extends the stochastic dynamic DLV method so that it can be implemented on a decentralized network of smart sensors. New damage indices are derived that provide robustness estimates of damage location. The smart sensor network is emulated with wired sensors to demonstrate the potential of the proposed method. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using a model truss structure.

  12. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  13. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M. C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated.

  14. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  15. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  16. Responsive satellites and the need for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Brandon J.; Kumar, Amrita; Buckley, Steven; Hannum, Robert; Welsh, Jeffry; Beard, Shawn; Qin, Xinlin; Wegner, Peter

    2007-04-01

    The United States is striving to develop an Operationally Responsive Space capability. The goal is to be able to deliver tailored spacecraft capabilities to the warfighter as needs arise. This places a premium on the timespan between generating that requirement and having a functioning satellite performing its mission on orbit. Although there is lively debate regarding how to achieve this responsive space capability, one thing remains undeniable; the satellite flight qualification and launch vehicle integration process needs to be dramatically truncated. This paper describes the Air Force Research Laboratory's attempts to validate the use of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) in lieu of traditional structural flight qualification testing schemes (static and shock loads, random vibration, coupled loads analysis, thermal vacuum testing, etc.) for potential Responsive Space (RS) satellites.

  17. Guided wave based structural health monitoring: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Mira; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2016-05-01

    The paper provides a state of the art review of guided wave based structural health monitoring (SHM). First, the fundamental concepts of guided wave propagation and its implementation for SHM is explained. Following sections present the different modeling schemes adopted, developments in the area of transducers for generation, and sensing of wave, signal processing and imaging technique, statistical and machine learning schemes for feature extraction. Next, a section is presented on the recent advancements in nonlinear guided wave for SHM. This is followed by section on Rayleigh and SH waves. Next is a section on real-life implementation of guided wave for industrial problems. The paper, though briefly talks about the early development for completeness, is primarily focussed on the recent progress made in the last decade. The paper ends by discussing and highlighting the future directions and open areas of research in guided wave based SHM.

  18. Health monitoring of cooling fan bearings based on wavelet filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Miao, Qiang; Azarian, Michael; Pecht, Michael

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a vibration-based health monitoring approach for cooling fans is proposed using a wavelet filter for early detection of faults in fan bearings and for the assessment of fault severity. To match the wavelet filter to the fault characteristic signal, a fuzzy rule is introduced to maximize the amplitudes of bearing characteristic frequencies (BCFs), which are an indicator of bearing faults. The sum of the amplitudes of BCFs and their harmonics (SABCF) is used as an index to capture the bearing degradation trend. A comparative study is conducted with commonly used time-domain indices in the degradation assessment, and performance is quantified by three measures, i.e., monotonicity, prognosability, and trendability. The analysis results of the experimental data show that the proposed method can effectively detect incipient defects and can better capture the degradation trend of fan bearings than traditional time-domain indices in vibration analysis.

  19. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  20. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, R; Heeb, M; Berry, W; Hoshizaki, T; Wood, M

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Lactuca [correction of Latuca] Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  1. Application of Machine Learning to Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, Tyler; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a powerful tool for data exploration and model building with large data sets. This project aimed to use machine learning techniques to explore the inherent structure of data from rotorcraft gear tests, relationships between features and damage states, and to build a system for predicting gear health for future rotorcraft transmission applications. Classical machine learning techniques are difficult, if not irresponsible to apply to time series data because many make the assumption of independence between samples. To overcome this, Hidden Markov Models were used to create a binary classifier for identifying scuffing transitions and Recurrent Neural Networks were used to leverage long distance relationships in predicting discrete damage states. When combined in a workflow, where the binary classifier acted as a filter for the fatigue monitor, the system was able to demonstrate accuracy in damage state prediction and scuffing identification. The time dependent nature of the data restricted data exploration to collecting and analyzing data from the model selection process. The limited amount of available data was unable to give useful information, and the division of training and testing sets tended to heavily influence the scores of the models across combinations of features and hyper-parameters. This work built a framework for tracking scuffing and fatigue on streaming data and demonstrates that machine learning has much to offer rotorcraft health monitoring by using Bayesian learning and deep learning methods to capture the time dependent nature of the data. Suggested future work is to implement the framework developed in this project using a larger variety of data sets to test the generalization capabilities of the models and allow for data exploration.

  2. A statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Sohn, H.; Park, G. H.

    2004-01-01

    The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's current or future performance. Our approach is to address the SHM problem in the context of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm (Farrar, Nix and Doebling, 2001). In this paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from 'real-world' structures, it quickly becomes apparent that data cleansing, normalization, fusion and compression, which can be implemented with either hardware or software, are inherent in Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. The authors believe that all approaches to SHM, as well as all traditional non-destructive evaluation procedures (e.g. ultrasonic inspection, acoustic emissions, active thermography) can be cast in the context of this statistical pattern recognition paradigm. It should be noted that the statistical modeling portion of the structural health monitoring process has received the least attention in the technical literature. The algorithms used in statistical model development usually fall into the three categories of group classification, regression analysis or outlier detection. The ability to use a particular statistical procedure from one of these categories will depend on the availability of data from both an undamaged and damaged structure. This paper will discuss each portion of the SHM statistical pattern recognition paradigm.

  3. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  4. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Vanessa G.; Ostos, Rodolfo; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Cervantes, Armando; Ochoa, Armando; Ruiz, Carlos; Ramos, Roberto; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM) application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR), improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years) to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability. PMID:23762189

  5. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  6. Improving online risk assessment with equipment prognostics and health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Liu, Xiaotong; Briere, Chris; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-03-26

    The current approach to evaluating the risk of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation relies on static probabilities of component failure, which are based on industry experience with the existing fleet of nominally similar light water reactors (LWRs). As the nuclear industry looks to advanced reactor designs that feature non-light water coolants (e.g., liquid metal, high temperature gas, molten salt), this operating history is not available. Many advanced reactor designs use advanced components, such as electromagnetic pumps, that have not been used in the US commercial nuclear fleet. Given the lack of rich operating experience, we cannot accurately estimate the evolving probability of failure for basic components to populate the fault trees and event trees that typically comprise probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models. Online equipment prognostics and health management (PHM) technologies can bridge this gap to estimate the failure probabilities for components under operation. The enhanced risk monitor (ERM) incorporates equipment condition assessment into the existing PRA and risk monitor framework to provide accurate and timely estimates of operational risk.

  7. Damage tolerance modeling and validation of a wireless sensory composite panel for a structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talagani, Mohamad R.; Abdi, Frank; Saravanos, Dimitris; Chrysohoidis, Nikos; Nikbin, Kamran; Ragalini, Rose; Rodov, Irena

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes the diagnostic and prognostic modeling and test validation of a Wireless Integrated Strain Monitoring and Simulation System (WISMOS). The effort verifies a hardware and web based software tool that is able to evaluate and optimize sensorized aerospace composite structures for the purpose of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The tool is an extension of an existing suite of an SHM system, based on a diagnostic-prognostic system (DPS) methodology. The goal of the extended SHM-DPS is to apply multi-scale nonlinear physics-based Progressive Failure analyses to the "as-is" structural configuration to determine residual strength, remaining service life, and future inspection intervals and maintenance procedures. The DPS solution meets the JTI Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) goals towards low weight, durable and reliable commercial aircraft. It will take advantage of the currently developed methodologies within the European Clean sky JTI project WISMOS, with the capability to transmit, store and process strain data from a network of wireless sensors (e.g. strain gages, FBGA) and utilize a DPS-based methodology, based on multi scale progressive failure analysis (MS-PFA), to determine structural health and to advice with respect to condition based inspection and maintenance. As part of the validation of the Diagnostic and prognostic system, Carbon/Epoxy ASTM coupons were fabricated and tested to extract the mechanical properties. Subsequently two composite stiffened panels were manufactured, instrumented and tested under compressive loading: 1) an undamaged stiffened buckling panel; and 2) a damaged stiffened buckling panel including an initial diamond cut. Next numerical Finite element models of the two panels were developed and analyzed under test conditions using Multi-Scale Progressive Failure Analysis (an extension of FEM) to evaluate the damage/fracture evolution process, as well as the identification of contributing failure modes. The comparisons

  8. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  9. Nanotechnology Propellant Health Monitoring Sensors; Success Through Multi-Stakeholder Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: “The Propellant Health Monitoring (PHM) Challenge” 4 “Development of innovative systems to allow real-time health monitoring of solid ...Distribution Unlimited Propellant Health Monitoring (PHM): Thermal Aging Challenges Mechanical, chemical , and physical properties of composite and NC base...Mechanical, physical, or chemical condition of the propellant which indicates “living on borrowed time”. • This line (increasing failure rate) Moves

  10. Very High Frequency Monitoring System for Engine Gearbox and Generator Health Management (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-18

    Application of Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) Technologies to Wind Turbine Drive Trains,” WindPower 2005, Denver, CO, May 15-18, 2005...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2008-2043 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ENGINE GEARBOX AND GENERATOR HEALTH MANAGEMENT (POSTPRINT) Matthew J...2649 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VERY HIGH FREQUENCY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ENGINE GEARBOX AND GENERATOR HEALTH MANAGEMENT (POSTPRINT

  11. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  12. Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Technology for Flight Test on the C-17 T-1 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Venti, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The C-I 7 T-l Globemaster III is an Air Force flight research vehicle located at Edwards Air Force Base. NASA Dryden and the C-17 System Program Office have entered into a Memorandum of Agreement to permit NASA the use of the C-I 7 T-I to conduct flight research on a mutually coordinated schedule. The C-17 Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Working Group was formed in order to foster discussion and coordinate planning amongst the various government agencies conducting PCHM research with a potential need for flight testing, and to communicate to the PCHM community the capabilities of the C-17 T-l aircraft to support such flight testing. This paper documents the output of this Working Group, including a summary of the candidate PCHM technologies identified and their associated benefits relative to NASA goals and objectives.

  13. Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush

    Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and strokes are the leading causes of mortality in United States of America. Timely point-of-care health diagnostics and therapeutics for person suffering from these diseases can save thousands of lives. However, lack of accessible minimally intrusive health monitoring systems makes timely diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible. To remedy this problem, a textile based nano-bio-sensor was developed and evaluated in this research. The sensor was made of novel array of vertically standing nanostructures that are conductive nano-fibers projecting from a conductive fabric. These sensor electrodes were tested for the quality of electrical contact that they made with the skin based on the fundamental skin impedance model and electromagnetic theory. The hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes provided large surface area and better contact with skin that improved electrode sensitivity and reduced the effect of changing skin properties, which are the problems usually faced by conventional dry textile electrodes. The dry electrodes can only register strong physiological signals because of high background noise levels, thus limiting the use of existing dry electrodes to heart rate measurement and respiration. Therefore, dry electrode systems cannot be used for recording complete ECG waveform, EEG or measurement of bioimpedance. Because of their improved sensitivity these hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes can be applied to measurement of ECG and bioimpedance with very low baseline noise. These textile based electrodes can be seamlessly integrated into garments of daily use such as vests and bra. In combination with embedded wireless network device that can communicate with smart phone, laptop or GPRS, they can function as wearable wireless health diagnostic systems.

  14. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  15. Acoustic emission (AE) health monitoring of diaphragm type couplings using neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Shu, Fong; Finlayson, Richard D.; O'Donnell, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the latest results obtained from Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and detection of cracks and/or damage in diaphragm couplings, which are used in some aircraft and engine drive systems. Early detection of mechanical failure in aircraft drive train components is a key safety and economical issue with both military and civil sectors of aviation. One of these components is the diaphragm-type coupling, which has been evaluated as the ideal drive coupling for many application requirements such as high speed, high torque, and non-lubrication. Its flexible axial and angular displacement capabilities have made it indispensable for aircraft drive systems. However, diaphragm-type couplings may develop cracks during their operation. The ability to monitor, detect, identify, and isolate coupling cracks on an operational aircraft system is required in order to provide sufficient advance warning to preclude catastrophic failure. It is known that metallic structures generate characteristic Acoustic Emission (AE) during crack growth/propagation cycles. This phenomenon makes AE very attractive among various monitoring techniques for fault detection in diaphragm-type couplings. However, commercially available systems capable of automatic discrimination between signals from crack growth and normal mechanical noise are not readily available. Positive classification of signals requires experienced personnel and post-test data analysis, which tend to be a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. With further development of automated classifiers, AE can become a fully autonomous fault detection technique requiring no human intervention after implementation. AE has the potential to be fully integrated with automated query and response mechanisms for system/process monitoring and control.

  16. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related sustainable development goals

    PubMed Central

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper discusses lessons learned from Thailand’s burden of disease (BOD) study on capacity development on NHEs and discusses the contributions and limitations of GHEs in informing policies at the country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and subnational levels. Initially, the quality of cause-of-death reporting in death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This method helped to improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and an effective interface between researchers and decision-makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, whereas subnational data are intended to be used by various subnational partners. Although GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  17. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related sustainable development goals.

    PubMed

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper discusses lessons learned from Thailand's burden of disease (BOD) study on capacity development on NHEs and discusses the contributions and limitations of GHEs in informing policies at the country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and subnational levels. Initially, the quality of cause-of-death reporting in death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This method helped to improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and an effective interface between researchers and decision-makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, whereas subnational data are intended to be used by various subnational partners. Although GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  18. Optimal Sensor Fusion for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Advanced Materials. Vol 3. #2., 2002. 16. COCONUT Project. 2001. Algorithms for Solving Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems: The State of the Art...http://www.mat.univie.ac.at/~neum/glopt/ coconut /2001 17. Pinter J. (Ed). 2006. Global Optimization: Scientific and Engineering Case Studies (Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications). Springer, 2006

  19. A Systems Engineering Approach to Integrated Structural Health Monitoring for Aging Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    analysis modeled the right wing of the Cessna A-37 Dragonfly (i.e. half-wing model ) (Figure 4.24) and consisted of a linear static maximum stress...for the CCD factor configurations. • The form of the A-37 response surface regression model was established as a quadratic regression to include...Even though the quadratic effects were included in the response surface model , the F-ratios show that these second order terms were not as significant

  20. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer for Mission Critical Health Monitoring of Aircraft and Spacecraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Tokars, Roger; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, M. Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A self diagnostic accelerometer system has been shown to be sensitive to multiple failure modes of charge mode accelerometers. These failures include sensor structural damage, an electrical open circuit and most importantly sensor detachment. In this paper, experimental work that was performed to determine the capabilities of a self diagnostic accelerometer system while operating in the presence of various levels of mechanical noise, emulating real world conditions, is presented. The results show that the system can successfully conduct a self diagnostic routine under these conditions.

  1. A Systems Architecture and Advanced Sensors Application for Real-Time Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Interdigital Transducer KHz Kilohertz MHz Megahertz DoD Department of Defense CBO Congressional Budget Office JCAA Joint Council on Aging...provided for fatigue testing [11]. The Interdigital Transducer (IDT) Sensor and other emerging technology sensors were used in this analysis. Due to the...edge Interdigital Transducer (IDT) sensor technology that operates with surface waves called Rayleigh waves. The thesis will compare the IDT/Rayleigh

  2. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  3. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  4. Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

  5. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  6. Health monitoring of a concrete structure using piezoceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, G.; Gu, H.; Mo, Y. L.; Hsu, T.; Dhonde, H.; Zhu, R. R. H.

    2005-05-01

    Health monitoring for reinforced concrete bridges and other large-scale civil infrastructure has received considerable attention in recent years. Traditional inspection methods (x-ray, C-scan etc.) are expensive and sometimes ineffective for large-scale structures. Piezoceramic transducers have emerged as new tools to health monitoring of large size structures due to the advantages of active sensing, low cost, quick response, availability in different shapes, and simplicity for implementation. In this research, piezoceramic transducers in the form of patches are used to detect internal cracks of a 6.1-meter long reinforced concrete bridge bent-cap. Piezoceramic patches are embedded in the concrete structure at pre-determined spatial locations prior to casting. This research can be considered as a continuation of an early work, where four piezoceramic patches were embedded in planar locations near one end of the bent-cap. This research involves ten piezoceramic patches embedded at spatial locations in four different cross-sections. To induce cracks in the bent-cap, the structure is subjected to loads from four hydraulic actuators with capacities of 80-ton and 100-ton. In addition to the piezoceramic sensors, strain gages, LVDTs, and microscopes are used in the experiment. During the experiment, one embedded piezoceramic patch is used as an actuator to generate sweep sinusoidal waves, and the other piezoceramic patches are used as sensors to detect the propagating waves. With the increase of number of and severity of cracks, the magnitude of the sensor output decreases. Wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the recorded sensor signals. A damage index is formed on the basis of the wavelet packet analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed methods using piezoceramic transducers along with the damage index based on wavelet packet analysis is effective in identifying the existence and severity of cracks inside the concrete structure. The experimental

  7. Concrete structural health monitoring using embedded piezoceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, G.; Gu, H.; Mo, Y. L.; Hsu, T. T. C.; Dhonde, H.

    2007-08-01

    Health monitoring of reinforced concrete bridges and other large-scale civil infrastructures has received considerable attention in recent years. However, traditional inspection methods (x-ray, C-scan, etc) are expensive and sometimes ineffective for large-scale structures. Piezoceramic transducers have emerged as new tools for the health monitoring of large-scale structures due to their advantages of active sensing, low cost, quick response, availability in different shapes, and simplicity for implementation. In this research, piezoceramic transducers are used for damage detection of a 6.1 m long reinforced concrete bridge bent-cap. Piezoceramic transducers are embedded in the concrete structure at pre-determined spatial locations prior to casting. This research can be considered as a continuation of an earlier work, where four piezoceramic transducers were embedded in planar locations near one end of the bent-cap. This research involves ten piezoceramic patches embedded at spatial locations in four different cross-sections. To induce cracks in the bent-cap, the structure is subjected to loads from four hydraulic actuators with capacities of 80 and 100 ton. In addition to the piezoceramic sensors, strain gages, LVDTs, and microscopes are used in the experiment to provide reference data. During the experiment, one embedded piezoceramic patch is used as an actuator to generate high frequency waves, and the other piezoceramic patches are used as sensors to detect the propagating waves. With the increasing number and severity of cracks, the magnitude of the sensor output decreases. Wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the recorded sensor signals. A damage index is formed on the basis of the wavelet packet analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed methods of using piezoceramic transducers along with the damage index based on wavelet packet analysis are effective in identifying the existence and severity of cracks inside the concrete structure. The

  8. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  9. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  10. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics. PMID:26858915

  11. A structural health monitoring fastener for tracking fatigue crack growth in bolted metallic joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakow, Alexi Schroder

    Fatigue cracks initiating at fastener hole locations in metallic components are among the most common form of airframe damage. The fastener hole site has been surveyed as the second leading initiation site for fatigue related accidents of fixed wing aircraft. Current methods for inspecting airframes for these cracks are manual, whereby inspectors rely on non-destructive inspection equipment or hand-held probes to scan over areas of a structure. Use of this equipment often demands disassembly of the vehicle to search appropriate hole locations for cracks, which elevates the complexity and cost of these maintenance inspections. Improved reliability, safety, and reduced cost of such maintenance can be realized by the permanent integration of sensors with a structure to detect this damage. Such an integrated system of sensors would form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. In this study, an Additive, Interleaved, Multi-layer Electromagnetic (AIME) sensor was developed and integrated with the shank of a fastener to form a SHM Fastener, a new SHM technology targeted at detection of fastener hole cracks. The major advantages of the SHM Fastener are its installation, which does not require joint layer disassembly, its capability to detect inner layer cracks, and its capability to operate in a continuous autonomous mode. Two methods for fabricating the proposed SHM Fastener were studied. The first option consisted of a thin flexible printed circuit film that was bonded around a thin metallic sleeve placed around the fastener shank. The second option consisted of coating sensor materials directly to the shank of a part in an effort to increase the durability of the sensor under severe loading conditions. Both analytical and numerical models were developed to characterize the capability of the sensors and provide a design tool for the sensor layout. A diagnostic technique for crack growth monitoring was developed to complete the SHM system, which consists of the

  12. A summary of fault modelling and predictive health monitoring of rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Thalji, Idriss; Jantunen, Erkki

    2015-08-01

    The rolling element bearing is one of the most critical components that determine the machinery health and its remaining lifetime in modern production machinery. Robust Predictive Health Monitoring tools are needed to guarantee the healthy state of rolling element bearing s during the operation. A Predictive Health Monitoring tool indicates the upcoming failures which provide sufficient lead time for maintenance planning. The Predictive Health Monitoring tool aims to monitor the deterioration i.e. wear evolution rather than just detecting the defects. The Predictive Health Monitoring procedures contain detection, diagnosis and prognosis analysis, which are required to extract the features related to the faulty rolling element bearing and estimate the remaining useful lifetime. The purpose of this study is to review the Predictive Health Monitoring methods and explore their capabilities, advantages and disadvantage in monitoring rolling element bearings. Therefore, the study provides a critical review of the Predictive Health Monitoring methods of the entire defect evolution process i.e. over the whole lifetime and suggests enhancements for rolling element bearing monitoring.

  13. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  14. Structural health monitoring algorithm comparisons using standard data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Figueiras, Joaquim; Farrar, Charles; Worden, Keith

    2009-03-01

    The real-world structures are subjected to operational and environmental condition changes that impose difficulties in detecting and identifying structural damage. The aim of this report is to detect damage with the presence of such operational and environmental condition changes through the application of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM). The test structure is a laboratory three-story building, and the damage is simulated through nonlinear effects introduced by a bumper mechanism that simulates a repetitive impact-type nonlinearity. The report reviews and illustrates various statistical principles that have had wide application in many engineering fields. The intent is to provide the reader with an introduction to feature extraction and statistical modelling for feature classification in the context of SHM. In this process, the strengths and limitations of some actual statistical techniques used to detect damage in the structures are discussed. In the hierarchical structure of damage detection, this report is only concerned with the first step of the damage detection strategy, which is the evaluation of the existence of damage in the structure. The data from this study and a detailed description of the test structure are available for download at: http://institute.lanl.gov/ei/software-and-data/.

  15. Applications of nonlinear system identification to structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Sohn, H.; Robertson, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). In many cases damage causes a structure that initially behaves in a predominantly linear manner to exhibit nonlinear response when subject to its operating environment. The formation of cracks that subsequently open and close under operating loads is an example of such damage. The damage detection process can be significantly enhanced if one takes advantage of these nonlinear effects when extracting damage-sensitive features from measured data. This paper will provide an overview of nonlinear system identification techniques that are used for the feature extraction process. Specifically, three general approaches that apply nonlinear system identification techniques to the damage detection process are discussed. The first two approaches attempt to quantify the deviation of the system from its initial linear characteristics that is a direct result of damage. The third approach is to extract features from the data that are directly related to the specific nonlinearity associated with the damaged condition. To conclude this discussion, a summary of outstanding issues associated with the application of nonlinear system identification techniques to the SHM problem is presented.

  16. Singularity detection for structural health monitoring using holder exponents.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. N.; Farrar, C. R.; Sohn, H.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of structural health monitoring studies reported in the technical literature focus on identifying damage sensitive features that can be extracted from dynamic response data . However, many of these studies assume the structure can be modeled as a linear system before and after damage and use parameters of these models as the damage sensitive features. The study summarized in this paper proposes a damage sensitive feature that takes advantage of the nonlinearities associated with discontinuities introduced into the dynamic response data as a result of certain types of damage. Specifically, the Holder exponent, a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is the feature that is used to detect the presence of damage and when that damage occurred . A procedure for capturing the time varying nature of the Holder exponent based on wavelet transforms is demonstrated through applications to non-stationary random signals with underlying discontinuities and then to a harmonically excited mechanical system that contains a loose part . Also, a classification procedure is developed to quantify when changes in the Holder exponent are significant . The results presented herein show the Holder exponent to be an effective feature for identifying damage that introduces discontinuities into the measured dynamic response data .

  17. Development of acoustic health monitoring for railroad tank cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostautas, Richard; Finlayson, Richard; Godinez, Valery; Pollock, Adrian; Penya, Jose

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the research and development of an Acoustic Health Monitoring (AHM) system that uses Guided Lamb Wave (GLW) technology to determine the thickness of railroad tank car shells for identification of wall loss due to corrosion. In recent regulatory changes, the emphasis has shifted from the traditional hydrotest to more modern methods for assuring tank car integrity. The new generation of maintenance programs will rely heavily on nondestructive testing, and will use damage tolerance concepts and risk analysis to establish inspection frequencies and items to inspect. It is the responsibility of the owners to set up experience-based maintenance programs that are suitable for the working conditions of their own particular fleets. Development of an ideal AHM system for railroad cars would be an instrument that incorporates Acoustic Emission (AE) and GLW technology. The combination of active and passive acoustic technologies integrated into a single system would be a highly efficient means of determining the structural integrity of tank cars. The integration of the GLW technology will allow identification of corrosion wall loss in a zone between two sensors, rather than at a single point (traditional ultrasonic thickness measurements). Thus, a much larger area of the structure can be inspected for approximately the same inspection cost. With a suitable integration of this new technology into the overall inspection and corrosion management program, the fleet can be more efficiently maintained and the risk of accidental release through progressive corrosion damage can be significantly reduced.

  18. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Todd, M. D.; Hodgkiss, T.; Rosing, T.

    2007-02-26

    This report has been developed based on information exchanges at a 2.5-day workshop on energy harvesting for embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems that was held June 28-30, 2005, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The workshop was hosted by the LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute (EI). This Institute is an education- and research-focused collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Jacobs School of Engineering. A Statistical Pattern Recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and their respective power requirements are summarized, followed by a discussion of SHM sensor network paradigms, power requirements for these networks and power optimization strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. This discussion also addresses current energy harvesting applications and system integration issues. The report concludes by defining some future research directions and possible technology demonstrations that are aimed at transitioning the concept of energy harvesting for embedded SHM sensing systems from laboratory research to field-deployed engineering prototypes.

  19. Optimal sensor placement in structural health monitoring using discrete optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2015-12-01

    The objective of optimal sensor placement (OSP) is to obtain a sensor layout that gives as much information of the dynamic system as possible in structural health monitoring (SHM). The process of OSP can be formulated as a discrete minimization (or maximization) problem with the sensor locations as the design variables, conditional on the constraint of a given sensor number. In this paper, we propose a discrete optimization scheme based on the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the OSP problem after first transforming it into an integer optimization problem. A modal assurance criterion-oriented objective function is investigated to measure the utility of a sensor configuration in the optimization process based on the modal characteristics of a reduced order model. The reduced order model is obtained using an iterated improved reduced system technique. The constraint is handled by a penalty term added to the objective function. Three examples, including a 27 bar truss bridge, a 21-storey building at the MIT campus and the 610 m high Canton Tower, are investigated to test the applicability of the proposed algorithm to OSP. In addition, the proposed OSP algorithm is experimentally validated on a physical laboratory structure which is a three-story two-bay steel frame instrumented with triaxial accelerometers. Results indicate that the proposed method is efficient and can be potentially used in OSP in practical SHM.

  20. Real-time and secure wireless health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dağtaş, S; Pekhteryev, G; Sahinoğlu, Z; Cam, H; Challa, N

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework for a wireless health monitoring system using wireless networks such as ZigBee. Vital signals are collected and processed using a 3-tiered architecture. The first stage is the mobile device carried on the body that runs a number of wired and wireless probes. This device is also designed to perform some basic processing such as the heart rate and fatal failure detection. At the second stage, further processing is performed by a local server using the raw data transmitted by the mobile device continuously. The raw data is also stored at this server. The processed data as well as the analysis results are then transmitted to the service provider center for diagnostic reviews as well as storage. The main advantages of the proposed framework are (1) the ability to detect signals wirelessly within a body sensor network (BSN), (2) low-power and reliable data transmission through ZigBee network nodes, (3) secure transmission of medical data over BSN, (4) efficient channel allocation for medical data transmission over wireless networks, and (5) optimized analysis of data using an adaptive architecture that maximizes the utility of processing and computational capacity at each platform.

  1. Damage Detection with Streamlined Structural Health Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jun; Xie, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) systems often overwhelms the systems’ capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compression, interactive sensor data retrieval, and structural knowledge discovery, which aim to enhance the reliability, efficiency, and robustness of on-line SHM systems. Adoption of this new concept will enable the design of an on-line SHM system with more uniform data generation and data handling capacity for its subsystems. To examine this concept in the context of vibration-based SHM systems, real sensor data from an on-line SHM system comprising a scaled steel bridge structure and an on-line data acquisition system with remote data access was used in this study. Vibration test results clearly demonstrated the prominent performance characteristics of the proposed integrated SHM system including rapid data access, interactive data retrieval and knowledge discovery of structural conditions on a global level. PMID:25884788

  2. Structural health monitoring and probability of detection estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) methods are often based on nondestructive testing (NDT) sensors and are often proposed as replacements for NDT to lower cost and/or improve reliability. In order to take advantage of SHM for life cycle management, it is necessary to determine the Probability of Detection (POD) of the SHM system just as for traditional NDT to ensure that the required level of safety is maintained. Many different possibilities exist for SHM systems, but one of the attractive features of SHM versus NDT is the ability to take measurements very simply after the SHM system is installed. Using a simple statistical model of POD, some authors have proposed that very high rates of SHM system data sampling can result in high effective POD even in situations where an individual test has low POD. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical basis for determining the effect of repeated inspections, and examine data from SHM experiments against this framework to show how the effective POD from multiple tests can be estimated.

  3. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  4. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  5. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bubacz, Jacob A; Chmielewski, Hana T; Pape, Alexander E; Depersio, Andrew J; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Boone, Shane

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  6. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  7. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System ( HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FLS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques. The data that was used for the evaluation of the usage monitoring techniques was collected under an independent HUMS Flight trial program, using a commercially available HUMS and data recording system. The usage data collect from the HUMS trial aircraft was analyzed off-line using PC-based software that included the FCR and FLS techniques. In the future, if the technique prove feasible, usage monitoring would be incorporated into the onboard HUMS.

  8. Strategy Developed for Selecting Optimal Sensors for Monitoring Engine Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sensor indications during rocket engine operation are the primary means of assessing engine performance and health. Effective selection and location of sensors in the operating engine environment enables accurate real-time condition monitoring and rapid engine controller response to mitigate critical fault conditions. These capabilities are crucial to ensure crew safety and mission success. Effective sensor selection also facilitates postflight condition assessment, which contributes to efficient engine maintenance and reduced operating costs. Under the Next Generation Launch Technology program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, has developed a model-based procedure for systematically selecting an optimal sensor suite for assessing rocket engine system health. This optimization process is termed the systematic sensor selection strategy. Engine health management (EHM) systems generally employ multiple diagnostic procedures including data validation, anomaly detection, fault-isolation, and information fusion. The effectiveness of each diagnostic component is affected by the quality, availability, and compatibility of sensor data. Therefore systematic sensor selection is an enabling technology for EHM. Information in three categories is required by the systematic sensor selection strategy. The first category consists of targeted engine fault information; including the description and estimated risk-reduction factor for each identified fault. Risk-reduction factors are used to define and rank the potential merit of timely fault diagnoses. The second category is composed of candidate sensor information; including type, location, and estimated variance in normal operation. The final category includes the definition of fault scenarios characteristic of each targeted engine fault. These scenarios are defined in terms of engine model hardware parameters. Values of these parameters define engine simulations that generate

  9. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study... National Animal Health Monitoring System Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. DATES: We will...-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management and Program...

  10. VA Health Care: Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    VA HEALTH CARE Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed Report to...Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed What GAO Found Recent internal and external reviews of Veterans Health Administration (VHA...operations have identified deficiencies in its organizational structure and recommended changes that would require significant restructuring to address

  11. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY... National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. DATES: We will consider all....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study,...

  12. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  13. Feasibility of a wireless health monitoring system for prevention and health assessment of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Mixco, Viveca; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María F; Arredondo, Maria T; Panou, A Maria; Struck, Matthias; Bonfiglio, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper comprises the methodology and results of a pilot study on the feasibility of a wireless health monitoring system designed under main EU challenges for the promotion of healthy and active ageing. The system is focused on health assessment, prevention and lifestyle promotion of elderly people. Over a hundred participants including elderly users and caregivers tested the system in four pilot sites across Europe. Tests covered several scenarios in senior centers and real home environments, including performance and usability assessment. Results indicated strong satisfactoriness on usability, usefulness and user friendliness, and the acceptable level of reliability obtained supports future investigation on the same direction for further improvement and transfer of conclusions to the real world in the healthcare delivery.

  14. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet.

  15. In situ fabricated smart material active sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2004-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is currently using piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) permanently attached to the structure with adhesives. This is often a burdensome and time-consuming task, especially for large structures such as aircraft, bridges, etc. In addition, there are critical applications where the rigid piezoceramic wafers cannot conform to curved surfaces. Another important issue is the long term durability of the bonded interface between the PWAS and the structure, which is often the durability weak link. An in-situ fabricated smart sensor may offer better durability. This paper considers the possibility of fabricating the PWAS directly to the substrate structure in order to alleviate these problems. The paper starts with a review of the state of the art in active composite fabrication. Then, two concepts are considered: the piezomagnetic composite sensor and the piezoelectric composite PWAS. The piezomagnetic composite was fabricated using Terfenol-D magnetostrictive powder in a fiber reinforced composite beam. The strain-induced magnetic field was detected with a Lakeshore gaussmeter. The piezoelectric composite sensor was prepared by mixing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles in an epoxy resin. The mixture was applied onto the structural surface using a mask. After curing, the piezo composite was sanded down to the desired thickness and poled under a high electric field. The resulting in-situ composite PWAS was utilized as a sensor for dynamic vibration and impact. Characterization of the in-situ composite PWAS on aluminum structure have been recorded and compared with ceramic PWAS before and after poling. To evaluate the performance of the in-situ composite PWAS, both vibration and impact tests were conducted. Both experiments indicated that in-situ fabrication of active materials composites poses itself as a good candidate for reliable low-cost option for SHM smart sensor fabrication.

  16. Comparison and analysis of two modern methods in the structural health monitoring techniques in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Role of air transport in the development and expansion of world trade leading to economic growth of different countries is undeniable. Continuing the world's trade sustainability without expansion of aerospace is next to impossible. Based on enormous expenses for design, manufacturing and maintenance of different aerospace structures, correct and timely diagnosis of defects in those structures to provide for maximum safety has the highest importance. Amid all this, manufacturers of commercial and even military aircrafts are after production of less expensive, lighter, higher fuel economy and nonetheless, higher safety. As such, two events has prevailed in the aerospace industries: (1) Utilization of composites for the fuselage as well as other airplane parts, (2) using modern manufacturing methods. Arrival of two these points have created the need for upgrading of the present systems as well as innovating newer methods in diagnosing and detection of defects in aerospace structures. Despite applicability of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods in aerospace for decades, due to some limitations in the defect detection's certainty, particularly for composite material and complex geometries, shadow of doubt has fallen on maintaining complete confidence in using NDT. These days, two principal approach are ahead to tackle the above mentioned problems. First, approach for the short range is the creative and combinational mean to increase the reliability of NDT and for the long run, innovation of new methods on the basis of structural health monitoring (SHM) is in order. This has led to new philosophy in the maintenance area and in some instances; field of design has also been affected by it.

  17. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  18. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  19. [Four axiological considerations in social epidemiology for the monitoring of health inequality].

    PubMed

    Mújica, Oscar J

    2015-12-01

    As the conceptual components of the most important contemporary public health agendas at the global and regional levels are brought into alignment and as it becomes more clearly understood that equity is a constitutive principle of these agendas, there is also a growing awareness of the strategic value of monitoring social inequalities in health. This is the health intelligence tool par excellence, not only for objectively assessing progress towards achieving health equity, but also for reporting action on the social determinants of health, progress towards the attainment of health for all, and the success of intersectoral efforts that take a "health in all policies" approach. These transformations are taking place in the context of an increasingly evident paradigm shift in public health. This essay presents four axiological considerations inherent to-and essential for -conceptualizing and implementing ways to measure and monitor health inequalities: ecoepidemiology as an emerging field in contemporary public health; the determinants of health as the causal model and core of the new paradigm; the relationship between the social hierarchy and health to understand the health gradient; and the practical need for a socioeconomic classification system that captures the social dimension in the determinants of health. The essay argues that these four axiological considerations lend epidemiologic coherence and rationality to the process of measuring and monitoring health inequalities and, by extension, to the development of pro-equity health policy proposals.

  20. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the

  1. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    and can be invaluable for fault detection and isolation purposes. Model Predictive Control Model Predictive Control (MPC) is unusual in that it is...costly damage to engine components, provide accurate fault detection and isolation to maintenance personnel, and reduce costs due to premature or...monitoring of unmeasurable variables is the basis for many fault detection and isolation approaches).39 The information flow diagram in figure 9

  2. Smart composite materials for non-invasive structural health monitoring and composites manufacturing process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaurav

    Self-sensing composite materials with nanoscale sensor networks can provide feedback about quality evolution during composites manufacturing as well as long-term structural health. Multi-scale composites spanning nano to macro scales involve the interaction between components of varying length scales. An example of such an interaction is the influence of hollow glass microspheres on the electrical conductivity and strain sensitivity of novel carbon nanotube-based syntactic foams. In addition to uniformly dispersed carbon nanotube networks, selective integration of carbon nanotubes has been studied in form of carbon nanotube sheets and carbon nanotube sizing agents. Both techniques enable one-step carbon nanotube integration. Carbon nanotube sheets have been found to be especially useful for prepreg composites. In addition to piezoresistive-based sensing, time domain reflectometry has been studied and the strain response of time domain reflectometry sensors has been modeled and validated. Carbon nanotubes have been found to increase the strain response and damage sensitivity of time domain reflectometry sensors due to breakage of carbon nanotube networks. Two-dimensional deformation mapping and damage sensing has been implemented on composite panels using both piezoresistivity and time domain reflectometry. For the first time, high accuracy cure monitoring has been achieved using non-invasive time domain reflectometry sensors.

  3. Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Using CPLE Frequency Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi; Jones, Jess H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a unique vibration signature analysis technique Coherence Phase Line Enhancer (CPLE) Frequency Analysis - for roller bearing health monitoring. Defects of roller bearing (e.g. wear, foreign debris, crack in bearing supporting structure, etc.) can cause small bearing characteristic frequency shifts due to minor changes in bearing geometry. Such frequency shifts are often too small to detect by the conventional Power Spectral Density (PSD) due to its frequency bandwidth limitation. This Coherent Phase Line Enhancer technology has been evolving over the last few years and has culminated in the introduction of a new and novel frequency spectrum which is fully described in this paper. This CPLE technology uses a "key phasor" or speed probe as a preprocessor for this analysis. With the aid of this key phasor, this CPLE technology can develop a two dimensional frequency spectrum that preserves both amplitude and phase that is not normally obtained using conventional frequency analysis. This two-dimensional frequency transformation results in several newly defined spectral functions; i. e. CPLE-PSD, CPLE-Coherence and the CPLE-Frequency. This paper uses this CPLE frequency analysis to detect subtle, low level bearing related signals in the High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). For many rotating machinery applications, a key phasor is an essential measurement that is used in the detection of bearing related signatures. There are times however, when a key phasor is not available; i. e. during flight of any of the SSME turbopumps or on the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) where no speed probe is present. In this case, the CPLE analysis approach can still be achieved using a novel Pseudo Key Phasor (PKP) technique to reconstruct a 1/Rev PKP signal directly from external vibration measurements. This paper develops this Pseudo Key Phasor technique and applies it to the SSME vibration data.

  4. Optical sensor for precision in-situ spindle health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui

    An optical sensor which can record in-situ measurements of the dynamic runout of a precision miniature spindle system in a simple and low-cost manner is proposed in this dissertation. Spindle error measurement technology utilizes a cylindrical or spherical target artifact attached to the miniature spindle with non-contact sensors, typically capacitive sensors which are calibrated with a flat target surface not a curved target surface. Due to the different behavior of an electric field between a flat plate and a curved surface and an electric field between two flat plates, capacitive sensors is not suitable for measuring target surfaces smaller than its effective sensing area. The proposed sensor utilizes curved-edge diffraction (CED), which uses the effect of cylindrical surface curvature on the diffraction phenomenon in the transition regions adjacent to shadow, transmission, and reflection boundaries. The laser diodes light incident on the cylindrical surface of precision spindle and photodetectors collect the total field produced by the diffraction around the target surface. Laser diode in the different two direction are incident to the spindle shaft edges along the X and Y axes, four photodetectors collect the total fields produced by interference of multiple waves due to CED around the spindle shaft edges. The X and Y displacement can be obtained from the total fields using two differential amplifier configurations, respectively. Precision miniature spindle (shaft φ5.0mm) runout was measured, and the proposed sensor can perform curve at the different speed of rotation from 1500rpm to 8000rpm in the X and Y axes, respectively. On the other hand, CED also show changes for different running time and temperature of spindle. These results indicate that the proposed sensor promises to be effective for in-situ monitoring of the miniature spindle's health with high resolution, wide bandwidth, and low-cost.

  5. Modeling ultrasonic NDE and guided wave based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Nitin B.; Rathod, Vivek T.; Chakraborty, Nibir.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Sridaran, Ramanan; Boller, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems require integration of non-destructive technologies into structural design and operational processes. Modeling and simulation of complex NDE inspection processes are important aspects in the development and deployment of SHM technologies. Ray tracing techniques are vital simulation tools to visualize the wave path inside a material. These techniques also help in optimizing the location of transducers and their orientation with respect to the zone of interrogation. It helps in increasing the chances of detection and identification of a flaw in that zone. While current state-of-the-art techniques such as ray tracing based on geometric principle help in such visualization, other information such as signal losses due to spherical or cylindrical shape of wave front are rarely taken into consideration. The problem becomes a little more complicated in the case of dispersive guided wave propagation and near-field defect scattering. We review the existing models and tools to perform ultrasonic NDE simulation in structural components. As an initial step, we develop a ray-tracing approach, where phase and spectral information are preserved. This enables one to study wave scattering beyond simple time of flight calculation of rays. Challenges in terms of theory and modelling of defects of various kinds are discussed. Various additional considerations such as signal decay and physics of scattering are reviewed and challenges involved in realistic computational implementation are discussed. Potential application of this approach to SHM system design is highlighted and by applying this to complex structural components such as airframe structures, SHM is demonstrated to provide additional value in terms of lighter weight and/or longevity enhancement resulting from an extension of the damage tolerance design principle not compromising safety and reliability.

  6. Hardware Specific Integration Strategy for Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ha, Dong S.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project, sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is conducting research to advance the state of highly integrated and complex flight-critical health management technologies and systems. An effective IVHM system requires Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The impedance method is one such SHM technique for detection and monitoring complex structures for damage. This position paper on the impedance method presents the current state of the art, future directions, applications and possible flight test demonstrations.

  7. Scenario-Based Specification and Evaluation of Architectures for Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sundaram, P.

    2001-01-01

    HUMS systems have been an area of increased research in the recent times due to two main reasons: (a) increase in the occurrences of accidents in the aerospace, and (b) stricter FAA regulations on aircrafts maintenance [2]. There are several problems associated with the maintenance of aircrafts that the HUMS systems can solve through the use of several monitoring technologies.This paper documents our methodology of employing scenarios in the specification and evaluation of architecture for HUMS. Section 2 investigates related works that use scenarios in software development. Section 3 describes how we use scenarios in our work, which is followed by a demonstration of our methods in the development of KUMS in section 4. Conclusion summarizes results.

  8. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  9. A Simple and Reliable Health Monitoring System For Shoulder Health: Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yann-Long

    2014-01-01

    Background The current health care system is complex and inefficient. A simple and reliable health monitoring system that can help patients perform medical self-diagnosis is seldom readily available. Because the medical system is vast and complex, it has hampered or delayed patients in seeking medical advice or treatment in a timely manner, which may potentially affect the patient’s chances of recovery, especially those with severe sicknesses such as cancer, and heart disease. Objective The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology in designing a simple, low cost, Internet-based health-screening platform. Methods This health-screening platform will enable patients to perform medical self-diagnosis over the Internet. Historical data has shown the importance of early detection to ensure patients receive proper treatment and speedy recovery. Results The platform is designed with special emphasis on the user interface. Standard Web-based user-interface design is adopted so the user feels ease to operate in a familiar Web environment. In addition, graphics such as charts and graphs are used generously to help users visualize and understand the result of the diagnostic. The system is developed using hypertext preprocessor (PHP) programming language. One important feature of this system platform is that it is built to be a stand-alone platform, which tends to have better user privacy security. The prototype system platform was developed by the National Cheng Kung University Ergonomic and Design Laboratory. Conclusions The completed prototype of this system platform was submitted to the Taiwan Medical Institute for evaluation. The evaluation of 120 participants showed that this platform system is a highly effective tool in health-screening applications, and has great potential for improving the medical care quality for the general public. PMID:24571980

  10. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    deterioration, wear, and fouling that turbomachinery will incur over time with usage. _____________________ Jeffrey B. Armstrong et al. This is an open...serve as a guide for the development and implementation of self-tuning engine models for turbomachinery diagnostics, prognostics, and health

  11. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... procedures to address and coordinate workplace inspections if and when they may be required. The IBT further urged the FAA to stress the importance of properly reporting safety and health issues and encourage..., contaminated bleed air ventilation systems, heat stress, ergonomic hazards, hazardous agents, pinch points,...

  12. Unsupervised statistical damage diagnosis for structural health monitoring of existing civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, A.; Todoroki, A.; Sugiya, T.; Izumi, S.; Sakai, S.

    2005-06-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important technology for ageing aerospace and civil structures. For this structural health monitoring, fiber optic sensors are increasing in popularity; however, several kinds of sensors are usually required, including sensors other than fiber optic sensors. Thus, a new technology for transforming conventional sensors into distributed sensors is required. The present study proposes Ethernet LAN technologies for the sensor integration required for structural health monitoring, and discusses the advantages of adopting this technology. Moreover, the paper describes an Ethernet-based health monitoring system and a statistical unsupervised damage detecting method for automatic damage diagnosis. Then, we create a system for monitoring the damage to an expressway tunnel jet-fan using system identification and statistical tools. Damage was detected from changes in a set of data measuring loads on the turnbuckles of the jet-fan. The resulting automatic diagnosis of damage to the jet-fan was successful.

  13. Distributed structural health monitoring system based on smart wireless sensor and multi-agent technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Lai, Xiaosong; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Liang

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a new parallel distributed structural health monitoring technology based on the wireless sensor network and multi-agent system for large scale engineering structures. The basic idea of this new technology is that of adopting the smart wireless sensor with on-board microprocessor to form the monitoring sensor network and the multi-agent technology to manage the whole health monitoring system. Using this technology, the health monitoring system becomes a distributing parallel system instead of a serial system with all processing work done by the central computer. The functions, the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the whole system will be greatly improved. In addition, with wireless communication links instead of wires, the system weight and complexity will be lowered. In this paper, the distributed smart wireless sensor network is designed first based on the Berkeley Mote Mica wireless sensor platform. Two kinds of sensor have been adopted: piezoelectric sensors and electric resistance wires. They are connected to a Mica MPR board though a designed charge amplifier circuit or bridge circuit and MTS101 board. Seven kinds of agents are defined for the structural health monitoring system. A distributed health monitoring architecture based on the defined agents is proposed. Finally, a composite structural health monitoring system based on a Mica wireless platform and multi-agent technology is developed to evaluate the efficacy of the new technology. The developed system can successfully monitor the concentrated load position or a loose bolt position.

  14. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  15. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of a proposed new system of records; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Animal and Plant...

  16. CEV OME/RCS Flow Health Monitor: Status Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stan; Simmons, Steve; Carlson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    I. Primary purpose: detect propellant valve leakage: a) Reduce launch propellant mass by reducing leakage loss . margins, b) Improve safety by reducing risk of propellant ice build up in thruster. II. Secondary objectives: a) Wetness sensor to detect that lines have been flooded. b) Monitor engine performance (timing, mix ratio). c) Use in GSE as valve leakage monitor.

  17. EXPOSURE MONITORING COMPONENT FOR DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY ( DCHS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional, regulatory-based air monitoring is expensive and, thus, conducted at one or few locations in a city. This provides limited info on intra-urban variability and spatial distribution of air pollution. Research-oriented urban network monitoring has progressed with inc...

  18. Workshop on Transitioning Structural Health Monitoring Technology to Military Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-28

    sensors that can be multiplexed such as extrinsic Fabry -Perot interferometers (EFPI), but they are rarely used for structural monitoring. We have not...bureau, and outbreak monitoring by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC).  One approach to data management is replacing conventional processing

  19. A Practical Method of Monitoring the Results of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Daugharty, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    To meet our goal of improving health care through more productive use of the data we are collecting about the delivery of health care we need to define our concepts of health and quality. The WHO definition of health allows the design of useful functional outcome criteria which give us measurable standards for the outcome of the health care. By recording, retrieving, and reviewing pertinent information from the structure and the process of health care for a valid comparison with its outcome, the most effective and efficient health care is identified. A practical system is presented which identifies the better methods of management and produces the motivation for change that results in improved care. The successful use of this system in a private practice supports its universal adaptability for health care providers. The initial encouraging results suggest that future trials in other types of practices will be even more encouraging.

  20. Directional transduction for guided wave structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Ken I.

    The principal objectives of structural health monitoring (SHM) are the detection, location, and classification of structural defects that may adversely affect the performance of engineering systems. Ultrasonic testing based on guided waves (GW) is one of the most promising solutions for SHM. These waves are capable of inspecting large structural areas, and can be made sensitive to specific defect types by controlling the testing parameters. A key challenge in the development of GW SHM systems is the lack of robust transduction devices for efficient structural interrogation. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and testing of the Composite Long-range Variable-length Emitting Radar (CLoVER) transducer. This device is composed of independent piezocomposite sectors capable of efficiently exciting highly directional GW for structural inspection. The first step in the development of the new device consists of formulating a theoretical model based on 3-D elasticity to characterize its GW excitation properties. In contrast to reduced structural theories, the developed model captures the multi-modal nature of GW at high frequencies (MHz-range). After a thorough numerical verification, the model is used to determine the efficiency of the transducer relative to conventional configurations under similar electric inputs. The in-house fabrication and characterization procedures for CLoVER transducers are described and applied to more conventional piezocomposite transducer geometries. The free strain performance of these conventional in-house actuators is shown to be similar to that of commercially available piezocomposite ones. An extensive experimental investigation is subsequently presented to assess the CLoVER GW excitation characteristics in isotropic and composite materials. The radiation patterns excited by these devices are spatially characterized using laser vibrometry, and the results confirm the ability of the devices to induce highly directional GW

  1. Role of the emergency medical services system in regionwide health monitoring and referral.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, A K; Hedges, J R

    1993-11-01

    The emergency medical services (EMS) system of the future has the opportunity to serve as a regional community health monitoring and referral system. Such a system would shift attention from care of the individual to cost-effective community health efforts using community resource integration, while emphasizing individual responsibility for health. This health care system model requires the establishment of a centralized monitoring agency, the "regional center." The regional center would coordinate the monitoring of regional EMS use and linkage of patients with essential health promotion and behavior change organizations. Many of these supporting organizations are in place but are functioning without the benefit of communitywide health monitoring or effective referral and follow-up links with other resources. Coordination through the EMS system and a regional center would permit these resources to be used in an efficient and accountable fashion. We propose a model in which the EMS system could contribute to coordinated regional health monitoring and maintenance, timely and appropriate health care legislation and regulation, and high-impact health care education and intervention in the setting of self-destructive individual behavior.

  2. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  3. Primary health-care network monitoring: a hierarchical resource allocation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Pur, Aleksander; Bohanec, Marko; Lavrac, Nada; Cestnik, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Management of a primary health-care network (PHCN) is a difficult task in every country. A suitable monitoring system can provide useful information for PHCN management, especially given a large quantity of health-care data that is produced daily in the network. This paper proposes a methodology for structured development of monitoring systems and a PHCN resource allocation monitoring model based on this methodology. The purpose of the monitoring model is to improve the allocation of health-care resources. The proposed methodology is based on modules that are organized into a hierarchy, where each module monitors a particular aspect of the system. This methodology was used to design a PHCN monitoring model for Slovenia. Specific aspects of the Slovenian PHCN were taken into account such as varying needs of patients from different municipalities, existence of small municipalities having less than 1000 residents, the fact that many patients visit physicians in other municipalities, and that physicians may work at more than one location or organization. The main modules in the model are focused on the overall assessment of the PHCN, monitoring of patients visits to health-care providers (HCPs), physical accessibility of health services, segment of patients in municipalities who have not selected a personal physician, assessment of the availability of HCPs for patients, physicians working on more than one location, and available human resources in the PHCN. Most of the model's components are general and can be adapted for other national health-care systems.

  4. Health monitoring with optical fiber sensors: from human body to civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Hamel, Caroline; Glišić, Branko; Inaudi, Daniele; Miron, Nicolae

    2007-04-01

    Although structural health monitoring and patient monitoring may benefit from the unique advantages of optical fiber sensors (OFS) such as electromagnetic interferences (EMI) immunity, sensor small size and long term reliability, both applications are facing different realities. This paper presents, with practical examples, several OFS technologies ranging from single-point to distributed sensors used to address the health monitoring challenges in medical and in civil engineering fields. OFS for medical applications are single-point, measuring mainly vital parameters such as pressure or temperature. In the intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy, a miniature OFS can monitor in situ aortic blood pressure to trigger catheter balloon inflation/deflation in counter-pulsation with heartbeats. Similar sensors reliably monitor the intracranial pressure (ICP) of critical care patients, even during surgical interventions or examinations under medical resonance imaging (MRI). Temperature OFS are also the ideal monitoring solution for such harsh environments. Most of OFS for structural health monitoring are distributed or have long gage length, although quasi-distributed short gage sensors are also used. Those sensors measure mainly strain/load, temperature, pressure and elongation. SOFO type deformation sensors were used to monitor and secure the Bolshoi Moskvoretskiy Bridge in Moscow. Safety of Plavinu dam built on clay and sand in Latvia was increased by monitoring bitumen joints displacement and temperature changes using SMARTape and Temperature Sensitive Cable read with DiTeSt unit. A similar solution was used for monitoring a pipeline built in an unstable area near Rimini in Italy.

  5. Use of FBG sensors for health monitoring of pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Ferdinando; Paolozzi, Antonio; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Paris, Claudio; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The infrastructures for oil and gas production and distribution need reliable monitoring systems. The risks for pipelines, in particular, are not only limited to natural disasters (landslides, earthquakes, extreme environmental conditions) and accidents, but involve also the damages related to criminal activities, such as oil theft. The existing monitoring systems are not adequate for detecting damages from oil theft, and in several occasion the illegal activities resulted in leakage of oil and catastrophic environmental pollution. Systems based on fiber optic FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors present a number of advantages for pipeline monitoring. FBG sensors can withstand harsh environment, are immune to interferences, and can be used to develop a smart system for monitoring at the same time several physical characteristics, such as strain, temperature, acceleration, pressure, and vibrations. The monitoring station can be positioned tens of kilometers away from the measuring points, lowering the costs and the complexity of the system. This paper describes tests on a sensor, based on FBG technology, developed specifically for detecting damages of pipeline due to illegal activities (drilling of the pipes), that can be integrated into a smart monitoring chain.

  6. Presentation from 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting: ANTHC Rural Alaska Monitoring Program (RAMP): Assessing, Monitoring, and Adapting to Emerging Environmental Human and Wildlife Health Threats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, ANTHC Rural Alaska Monitoring Program (RAMP): Assessing, Monitoring, and Adapting to Emerging Environmental Human and Wildlife Health Threats, was given at the 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting held on Sept. 20-21, 2016.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the use of smartwatches for longitudinal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Emil

    2015-08-01

    New generations of smartwatches feature continuous measurement of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin resistance (GSR), and temperature. In this paper we present the results of preliminary analysis of the use of Basis Peak smartwatch for longitudinal health monitoring during a 4 month period. Physiological measurements during sleep are validated using Zephyr Bioharness 3 monitor and SOMNOscreen+ polysomnographic monitoring system from SOMNOmedics. Average duration of sequences with no missed data was 49.9 minutes, with maximum length of 17 hours, and they represent 88.88% of recording time. Average duration of the charging event was 221.9 min, and average time between charges was 54 hours, with maximum duration of the charging event of 16.3 hours. Preliminary results indicate that the physiological monitoring performance of existing smartwatches provides sufficient performance for longitudinal monitoring of health status and analysis of health and wellness trends.

  8. Application of near field communication for health monitoring in daily life.

    PubMed

    Strömmer, Esko; Kaartinen, Jouni; Pärkkä, Juha; Ylisaukko-Oja, Arto; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2006-01-01

    We study the possibility of applying an emerging RFID-based communication technology, NFC (Near Field Communication), to health monitoring. We suggest that NFC is, compared to other competing technologies, a high-potential technology for short-range connectivity between health monitoring devices and mobile terminals. We propose practices to apply NFC to some health monitoring applications and study the benefits that are attainable with NFC. We compare NFC to other short-range communication technologies such as Bluetooth and IrDA, and study the possibility of improving the usability of health monitoring devices with NFC. We also introduce a research platform for technical evaluation, applicability study and application demonstrations of NFC.

  9. Self-Powered energy harvester strain sensing device for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, A.; Bafleur, M.; Dilhac, J.-M.; Colomer, J.; Dragomirescu, D.; Lopez, J.; Zhu, M.; Miribel, P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an envisaged autonomous strain sensor device, which is dedicated to structural health monitoring applications. The paper introduces the ASIC approach that replaces the discrete approach of some of the main modules.

  10. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  11. I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORING—CHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-01

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  12. Airport take-off noise assessment aimed at identify responsible aircraft classes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Perez, Luis A; Sanchez-Fernandez, Luis P; Shaout, Adnan; Suarez-Guerra, Sergio

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of aircraft noise is an important task of nowadays airports in order to fight environmental noise pollution given the recent discoveries on the exposure negative effects on human health. Noise monitoring and estimation around airports mostly use aircraft noise signals only for computing statistical indicators and depends on additional data sources so as to determine required inputs such as the aircraft class responsible for noise pollution. In this sense, the noise monitoring and estimation systems have been tried to improve by creating methods for obtaining more information from aircraft noise signals, especially real-time aircraft class recognition. Consequently, this paper proposes a multilayer neural-fuzzy model for aircraft class recognition based on take-off noise signal segmentation. It uses a fuzzy inference system to build a final response for each class p based on the aggregation of K parallel neural networks outputs Op(k) with respect to Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) features extracted from K adjacent signal segments. Based on extensive experiments over two databases with real-time take-off noise measurements, the proposed model performs better than other methods in literature, particularly when aircraft classes are strongly correlated to each other. A new strictly cross-checked database is introduced including more complex classes and real-time take-off noise measurements from modern aircrafts. The new model is at least 5% more accurate with respect to previous database and successfully classifies 87% of measurements in the new database.

  13. [The basic principles of the implementation of sociological monitoring programs in public health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of sociological research is an important part of information provision of health management. The effectiveness of the sociological studies increases in case of their transfer into monitoring category. The organization of sociological monitoring requires the adherence to the particular technical approaches to provide data validity and data correctness. The possibility to implement the data dynamics analysis can testify the ongoing alterations in the functioning of health care system and the effectiveness of implemented managerial decisions based on the provided sociological information.

  14. Functionalized Graphene Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites as Strain Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0233 FUNCTIONALIZED GRAPHENE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC NANOCOMPOSITES AS STRAIN SENSORS IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING... MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...SENSORS IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (Preprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-C-5205 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63112F 6

  15. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  16. The design and implementation of a low-cost GPS-MEMS/INS precision approach algorithm with health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Richard P.

    An algorithm for precision approach guidance using GPS and a MicroElectroMechanical Systems/Inertial Navigation System (MEMS/INS) has been developed to meet the Required Navigational Performance (RNP) at a cost that is suitable for General Aviation (GA) applications. This scheme allows for accurate approach guidance (Category I) using Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) at locations not served by ILS, MLS or other types of precision landing guidance, thereby greatly expanding the number of useable airports in poor weather. At locations served by a Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS), Category III-like navigation is possible with the novel idea of a Missed Approach Time (MAT) that is similar to a Missed Approach Point (MAP) but not fixed in space. Though certain augmented types of GPS have sufficient precision for approach navigation, its use alone is insufficient to meet RNP due to an inability to monitor loss, degradation or intentional spoofing and meaconing of the GPS signal. A redundant navigation system and a health monitoring system must be added to acquire sufficient reliability, safety and time-to-alert as stated by required navigation performance. An inertial navigation system is the best choice, as it requires no external radio signals and its errors are complementary to GPS. An aiding Kalman filter is used to derive parameters that monitor the correlation between the GPS and MEMS/INS. These approach guidance parameters determines the MAT for a given RNP and provide the pilot or autopilot with proceed/do-not-proceed decision in real time. The enabling technology used to derive the guidance program is a MEMS gyroscope and accelerometer package in conjunction with a single-antenna pseudo-attitude algorithm. To be viable for most GA applications, the hardware must be reasonably priced. The MEMS gyros allows for the first cost-effective INS package to be developed. With lower cost, however, comes higher drift rates and a more dependence on GPS aiding. In

  17. Instrumentation for Monitoring Breath Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Health Condition, Toxic Exposure and Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    response to respiratory viral infections. It also has been identified in acute lung injury and ARDS . ALFA monitoring will be used to monitor impending...the research community in the field of acute lung injury, airway acidification, and prognostic lung health assessment. Honors/Awards: Respiratory ...COVERED (From - To) 27-12-2007 FINAL REPORT From 30-9-2005 to 29-9-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Instrumentation for Monitoring Breath

  18. Children Become "Real Scientists" as They Help to Monitor the Health of Their Local Estuary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Brent

    2014-01-01

    The author explains how the children at his primary school in New Zealand are inspired by their involvement in environmental monitoring. Shellfish surveys are conducted annually in New Zealand in order to establish the health of their estuaries. By involving the children in this national monitoring programme, prepared by the Hauraki Gulf Forum (an…

  19. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  20. Soil health: The concept, its role, and strategies for monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health is not a new concept as evidenced by writings by both Greek and Roman philosophers who were aware of the importance of soil health to agricultural prosperity. Most recently, the concept has been recognized as a tool to help evaluate the effects of various agricultural and land management...

  1. Monitoring soil health with a sensor fusion approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor-based approaches to assessment and quantification of soil health are important to facilitate cost-effective, site-specific soil management. While traditional laboratory analysis is effective for assessing soil health (or soil quality) at a few sites, such an approach quickly becomes infeasibl...

  2. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain.

  3. A wireless blood pressure monitoring system for personal health management.

    PubMed

    Li, Wun-Jin; Luo, Yuan-Long; Chang, Yao-Shun; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a wireless blood pressure monitoring system which provides a useful tool for users to measure and manage their daily blood pressure values. This system includes an ARM-based blood pressure monitor with a ZigBee wireless transmission module and a PC-based management unit with graphic user interface and database. The wireless blood pressure monitor can measure the blood pressure and heart rate and then store and forward the measuring information to the management unit through the ZigBee wireless transmission. On the management unit, user can easy to see their blood pressure variation in the past using a line chart. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement has been verified by a commercial blood pressure simulator and shown the bias of systolic blood pressure is ≤ 1 mmHg and the bias of diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 1.4 mmHg.

  4. Resource-Aware Mobile-Based Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Masud, Mohammad M; Adel Serhani, Mohamed; Navaz, Alramzana Nujum

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring heart diseases often requires frequent measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals at different periods of the day, and at different situations (e.g., traveling, and exercising). This can only be implemented using mobile devices in order to cope with mobility of patients under monitoring, thus supporting continuous monitoring practices. However, these devices are energy-aware, have limited computing resources (e.g., CPU speed and memory), and might lose network connectivity, which makes it very challenging to maintain a continuity of the monitoring episode. In this paper, we propose a mobile monitoring solution to cope with these challenges by compromising on the fly resources availability, battery level, and network intermittence. In order to solve this problem, first we divide the whole process into several subtasks such that each subtask can be executed sequentially either in the server or in the mobile or in parallel in both devices. Then, we developed a mathematical model that considers all the constraints and finds a dynamic programing solution to obtain the best execution path (i.e., which substep should be done where). The solution guarantees an optimum execution time, while considering device battery availability, execution and transmission time, and network availability. We conducted a series of experiments to evaluate our proposed approach using some key monitoring tasks starting from preprocessing to classification and prediction. The results we have obtained proved that our approach gives the best (lowest) running time for any combination of factors including processing speed, input size, and network bandwidth. Compared to several greedy but nonoptimal solutions, the execution time of our approach was at least 10 times faster and consumed 90% less energy.

  5. [Study monitoring: a useful tool for quality health research].

    PubMed

    Arias Valencia, Samuel Andrés; Hernández Pinzón, Giovanna

    2009-05-01

    As well as protecting the rights of participants, a study's ethics must encompass the quality of its execution. As such, international standards have been established for studies involving human subjects. The objective of this review is to evaluate the usefulness of the Guide to Good Clinical Practice and "study monitoring" as tools useful to producing quality research. The Guide provides scientific ethics and quality standards for designing, conducting, registering, and notifying studies involving human subjects. By implementing specific processes and procedures, study monitoring seeks to ensure that research is followed and evaluated from inception, through execution and closure, thus producing studies with high quality standards.

  6. Hemodynamic monitoring in the era of digital health.

    PubMed

    Michard, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Digital innovations are changing medicine, and hemodynamic monitoring will not be an exception. Five to ten years from now, we can envision a world where clinicians will learn hemodynamics with simulators and serious games, will monitor patients with wearable or implantable sensors in the hospital and after discharge, will use medical devices able to communicate and integrate the historical, clinical, physiologic and biological information necessary to predict adverse events, propose the most rationale therapy and ensure it is delivered properly. Considerable intellectual and financial investments are currently made to ensure some of these new ideas and products soon become a reality.

  7. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints.

  8. Toward energy-efficient and distributed mobile health monitoring using parallel offloading.

    PubMed

    Ahnn, Jong Hoon; Potkonjak, Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Although mobile health monitoring where mobile sensors continuously gather, process, and update sensor readings (e.g. vital signals) from patient's sensors is emerging, little effort has been investigated in an energy-efficient management of sensor information gathering and processing. Mobile health monitoring with the focus of energy consumption may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as a global solution to optimization subproblems. We propose a distributed and energy-saving mobile health platform, called mHealthMon where mobile users publish/access sensor data via a cloud computing-based distributed P2P overlay network. The key objective is to satisfy the mobile health monitoring application's quality of service requirements by modeling each subsystem: mobile clients with medical sensors, wireless network medium, and distributed cloud services. By simulations based on experimental data, we present the proposed system can achieve up to 10.1 times more energy-efficient and 20.2 times faster compared to a standalone mobile health monitoring application, in various mobile health monitoring scenarios applying a realistic mobility model.

  9. Health monitoring display system for a complex plant

    DOEpatents

    Ridolfo, Charles F.; Harmon, Daryl L.; Colin, Dreyfuss

    2006-08-08

    A single page enterprise wide level display provides a comprehensive readily understood representation of the overall health status of a complex plant. Color coded failure domains allow rapid intuitive recognition of component failure status. A three-tier hierarchy of displays provide details on the health status of the components and systems displayed on the enterprise wide level display in a manner that supports a logical drill down to the health status of sub-components on Tier 1 to expected faults of the sub-components on Tier 2 to specific information relative to expected sub-component failures on Tier 3.

  10. [Equity-oriented monitoring in the context of universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Koller, Theadora; Prasad, Amit; Schlotheuber, Anne; Valentine, Nicole; Lynch, John; Vega, Jeanette

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring inequalities in health is fundamental to the equitable and progressive realization of universal health coverage (UHC). A successful approach to global inequality monitoring must be intuitive enough for widespread adoption, yet maintain technical credibility. This article discusses methodological considerations for equity-oriented monitoring of UHC, and proposes recommendations for monitoring and target setting. Inequality is multidimensional, such that the extent of inequality may vary considerably across different dimensions such as economic status, education, sex, and urban/rural residence. Hence, global monitoring should include complementary dimensions of inequality (such as economic status and urban/rural residence) as well as sex. For a given dimension of inequality, subgroups for monitoring must be formulated taking into consideration applicability of the criteria across countries and subgroup heterogeneity. For economic-related inequality, we recommend forming subgroups as quintiles, and for urban/rural inequality we recommend a binary categorization. Inequality spans populations, thus appropriate approaches to monitoring should be based on comparisons between two subgroups (gap approach) or across multiple subgroups (whole spectrum approach). When measuring inequality absolute and relative measures should be reported together, along with disaggregated data; inequality should be reported alongside the national average. We recommend targets based on proportional reductions in absolute inequality across populations. Building capacity for health inequality monitoring is timely, relevant, and important. The development of high-quality health information systems, including data collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting practices that are linked to review and evaluation cycles across health systems, will enable effective global and national health inequality monitoring. These actions will support equity-oriented progressive realization of UHC.

  11. Equity-oriented monitoring in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Koller, Theadora; Prasad, Amit; Schlotheuber, Anne; Valentine, Nicole; Lynch, John; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring inequalities in health is fundamental to the equitable and progressive realization of universal health coverage (UHC). A successful approach to global inequality monitoring must be intuitive enough for widespread adoption, yet maintain technical credibility. This article discusses methodological considerations for equity-oriented monitoring of UHC, and proposes recommendations for monitoring and target setting. Inequality is multidimensional, such that the extent of inequality may vary considerably across different dimensions such as economic status, education, sex, and urban/rural residence. Hence, global monitoring should include complementary dimensions of inequality (such as economic status and urban/rural residence) as well as sex. For a given dimension of inequality, subgroups for monitoring must be formulated taking into consideration applicability of the criteria across countries and subgroup heterogeneity. For economic-related inequality, we recommend forming subgroups as quintiles, and for urban/rural inequality we recommend a binary categorization. Inequality spans populations, thus appropriate approaches to monitoring should be based on comparisons between two subgroups (gap approach) or across multiple subgroups (whole spectrum approach). When measuring inequality absolute and relative measures should be reported together, along with disaggregated data; inequality should be reported alongside the national average. We recommend targets based on proportional reductions in absolute inequality across populations. Building capacity for health inequality monitoring is timely, relevant, and important. The development of high-quality health information systems, including data collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting practices that are linked to review and evaluation cycles across health systems, will enable effective global and national health inequality monitoring. These actions will support equity-oriented progressive realization of UHC.

  12. In Situ Guided Wave Structural Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, George; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engine rotating equipment operates at high temperatures and stresses. Noninvasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for nondestructive evaluation. A low-cost, low-profile, high-temperature ultrasonic guided wave sensor was developed that detects cracks in situ. The transducer design provides nondestructive evaluation of structures and materials. A key feature of the sensor is that it withstands high temperatures and excites strong surface wave energy to inspect surface and subsurface cracks. The sol-gel bismuth titanate-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor can generate efficient SAWs for crack inspection. The sensor is very thin (submillimeter) and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. The sensor can be implemented on structures of various shapes. With a spray-coating process, the sensor can be applied to the surface of large curvatures. It has minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance, and provides good sensitivity.

  13. The relationship between civil aircraft noise and community annoyance in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab; Lee, Soojoo

    2007-01-01

    Studies of community annoyance caused by civil aircraft noise exposure were carried out in 18 areas around Gimpo and Gimhae international airports in order to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between aircraft noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. WECPNL, adopted as the aircraft noise index in Korea, and the percentage of respondents who felt highly annoyed (%HA) have been used to assess the dose-response of aircraft noise. Aircraft noise levels were measured automatically by airport noise monitoring system, B&K type 3597. Social surveys were carried out to people living within 100 m of noise measurement points. The Questionnaire used in the survey contained demographic factors, noise annoyance, interference with daily activities and health-related symptoms. The question relating to the aircraft noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents who were aged between 18 and 70 years completed the questionnaire by themselves. In total, 705 respondents participated in the questionnaire. The results show that WECPNL, noise metric considering characteristics of event and intrusive noise, is more reasonable than L dn, noise metric considering total sound, to assess the effects of aircraft noise on health. It is also shown that the annoyance responses caused by aircraft noise in Korea seems higher than those reported in other countries.

  14. Simple method for monitoring rangeland health and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a monitoring system that requires just a pencil, one page datasheet and a 1-meter stick. Data are collected using the stick at five locations on each of four 25-m transects. Vegetation cover, composition, and horizontal and vertical structure are recorded by marking simple icons on the s...

  15. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  16. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Remote Monitoring in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ryan, Michael P; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Several randomized trials and decision analysis models have found that remote monitoring may reduce health care utilization and expenditures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), compared with in-office monitoring. However, little is known about the generalizability of these findings to unselected populations in clinical practice. To compare health care utilization and expenditures associated with remote monitoring and in-office monitoring in patients with CIEDs, we used Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases. We selected patients newly implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), or permanent pacemaker (PPM), in 2009, who had continuous health plan enrollment 2 years after implantation. Generalized linear models and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders and estimate differences in health care utilization and expenditures in patients with remote or in-office monitoring. We identified 1,127; 427; and 1,295 pairs of patients with a similar propensity for receiving an ICD, CRT-D, or PPM, respectively. Remotely monitored patients with ICDs experienced fewer emergency department visits resulting in discharge (p = 0.050). Remote monitoring was associated with lower health care expenditures in office visits among patients with PPMs (p = 0.025) and CRT-Ds (p = 0.006) and lower total inpatient and outpatient expenditures in patients with ICDs (p <0.0001). In conclusion, remote monitoring of patients with CIEDs may be associated with reductions in health care utilization and expenditures compared with exclusive in-office care.

  17. Rotordynamic Analysis and Feasibility Study of a Disk Spin Test Facility for Rotor Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated a program to achieve the significant improvement in aviation safety. One of the technical challenges is the design and development of accelerated experiments that mimic critical damage cases encountered in engine components. The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently addressing the goal concerning propulsion health management and the development of propulsion system specific technologies intended to detect potential failures prior to catastrophe. For this goal the unique disk spin simulation system was assembled at NASA GRC, which allows testing of rotors with the spinning speeds up to 10K RPM, and at the elevated temperature environment reaching 540 C (1000 F). It is anticipated that the facility can be employed for detection of Low Cycle Fatigue disk cracking and further High Cycle Fatigue blade vibration. The controlled crack growth studies at room and elevated temperatures can be conducted on the turbine wheels, and various NDE techniques can be integrated and assessed as in-situ damage monitoring tools. Critical rotating parts in advanced gas turbine engines such as turbine disks frequently operate at high temperature and stress for long periods of time. The integrity of these parts must be proven by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during various machining steps ranging from forging blank to finished shape, and also during the systematic overhaul inspections. Conventional NDE methods, however, have unacceptable limits. Some of these techniques are time-consuming and inconvenient for service aircraft testing. Almost all of these techniques require that the vicinity of the damage is known in advance. These experimental techniques can provide only local information and no indication of the structural strength at a component and/or system level. The shortcomings of currently available NDE methods lead to the requirement of new damage

  18. Process/health monitoring for wind turbine blade by using FBG sensors with multiplexing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, S. H.; Kageyama, K.; Murayama, H.; Uzawa, K.; Ohsawa, I.; Kanai, M.; Igawa, H.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we applied fiber Bragg grating sensors to conduct process/health monitoring of wind turbine blade manufactured by VaRTM. In this study, we used a long gauge FBG (about 100mm) based optical frequency domain reflectometory (OFDR) and 8 FBGs on a single fiber based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Resin flow front and resin cure were detected during VaRTM. After manufacturing, structural health monitoring was conducted with the blades. These sensors with multiplexing techniques were able to monitor VaRTM process and wind turbine blade successfully.

  19. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Sheep 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before October 26, 2010... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Sheep 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management...

  20. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.