Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft including engine

  1. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  2. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  3. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  4. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N 27811, certificated in any category: ] Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industria...

  5. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  6. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  7. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  8. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  9. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  10. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  11. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  12. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  13. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  14. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  15. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may obtain further information by examining...

  16. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  17. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  18. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  19. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  20. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  2. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  3. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  4. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  5. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  6. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  7. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34947

  8. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  9. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  10. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  11. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  12. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  13. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  14. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  16. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  17. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  18. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  19. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  20. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  1. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  2. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  3. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  4. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  5. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  6. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  8. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  9. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  10. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  11. Aircraft Engineering Conference 1934 - Full Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Gathered together in the only facility big enough to hold them, attendees at Langleys 1934 aircraft Engineering Conference pose in the Full Scale Wind Tunnel underneath a Boeing P-26A Peashooter. Present, among other notables, were Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Howard Hughes.

  12. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  13. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  14. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  15. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  16. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  17. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  18. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  19. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  20. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  1. Helping Aircraft Engines Lighten Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature polyimide/carbon fiber matrix composites are developed by the Polymers Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center. These materials can withstand high temperatures and have good processing properties, which make them particularly useful for jet and rocket engines and for components such as fan blades, bushings, and duct segments. Applying polyimide composites as components for aerospace structures can lead to substantial vehicle weight reductions. A typical polyimide composite is made up of layers of carbon or glass fibers glued together by a high-temperature polymer to make the material strong, stiff, and lightweight. Organic molecules containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen within the polyimide keep the material s density low, resulting in the light weight. The strength of a component or part made from a polyimide comes mainly from the reinforcing high-strength fibers. The strength of the carbon fibers coupled with the stiffness of polyimides allows engineers to make a very rigid structure without it being massive. Another benefit of a polyimide s suitability for aerospace applications is its reduced need for machining. When polyimide parts are removed from a mold, they are nearly in their final shape. Usually, very little machining is needed before a part is ready for use.

  2. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fretting usually produces both polished and pitted areas. Fretting occurs in connection with the relative motion between contacting surface elements. Particular attention is given to fretting in seals, splines, fans, compressors, and turbine blades. Recommended approaches to mitigate fretting problems include a reduction of the adhesion between two surfaces. Approaches for doing this may include the development of alloys which spontaneously generate a self-healing surface film, different in composition from the bulk alloy. Other fundamental adhesion studies have shown that surface crystal structure and crystallographic orientation significantly affect the adhesion properties of alloys.

  3. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  4. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  5. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    .... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE... the following new AD: 2012-26-12 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-17307; Docket No. FAA... Thielert Aircraft Engines (TAE) TAE 125- 02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. (d) Reason This...

  6. 76 FR 68636 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125- 02-99 reciprocating engines. That AD... Register approved the incorporation by reference of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin (SB) No..., 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2011-23-01 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment...

  7. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a...

  9. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  10. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  11. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  12. High Reliability Engine Control Demonstrated for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    1999-01-01

    For a dual redundant-control system, which is typical for short-haul aircraft, if a failure is detected in a control sensor, the engine control is transferred to a safety mode and an advisory is issued for immediate maintenance action to replace the failed sensor. The safety mode typically results in severely degraded engine performance. The goal of the High Reliability Engine Control (HREC) program was to demonstrate that the neural-network-based sensor validation technology can safely operate an engine by using the nominal closed-loop control during and after sensor failures. With this technology, engine performance could be maintained, and the sensor could be replaced as a conveniently scheduled maintenance action.

  13. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  14. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  15. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness...

  16. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a technical amendment published on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39623). In that technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that...

  17. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  18. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  19. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  20. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  1. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. A user oriented description of the program input requirements, program output, deck setup, and operating instructions is presented.

  3. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.128 Tests:...

  4. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  6. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  7. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.128 Tests:...

  8. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  9. Aircraft gas-turbine engines: Noise reduction and vibration control. (Latest citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and analysis of aircraft gas turbine engines with respect to noise and vibration control. Included are studies regarding the measurement and reduction of noise at its source, within the aircraft, and on the ground. Inlet, nozzle and core aerodynamic studies are cited. Propfan, turbofan, turboprop engines, and applications in short take-off and landing (STOL) aircraft are included. (Contains a minimum of 202 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  11. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  12. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  13. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  14. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  15. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness...: Background The airworthiness standards in Sec. 33.83 refer to engine surveys, vibration surveys, vibration test, or simply surveys with the intent to prescribe engine vibration surveys conducted by the means...

  16. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  17. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  18. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  19. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  20. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  1. Components for digitally controlled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Control system components suitable for use in digital electronic control systems are defined. Compressor geometry actuation concepts and fuel handling system concepts suitable for use in large high performance turbofan/turbojet engines are included. Eight conceptual system designs were formulated for the actuation of the compressor geometry. Six conceptual system designs were formulated for the engine fuel handling system. Assessment criteria and weighting factors were established and trade studies performed on their candidate systems to establish the relative merits of the various concepts. Fuel pumping and metering systems for small turboshaft engines were also studied. Seven conceptual designs were formulated, and trade studies performed. A simplified bypassing fuel metering scheme was selected and a preliminary design defined.

  2. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  3. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  4. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  5. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  6. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  7. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  8. Condensed data on the aircraft engines of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliedner, C S

    1929-01-01

    This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.

  9. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  10. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  11. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  12. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  13. Aircraft Engine-Monitoring System And Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed Engine Health Monitoring System and Display (EHMSD) provides enhanced means for pilot to control and monitor performances of engines. Processes raw sensor data into information meaningful to pilot. Provides graphical information about performance capabilities, current performance, and operational conditions in components or subsystems of engines. Provides means to control engine thrust directly and innovative means to monitor performance of engine system rapidly and reliably. Features reduce pilot workload and increase operational safety.

  14. Some aspects of aircraft jet engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekiesinski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Technologies are reviewed for improving the thermal stability of jet fuels, with reference to the overheating of fuel tanks in supersonic aircraft. Consideration is given to the development of a jet fuel with high thermal stability by the Polish petroleum industry.

  15. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  16. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  17. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  18. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  19. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  20. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  1. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  2. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    regards to systems approach to aircraft design and these include lack of basic scientific/practical models and tools for interfacing and integrating the components of SE and within a given component, for example, life cycle cost, basic models for linking the key drivers. The paper will review the current state of art in SE approach to aircraft design and identify some of the major challenges, the current state of the art and visions for the future. The review moves from an initial basis in traditional engineering design processes to consideration of costs and manufacturing in this integrated environment. Issues related to the implementation of integration in design at the detailed physics level are discussed in the case studies.

  3. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  4. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  5. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations. PMID:15991667

  6. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  7. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  8. 75 FR 39803 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16366. Docket No. FAA-2010-0308; Directorate Identifier 2010-NE-17-AD...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH model TAE 125-01...) Use the Measures section of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin No. TM TAE...

  9. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  10. The Power of Aircraft Engines at Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragazzi, Paolo

    1939-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is confined to the investigations and methods employed by the Fiat company in their studies on the altitude performance of an air-cooled engine of the production type. The experimental set-up as well as test engine data are provided.

  11. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  12. Preliminary calculation of cylinder dimensions for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwager, Otto

    1921-01-01

    It is extremely important in building aircraft engines to determine the requisite cylinder dimensions as accurately as possible, in order that the weight required for a given power shall not be excessive. This report presents a calculation method that depends on the air requirement of the fuel.

  13. Lean burn combustor technology at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, Willard J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes progress to date at GE Aircraft Engines in demonstration of a lean combustion system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). These efforts were supported primarily by NASA contracts, with the exception of initial size and weight estimates and development of advanced diagnostics which were conducted under GE Independent Research and Development projects. Key accomplishments to date are summarized below.

  14. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  15. Combustion system CFD modeling at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Mongia, H.; Tolpadi, Anil K.; Correa, S.; Braaten, M.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses key features of current combustion system CFD modeling capabilities at GE Aircraft Engines provided by the CONCERT code; CONCERT development history; modeling applied for designing engine combustion systems; modeling applied to improve fundamental understanding; CONCERT3D results for current production combustors; CONCERT3D model of NASA/GE E3 combustor; HYBRID CONCERT CFD/Monte-Carlo modeling approach; and future modeling directions.

  16. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  17. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  18. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  19. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, A.; Mariocchi, A.; Wortman, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micrometer (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than uncoated components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however, a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without any TBC.

  20. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricocchi, A.; Bartz, A.; Wortman, D.

    1997-06-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reli-ability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher per-formance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 μm (0.005 in.) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating tem-peratures of 56 to 83 °C (100 to 150 °F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed that TBCs are susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area ; however, a significant temperature reduc-tion was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  1. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 3: Library of maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. The use of two data base files to represent the engine and the inlet/nozzle/aftbody performance characteristics is discussed. The existing library of performance characteristics for inlets and nozzle/aftbodies and an example of the 1000 series of engine data tables is presented.

  2. Coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and space shuttle heat shields: A review of Lewis Research Center programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Merutka, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The status of several coating programs is reviewed. These include efforts on protecting aircraft gas turbine engine materials from oxidation/corrosion and on protecting refractory metal reentry heat shields from oxidation.

  3. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  4. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  5. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  6. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  7. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  8. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  9. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  10. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  11. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  12. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.; Alsworth, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of small turbofan engines to general aviation aircraft is discussed. The engine and engine/airplane performance, weight, size, and cost interrelationships are examined. The effects of specific engine noise constraints are evaluated. The factors inhibiting the use of turbofan engines in general aviation aircraft are identified.

  13. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  14. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  15. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  16. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  17. Computational aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings including geometry nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binyu

    The objective of the present study is to show the ability of solving fluid structural interaction problems more realistically by including the geometric nonlinearity of the structure so that the aeroelastic analysis can be extended into the onset of flutter, or in the post flutter regime. A nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software is developed based on second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain is a pair of energetically conjugated tensors that can accommodate arbitrary large structural deformations and deflection, to study the flutter phenomenon. Since both of these tensors are objective tensors, i.e., the rigid-body motion has no contribution to their components, the movement of the body, including maneuvers and deformation, can be included. The nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software developed in this study is verified with ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and IDEAS for the linear static, nonlinear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear dynamic structural solutions. To solve the flow problems by Euler/Navier equations, the current nonlinear structural software is then embedded into ENSAERO, which is an aeroelastic analysis software package developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The coupling of the two software, both nonlinear in their own field, is achieved by domain decomposition method first proposed by Guruswamy. A procedure has been set for the aeroelastic analysis process. The aeroelastic analysis results have been obtained for fight wing in the transonic regime for various cases. The influence dynamic pressure on flutter has been checked for a range of Mach number. Even though the current analysis matches the general aeroelastic characteristic, the numerical value not match very well with previous studies and needs farther investigations. The flutter aeroelastic analysis results have also been plotted at several time points. The influences of the deforming wing geometry can be well seen

  18. A plume capture technique for the remote characterization of aircraft engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G R; Mazaheri, M; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L

    2008-07-01

    A technique for capturing and analyzing plumes from unmodified aircraft or other combustion sources under real world conditions is described and applied to the task of characterizing plumes from commercial aircraft during the taxiing phase of the Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle. The method utilizes a Plume Capture and Analysis System (PCAS) mounted in a four-wheel drive vehicle which is positioned in the airfield 60 to 180 m downwind of aircraft operations. The approach offers low test turnaround times with the ability to complete careful measurements of particle and gaseous emission factors and sequentially scanned particle size distributions without distortion due to plume concentration fluctuations. These measurements can be performed for individual aircraft movements at five minute intervals. A Plume Capture Device (PCD) collected samples of the naturally diluted plume in a 200 L conductive membrane conforming to a defined shape. Samples from over 60 aircraft movements were collected and analyzed in situ for particulate and gaseous concentrations and for particle size distribution using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). Emission factors are derived for particle number, NO(x), and PM2.5 for a widely used commercial aircraft type, Boeing 737 airframes with predominantly CFM56 class engines, during taxiing. The practical advantages of the PCAS include the capacity to perform well targeted and controlled emission factor and size distribution measurements using instrumentation with varying response times within an airport facility, in close proximity to aircraft during their normal operations.

  19. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  20. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  1. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  2. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The weight and major envelope dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines are estimated. The computerized method, called WATE-S (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines-Small) is a derivative of the WATE-2 computer code. WATE-S determines the weight of each major component in the engine including compressors, burners, turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, propellers, and accessories. A preliminary design approach is used where the stress levels, maximum pressures and temperatures, material properties, geometry, stage loading, hub/tip radius ratio, and mechanical overspeed are used to determine the component weights and dimensions. The accuracy of the method is generally better than + or - 10 percent as verified by analysis of four small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines.

  3. 78 FR 12359 - Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including Workers in the Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division in... of Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division,...

  4. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  5. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  6. The Evolution of Hono Emissions In An Aircraft Engine Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Yam, C. K.; Han, S.; Lukachko, S. P.; Waitz, I. A.; Wormhoudt, J.; Brown, R. C.; Zhang, J.; Clague, A. R.; Brundish, K. D.

    Measurements and chemical kinetic modeling of NOy species have been performed for exhaust species passing through an aircraft engine turbine. The measurements of NO, NO2, and HONO were made at the exit of a combustor in a sector test rig and at the engine exit of the DERA (QinetiQ) TRACE engine using the same combustor technology. Simulations of the fluid flow and chemistry through the post combustor sections of the engine were made using the CNEWT code. Significant increases in HONO concentrations are observed in the measurements and are corroborated by the numerical simulations, with the latter indicating that OH driven oxidation of NO is the primary HONO chemical production mechanism. Reasonable quantitative agreement between the measurements and model at the combustor exit was achieved, despite significant uncertainties in model initialization of radical species.

  7. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  8. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  9. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Chen, Philip; Jaw, Link

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. The purpose of life-extending-control (LEC) is to study the relationship between control action and engine component life usage, and to design an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper trade-offs between performance and engine life usage. The benefit of this approach is that it is expected to maintain safety while minimizing the overall operating costs. With the advances of computer technology, engine operation models, and damage physics, it is necessary to reevaluate the control strategy fro overall operating cost consideration. This paper uses the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can drastically reduce the engine life usage with minimum sacrifice in performance. A Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to evaluate the likely engine damage accumulation under various operating conditions. The simulation results show that an optimized acceleration schedule can provide a significant life saving in selected engine components.

  10. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Combustor research programs are described whose purpose is to demonstrate significantly lower exhaust emission levels. The proposed EPA regulations covering the allowable levels of emissions will require a major technological effort if these levels are to be met by 1979. Pollution reduction technology is being pursued by NASA through a combination of in-house research, contracted progams, and university grants. In-house research with the swirl-can modular combustor and the double-annular combustor has demonstrated significant reduction in the level of NO(x) emissions. The work is continuing in an attempt to further reduce these levels by improvements in module design and in air-fuel scheduling. Research on the reduction of idle emissions has included the conversion of conventional duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and exploration of the potential improvements possible with fuel staging and variable combustor geometry.

  11. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  12. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  13. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  14. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  15. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  16. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  17. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe. PMID:18409606

  18. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  19. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  20. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  1. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  2. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  3. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  4. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  5. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  6. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  7. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  8. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Ground Testing on a C-17 Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns (IFSD) which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response. The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

  9. Self diagnostic accelerometer ground testing on a C-17 aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. Sensor system malfunction is a significant contributor to propulsion in flight shutdowns (IFSD) which can lead to aircraft accidents when the issue is compounded with an inappropriate crew response. The development of the SDA is important for both reducing the IFSD rate, and hence reducing the rate at which this component failure type can put an aircraft in jeopardy, and also as a critical enabling technology for future automated malfunction diagnostic systems. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to making vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. In an effort toward demonstrating the SDA's flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The two SDA attachment conditions used were fully tight and loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first time the robustness of the SDA in an engine environment characterized by high vibration levels.

  10. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  11. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  12. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  13. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  14. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines. [YF 102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  15. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. It is noted that development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlY TBC's is emphasized in addition to observations fundamentally related to their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA is also noted.

  16. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined in this paper. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension, and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. Development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlX TBC's are emphasized, as are observations fundamentally related to the their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA are also noted.

  17. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In the last decade, Government/Industry programs have advanced powder metallurgy-near-net-shape technology to permit the use of hot isostatic pressed (HIP) turbine disks in the commercial aircraft fleet. These disks offer a 30% savings of input weight and an 8% savings in cost compared in cast-and-wrought disks. Similar savings were demonstrated for other rotating engine components. A compressor rotor fabricated from hot-die-forged-HIP superalloy billets revealed input weight savings of 54% and cost savings of 35% compared to cast-and-wrought parts. Engine components can be produced from compositions such as Rene 95 and Astroloy by conventional casting and forging, by forging of HIP powder billets, or by direct consolidation of powder by HIP. However, each process produces differences in microstructure or introduces different defects in the parts. As a result, their mechanical properties are not necessarily identical. Acceptance methods should be developed which recognize and account for the differences.

  18. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  19. Predicting Noise From Aircraft Turbine-Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P.; Mani, R.; Salamah, S.; Coffin, R.; Mehta, Jayesh

    2005-01-01

    COMBUSTOR and CNOISE are computer codes that predict far-field noise that originates in the combustors of modern aircraft turbine engines -- especially modern, low-gaseous-emission engines, the combustors of which sometimes generate several decibels more noise than do the combustors of older turbine engines. COMBUSTOR implements an empirical model of combustor noise derived from correlations between engine-noise data and operational and geometric parameters, and was developed from databases of measurements of acoustic emissions of engines. CNOISE implements an analytical and computational model of the propagation of combustor temperature fluctuations (hot spots) through downstream turbine stages. Such hot spots are known to give rise to far-field noise. CNOISE is expected to be helpful in determining why low-emission combustors are sometimes noisier than older ones, to provide guidance for refining the empirical correlation model embodied in the COMBUSTOR code, and to provide insight on how to vary downstream turbinestage geometry to reduce the contribution of hot spots to far-field noise.

  20. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  1. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  3. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  4. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  5. A candidate V/STOL research aircraft design concept using an S-3A aircraft and 2 Pegasus 11 engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    A candidate V/STOL research aircraft concept which uses an S-3A airframe and two Pegasus 11 engines was studied to identify a feasible V/STOL national flight facility that could be obtained at the lowest possible cost for the demonstration of V/STOL technology, inflight simulation, and flight research. The rationale for choosing the configuration, a description of the configuration, and the capability of a fully developed aircraft are discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  7. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  8. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  9. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  10. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  11. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  12. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) was established At Hampton University in June of 1996. In addition, the FM&AL jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2.5 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). The goals of the FM&AL programs are two fold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. This project already benefits NASA and HU because: First, the innovation, testing, and further development of new techniques for advanced propulsion systems are necessary for the successful attainment of the NASA Long Term Goals in Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) including Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, Access to Space, R&D Services, and the economic competitiveness of the US Aircraft Industry in the 2 1 st century. Secondly, the joint

  13. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  14. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...

  15. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  16. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  17. 75 FR 7947 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... aircraft equipped with a TAE 125-01 engine. This was found to be mainly the result of a blockage of the... specified products. The MCAI states: An in-flight engine shutdown incident was reported on an aircraft... the following new AD: 2010-04-06 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16199. Docket No....

  18. 75 FR 17084 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH, Platanenstrasse 14 D-09350.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2010-0308... Airworthiness Directives (ADs) (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines...

  19. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  20. Engine Performance and Knock Rating of Fuels for High-output Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothbrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1938-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained on a single-cylinder test engine with aircraft-engine fuels varying from a fuel of 87 octane number to one 100 octane number plus 1 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5-inch by 5.75-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.50 to 8.75. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 120 to 280 F. and the inlet-air pressure from 30 inches of mercury absolute to the highest permissible. The limiting factors for the increase in compression ratio and in inlet-air pressure was the occurrence of either audible or incipient knock. The data are correlated to show that, for any one fuel,there is a definite relationship between the limiting conditions of inlet-air temperature and density at any compression ratio. This relationship is dependent on the combustion-gas temperature and density relationship that causes knock. The report presents a suggested method of rating aircraft-engine fuels based on this relationship. It is concluded that aircraft-engine fuels cannot be satisfactorily rated by any single factor, such as octane number, highest useful compression ratio, or allowable boost pressure. The fuels should be rated by a curve that expresses the limitations of the fuel over a variety of engine conditions.

  1. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  2. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-05-01

    A thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig was built which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine engine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress. An advance alternating current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system was also developed which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions. Fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data were obtained for titanium alloy specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs. TMF data were also obtained for two titanium alloys used in aircraft engine components. Those data explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing. A complete fractographic analysis was performed on the tested specimens enhancing the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helping to formulate an analytical crack growth model. The ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique was applied to the low cycle fatigue testing of Pratt & Whitney 1480 monocrystalline nickel alloy. A completely automated, computer controlled test procedure was developed which could obtain crack initiation and growth data with greater speed, precision, and reliability than previous methods.

  3. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  4. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  5. Data-acquisition system for environmental monitoring aboard a twin-engined aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Bernstein, H.; Brown, R.M.; Daum, P.

    1983-01-01

    A number of experimental platforms have been used in support of the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Study (MAP3S) and the Coastal Meteorology programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These platforms include a twin-engine Britten Norman Islander aircraft, a motorized van, a variety of boats and temporary enclosures set up in the field. Each platform carried a data logger consisting of a multiplexer, an analog to digital (A/D) converter and a four track endless loop magnetic tape for data storage. In recent years it has become increasingly evident that the data loggers in use were no longer adequate. Since the aircraft provided the most constraints on the data acquisition system as well as being the most important research platform, a data system was designed for that platform with the secondary goal that the system would serve as a prototype for systems to be used on other platforms.

  6. 13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane girder section. No architect noted. Drawn by Penney. Plan no. 2-N-7. March 10, 1942, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, item no. 22A. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Warehouse, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  8. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  9. Unpowered Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 15-Percent Scale Model of a Twin-Engine Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. G.; Galloway, T. L.; Gambucci, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel to determine the unpowered aerodynamic characteristics of a 15-percent-scale model of a twin-engine commuter aircraft. Model longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics were examined at discrete flap deflections for various angle-of-attack and wind-tunnel-velocity ranges with the empennage on and off. Data are presented for the basic model configuration consisting of the fuselage, wing, basic wing leading edge, double slotted flaps, midengine nacelles, and empennage. Other configurations tested include a particle-span drooped leading edge (dropped outboard of the engine nacelles), a full-span drooped leading edge, low- and high-mounted engine nacelles, and a single-slotted flap. An evaluation was made of the model mounting system by comparing data obtained with the model mounted conventionally on the wind-tunnel model-support struts and the model inverted.

  10. Preliminary study of advanced turboprop and turboshaft engines for light aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Eisenberg, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of engine configuration, advanced component technology, compressor pressure ratio and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on such figures of merit as vehicle gross weight, mission fuel, aircraft acquisition cost, operating, cost and life cycle cost are determined for three fixed- and two rotary-wing aircraft. Compared with a current production turboprop, an advanced technology (1988) engine results in a 23 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption. Depending on the figure of merit and the mission, turbine engine cost reductions required to achieve aircraft cost parity with a current spark ignition reciprocating (SIR) engine vary from 0 to 60 percent and from 6 to 74 percent with a hypothetical advanced SIR engine. Compared with a hypothetical turboshaft using currently available technology (1978), an advanced technology (1988) engine installed in a light twin-engine helicopter results in a 16 percent reduction in mission fuel and about 11 percent in most of the other figures of merit.

  11. Analytical modeling of the structureborne noise path on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Stokes, A. Westagard; Garrelick, J. M.; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    The structureborne noise path of a six passenger twin-engine aircraft is analyzed. Models of the wing and fuselage structures as well as the interior acoustic space of the cabin are developed and used to evaluate sensitivity to structural and acoustic parameters. Different modeling approaches are used to examine aspects of the structureborne path. These approaches are guided by a number of considerations including the geometry of the structures, the frequency range of interest, and the tractability of the computations. Results of these approaches are compared with experimental data.

  12. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model J182T airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of an aircraft diesel engine (ADE). The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the......

  13. Impact Analyses and Tests of Metal Cask Considering Aircraft Engine Crash - 12308

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sanghoon; Choi, Woo-Seok; Kim, Ki-Young; Jeon, Je-Eon; Seo, Ki-Seog

    2012-07-01

    The structural integrity of a dual purpose metal cask currently under development by the Korea Radioactive Waste Management Cooperation (KRMC) is evaluated through analyses and tests under a high-speed missile impact considering the targeted aircraft crash conditions. The impact conditions were carefully chosen through a survey on accident cases and recommendations from the literature. The missile impact velocity was set at 150 m/s, and two impact orientations were considered. A simplified missile simulating a commercial aircraft engine is designed from an impact load history curve provided in the literature. In the analyses, the focus is on the evaluation of the containment boundary integrity of the metal cask. The analyses results are compared with the results of tests using a 1/3 scale model. The results show very good agreements, and the procedure and methodology adopted in the structural analyses are validated. While the integrity of the cask is maintained in one evaluation where the missile impacts the top side of the free standing cask, the containment boundary is breached in another case in which the missile impacts the center of the cask lid in a perpendicular orientation. A safety assessment using a numerical simulation of an aircraft engine crash into spent nuclear fuel storage systems is performed. A commercially available explicit finite element code is utilized for the dynamic simulation, and the strain rate effect is included in the modeling of the materials used in the target system and missile. The simulation results show very good agreement with the test results. It is noted that this is the first test considering an aircraft crash in Korea. (authors)

  14. Development potential of Intermittent Combustion (I.C.) aircraft engines for commuter transport applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An update on general aviation (g/a) and commuter aircraft propulsion research effort is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: on several advanced intermittent combustion engines emphasizing lightweight diesels and rotary stratified charge engines. The current state-of-the-art is evaluated for lightweight, aircraft suitable versions of each engine. This information is used to project the engine characteristics that can be expected on near-term and long-term time horizons. The key enabling technology requirements are identified for each engine on the long-term time horizon.

  15. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  16. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  17. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  18. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  19. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  20. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  1. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  2. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  3. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Tracking Control Using Engine Differential Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Xidong; Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft model that incorporates independently adjustable engine throttles and ailerons is employed to develop an adaptive control scheme in the presence of actuator failures. This model captures the key features of aircraft flight dynamics when in the engine differential mode. Based on this model an adaptive feedback control scheme for asymptotic state tracking is developed and applied to a transport aircraft model in the presence of two types of failures during operation, rudder failure and aileron failure. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  4. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  5. The impact of emission standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The advent of environmental standards for controlling aircraft gas turbine engine emissions has led to a reevaluation of combustor design techniques. Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  6. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  7. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  8. Reduction of JT8D powered aircraft noise by engine refanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, L. E.; Medeiros, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The technical feasibility is described of substantially reducing the noise levels of existing JT8D powered aircraft by retrofitting the existing fleet with quieter refan engines and new acoustically treated nacelles. No major technical problems exist that preclude the development and installation of refanned engines on aircraft currently powered by the JT8D engine. The refan concept is technically feasible and provides calculated noise reductions of from 7 to 8 EPNdb for the B727-200 aircraft and from 10 to 12 EPNdb for the DC-9-32 aircraft at the FAR Part 36 measuring stations. These noise levels are lower than both the FAR Part 36 noise standards and the noise levels of the wide-body DC-10-10. Corresponding reductions in the 90 EPNdb footprint area are estimated to vary from about 70 percent for the DC-9 to about 80 percent for the B727.

  9. Reduction of JT8D powered aircraft noise by engine refanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, L. E.; Medeiros, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the Refan Program is to establish the technical feasibility of substantially reducing the noise levels of existing JT8D powered aircraft. This would be accomplished by retrofitting the existing fleet with quieter refan engines and new acoustically treated nacelles. No major technical problems exist that preclude the development and installation of refanned engines on aircraft currently powered by the JT8D engine. The refan concept is technically feasible and provides calculated noise reductions of from 7 to 8 EPNdB for the B727-200 aircraft and from 10 to 12 EPNdB for the DC-9-32 aircraft at the FAR Part 36 measuring stations. Corresponding reductions in the 90 EPNdB footprint area are estimated to vary from about 70 percent for the DC-9 to about 80 percent for the B727.

  10. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may effect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are explored; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are examined. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel specification changes is assessed and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  11. Navier-Stokes computations about complex configurations including a complete F-16 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Flores, Jolen; Chaderjian, Neal M.; Kaynak, Unver

    1990-01-01

    Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) code solutions gathered from the literature for three-dimensional geometries, including two different wings and a complete F-16A aircraft, are presently discussed. The TNS codes use a zonal grid approach whose number of zones vary from four to 54. The Euler equations are solved in zones away from no-slip surfaces, and the thin-layer TNS equations are solved in all zones immediately adjacent to no-slip surfaces. In the case of 'corner' zones possessing no-slip boundary conditions on two different surfaces, a thin-layer formulation along both directions is employed. Employing these features, a zonal construction with the requisite set of boundary conditions can be devised for almost any application.

  12. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh

  13. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  14. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  15. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  16. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  17. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  18. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  19. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  20. 21. Interior, Turbo Blower Building. Furnaceblowing engines included one Elliot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior, Turbo Blower Building. Furnace-blowing engines included one Elliot and two Brown-Boveri steam-drive turbines (shown here). The north end of the building house the plant's machine shop. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  2. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  3. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  4. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  5. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Lobo, Prem; Onasch, Timothy B; Fleming, Gregg; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    The emissions from in-use commercial aircraft engines have been analyzed for selected gas-phase species and particulate characteristics using continuous extractive sampling 1-2 min downwind from operational taxi- and runways at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Using the aircraft tail numbers, 376 plumes were associated with specific engine models. In general, for takeoff plumes, the measured NOx emission index is lower (approximately 18%) than that predicted by engine certification data corrected for ambient conditions. These results are an in-service observation of the practice of "reduced thrust takeoff". The CO emission index observed in ground idle plumes was greater (up to 100%) than predicted by engine certification data for the 7% thrust condition. Significant differences are observed in the emissions of black carbon and particle number among different engine models/technologies. The presence of a mode at approximately 65 nm (mobility diameter) associated with takeoff plumes and a smaller mode at approximately 25 nm associated with idle plumes has been observed. An anticorrelation between particle mass loading and particle number concentration is observed.

  6. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  7. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  8. Variable stream control engine for advanced supersonic aircraft design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. B.; Howlett, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The updating of the engine concept for a second-generation supersonic transport, the variable stream control engine (VSCE), in terms of mechanical design definition and estimated performance is discussed. The design definition reflects technology advancements that improve system efficiency, durability and environments were established. The components unique to the VSCE concept, a high performance duct burner and a low noise coannular nozzle, and the high temperature components are identified as critical technologies. Technology advances for the high temperature components (main combustor and turbines) are also discussed. To address the requirements in this area, the technical approach for undertaking a high temperature validation program is defined. The multi-phased effort would include assorted rig and laboratory tests, then culminate with the demonstration of a flight-type main combustor and single-stage high pressure turbine at operating conditions envisioned for a VSCE.

  9. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2004-01-01

    In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for

  10. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... turbojet engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012, July 27, 2011)....

  11. Minimum time acceleration of aircraft turbofan engines by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum time accelerations of aircraft turbofan engines are presented. The calculation of these accelerations was made by using a piecewise linear engine model, and an algorithm based on nonlinear programming. Use of this model and algorithm allows such trajectories to be readily calculated on a digital computer with a minimal expenditure of computer time.

  12. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  13. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  14. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to

  15. Engineering problems in ensuring the strength and reliability of the new generation of aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslaev, V.A.

    1995-11-01

    The {open_quotes}Motor Sich{close_quotes} plant - formerly the Zaporozh`e Engine Plant - has been a major contributor to the genesis and development of the domestic aviation industry. More than 20,000 engines made at the plant are currently operating in 18 domestic models of airplanes and helicopters, while roughly 4000 of the factory`s engines are in use abroad. Also, 998 mobile gas-turbine power plants of the PAES-2500 type are presently in service in and outside the CIS. Successes such as these are the result of the tremendous effort put forth by plant personnel and close collaboration with aircraft designers and buyers and scientific-research institutes on engine manufacture, operation, and servicing. Their contributions have made it possible to improve the strength and reliability of engines AI-20, AI-241 AI-25, AI-25TL, and TVZ-117. These models are renowned most of all for their durability, surpassing comparable foreign makes with respect to length of service. Engines AI-20, AI-24, and AI-25 have an average service life of 200,000 h, versus the 50,000 h life of foreign counterparts {open_quotes}Tyne,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Dart,{close_quotes} and TE.731. At present, engine model D-18T is still not the equal of comparable foreign-made engines in terms of reliability and service life. This can be attributed to both to the problems associated with designing high-thrust engines and to the lack of adequate diagnostic systems. After several problems are resolved, new-generation engines D-36, D-136, and D-18 will provide new levels of reliability and durability. The durability of the D-36 is presently limited by the life of the casing of the combustor (6053 cycles) and the disks of the low- and high-pressure compressors (6500-7000 cycles). The life of the D-18T is restricted mainly by the life of the rotor blades in the high-pressure turbine, defects in the disks of the high-pressure compressor, and other problems.

  16. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  17. Design study: A 186 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an aircraft engine capable of developing 186 kW shaft power at a 7620 m altitude is described. The 186 kW design takes into account expected new developments in aircraft designs resulting in a reassessment of the power requirements at the cruise mode operation. Based on the results of this analysis a three phase technology development program is projected resulting in production dates of 1985, 1992, and 2000.

  18. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  19. The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet; Standing L to R - aircraft mechanic John Goleno and SCA Team Leader Pete Seidl; Kneeling L to R - aircraft mechanics Todd Weston and Arvid Knutson, and avionics technician Jim Bedard NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights.

  20. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the problems of Aircraft Engine Technology, Airframe Technology, and Rotorcraft Technology. In addition, several applied problems for domestic industry are also studied using knowledge and experience from Aerospace Sciences. The reduction of aircraft noise is a significant driver in the success of the NASA AST and HSR programs as they attempt to meet stringent international environment regulations on noise for commercial aircraft. In accordance with the project fulfillment under this NASA grant the (Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory) FM&AL investigates novel and promising concepts for reduction of noise and improvement of propulsion efficiency in jet exhaust nozzles and fans.

  1. Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of

  2. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  3. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  4. An Object-oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA s NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc. that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300- passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case. Keywords: NASA, aircraft engine, weight, object-oriented

  5. A Sensitivity Study of Commercial Aircraft Engine Response for Emergency Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the details of a sensitivity study in which the variation in a commercial aircraft engine's outputs is observed for perturbations in its operating condition inputs or control parameters. This study seeks to determine the extent to which various controller limits can be modified to improve engine performance, while capturing the increased risk that results from the changes. In an emergency, the engine may be required to produce additional thrust, respond faster, or both, to improve the survivability of the aircraft. The objective of this paper is to propose changes to the engine controller and determine the costs and benefits of the additional capabilities produced by the engine. This study indicates that the aircraft engine is capable of producing additional thrust, but at the cost of an increased risk of an engine failure due to higher turbine temperatures and rotor speeds. The engine can also respond more quickly to transient commands, but this action reduces the remaining stall margin to possibly dangerous levels. To improve transient response in landing scenarios, a control mode known as High Speed Idle is proposed that increases the responsiveness of the engine and conserves stall margin

  6. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  7. POD of ultrasonic detection of synthetic hard alpha inclusions in titanium aircraft engine forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. B.; Meeker, W. Q.; Brasche, L. J. H.

    2011-06-23

    The probability of detection (POD) of inspection techniques is a key input to estimating the lives of structural components such as aircraft engines. This paper describes work conducted as a part of the development of POD curves for the ultrasonic detection of synthetic hard alpha (SHA) inclusions in titanium aircraft engine forgings. The sample upon which the POD curves are to be based contains four types of right circular SHAs that have been embedded in a representative titanium forging, as well as a number of flat bottomed holes (FBHs). The SHAs were of two sizes, number 3 and number 5, with each size including seeds with nominal nitrogen concentrations of both 3 and 17 wt. %. The FBHs included sizes of number 1, number 3, and number 5. This discreteness of the data poses a number of challenges to standard processes for determining POD. For example, at each concentration of nitrogen, there are only two sizes, with 10 inspection opportunities each. Fully empirical, standard methodologies such as a circumflex versus a provide less than an ideal framework for such an analysis. For example, there is no way to describe the beam limiting effect whereby the signal no longer increases the flaw grows larger than the beam, one can only determine POD at the two concentration levels present in the block, and confidence bounds tend to be broad because of the limited data available for each case. In this paper, we will describe strategies involving the use of physics-based models to overcome these difficulties by allowing the data from all reflectors to be analyzed by a single statistical model. Included will be a discussion of the development of the physics-based model, its comparison to the experimental data (obtained at multiple sites with multiple operators) and its implications regarding the statistical analysis, whose details will be given in a separate article by Li et al. in this volume.

  8. High temperature aircraft turbine engine bearing and lubrication system development

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.H.; Chin, H.A.; Klenke, C.; Galbato, A.T.; Ragen, M.A.; Spitzer, R.F.

    1998-12-31

    Results are reported for a project sponsored by the US Air Force Wright Laboratories. The major emphasis of this project was the evaluation of bearing materials with improved corrosion resistance, high hot hardness, and high fracture toughness, intended to meet the requirements of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technologies (IHPTET) Phase 2 engine. The project included material property studies on candidate bearing materials and lubricants which formed the selection basis for subscale and full-scale bearing rig verification tests. The carburizing stainless steel alloy Pyrowear 675 demonstrated significant fatigue life, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance improvements relative to the M50 NiL baseline bearing material. The new Skylube 2 (MCS-2482) lubricant provided significant thermal degradation improvements with respect to the Skylube 600 (PWA-524, MIL-L-87100) lubricant. Two 130 mm bore Pyrowear 675 hybrid ball bearings with silicon nitride balls were run successfully for 231 hours with Skylube 2 lubricant at temperatures consistent with IHPTET 2 requirements.

  9. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  10. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  11. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  12. 76 FR 64285 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    .... Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH, Platanenstrasse 14 D-09350, Lichtenstein... following new AD: Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2009-0948; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125-02-99 reciprocating engines installed...

  13. Polymer, metal and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Serafini, T. T.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis is being focused on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  14. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  15. Neutron diffraction study of water freezing on aircraft engine combustor soot.

    PubMed

    Tishkova, V; Demirdjian, B; Ferry, D; Johnson, M

    2011-12-14

    The study of the formation of condensation trails and cirrus clouds on aircraft emitted soot particles is important because of its possible effects on climate. In the present work we studied the freezing of water on aircraft engine combustor (AEC) soot particles under conditions of pressure and temperature similar to the upper troposphere. The microstructure of the AEC soot was found to be heterogeneous containing both primary particles of soot and metallic impurities (Fe, Cu, and Al). We also observed various surface functional groups such as oxygen-containing groups, including sulfate ions, that can act as active sites for water adsorption. Here we studied the formation of ice on the AEC soot particles by using neutron diffraction. We found that for low amount of adsorbed water, cooling even up to 215 K did not lead to the formation of hexagonal ice. Whereas, larger amount of adsorbed water led to the coexistence of liquid water (or amorphous ice) and hexagonal ice (I(h)); 60% of the adsorbed water was in the form of ice I(h) at 255 K. Annealing of the system led to the improvement of the crystal quality of hexagonal ice crystals as demonstrated from neutron diffraction.

  16. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer H.

    2006-01-01

    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  17. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  18. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  19. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  20. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  1. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  2. Description and Laboratory Tests of a Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden

    1926-01-01

    This report describes a roots type aircraft engine supercharger and presents the results of some tests made with it at the Langley Field Laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The supercharger used in these tests was constructed largely of aluminum, weighed 88 pounds and was arranged to be operated from the rear of a standard aircraft engine at a speed of 1 1/2 engine crankshaft speed. The rotors of the supercharger were cycloidal in form and were 11 inches long and 9 1/2 inches in diameter. The displacement of the supercharger was 0.51 cubic feet of air per revolution of the rotors. The supercharger was tested in the laboratory, independently and in combination with a Liberty-12 aircraft engine, under simulated altitude pressure conditions in order to obtain information on its operation and performance. From these tests it seems evident that the Roots blower compares favorably with other compressor types used as aircraft engine superchargers and that it has several features that make it particularly attractive for such use.

  3. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  4. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  5. 75 FR 16514 - Cessna Aircraft Company, a Division of Textron, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Cessna Aircraft Company, a Division of Textron, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Professional Staffing, Formerly Known as Express Employment Professionals, Bend, OR; Amended Certification...

  6. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  7. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  8. Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Programs initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate low emission advanced technology combustors for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine pollution are reviewed. Program goals are consistent with urban emission level requirements as specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and with upper atmosphere cruise emission levels as recommended by the U. S. Climatic Impact Assessment Program and National Research Council. Preliminary tests of advanced technology combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft gas turbine engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Preliminary test results from fundamental studies indicate that extremely low emission combustion systems may be possible for future generation jet aircraft. The emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

  9. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icing. Flight data were reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured ""iced'' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower.

  10. Effect of NACA Injection Impeller on Mixture Distribution of Double-Row Radial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Frank E; Ritter, William K; Miller, Mahlon A

    1945-01-01

    The NACA injection impeller was developed to improve the mixture distribution of aircraft engines by discharging the fuel from a centrifugal supercharger impeller and thus to promote a thorough mixing of fuel and charge air. Experiments with a double-row radial aircraft engine indicated that for the normal range of engine power the NACA injection impeller provided marked improvement in mixture distribution over the standard spray-bar injection system used in the same engine. The mixture distribution at cruising conditions was excellent; at 1200, 1500, and 1700 brake horsepower, the differences between the fuel-air ratios of the richest and the leanest cylinders were reduced to approximately one-third their former values.

  11. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  12. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  13. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  14. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-08-01

    This thesis summarizes the major technical achievements obtained as a part of a collaborative research and development project between Ecole Polytechnique and Pratt & Whitney Canada. These achievements include: (1) a thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress; (2) an advanced alternative current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions; (3) fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data for the titanium specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs; (4) thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth data for two titanium alloys being used in PWC engine components, which explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing; (5) a complete fractographic analysis for the tested specimens which enhanced the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helped to establish an analytical crack growth model; and (6) application of the ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique to single tooth firtree specimen (STFT) LCF testing of PWA 1480 single crystal alloy. Finally, a comprehensive discussion concerning the results pertaining to this research project is presented.

  15. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  16. An Object-Oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA's NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc., that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300-passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case.

  17. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  18. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  19. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  20. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  1. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  2. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, C. W.; Holdren, M. W.; Riggin, R. M.; Lyon, T. F.

    1994-10-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi) on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  3. 75 FR 12439 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... experience, Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH has introduced a new rail pressure control valve part number (P/N... to prevent engine in-flight shutdown, possibly resulting in reduced control of the aircraft. DATES... experience, Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH has introduced a new rail pressure control valve P/N...

  4. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  5. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 1. [aircraft exhaust/gas analysis - gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Vitti, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A program of screening three low emission combustors for conventional takeoff and landing, by testing and analyzing thirty-two configurations is presented. Configurations were tested that met the emission goals at idle operating conditions for carbon monoxide and for unburned hydrocarbons (emission index values of 20 and 4, respectively). Configurations were also tested that met a smoke number goal of 15 at sea-level take-off conditions. None of the configurations met the goal for oxides of nitrogen emissions at sea-level take-off conditions. The best configurations demonstrated oxide of nitrogen emission levels that were approximately 61 percent lower than those produced by the JT9D-7 engine, but these levels were still approximately 24 percent above the goal of an emission index level of 10. Additional combustor performance characteristics, including lean blowout, exit temperature pattern factor and radial profile, pressure loss, altitude stability, and altitude relight characteristics were documented. The results indicate the need for significant improvement in the altitude stability and relight characteristics. In addition to the basic program for current aircraft engine combustors, seventeen combustor configurations were evaluated for advanced supersonic technology applications. The configurations were tested at cruise conditions, and a conceptual design was evolved.

  6. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation

  7. Optimization applications in aircraft engine design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with the NASA-sponsored STAEBL program, optimization methods based primarily upon the versatile program COPES/CONMIN were introduced over the past few years to a broad spectrum of engineering problems in structural optimization, engine design, engine test, and more recently, manufacturing processes. By automating design and testing processes, many repetitive and costly trade-off studies have been replaced by optimization procedures. Rather than taking engineers and designers out of the loop, optimization has, in fact, put them more in control by providing sophisticated search techniques. The ultimate decision whether to accept or reject an optimal feasible design still rests with the analyst. Feedback obtained from this decision process has been invaluable since it can be incorporated into the optimization procedure to make it more intelligent. On several occasions, optimization procedures have produced novel designs, such as the nonsymmetric placement of rotor case stiffener rings, not anticipated by engineering designers. In another case, a particularly difficult resonance contraint could not be satisfied using hand iterations for a compressor blade, when the STAEBL program was applied to the problem, a feasible solution was obtained in just two iterations.

  8. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  9. Forecast of jet engine exhaust emissions for future high altitude commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on: (1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the current status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of an emission index, g pollutant/kg fuel. Two sets of engine exhaust emission predictions are presented: the first, based on an independent NASA study and the second, based on the consensus of an ad hoc committee composed of industry, university, and government representatives. The consensus forecasts are in general agreement with the NASA forecasts.

  10. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  11. An Adaptive Instability Suppression Controls Method for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive controls method for instability suppression in gas turbine engine combustors has been developed and successfully tested with a realistic aircraft engine combustor rig. This testing was part of a program that demonstrated, for the first time, successful active combustor instability control in an aircraft gas turbine engine-like environment. The controls method is called Adaptive Sliding Phasor Averaged Control. Testing of the control method has been conducted in an experimental rig with different configurations designed to simulate combustors with instabilities of about 530 and 315 Hz. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in suppressing combustor instabilities. In addition, a dramatic improvement in suppression of the instability was achieved by focusing control on the second harmonic of the instability. This is believed to be due to a phenomena discovered and reported earlier, the so called Intra-Harmonic Coupling. These results may have implications for future research in combustor instability control.

  12. Integration of Engine, Plume, and CFD Analyses in Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard; Geiselhart, Karl; Shields, Elwood; Nayani, Sudheer; Shenoy, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an integration of engine, plume, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses in the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft, using a variable fidelity approach. In particular, the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) is used for propulsion system cycle analysis and nacelle outer mold line definition, and a low-fidelity plume model is developed for plume shape prediction based on NPSS engine data and nacelle geometry. This model provides a capability for the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft that accounts for plume effects. Then a newly developed process for automated CFD analysis is presented for CFD-based plume and boom analyses of the conceptual geometry. Five test cases are used to demonstrate the integrated engine, plume, and CFD analysis process based on a variable fidelity approach, as well as the feasibility of the automated CFD plume and boom analysis capability.

  13. Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, E. M.; Paulson, V. A.

    1941-01-01

    The Pratt and Whitney Aircraft company and the Naval Aircraft Factory of the United States Navy cooperated in a laboratory and flight program of tests on an exhaust turbine supercharger. Two series of dynamometer tests of the engine super-charger combination were completed under simulated altitude conditions. One series of hot gas-chamber tests was conducted by the manufacturer of the supercharger. Flight demonstrations of the supercharger installed in a twin-engine flying boat were terminated by failure of the turbine wheels. The analysis of the results indicated that a two-stage supercharger with the first-stage exhaust turbine driven will deliver rated power for a given indicated power to a higher altitude, will operate more efficiently, and will require simpler controls than a similar engine with the first stage of the supercharger driven from the crankshaft through multispeed gears.

  14. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  15. Determination of cooling air mass flow for a horizontally-opposed aircraft engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Cross, E. J., Jr.; Ghomi, N. A.; Bridges, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between the amount of cooling air flow and the corresponding flow pressure difference across an aircraft engine was investigated in flight and on the ground. The flight test results were consistent with theory, but indicated a significant installation leakage problem. A ground test blower system was used to identify and reduce the leakage. The correlation between ground test cell determined engine orifice characteristics and flight measurements showed good agreement if the engine pressure difference was based on total pressure rather than static pressure.

  16. The Further Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, Franz

    1946-01-01

    The present report deals with the problems involved in the greater utilization and development of aircraft engine materials, and specifically; piston materials, cylinder heads, exhaust valves, and exhaust gas turbine blading. The blades of the exhaust gas turbine are likely to be the highest stressed components of modern power plants from a thermal-mechanical and chemical standpoint, even though the requirements on exhaust valves of engines with gasoline injection are in general no less stringent. For the fire plate in Diesel engines the specifications for mechanical strength and design are not so stringent, and the question of heat resistance, which under these circumstances is easier obtainable, predominates.

  17. Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of commercial aviation has fueled concerns over air quality around airports and the surrounding communities. Airports must expand their operations to meet the increase in air traffic, but expansion plans have been delayed or canceled due to concerns over local air quality. This paper presents the methodology for real-time measurements of aircraft engine specific Particulate Matter (PM) emissions and analysis of the associated high resolution data acquired during normal Landing and Take-Off (LTO) operations 100-300 m downwind of an active taxi-/runway at the Oakland International Airport. The airframe-engine combinations studied included B737-300 with CFM56-3B engines, B737-700/800 with CFM56-7B engines, A320 with V2500-A5 engines, MD-80 with JT-8D engines, A300 with CF6-80 engines, DC-10 with CF6-50 engines, and CRJ-100/200 with CF34-3B engines. For all engine types studied, the size distributions were typically bimodal in nature with a nucleation mode comprised of freshly nucleated PM and an accumulation mode comprised mostly of PM soot with some condensed volatile material. The PM number-based emission index observed ranged between 7 × 1015-3 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at idle/taxi and between 4 × 1015-2 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at take-off, and the associated PM mass-based emission index (EIm) ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 g kg-1 fuel burned at both the idle/taxi and take-off conditions. Older technology engines such as the CFM56-3B and JT8D engines were observed to have as much as 3× higher PM EIm values at take-off compared to newer engine technology such as the CFM56-7B engine. The results from this study provide information for better characterizing evolving PM emissions from in-service commercial aircraft under normal LTO operations and assessing their impact on local and regional air quality and health related impacts.

  18. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  19. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE) program initiated by NASA are presented. Mechanical properties comparisons are made for superalloy parts produced by as-HIP powder consolidation and by forging of HIP consolidated billets. The effect of various defects on the mechanical properties of powder parts are shown.

  20. Analytical model for tilting proprotor aircraft dynamics, including blade torsion and coupled bending modes, and conversion mode operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for proprotor aircraft dynamics. The rotor model includes coupled flap-lag bending modes, and blade torsion degrees of freedom. The rotor aerodynamic model is generally valid for high and low inflow, and for axial and nonaxial flight. For the rotor support, a cantilever wing is considered; incorporation of a more general support with this rotor model will be a straight-forward matter.

  1. Sensor Needs for Control and Health Management of Intelligent Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Gang, Sanjay; Hunter, Gary W.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Semega, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense are conducting programs which support the future vision of "intelligent" aircraft engines for enhancing the affordability, performance, operability, safety, and reliability of aircraft propulsion systems. Intelligent engines will have advanced control and health management capabilities enabling these engines to be self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, and adaptive to optimize performance based upon the current condition of the engine or the current mission of the vehicle. Sensors are a critical technology necessary to enable the intelligent engine vision as they are relied upon to accurately collect the data required for engine control and health management. This paper reviews the anticipated sensor requirements to support the future vision of intelligent engines from a control and health management perspective. Propulsion control and health management technologies are discussed in the broad areas of active component controls, propulsion health management and distributed controls. In each of these three areas individual technologies will be described, input parameters necessary for control feedback or health management will be discussed, and sensor performance specifications for measuring these parameters will be summarized.

  2. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods.

  3. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  4. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

  5. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  6. A Study on Aircraft Structure and Jet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gil Moon; Park, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Jin Heung; Lee, Moo Seok; Chung, Nak Kyu

    1985-12-01

    The one of critical factor in gas turbine engine performance is high turbine inlet gas temperature. Therefore, the turbine rotor has so many problems which must be considered such as the turbine blade cooling, thermal stress of turbine disk due to severe temperature gradient, turbine rotor tip clearance, under the high operation temperature. The purpose of this study is to provide the temperature distribution and heat flux in turbine disk which is required to considered premensioned problem by the Finite Difference Method and the Finite Element Methods on the steady state condition.

  7. Methods for designing treatments to reduce interior noise of predominant sources and paths in a single engine light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Richard E.; Remington, Paul J.; Theobald, Mark A.; Wilby, John F.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and paths by which noise enters the cabin of a small single engine aircraft were determined through a combination of flight and laboratory tests. The primary sources of noise were found to be airborne noise from the propeller and engine casing, airborne noise from the engine exhaust, structureborne noise from the engine/propeller combination and noise associated with air flow over the fuselage. For the propeller, the primary airborne paths were through the firewall, windshield and roof. For the engine, the most important airborne path was through the firewall. Exhaust noise was found to enter the cabin primarily through the panels in the vicinity of the exhaust outlet although exhaust noise entering the cabin through the firewall is a distinct possibility. A number of noise control techniques were tried, including firewall stiffening to reduce engine and propeller airborne noise, to stage isolators and engine mounting spider stiffening to reduce structure-borne noise, and wheel well covers to reduce air flow noise.

  8. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  9. Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes and discusses the results from some of the research and development programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions. Although the paper concentrates on NASA programs only, work supported by other U.S. government agencies and industry has provided considerable data on low emission advanced technology for aircraft gas turbine engine combustors. The results from the two major NASA technology development programs, the ECCP (Experimental Clean Combustor Program) and the PRTP (Pollution Reduction Technology Program), are presented and compared with the requirements of the 1979 U.S. EPA standards. Emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

  10. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  11. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  12. Low-speed airspeed calibration data for a single-engine research-support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A standard service airspeed system on a single engine research support airplane was calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. The effects of flaps, power, sideslip, and lag were evaluated. The factory supplied airspeed calibrations were not sufficiently accurate for high accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer airspeed calibration was conducted to provide the capability to use the research support airplane to perform pace aircraft airspeed calibrations.

  13. PTA test bed aircraft engine inlet model test report, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The inlet duct test for the Propfan Testbed Assessment (PTA) program was completed in November 1984. The basic test duct was designed using the Lockheed QUADPAN computational code. Test objectives were to experimentally evaluate, modify as required, and eventually verify satisfactory performance as well as duct/engine compatibility. Measured total pressure recovery for the basic duct was 0.993 with no swirl and 0.989 for inflow with a 30 degree simulated swirl angle. This compared to a predicted recovery of 0.979 with no swirl. Measured circumferential distortion with swirl, based on a least-square curve fit of the data, was 0.204 compared to a maximum allowable value of 0.550. Other measured distortion parameters did as well or better relative to their respective maximum allowable values. The basic duct configuration with no refinements is recommended for the PTA inlet as a minimum cost installation.

  14. Aircraft Turbofan Engine Health Estimation Using Constrained Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops an analytic method of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results obtained from application to a turbofan engine model. This model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.

  15. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  16. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases. PMID:25416110

  17. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine.

  18. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine. PMID:14674798

  19. Combustion noise from gas turbine aircraft engines measurement of far-field levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.

    1987-01-01

    Combustion noise can be a significant contributor to total aircraft noise. Measurement of combustion noise is made difficult by the fact that both jet noise and combustion noise exhibit broadband spectra and peak in the same frequency range. Since in-flight reduction of jet noise is greater than that of combustion noise, the latter can be a major contributor to the in-flight noise of an aircraft but will be less evident, and more difficult to measure, under static conditions. Several methods for measuring the far-field combustion noise of aircraft engines are discussed in this paper. These methods make it possible to measure combustion noise levels even in situations where other noise sources, such as jet noise, dominate. Measured far-field combustion noise levels for several turbofan engines are presented. These levels were obtained using a method referred to as three-signal coherence, requiring that fluctuating pressures be measured at two locations within the engine core in addition to the far-field noise measurement. Cross-spectra are used to separate the far-field combustion noise from far-field noise due to other sources. Spectra and directivities are presented. Comparisons with existing combustion noise predictions are made.

  20. The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1941-01-01

    An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.

  1. Design study of a dual-cycle turbofan-ramjet engine for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Suwanprasert, S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer modelling was used with two different designs of an advanced turbofan-ramjet in order to derive performance predictions. The engine would enable an aircraft to take-off, accelerate to Mach 5.0, and climb to 90,000 ft. The two concepts included a turbofan with a ramjet annularly wrapped around it and a side-by-side configuration with the ramjet having a rectangular shape and mounted alongside the turbofan. The studies were performed to model weight, length, fuel efficiency, and the requirements of the thrust/drag ratio to exceed unity over the entire flight path. LH2 would be used for fuel and to regeneratively cool the combustion chamber. Turbofan operation with and without afterburner and with and without the ramjet inlet open were examined, as were variable areas for the burners. A side-by-side configuration displayed the best performance predictions, with a ramjet mass flow being 75 percent that of the turbofan and maximum temperatures being equal.

  2. Integrator Windup Protection-Techniques and a STOVL Aircraft Engine Controller Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.; Narayanaswamy, S.

    1997-01-01

    Integrators are included in the feedback loop of a control system to eliminate the steady state errors in the commanded variables. The integrator windup problem arises if the control actuators encounter operational limits before the steady state errors are driven to zero by the integrator. The typical effects of windup are large system oscillations, high steady state error, and a delayed system response following the windup. In this study, methods to prevent the integrator windup are examined to provide Integrator Windup Protection (IW) for an engine controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. An unified performance index is defined to optimize the performance of the Conventional Anti-Windup (CAW) and the Modified Anti-Windup (MAW) methods. A modified Genetic Algorithm search procedure with stochastic parameter encoding is implemented to obtain the optimal parameters of the CAW scheme. The advantages and drawbacks of the CAW and MAW techniques are discussed and recommendations are made for the choice of the IWP scheme, given some characteristics of the system.

  3. Impact Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan case of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite case concepts. Ballistic impact tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were impacted with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were impacted with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate impact dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local impact damage is the primary concern.

  4. A Systematic Approach to Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Health Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    A systematic approach for selecting an optimal suite of sensors for on-board aircraft gas turbine engine health estimation is presented. The methodology optimally chooses the engine sensor suite and the model tuning parameter vector to minimize the Kalman filter mean squared estimation error in the engine s health parameters or other unmeasured engine outputs. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem where there are more unknown system health parameters representing degradation than available sensor measurements. This paper presents the theoretical estimation error equations, and describes the optimization approach that is applied to select the sensors and model tuning parameters to minimize these errors. Two different model tuning parameter vector selection approaches are evaluated: the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuning parameters, and an alternative approach that selects tuning parameters as a linear combination of all health parameters. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented, and compared to those from an alternative sensor selection strategy.

  5. Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

  6. Implementation of an Integrated On-Board Aircraft Engine Diagnostic Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    An on-board diagnostic architecture for aircraft turbofan engine performance trending, parameter estimation, and gas-path fault detection and isolation has been developed and evaluated in a simulation environment. The architecture incorporates two independent models: a realtime self-tuning performance model providing parameter estimates and a performance baseline model for diagnostic purposes reflecting long-term engine degradation trends. This architecture was evaluated using flight profiles generated from a nonlinear model with realistic fleet engine health degradation distributions and sensor noise. The architecture was found to produce acceptable estimates of engine health and unmeasured parameters, and the integrated diagnostic algorithms were able to perform correct fault isolation in approximately 70 percent of the tested cases

  7. Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the detailed design of an XML databinding framework for aircraft engine simulation. The framework provides an object interface to access and use engine data. while at the same time preserving the meaning of the original data. The Language independent representation of engine component data enables users to move around XML data using HTTP through disparate networks. The application of this framework is demonstrated via a web-based turbofan propulsion system simulation using the World Wide Web (WWW). A Java Servlet based web component architecture is used for rendering XML engine data into HTML format and dealing with input events from the user, which allows users to interact with simulation data from a web browser. The simulation data can also be saved to a local disk for archiving or to restart the simulation at a later time.

  8. Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

  9. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique is presented for directly measuring the core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines. The technique requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far-field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross-spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine core. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an AVCO Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  10. A Systematic Approach for Model-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A requirement for effective aircraft engine performance estimation is the ability to account for engine degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. This paper presents a linear point design methodology for minimizing the degradation-induced error in model-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications. The technique specifically focuses on the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown health parameters than available sensor measurements. A condition for Kalman filter-based estimation is that the number of health parameters estimated cannot exceed the number of sensed measurements. In this paper, the estimated health parameter vector will be replaced by a reduced order tuner vector whose dimension is equivalent to the sensed measurement vector. The reduced order tuner vector is systematically selected to minimize the theoretical mean squared estimation error of a maximum a posteriori estimator formulation. This paper derives theoretical estimation errors at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the estimation accuracy achieved through conventional maximum a posteriori and Kalman filter estimation approaches. Maximum a posteriori estimation results demonstrate that reduced order tuning parameter vectors can be found that approximate the accuracy of estimating all health parameters directly. Kalman filter estimation results based on the same reduced order tuning parameter vectors demonstrate that significantly improved estimation accuracy can be achieved over the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuner vector. However, additional development is necessary to fully extend the methodology to Kalman filter

  11. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  12. The new low nitrogen steel LNS -- A material for advanced aircraft engine and aerospace bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, H.; Ebert, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    Development tendencies for future aircraft jet engines require new design concepts for rolling element bearings because of an overall increase of loads, temperatures, rotational speeds and the use of new high temperature lubricants. This paper reviews some of the key parameters which in the past led to the development and application of the known aircraft bearing steels such as M50, M50 NiL and recently Cronidur 30{reg_sign} (AMS 5898). The performance limits of the currently used aerospace bearing steels and the increasing demands on bearing performance for future aerospace applications gave the impact to the design of a new corrosion resistant steel grade of the nitrogen alloyed type, which is suitable for case hardening by nitrogen--the so called Low nitrogen steel (LNS). The development of the alloy (US pat. 5,503,797), the attainable properties and the corresponding heat treatment process are presented. Achievable hardness, case depth, residual stress pattern and corrosion resistance prove the new LNS to be a promising candidate for the next generation of aircraft engine bearings and for advanced, integrated bearing-gear-shaft design concepts.

  13. Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.

  14. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  15. 76 FR 72128 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ...-09, Amendment 39-16314 (75 FR 32253, June 8, 2010), for TAE Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125-02-99...-flight shutdown, possibly resulting in reduced control of the aircraft. Actions Since Existing AD (75 FR... requirements of AD 2010- 11-09 (75 FR 32253, June 8, 2010), except the repetitive replacement interval...

  16. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  17. Exergy as a useful tool for the performance assessment of aircraft gas turbine engines: A key review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şöhret, Yasin; Ekici, Selcuk; Altuntaş, Önder; Hepbasli, Arif; Karakoç, T. Hikmet

    2016-05-01

    It is known that aircraft gas turbine engines operate according to thermodynamic principles. Exergy is considered a very useful tool for assessing machines working on the basis of thermodynamics. In the current study, exergy-based assessment methodologies are initially explained in detail. A literature overview is then presented. According to the literature overview, turbofans may be described as the most investigated type of aircraft gas turbine engines. The combustion chamber is found to be the most irreversible component, and the gas turbine component needs less exergetic improvement compared to all other components of an aircraft gas turbine engine. Finally, the need for analyses of exergy, exergo-economic, exergo-environmental and exergo-sustainability for aircraft gas turbine engines is emphasized. A lack of agreement on exergy analysis paradigms and assumptions is noted by the authors. Exergy analyses of aircraft gas turbine engines, fed with conventional fuel as well as alternative fuel using advanced exergy analysis methodology to understand the interaction among components, are suggested to those interested in thermal engineering, aerospace engineering and environmental sciences.

  18. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  19. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far field. The effects of non-uniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing. 0 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering By Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  1. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  2. Noise transmission and control for a light, twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, C. K.; Mixson, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the dominant source-path combinations for cabin noise in light, twin-engine aircraft is propeller noise being transmitted through the fuselage sidewall. This source-path was investigated and candidate sidewall add-on treatment were installed and tested using both an external sound source and the propeller in a ground static runup. Results indicate that adding either mass or stiffness to the fuselage skin would improve sidewall attenuation and that the honeycomb stiffness treatment used generally provided more improvement than an equal amount of added mass. It is proposed that double-wall construction in conjunction with skin stiffening should provide a good weight efficient combination for the aircraft studied.

  3. Jet aircraft engine emissions database development: 1992 military, charter, and nonscheduled traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1995-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions database for the military, charter, and non-scheduled traffic for the year 1992 were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report also includes a comparison with a previous emission database for year 1990. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  4. Aircraft engine hot section technology: An overview of the HOST Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E.; Hirschberg, Marvin H.

    1990-01-01

    NASA sponsored the Turbine Engine Hot Section (HOST) project to address the need for improved durability in advanced aircraft engine combustors and turbines. Analytical and experimental activities aimed at more accurate prediction of the aerothermal environment, the thermomechanical loads, the material behavior and structural responses to loads, and life predictions for cyclic high temperature operation were conducted from 1980 to 1987. The project involved representatives from six engineering disciplines who are spread across three work disciplines - industry, academia, and NASA. The HOST project not only initiated and sponsored 70 major activities, but also was the keystone in joining the multiple disciplines and work sectors to focus on critical research needs. A broad overview of the project is given along with initial indications of the project's impact.

  5. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  6. Root damage analysis of aircraft engine blade subject to ice impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, E. S.; Abumeri, G. H.; Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1992-01-01

    The blade root response due to ice impact on an engine blade is simulated using the NASA in-house code BLASIM. The ice piece is modeled as an equivalent spherical object impacting on the leading edge of the blade and has the velocity opposite to that of the aircraft with direction parallel to the engine axis. The effect of ice impact is considered to be an impulse load on the blade with its amplitude computed based on the momentum transfer principle. The blade response due to the impact is carried out by modal superposition using the first three modes. The maximum dynamic stresses at the blade root are computed at the quarter cycle of the first natural frequency. A combined stress failure function based on modified distortion energy is used to study the spanwise bending damage response at the blade root. That damage function reaches maximum value for very low ice speeds and increases steeply with increases in engine speed.

  7. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  8. Modeling and Detection of Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The accretion of ice particles in the core of commercial aircraft engines has been an ongoing aviation safety challenge. While no accidents have resulted from this phenomenon to date, numerous engine power loss events ranging from uneventful recoveries to forced landings have been recorded. As a first step to enabling mitigation strategies during ice accretion, a detection scheme must be developed that is capable of being implemented on board modern engines. In this paper, a simple detection scheme is developed and tested using a realistic engine simulation with approximate ice accretion models based on data from a compressor design tool. These accretion models are implemented as modified Low Pressure Compressor maps and have the capability to shift engine performance based on a specified level of ice blockage. Based on results from this model, it is possible to detect the accretion of ice in the engine core by observing shifts in the typical sensed engine outputs. Results are presented in which, for a 0.1 percent false positive rate, a true positive detection rate of 98 percent is achieved.

  9. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  10. 78 FR 47228 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... of engine power loss due to engine coolant contaminating the engine clutch. The design of the...

  11. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  13. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    A linear point design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. This paper derives theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. Experimental simulation results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy

  14. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  15. An Integrated Approach for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    imon, Donald L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    A Kalman filter-based approach for integrated on-line aircraft engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics is presented. This technique is specifically designed for underdetermined estimation problems where there are more unknown system parameters representing deterioration and faults than available sensor measurements. A previously developed methodology is applied to optimally design a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of tuning parameters, appropriately sized to enable estimation. The estimated tuning parameters can then be transformed into a larger vector of health parameters representing system performance deterioration and fault effects. The results of this study show that basing fault isolation decisions solely on the estimated health parameter vector does not provide ideal results. Furthermore, expanding the number of the health parameters to address additional gas path faults causes a decrease in the estimation accuracy of those health parameters representative of turbomachinery performance deterioration. However, improved fault isolation performance is demonstrated through direct analysis of the estimated tuning parameters produced by the Kalman filter. This was found to provide equivalent or superior accuracy compared to the conventional fault isolation approach based on the analysis of sensed engine outputs, while simplifying online implementation requirements. Results from the application of these techniques to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and discussed.

  16. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  17. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  18. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  19. A very high speed switched-reluctance starter-generator for aircraft engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Stephen R.; Jones, William D.

    An electric direct-drive gearless starter-generator has been designed and built for an aircraft engine application. The system is based on a switched-reluctance motor, which was chosen for its simplicity, robustness, high-speed capability, and efficiency. The overall system configuration and the design of the switched-reluctance motor and its solid-state power converter are described. When operating as engine starter, the motor produces torque to spin the engine up to its light-off speed. Following light-off, the motor continues to produce torque to assist the engine in accelerating to idle speed. When the engine is running, the machine generates electrical power to supply engine and vehicle loads up to a peak operating speed of 50,000 rev/min. Key issues in the machine design are reliability, high speed, power density, and cost. Test results have verified that the system can meet the torque and generated-power requirements over its entire operating range.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Particle Sampling Probes for Emission Measurements of Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Poshin; Chen, Da-Ren; Sanders, Terry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Considerable attention has been recently received on the impact of aircraft-produced aerosols upon the global climate. Sampling particles directly from jet engines has been performed by different research groups in the U.S. and Europe. However, a large variation has been observed among published data on the conversion efficiency and emission indexes of jet engines. The variation results surely from the differences in test engine types, engine operation conditions, and environmental conditions. The other factor that could result in the observed variation is the performance of sampling probes used. Unfortunately, it is often neglected in the jet engine community. Particle losses during the sampling, transport, and dilution processes are often not discussed/considered in literatures. To address this issue, we evaluated the performance of one sampling probe by challenging it with monodisperse particles. A significant performance difference was observed on the sampling probe evaluated under different temperature conditions. Thermophoretic effect, nonisokinetic sampling and turbulence loss contribute to the loss of particles in sampling probes. The results of this study show that particle loss can be dramatic if the sampling probe is not well designed. Further, the result allows ones to recover the actual size distributions emitted from jet engines.

  1. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  2. A simplified flight-test method for determining aircraft takeoff performance that includes effects of pilot technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method for evaluating aircraft takeoff performance from brake release to air-phase height that requires fewer tests than conventionally required is evaluated with data for the XB-70 airplane. The method defines the effects of pilot technique on takeoff performance quantitatively, including the decrease in acceleration from drag due to lift. For a given takeoff weight and throttle setting, a single takeoff provides enough data to establish a standardizing relationship for the distance from brake release to any point where velocity is appropriate to rotation. The lower rotation rates penalized takeoff performance in terms of ground roll distance; the lowest observed rotation rate required a ground roll distance that was 19 percent longer than the highest. Rotations at the minimum rate also resulted in lift-off velocities that were approximately 5 knots lower than the highest rotation rate at any given lift-off distance.

  3. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    The objectives of this research are to develop a high fidelity simulation methodology for turbomachinery aeromechanical problems and to investigate the mechanism of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of an aircraft engine axial compressor. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding technique is developed to accurately capture the unsteadiness and interaction between adjacent blade rows. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are implemented to take into account the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structure, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. An advanced mesh deformation method that generates the blade tip block mesh moving with the blade displacement is developed to ensure the mesh quality. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme as a Riemann solver designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used with an improved hybrid RANS/LES turbulence strategy, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI simulation methodology. The validated cases include: (1) DDES of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack with massive separation. The DDES accurately predicts the drag whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. (2) The AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter boundary is accurately predicted including the point at supersonic incoming flow. (3) NASA Rotor 67 validation for steady state speed line and radial profiles at peak efficiency point and near stall point. The

  4. Macroscopic study of time unsteady noise of an aircraft engine during static tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.; Heidmann, M. F.; Kreim, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Static tests of aircraft engines can exhibit greater than 10 db random unsteadiness of tone noise levels because flow disturbances that prevail near test site facilities are ingested. Presumably such changes are related to installation and test site features. Some properties of unsteady noise observed during tests of a Lycoming YF-102 turbofan engine are presented. Time and spatial variations in tone noise obtained from closely spaced far field and inlet duct microphones are displayed. Long to extremely short intermittent tone bursts are observed. Unsteadiness of the tone, its harmonics, and the broadband noise show little similarity. In the far field, identity of tone bursts is retained over a directivity angle of less than 10 deg. In the inlet duct, tone bursts appear to propagate axially but exhibit little circumferential similarity. They show only slight relationship to tone bursts observed in the far field. The results imply an intermittent generation of random mixtures of propagating duct modes.

  5. Noise simulation of aircraft engine fans by the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatunin, K. R.; Arkharova, N. V.; Remizov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation results of the civil aircraft engine fan stage noise in the far field are presented. Non-steady-state rotor-stator interaction is calculated the commercial software that solves the Navier-Stokes equations using differentturbulence models. Noise propagation to the far acoustic field is calculated by the boundary element method using acoustic Lighthill analogies without taking into account the mean current in the air inlet duct. The calculated sound pressure levels at points 50 m from the engine are presented, and the directional patterns of the acoustic radiation are shown. The use of the eddy resolving turbulence model to calculate rotor-stator interaction increases the accuracy in predicting fan stage noise.

  6. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for

  7. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural Network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary aircraft engine design methodology is being developed that utilizes a cascade optimization strategy together with neural network and regression approximation methods. The cascade strategy employs different optimization algorithms in a specified sequence. The neural network and regression methods are used to approximate solutions obtained from the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP), which implements engine thermodynamic cycle and performance analysis models. The new methodology is proving to be more robust and computationally efficient than the conventional optimization approach of using a single optimization algorithm with direct reanalysis. The methodology has been demonstrated on a preliminary design problem for a novel subsonic turbofan engine concept that incorporates a wave rotor as a cycle-topping device. Computations of maximum thrust were obtained for a specific design point in the engine mission profile. The results (depicted in the figure) show a significant improvement in the maximum thrust obtained using the new methodology in comparison to benchmark solutions obtained using NEPP in a manual design mode.

  8. Preferential concentration of certain elements in smaller aerosols emitted from aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, R. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Buckle, D. C.; Thornton, W. B.; Aceto, H., Jr.; Singh, J. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols from aircraft engines were collected with an eight-stage cascade sampler for a period of 24 h. The aerosol samples from each stage were analyzed for their elemental composition using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Seventeen elements (Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Nb, Sn, and Pb) were positively identified and quantitated at each stage. Six elements (S, Ca, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Pb) showed a fractional concentration increase with decreasing aerosol size. Similar, but less well-defined, trends were also observed for V and Ni. Silicon and chlorine, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend. Neutron-activation analysis of bulk aerosol samples collected every 2 h over the same period showed a correlation between concentration of Si, Ca, V, Ti, Zn, Br, and Sn and the density of air traffic at the airport. Analysis of the aviation-fuel samples by PIXE indicates that major fractions of Pb, Sn, Br, Zn, Ni, Fe, V, Ca, and S observed in these aerosol studies come from the aircraft engine exhaust.

  9. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  10. Status of Duct Liner Technology for Application to Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    Grazing flows and high acoustic intensities impose unusual design requirements on acoustic liner treatments used in aircraft engine nacelles. Increased sound absorption efficiency (requiring increased accuracy of liner impedance specification) is particularly critical in the face of ever decreasing nacelle wall area available for liner treatments in modern, high-bypass ratio engines. This paper reviews the strategy developed at Langley Research Center for achieving a robust measurement technology that is crucial for validating impedance models for aircraft liners. Specifically, the paper describes the current status of computational and data acquisition technologies for reducing impedance in a flow duct. Comparisons of reduced impedances for a "validation liner" using 1980's and 2000's measurement technology are consistent, but show significant deviations (up to 0.5 c exclusive of liner anti-resonance region) from a first principles impedance prediction model as grazing flow centerline Mach numbers increase up to 0.5. The deviations, in part, are believed related to uncertainty in the choice of grazing flow parameters (e.g. cross-section averaged, core-flow averaged, or centerline Mach number?). Also, there may be an issue with incorporating the impedance discontinuities corresponding to the hard wall to liner interface (i.e. leading and trailing edge of test liner) within the discretized finite element model.

  11. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  12. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  13. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  14. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  15. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  16. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  17. Low-order nonlinear dynamic model of IC engine-variable pitch propeller system for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Jacques C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine coupled to a variable pitch propeller. The low-order, nonlinear time-dependent model is useful for simulating the propulsion system of general aviation single-engine light aircraft. This model is suitable for investigating engine diagnostics and monitoring and for control design and development. Furthermore, the model may be extended to provide a tool for the study of engine emissions, fuel economy, component effects, alternative fuels, alternative engine cycles, flight simulators, sensors, and actuators. Results show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the propulsion system dynamics from zero to 10 Hertz.

  18. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  19. A theoretical investigation of noise reduction through the cylindrical fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, R. B.; Mixson, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interior noise in the fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft with two propellers rotating in opposite directions is studied analytically. The fuselage was modeled as a stiffened cylindrical shell with simply supported ends, and the effects of stringers and frames were averaged over the shell surface. An approximate mathematical model of the propeller noise excitation was formulated which includes some of the propeller noise characteristics such as sweeping pressure waves around the sidewalls due to propeller rotation and the localized nature of the excitation with the highest levels near the propeller plane. Results are presented in the form of noise reduction, which is the difference between the levels of external and interior noise. The influence of propeller noise characteristics on the noise reduction was studied. The results indicate that the sweep velocity of the excitation around the fuselage sidewalls is critical to noise reduction.

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  5. Analysis of the flow field generated near an aircraft engine operating in reverse thrust. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledwith, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer solution is developed to the exhaust gas reingestion problem for aircraft operating in the reverse thrust mode on a crosswind-free runway. The computer program determines the location of the inlet flow pattern, whether the exhaust efflux lies within the inlet flow pattern or not, and if so, the approximate time before the reversed flow reaches the engine inlet. The program is written so that the user is free to select discrete runway speeds or to study the entire aircraft deceleration process for both the far field and cross-ingestion problems. While developed with STOL applications in mind, the solution is equally applicable to conventional designs. The inlet and reversed jet flow fields involved in the problem are assumed to be noninteracting. The nacelle model used in determining the inlet flow field is generated using an iterative solution to the Neuman problem from potential flow theory while the reversed jet flow field is adapted using an empirical correlation from the literature. Sample results obtained using the program are included.

  6. Factors Affecting Inlet-Engine Compatibility During Aircraft Departures at High Angle of Attack for an F/A -18A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, W. G.; Williams, J. G.; Yuhas, A. J.; Walsh, K. R.

    1999-01-01

    The F404-GE-400 engine powered F/A- 18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the quality of inlet airflow during departed flight maneuvers, that is, during flight outside the normal maneuvering envelope where control surfaces have little or no effectiveness. A series of six nose-left and six nose-right departures were initiated at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.4 at an altitude of 35 kft. The yaw rates at departure recovery were in the range of 40 to 90 degrees per second. Engine surges were encountered during three of the nose-left and one of the nose-right departures. Time-variant inlet-total-pressure distortion levels at the engine face were determined to not significantly exceed those measured at maximum angle-of-attack and - sideslip maneuvers during controlled flight. Surges as a result of inlet distortion levels were anticipated to initiate in the fan. Analysis revealed that the surges initiated in the compressor and were the result of a combination of high levels of inlet distortion and rapid changes in aircraft motion. These rapid changes in aircraft motion are indicative of a combination of engine mount and gyroscopic loads being applied to the engine structure that impact the aerodynamic stability of the compressor through changes in the rotor-to-case clearances.

  7. Effective density measurements of fresh particulate matter emitted by an aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Durdina, Lukas; Mensah, Amewu; Brem, Benjamin; Corbin, Joel; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Wang, Jing; Lohmann, Ulrike; Sierau, Berko

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Carbonaceous particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), once emitted into the atmosphere affects the global radiation budget by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. Furthermore, it can alter the formation, lifetime and distribution of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The ability of soot particles to act as CCN and IN depends on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Soot particles are known to consist of spherical, primary particles that tend to arrange in chain-like structures. The structure of soot particles typically changes in the atmosphere when the particles are coated with secondary material, thus changing their radiative and cloud microphysical properties. Bond et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013: Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System.) estimated the total industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon to be 1.1 W/m2 ranging from the uncertainty bonds of 0.17 W/m2 to 2.1 W/m2. Facing the large uncertainty range, there is a need for a better characterization of soot particles abundant in the atmosphere. We provide experimental data on physical properties such as size, mass, density and morphology of freshly produced soot particles from a regularly used aircraft engine and from four laboratory generated soot types. This was done using a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), a relatively new instrument that records mass distributions of aerosol particles. Experimental Aircraft engine exhaust particles were collected and analysed during the Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiments (A-PRIDE) campaigns in a test facility at the Zurich airport in November 2012 and August 2013. The engines were operated at different relative thrust levels spanning 7 % to 100 %. The sample was led into a heated line in order to prevent condensation of water and evolution of secondary

  8. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  9. Preliminary Flight Tests of the N.A.C.A. Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Reid, Elliott G

    1928-01-01

    An investigation of the suitability of the N.A.C.A. Roots type aircraft engine supercharger to flight-operating conditions, as determined the effects of the use of the supercharger upon engine operation and airplane performance, is described in this report. Attention was concentrated on the operation of the engine-supercharger unit and on the improvement of climbing ability; some information concerning high speeds at altitude was obtained. The supercharger was found to be satisfactory under flight-operating conditions. Although two failures occurred during the tests, the causes of both were minor and have been eliminated. Careful examination of the engines revealed no detrimental effects which could be attributed to supercharging. Marked improvements in climbing ability and high speeds at altitude were effected. It was also found that the load which could be carried to a given moderate or high altitude in a fixed time was considerably augmented. A slight sacrifice of low-altitude performance was necessitated, however, by the use of a fixed-pitch propeller. From a consideration of the very satisfactory flight performance of the Roots supercharger and of its inherent advantages, it is concluded that this type is particularly attractive for use in certain classes of commercial airplanes and in a number of military types.

  10. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  11. Application of a Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter for In-Flight Estimation of Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach based on the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) technique is investigated for the in-flight estimation of non-measurable performance parameters of aircraft engines. Performance parameters, such as thrust and stall margins, provide crucial information for operating an aircraft engine in a safe and efficient manner, but they cannot be directly measured during flight. A technique to accurately estimate these parameters is, therefore, essential for further enhancement of engine operation. In this paper, a CGEKF is developed by combining an on-board engine model and a single Kalman gain matrix. In order to make the on-board engine model adaptive to the real engine s performance variations due to degradation or anomalies, the CGEKF is designed with the ability to adjust its performance through the adjustment of artificial parameters called tuning parameters. With this design approach, the CGEKF can maintain accurate estimation performance when it is applied to aircraft engines at offnominal conditions. The performance of the CGEKF is evaluated in a simulation environment using numerous component degradation and fault scenarios at multiple operating conditions.

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  15. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  16. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  17. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  18. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  19. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  20. 75 FR 36034 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... provide comment on the ANPR. DATES: The comment period for the ANPR published April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22440... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 87 RIN 2060-AP79 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston... Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline (hereinafter...

  1. Apprenticeship as a Model of Vocational "Formation" and "Reformation": The Use of Foundation Degrees in the Aircraft Engineering Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guile, David

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that once apprenticeship is conceptualised as a social model of learning, then it no longer follows that apprenticeship is an age- or phase-specific model of vocational formation. The article explores this claim through drawing on a case study of the design of a Foundation Degree (FD) in aircraft engineering, which was…

  2. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  3. Analysis of ram-jet engine performance including effects of component changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard J; Luidens, Roger W

    1956-01-01

    Calculated design-point performance of ram-jet engines using JP-4 fuel is presented for a wide range of engine total-temperature ratios and combustion-chamber-inlet Mach numbers for flight numbers from 1.5 to 4.0. The results include engine thrust, drag, fuel consumption, and area ratios. Data are also presented to illustrate the sensitivity of the results to variations in the assumed component parameters. A brief comparison is included between fixed-and variable-geometry engines.

  4. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  5. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  6. Aeronautical engineering: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 280)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 647 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in June, 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerodynamics, air transportation safety, aircraft communication and navigation, aircraft design and performance, aircraft instrumentation, aircraft propulsion, aircraft stability and control, research facilities, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, computer sciences, physics, and social sciences.

  7. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek Contract Engineering, Allied Personnel Services, Eastern Engineering... Engineering, and Clarke Consulting, Inc., Bethlehem, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  8. 14 CFR 33.5 - Instruction manual for installing and operating the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES General § 33.5 Instruction manual for... attaching the engine to the aircraft, and the maximum allowable load for the mounting attachments and... limitations, of the engine control system and its interface with the aircraft systems, including the...

  9. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  10. Rotor burst protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine failures that occurred in commercial aviation during 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Mangano, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program to develop criteria for the design of devices that will be used on aircraft to protect passengers and the aircraft structure from the lethal and devastating fragments generated by the disintegration of a gas turbine engine rotor is discussed. Statistics on gas rotor turbine failures that have occurred in commercial aviation in 1971 are presented. It is shown that 124 rotor failures occurred and 35 of these were uncontained. This figure is considered significantly high to justify continuation of the development program.

  11. Noise data for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft flying conventional, steep, and two-segment approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Mueller, A. W.; Hamilton, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Center-line noise measurements of a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft were made during steep landing approach profiles, and during two-segment approach profiles for comparison with similar measurements made during conventional approaches. The steep and two-segment approaches showed significant noise reductions when compared with the -3 deg base line. The measured noise data were also used to develop a method for estimating the noise under the test aircraft at thrust and altitude conditions typical of current landing procedures and of landing procedures under development for the Advanced Air Traffic Control System.

  12. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-01

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  13. Aeronautical engineering: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 267)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in June, 1991. Subject coverage includes design, construction and testing of aircraft and aircraft engines; aircraft components, equipment and systems; ground support systems; theoretical and applied aspects of aerodynamics and general fluid dynamics; electrical engineering; aircraft control; remote sensing; computer sciences; nuclear physics; and social sciences.

  14. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  15. Development and evaluation of an air quality modeling approach to assess near-field impacts of lead emissions from piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Edward; Lee, Mark; Marin, Kristen; Holder, Christopher; Hoyer, Marion; Pedde, Meredith; Cook, Rich; Touma, Jawad

    2011-10-01

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality modeling approach using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was developed and evaluated for estimating atmospheric concentrations of Pb at and near general aviation airports where leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) is used. These detailed procedures were made to accurately characterize emissions and dispersion leading to improved model performance for a pollutant with concentrations that vary rapidly across short distances. The new aspects of this work included a comprehensive Pb emission inventory that incorporated sub-daily time-in-mode (TIM) activity data for piston-engine aircraft, aircraft-induced wake turbulence, plume rise of the aircraft exhaust, and allocation of approach and climb-out emissions to 50-m increments in altitude. To evaluate the modeling approach used here, ambient Pb concentrations were measured upwind and downwind of the Santa Monica Airport (SMO) and compared to modeled air concentrations. Modeling results paired in both time and space with monitoring data showed excellent overall agreement (absolute fractional bias of 0.29 winter, 0.07 summer). The modeling results on individual days show Pb concentration gradients above the urban background concentration of 10 ng m-3 extending downwind up to 900 m from the airport, with a crosswind extent of 400 m. Three-month average modeled concentrations above the background were found to extend to a maximum distance of approximately 450 m beyond the airport property in summer and fall. Modeling results show aircraft engine “run-up” is the most important source contribution to the maximum Pb concentration. Sensitivity analysis

  16. Two-dimensional modeling of an aircraft engine structural bladed disk-casing modal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathias; Pierre, Christophe; Cartraud, Patrice; Lombard, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In modern turbo machines such as aircraft jet engines, structural contacts between the casing and bladed disk may occur through a variety of mechanisms: coincidence of vibration modes, thermal deformation of the casing, rotor imbalance due to design uncertainties to name a few. These nonlinear interactions may result in severe damage to both structures and it is important to understand the physical circumstances under which they occur. In this study, we focus on a modal coincidence during which the vibrations of each structure take the form of a k-nodal diameter traveling wave characteristic of axi-symmetric geometries. A realistic two-dimensional model of the casing and bladed disk is introduced in order to predict the occurrence of this very specific interaction phenomenon versus the rotation speed of the engine. The equations of motion are solved using an explicit time integration scheme in conjunction with the Lagrange multiplier method where friction is accounted for. This model is validated from the comparison with an analytical solution. The numerical results show that the structures may experience different kinds of behaviors (namely damped, sustained and divergent motions) mainly depending on the rotational velocity of the bladed disk.

  17. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  18. Macroscopic study of time unsteady noise of an aircraft engine during static tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.; Heidmann, M. F.; Kreim, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Static tests of aircraft engines can exhibit greater than 10 dB random unsteadiness of tone noise levels because flow disturbances that prevail near test site facilities are ingested. Presumably such changes are related to installation and test site features. This paper presents some properties of unsteady noise observed at a NASA-Lewis facility during tests of a Lycoming YF-102 turbofan engine. Time and spatial variations in tone noise obtained from closely spaced far-field and inlet duct microphones are displayed. Long (0.5 sec) to extremely short (0.001 sec) intermittent tone bursts are observed. Unsteadiness of the tone, its harmonics, and the broadband noise show little similarity. In the far-field, identity of tone bursts is retained over a directivity angle of less than 10 deg. In the inlet duct, tone bursts appear to propagate axially but exhibit little circumferential similarity. They show only slight relationship to tone bursts observed in the far field. The results imply an intermittent generation of random mixtures of propagating duct modes.

  19. Marquardt's Mach 4.5 Supercharged Ejector Ramjet (SERJ) High-Performance Aircraft Engine Project: Unfulfilled Aspirations Ca.1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.; Roddy, Jordan E.; Hyde, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    The Supercharged Ejector Ramjet (SERJ) engine developments of the 1960s, as pursued by The Marquardt Corporation and its associated industry team members, are described. In just three years, engineering work on this combined-cycle powerplant type evolved, from its initial NASA-sponsored reusable space transportation system study status, into a U.S. Air Force/Navy-supported exploratory development program as a candidate 4.5 high-performance military aircraft engine. Bridging a productive transition from the spaceflight to the aviation arena, this case history supports the expectation that fully-integrated airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems hold high promise toward meeting the demanding propulsion requirements of tomorrow's aircraft-like Spaceliner class transportation systems. Lessons to be learned from this "SERJ Story" are offered for consideration by today's advanced space transportation and combined-cycle propulsion researchers and forward-planning communities.

  20. 75 FR 43565 - Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Johns Manville; Engineered Products Division, Including On-Site Leased... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, South... with Section 223 of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2273, I make the following certification: All workers of...

  1. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-03-23

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  2. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  3. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.290 - What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other disclaimers... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government...

  5. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  6. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 1: Survey and perspective. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, V. C.; Gaffney, E. F.; Bach, L. J.; Stallone, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed to predict the behavior of a rotor system subjected to sudden unbalance. The technique is implemented in the Turbine Engine Transient Rotor Analysis (TETRA) computer program using the component element method. The analysis was particularly aimed toward blade-loss phenomena in gas turbine engines. A dual-rotor, casing, and pylon structure can be modeled by the computer program. Blade tip rubs, Coriolis forces, and mechanical clearances are included. The analytical system was verified by modeling and simulating actual test conditions for a rig test as well as a full-engine, blade-release demonstration.

  7. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Team Passed Milestone on Path to the First Oil-Free Turbine Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbine Engine Technology Project team successfully demonstrated a foil-air bearing designed for the core rotor shaft of a turbine engine. The bearings were subjected to test conditions representative of the engine core environment through a combination of high speeds, sustained loads, and elevated temperatures. The operational test envelope was defined during conceptual design studies completed earlier this year by bearing manufacturer Mohawk Innovative Technologies and the turbine engine company Williams International. The prototype journal foil-air bearings were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Glenn is working with Williams and Mohawk to create a revolution in turbomachinery by developing the world's first Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine. NASA's General Aviation Propulsion project and Williams International recently developed the FJX-2 turbofan engine that is being commercialized as the EJ-22. This core bearing milestone is a first step toward a future version of the EJ-22 that will take advantage of recent advances in foil-air bearings by eliminating the need for oil lubrication systems and rolling element bearings. Oil-Free technology can reduce engine weight by 15 percent and let engines operate at very high speeds, yielding power density improvements of 20 percent, and reducing engine maintenance costs. In addition, with NASA coating technology, engines can operate at temperatures up to 1200 F. Although the project is still a couple of years from a full engine test of the bearings, this milestone shows that the bearing design exceeds the expected environment, thus providing confidence that an Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine will be attained. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Project is supported through the Aeropropulsion Base Research Program.

  8. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  9. Study of an engine flow diverter system for a large scale ejector powered aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, R. J.; Langley, B.; Plant, T.; Hunter, L.; Brock, O.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements were established for a conceptual design study to analyze and design an engine flow diverter system and to include accommodations for an ejector system in an existing 3/4 scale fighter model equipped with YJ-79 engines. Model constraints were identified and cost-effective limited modification was proposed to accept the ejectors, ducting and flow diverter valves. Complete system performance was calculated and a versatile computer program capable of analyzing any ejector system was developed.

  10. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, J S; Hays, M D; Dong, Y; Williams, D C; Logan, R

    2011-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of seven turbofan engine models were sampled as part of the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). In these experiments, continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle surface-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were conducted. In addition, time-integrated sampling was performed for bulk elemental composition, water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and trace semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The continuous BC and PAH monitoring showed a characteristic U-shaped curve of the emission index (EI or mass of pollutant/mass of fuel burned) vs fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. The time-integrated EIs for both elemental composition and water-soluble ions were heavily dominated by sulfur and SO(4)(2-), respectively, with a ∼2.4% median conversion of fuel S(IV) to particle S(VI). The corrected OC and EC emission indices obtained in this study ranged from 37 to 83 mg/kg and 21 to 275 mg/kg, respectively, with the EC/OC ratio ranging from ∼0.3 to 7 depending on engine type and test conditions. Finally, the particle SVOC EIs varied by as much as 2 orders of magnitude with distinct variations in chemical composition observed for different engine types and operating conditions.

  11. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, J S; Hays, M D; Dong, Y; Williams, D C; Logan, R

    2011-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of seven turbofan engine models were sampled as part of the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). In these experiments, continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle surface-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were conducted. In addition, time-integrated sampling was performed for bulk elemental composition, water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and trace semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The continuous BC and PAH monitoring showed a characteristic U-shaped curve of the emission index (EI or mass of pollutant/mass of fuel burned) vs fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. The time-integrated EIs for both elemental composition and water-soluble ions were heavily dominated by sulfur and SO(4)(2-), respectively, with a ∼2.4% median conversion of fuel S(IV) to particle S(VI). The corrected OC and EC emission indices obtained in this study ranged from 37 to 83 mg/kg and 21 to 275 mg/kg, respectively, with the EC/OC ratio ranging from ∼0.3 to 7 depending on engine type and test conditions. Finally, the particle SVOC EIs varied by as much as 2 orders of magnitude with distinct variations in chemical composition observed for different engine types and operating conditions. PMID:21428391

  12. Flow prediction for propfan engine installation effects on transport aircraft at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samant, S. S.; Yu, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    An Euler-based method for aerodynamic analysis of turboprop transport aircraft at transonic speeds has been developed. In this method, inviscid Euler equations are solved over surface-fitted grids constructed about aircraft configurations. Propeller effects are simulated by specifying sources of momentum and energy on an actuator disc located in place of the propeller. A stripwise boundary layer procedure is included to account for the viscous effects. A preliminary version of an approach to embed the exhaust plume within the global Euler solution has also been developed for more accurate treatment of the exhaust flow. The resulting system of programs is capable of handling wing-body-nacelle-propeller configurations. The propeller disks may be tractors or pushers and may represent single or counterrotation propellers. Results from analyses of three test cases of interest (a wing alone, a wing-body-nacelle model, and a wing-nacelle-endplate model) are presented. A user's manual for executing the system of computer programs with formats of various input files, sample job decks, and sample input files is provided in appendices.

  13. Performance studies on the application of four-engine and two-engine USB propulsive lift to the E-2C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, D. W.; Stevens, V. C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been completed of the performance benefits to be derived from applying advanced upper-surface blowing (USB) propulsive-lift technology to the E-2C aircraft. The results of comparing four-engine with two-engine USB configurations are discussed, and engine sizing and aerodynamic/structural considerations pertaining to the E-2C/USB modification are examined. The effects of the modification on performance are described in detail with regard to takeoff distance and landing distance estimation in free-deck operations, operations using catapult and arresting gear, ceiling and radar surveillance missions, and range and endurance capability.

  14. 75 FR 53846 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125-02...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32253), we published a final rule AD, FR Doc. 2010-12540, in... To, Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 42 Airplanes; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation... TAE 125-02-99 reciprocating engines, installed in, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft...

  15. 77 FR 57041 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02-99, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... channel B manifold air pressure sensor hose permeability was not always recognized as a fault by the FADEC...-07-09, amendment 39-16646 (76 FR 17757, March 31, 2011), for Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models... that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...

  16. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  17. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  18. Generation of desired signals from acoustic drivers. [for aircraft engine internal noise propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Salikuddin, M.; Ahuja, K. K.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure to control transient signal generation is developed for the study of internal noise propagation from aircraft engines. A simple algorithm incorporating transform techniques is used to produce signals of any desired waveform from acoustic drivers. The accurate driver response is then calculated, and from this the limiting frequency characteristics are determined and the undesirable frequencies where the driver response is poor are eliminated from the analysis. A synthesized signal is then produced by convolving the inverse of the response function with the desired signal. Although the shape of the synthesized signal is in general quite awkward, the driver generates the desired signal when the distorted signal is fed into the driver. The results of operating the driver in two environments, in a free field and in a duct, are presented in order to show the impedance matching effect of the driver. In addition, results using a high frequency cut-off value as a parameter is presented in order to demonstrate the extent of the applicability of the synthesis procedure. It is concluded that the desired signals can be generated through the signal synthesis procedure.

  19. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  20. Efficient formation of stratospheric aerosol for climate engineering by emission of condensible vapor from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Heckendorn, Patricia; Peter, Thomas; Keith, David W.

    2010-09-01

    Recent analysis suggests that the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol climate engineering through emission of non-condensable vapors such as SO2 is limited because the slow conversion to H2SO4 tends to produce aerosol particles that are too large; SO2 injection may be so inefficient that it is difficult to counteract the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling. Here we describe an alternate method in which aerosol is formed rapidly in the plume following injection of H2SO4, a condensable vapor, from an aircraft. This method gives better control of particle size and can produce larger radiative forcing with lower sulfur loadings than SO2 injection. Relative to SO2 injection, it may reduce some of the adverse effects of geoengineering such as radiative heating of the lower stratosphere. This method does not, however, alter the fact that such a geoengineered radiative forcing can, at best, only partially compensate for the climate changes produced by CO2.

  1. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  2. Efficient Formation of Stratospheric Aerosol for Climate Engineering by Emission of Condensible Vapor from Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Heckendorn, Patricia; Peter. Thomas; Keith, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analysis suggests that the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol climate engineering through emission of non-condensable vapors such as SO2 is limited because the slow conversion to H2SO4 tends to produce aerosol particles that are too large; SO2 injection may be so inefficient that it is difficult to counteract the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling. Here we describe an alternate method in which aerosol is formed rapidly in the plume following injection of H2SO4, a condensable vapor, from an aircraft. This method gives better control of particle size and can produce larger radiative forcing with lower sulfur loadings than SO2 injection. Relative to SO2 injection, it may reduce some of the adverse effects of geoengineering such as radiative heating of the lower stratosphere. This method does not, however, alter the fact that such a geoengineered radiative forcing can, at best, only partially compensate for the climate changes produced by CO2.

  3. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PAX-300 Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    In fiscal year 2001, the neural network and regression capabilities of NASA Glenn Research Center's COMETBOARDS design optimization testbed were extended to generate approximate models for the PAX-300 aircraft engine. The analytical model of the engine is defined through nine variables: the fan efficiency factor, the low pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the turbine, the low pressure of the turbine, the operating pressure, and three critical temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)). Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) calculations of the specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as a function of the variables can become time consuming, and numerical instabilities can occur during these design calculations. "Soft" models can alleviate both deficiencies. These approximate models are generated from a set of high-fidelity input-output pairs obtained from the NPSS code and a design of the experiment strategy. A neural network and a regression model with 45 weight factors were trained for the input/output pairs. Then, the trained models were validated through a comparison with the original NPSS code. Comparisons of TSFC versus the operating pressure and of TSFC versus the three temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)) are depicted in the figures. The overall performance was satisfactory for both the regression and the neural network model. The regression model required fewer calculations than the neural network model, and it produced marginally superior results. Training the approximate methods is time consuming. Once trained, the approximate methods generated the solution with only a trivial computational effort, reducing the solution time from hours to less than a minute.

  4. Improvements in Numerical Modeling Methodology of Dry Woven Fabrics for Aircraft Engine Containment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Jonathan

    Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The development of a predictive model for fan blade containment would provide great benefit to engine manufactures in shortened development cycle time, less risk in certification and fewer dollars lost to redesign/recertification cycles. A mechanistic user-defined material model subroutine has been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) that captures the behavioral response of these fabrics, namely Kevlar ® 49, under ballistic loading. Previously developed finite element models used to validate the consistency of this material model neglected the effects of the physical constraints imposed on the test setup during ballistic testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC). Part of this research was to explore the effects of these boundary conditions on the results of the numerical simulations. These effects were found to be negligible in most instances. Other material models for woven fabrics are available in the LS-DYNA finite element code. One of these models, MAT234: MAT_VISCOELASTIC_LOOSE_FABRIC (Ivanov & Tabiei, 2004) was studied and implemented in the finite element simulations of ballistic testing associated with the FAA ASU research. The results from these models are compared to results obtained from the ASU UMAT as part of this research. The results indicate an underestimation in the energy absorption characteristics of the Kevlar 49 fabric containment systems. More investigation needs to be performed in the implementation of MAT234 for Kevlar 49 fabric. Static penetrator testing of Kevlar® 49 fabric was performed at ASU in conjunction with this research. These experiments are designed to mimic the type of loading experienced during fan blade out events. The resulting experimental strains were measured using a non-contact optical strain measurement

  5. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  6. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  7. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  8. An analysis of air-turborocket engine performance including effects of component changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W; Weber, Richard J

    1956-01-01

    An analytical study of the air-turborocket engine is presented, showing both full-power operation over a range of flight speeds and part-power operation at several supersonic speeds. Engine weight, drag, and area variations are calculated in addition to the internal thrust coefficient and specific impulse. Tehe effects of changes in the component designs and efficiencies are indicated. Maximum specific impulse (including nacelle drag and using gasoline - nitric acid propellants) at Mach 2.3 is 1500 lb/(lb/sec). The performance is compared with that of a typical turbojet engine.

  9. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Certification Service, Aircraft Engineering Division, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, 5th Floor, SW., Washington, DC 20024... Administration, Aircraft Certification Service, Aircraft Engineering Division, Technical and Administrative..., Aircraft Engineering Division, Aircraft Certification Service. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  10. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  11. An overview of SAE ARP 1587: Aircraft gas turbine engine monitoring system guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to developing an engine monitoring system (EMS) is outlined. An extensive shopping list of EMS capabilities and benefits are included. A team approach to developing an EMS is emphasized with a description of the responsibilities of each team member.

  12. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pera, R. J.; Onat, E.; Klees, G. W.; Tjonneland, E.

    1977-01-01

    Weight and envelope dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines are estimated within plus or minus 5% to 10% using a computer method based on correlations of component weight and design features of 29 data base engines. Rotating components are estimated by a preliminary design procedure where blade geometry, operating conditions, material properties, shaft speed, hub-tip ratio, etc., are the primary independent variables used. The development and justification of the method selected, the various methods of analysis, the use of the program, and a description of the input/output data are discussed.

  13. Thermal stress analysis of a graded zirconia/metal gas path seal system for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A ceramic/metallic aircraft gas turbine outer gas path seal designed to enable improved engine performance is studied. Flexible numerical analysis schemes suitable for the determination of transient temperature profiles and thermal stress distributions in the seal are outlined. An estimation of the stresses to which a test seal is subjected during simulated engine deceleration from sea level takeoff to idle conditions is made. Experimental evidence has indicated that the surface layer of the seal is probably subjected to excessive tensile stresses during cyclic temperature loading. This assertion is supported by the analytical results presented. Brief consideration is given to means of mitigating this adverse stressing.

  14. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-04-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  15. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  16. Investigation of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Associated with Metal Working Fluids at an Aircraft Engine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods 407 workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. Results MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13) and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Conclusions Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. PMID:24122918

  17. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model J182T airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents...

  18. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  19. The handling qualities and flight characteristics of the Grumman design 698 simulated twin-engine tilt Nacelle V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskey, M. A.; Wilson, S. B., III

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes three government-conducted, piloted flight simulations of the Grumman Design 698 vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the aircraft's handling qualities as rated by various NASA, Navy, and Grumman Aerospace Corporating pilots with flight experience ranging from conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) to V/STOL aircraft. Each successive simulation incorporated modifications to the aircraft in order to resolve the flight problems which were of most concern to the pilots in the previous simulation. The objective of the first simulation was to assess the basic handling qualities of the aircraft with the noncross-shafted propulsion system. The objective of the second simulation was to examine the effects of incorporating the cross-shafted propulsion system. The objective of the third simulation was to examine inoperative single-engine characteristics with and without cross-shafted engines.

  20. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.