Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft management policy

  1. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  2. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  3. National fire management policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    A Fire Management Policy Review Team was established in 1988, with representatives from the US Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with the purpose of reviewing current policies governing national park and wilderness fire management. The author outlines the goals of the review team and discusses the seven final issues that summarized the team's findings.

  4. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  5. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  6. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  7. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  8. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  9. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... must we manage aircraft parts? You must manage your aircraft parts by maintaining proper...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... must we manage aircraft parts? You must manage your aircraft parts by maintaining proper...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... must we manage aircraft parts? You must manage your aircraft parts by maintaining proper...

  13. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat; Barmore, Bryan; Swieringa, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the wind information used to generate trajectories for aircraft performing Interval Management (IM) operations is critical to the success of an IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather provider. The second is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment, resulting in loss of additional information. This study focuses on what subset of forecast data, such as the number and location of the points where the wind is sampled should be made available to uplink to the aircraft.

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing...

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33.225 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing...

  16. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather

  17. The ''Rock'': The Role of the Press in Bringing about Change in Aircraft Accident Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Randy

    2000-01-01

    From 1926 to 1938, the Aeronautics Branch, forerunner of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), had been charged with aircraft accident investigation. While the Branch had been investigating accidents since its inception, it had, early in its tenure, put into place a policy making its findings secret. Media and political pressure began to mount in late 1928 over its policy of nondisclosure and the debate brought pressure to bear on the young Aeronautics Branch to reverse its policy and make its findings public. The focusing event for the Branch's policy reversal was the death of Knute Rockne, the famous Notre Dame football coach, in a Transcontinental and Western Airways (TWA) airliner on March 31, 193 1. This paper will examine the role of print media in bringing about a significant, and lasting, change in aircraft accident public-disclosure policy.

  18. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  19. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  1. Policy analysis: a framework for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair

    2007-10-01

    The lack of involvement of nurses in the policy process is an issue of concern which has resulted in calls for nurses to become more active in this area of activity. However, what is often less clear is precisely how this can be done. This paper presents a template for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers. The nature of policy and policy analysis is explored to provide a broad context for the discussion and the need for managers and nurse managers in particular to be 'policy competent' is established, as a prerequisite for effective management. There is also an examination of policy analysis in nursing which demonstrates why a range of approaches to the analysis of policy is needed. Based on this, a particular framework for policy analysis which can be used by nurse managers is presented. The overall purpose of the paper is to encourage debate in this area and contribute to the development of a specific tool for policy analysis that may help ensure a nursing management perspective informs policy formation and implementation. PMID:17897145

  2. Performance analysis of instrumentation system management policies

    SciTech Connect

    Waheed, A.; Melfi, V.F.; Rover, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    Run-time trace data helps to debug and analyze the parallel programs. Obtaining and managing this data during run-time is the responsibility of an instrumentation system that incurs overhead. In its worst case, this overhead can result in severe perturbation of the behavior of the actual program. This paper presents a queuing model for an instrumentation system. The purpose is to provide a rigorous mathematical tool that could allow the analysis of the overhead of program behavior due to the instrumentation system management policies. We summarize the effects of two management policies: FOF and FAOF policies.

  3. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  4. The future of volcanic ash-aircraft interactions from technical and policy perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadevall, T. J.; Guffanti, M.

    2010-12-01

    Since the advent of jet-powered flight in the 1960s, the threat of volcanic ash to aviation operations has become widely recognized and the mitigation of this threat has received concerted international attention. At the same time the susceptibility to operational disruption has grown. Technical improvements to airframes, engines, and avionic systems have been made in response to the need for improved fuel efficiency and the demand for increased capacity for passenger and freight traffic. Operational demands have resulted in the growth of extended overseas flight operations (ETOPS), increased flight frequency on air traffic routes, and closer spacing of aircraft on heavily traveled routes. The net result has been great advances in flight efficiency, but also increased susceptibility to flight disruption, especially in heavily traveled regions such as North Atlantic-Europe, North America, and the North Pacific. Advances in ash avoidance procedures, pilot and air manager training, and in detection of ash-related damage and maintenance of aircraft and engines have been spurred by noteworthy eruptions such as Galunggung, Indonesia, 1982; Redoubt, Alaska, 1989-1990; and Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991. Comparable advances have been made in the detection and tracking of volcanic ash clouds using satellite-based remote sensing and numerical trajectory forecast models. Following the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, the global aviation community again focused attention on the issue of safe air operations in airspace affected by volcanic ash. The enormous global disruption to air traffic in the weeks after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption has placed added emphasis for the global air traffic management system as well as on the equipment manufacturers to reevaluate air operations in ash-affected airspace. Under the leadership of the International Civil Aviation Organization and the World Meteorological Organization, efforts are being made to address this

  5. UPM: unified policy-based network management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Eddie; Saxena, Achint

    2001-07-01

    Besides providing network management to the Internet, it has become essential to offer different Quality of Service (QoS) to users. Policy-based management provides control on network routers to achieve this goal. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a two-tier architecture whose implementation is based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). However, there are several limitations to this design such as scalability and cross-vendor hardware compatibility. To address these issues, we present a functionally enhanced multi-tier policy management architecture design in this paper. Several extensions are introduced thereby adding flexibility and scalability. In particular, an intermediate entity between the policy server and policy rule database called the Policy Enforcement Agent (PEA) is introduced. By keeping internal data in a common format, using a standard protocol, and by interpreting and translating request and decision messages from multi-vendor hardware, this agent allows a dynamic Unified Information Model throughout the architecture. We have tailor-made this unique information system to save policy rules in the directory server and allow executions of policy rules with dynamic addition of new equipment during run-time.

  6. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  7. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies...

  8. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies...

  9. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies...

  10. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies...

  11. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies...

  12. 77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Services Administration (GSA) has issued Federal Management Regulation (FMR) Bulletin G-03 which provides guidance to Executive Branch agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and...

  13. 12 CFR 163.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 163.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... service corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue...

  14. 12 CFR 163.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 163.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... service corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue...

  15. Acceleration of aircraft-level Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio

    This dissertation describes novel approaches to solving large-scale, high fidelity, aircraft-level Traffic Flow Management scheduling problems. Depending on the methods employed, solving these problems to optimality can take longer than the length of the planning horizon in question. Research in this domain typically focuses on the quality of the modeling used to describe the problem and the benefits achieved from the optimized solution, often treating computational aspects as secondary or tertiary. The work presented here takes the complementary view and considers the computational aspect as the primary concern. To this end, a previously published model for solving this Traffic Flow Management scheduling problem is used as starting point for this study. The model proposed by Bertsimas and Stock-Patterson is a binary integer program taking into account all major resource capacities and the trajectories of each flight to decide which flights should be held in which resource for what amount of time in order to satisfy all capacity requirements. For large instances, the solve time using state-of-the-art solvers is prohibitive for use within a potential decision support tool. With this dissertation, however, it will be shown that solving can be achieved in reasonable time for instances of real-world size. Five other techniques developed and tested for this dissertation will be described in detail. These are heuristic methods that provide good results. Performance is measured in terms of runtime and "optimality gap." We then describe the most successful method presented in this dissertation: Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition. Results indicate that a parallel implementation of Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition optimally solves the original problem in much reduced time and with better integrality and smaller optimality gap than any of the heuristic methods or state-of-the-art, commercial solvers. The solution quality improves in every measureable way as the number of subproblems

  16. Pain management and health care policy.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Nicole; Abou Zeid, Hicham; Nasser Ayoub, Eliane; Antakly, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are essential for the management of moderate to severe pain. In spite of their documented effectiveness, opioids are often underutilized, a factor which has contributed significantly to the undertreatment of pain. Many countries have developed true national policies on cancer pain and palliative care, and in others only guidelines for care have been developed. Ideally, national policies facilitate and legislate not only a patient's right to care, but also the necessary components of education and drug availability which are so critical for the appropriate achievement of public health programs. PMID:19534079

  17. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  18. Policy-based Distributed Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The analysis and understanding of climate variability and change builds upon access to massive collections of observational and simulation data. The analyses involve distributed computing, both at the storage systems (which support data subsetting) and at compute engines (for assimilation of observational data into simulations). The integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS) organizes the distributed data into collections to facilitate enforcement of management policies, support remote data processing, and enable development of reference collections. Currently at RENCI, the iRODS data grid is being used to manage ortho-photos and lidar data for the State of North Carolina, provide a unifying storage environment for engagement centers across the state, support distributed access to visualizations of weather data, and is being explored to manage and disseminate collections of ensembles of meteorological and hydrological model results. In collaboration with the National Climatic Data Center, an iRODS data grid is being established to support data transmission from NCDC to ORNL, and to integrate NCDC archives with ORNL compute services. To manage the massive data transfers, parallel I/O streams are used between High Performance Storage System tape archives and the supercomputers at ORNL. Further, we are exploring the movement and management of large RADAR and in situ datasets to be used for data mining between RENCI and NCDC, and for the distributed creation of decision support and climate analysis tools. The iRODS data grid supports all phases of the scientific data life cycle, from management of data products for a project, to sharing of data between research institutions, to publication of data in a digital library, to preservation of data for use in future research projects. Each phase is characterized by a broader user community, with higher expectations for more detailed descriptions and analysis mechanisms for manipulating the data. The higher usage

  19. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model. Version 2.0; User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a guide for using the model in analysis. Those interested in making enhancements or modification to the model should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Technical Description.

  20. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  1. Bayesian Software Health Management for Aircraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mbaya, Timmy; Menghoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft, both piloted fly-by-wire commercial aircraft as well as UAVs, more and more depend on highly complex safety critical software systems with many sensors and computer-controlled actuators. Despite careful design and V&V of the software, severe incidents have happened due to malfunctioning software. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to monitor the health of the on-board software and sensor system, and to perform advanced on-board diagnostic reasoning. We will focus on the approach to develop reliable and robust health models for the combined software and sensor systems.

  2. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  3. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.263 - What travel authorization documents must I present to the aircraft management office that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What travel authorization documents must I present to the aircraft management office that operates the Government aircraft? 301-10.263 Section 301-10.263 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.263 - What travel authorization documents must I present to the aircraft management office that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What travel authorization documents must I present to the aircraft management office that operates the Government aircraft? 301-10.263 Section 301-10.263 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  6. Integrated Software Health Management for Aircraft GN and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft rely heavily on dependable operation of many safety-critical software components. Despite careful design, verification and validation (V&V), on-board software can fail with disastrous consequences if it encounters problematic software/hardware interaction or must operate in an unexpected environment. We are using a Bayesian approach to monitor the software and its behavior during operation and provide up-to-date information about the health of the software and its components. The powerful reasoning mechanism provided by our model-based Bayesian approach makes reliable diagnosis of the root causes possible and minimizes the number of false alarms. Compilation of the Bayesian model into compact arithmetic circuits makes SWHM feasible even on platforms with limited CPU power. We show initial results of SWHM on a small simulator of an embedded aircraft software system, where software and sensor faults can be injected.

  7. 12 CFR 390.349 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 390.349...-Operations § 390.349 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For the protection of depositors and other... soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies that are safe and consistent with economical...

  8. 12 CFR 390.349 - Management and financial policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 390.349...-Operations § 390.349 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For the protection of depositors and other... soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies that are safe and consistent with economical...

  9. Modeling, design and energy management of fuel cell systems for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas Heenan

    the integrated fuel cell system and aircraft analyses, we gain a new understanding of the interaction between powerplant and application for fuel cell aircraft. Specifically, the system-level design criteria of fuel cell powerplants for aircraft can be derived. Optimal sub-system configurations of the fuel cell powerplant specific to the aircraft application are determined. Finally, optimal energy management strategies and flight paths for fuel cell and battery hybridized fuel cell aircraft are derived. The results of a series of design studies are validated using hardware in the loop testing of fuel cell propulsion systems and field testing of a series of fuel cell powered demonstrator aircraft.

  10. SILHIL Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Teubert, Christopher Allen; Cuong Chi, Quach; Hogge, Edward; Vazquez, Sixto; Goebel, Kai; George, Vachtsevanos

    2013-01-01

    Software-in-the-loop and Hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and cost-effective testing than what is practical to conduct with flight tests. A framework is described for the offline recreation of dynamic loads on simulated or physical aircraft powertrain components based on a real-time simulation of airframe dynamics running on a flight simulator, an inner-loop flight control policy executed by either an autopilot routine or a human pilot, and a supervisory fault management control policy. The creation of an offline framework for verifying and validating supervisory failure prognostics and decision making routines is described for the example of battery charge depletion failure scenarios onboard a prototype electric unmanned aerial vehicle.

  11. Learning the Task Management Space of an Aircraft Approach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krall, Joseph; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty

    2014-01-01

    Validating models of airspace operations is a particular challenge. These models are often aimed at finding and exploring safety violations, and aim to be accurate representations of real-world behavior. However, the rules governing the behavior are quite complex: nonlinear physics, operational modes, human behavior, and stochastic environmental concerns all determine the responses of the system. In this paper, we present a study on aircraft runway approaches as modeled in Georgia Tech's Work Models that Compute (WMC) simulation. We use a new learner, Genetic-Active Learning for Search-Based Software Engineering (GALE) to discover the Pareto frontiers defined by cognitive structures. These cognitive structures organize the prioritization and assignment of tasks of each pilot during approaches. We discuss the benefits of our approach, and also discuss future work necessary to enable uncertainty quantification.

  12. 41 CFR 109-28.5103 - Management policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management policy. 109-28.5103 Section 109-28.5103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  13. 41 CFR 109-28.5103 - Management policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management policy. 109-28.5103 Section 109-28.5103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  14. 41 CFR 109-28.5103 - Management policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management policy. 109-28.5103 Section 109-28.5103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  15. 41 CFR 109-28.5103 - Management policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management policy. 109-28.5103 Section 109-28.5103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  16. 41 CFR 109-28.5103 - Management policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management policy. 109-28.5103 Section 109-28.5103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  17. 76 FR 16349 - Notice of Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... operator with a written declaration (from the contracting officer or higher- level official) of public... statute; and The declaration is made in advance of the proposed public aircraft flight. To implement this... is a declaration of public aircraft status, all operations must be conducted in accordance with...

  18. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  19. Data management in an object-oriented distributed aircraft conceptual design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhijie

    In the competitive global market place, aerospace companies are forced to deliver the right products to the right market, with the right cost, and at the right time. However, the rapid development of technologies and new business opportunities, such as mergers, acquisitions, supply chain management, etc., have dramatically increased the complexity of designing an aircraft. Therefore, the pressure to reduce design cycle time and cost is enormous. One way to solve such a dilemma is to develop and apply advanced engineering environments (AEEs), which are distributed collaborative virtual design environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, etc., together by incorporating application tools and advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities. Aircraft conceptual design, as the first design stage, provides major opportunity to compress design cycle time and is the cheapest place for making design changes. However, traditional aircraft conceptual design programs, which are monolithic programs, cannot provide satisfactory functionality to meet new design requirements due to the lack of domain flexibility and analysis scalability. Therefore, we are in need of the next generation aircraft conceptual design environment (NextADE). To build the NextADE, the framework and the data management problem are two major problems that need to be addressed at the forefront. Solving these two problems, particularly the data management problem, is the focus of this research. In this dissertation, in light of AEEs, a distributed object-oriented framework is firstly formulated and tested for the NextADE. In order to improve interoperability and simplify the integration of heterogeneous application tools, data management is one of the major problems that need to be tackled. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of aircraft conceptual design data, a robust, extensible object-oriented data model is then proposed according to the

  20. Houston Cole Library Collection Management and Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Abbot, Ed.; McAbee, Sonja L., Ed.

    This report describes the collection management and development policy of, and the diverse collections housed at, Jacksonville State University's Houston Cole Library. The first part of the report consists of a detailed collection management and development policy statement, beginning with the history of the library, the physical disposition of…

  1. 76 FR 9870 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk OMB Number: 1550-0094 Form Number:...

  2. 76 FR 23646 - Financial Management Policies-Interest Rate Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: Office of Thrift... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Financial Management Policies--Interest Rate Risk....

  3. Sensors and Rotordynamics Health Management Research for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, J.; Abdul-Aziz, A.; Adamovsky, G.; Berger, D.; Fralick, G.; Gyekenyesi, A.; Hunter, G.; Tokars, R.; Venti, M.; Woike, M.; Wrbanek, J.; Wrbanek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Develop Advanced Sensor Technology and rotordynamic structural diagnostics to address existing Aviation Safety Propulsion Health Management needs as well as proactively begin to address anticipated safety issues for new technologies.

  4. Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, James J., Jr.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how

  5. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents or... they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: Send comments on or before January 7, 2013....

  6. Policy-Based Device and Mobility Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Pierre; Lamparter, Bernd; Liebsch, Marco

    Each new generation of mobile terminals offers more and better functionality, e.g. terminal mobility, multi-homing or inter-device session mobility. Furthermore, the interaction with consumer devices, e.g. DLNA TV or stereo sets, is becoming more common. Every new feature, however, is likely to result in increased complexity for the end user: Most people do not know how to utilize all features of their mobile terminals, hence devices that offer only a reduced feature set are becoming more popular. Additionally, while the end user expects to be in control, the network operator might want to exert some influence over which features are available or trigger actions, e.g. handovers, based on contract, location, etc. The aim of our research is to offer high flexibility and functionality combined with ease of use. We designed a policy management framework for the mentioned session mobility functions which supports the user in the configuration of the functions and automates commonly performed actions.

  7. Modeling sustainable groundwater management: packaging and sequencing of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Encarna; Dinar, Ariel

    2013-04-15

    Of the many studies estimating effectiveness of policy reforms most have been considering various types of policy reforms in isolation from each other. Such pattern has also been the case in water resource regulations. In the case of groundwater almost all policy interventions considered in the literature have been implemented individually, without taking into account the possible interactions and impacts among them. In this paper, we focus on two policy instruments: water quota and uniform water tax. The paper demonstrates how packaging and sequencing sets of policy interventions, with possible triggers to initiate their time of implementation, may be more effective in achieving a sustainable groundwater management than single policies when environmental externalities exist. The policy instruments are applied to the Western la Mancha aquifer in Southeast Spain, a major aquifer that is managed by a command and control approach. PMID:23467104

  8. Definition and analytical evaluation of a power management system for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. J.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the special design criteria which apply to power management in a tilt-rotor aircraft. These include the need for accurate and fast control of rpm and thrust, while accounting for the dynamic interactions between rotor systems caused by cross-shafting and aircraft lateral/directional response. The power management system is also required to provide acceptable high speed sensitivity to longitudinal turbulence. It is shown that the criteria can best be met using a single governor adjusting the collective pitch by an amount proportional to a combination of the average rpm and the integral of the average rpm of the two rotors. This system is evaluated and compared with other candidate systems in hover and cruise flight.

  9. Using policy management for optical VPN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, Omar; Chen, Ken; Serhouchni, Ahmed

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a Policy-based Control Plane, which allows Carrier Optical Network to dynamically configure and deploy Optical Virtual Private Networks (Optical VPNs) over multiple administration domains. A configurable policy-based control mechanism is required to regulate and control the information propagation across both UNI and NNI interfaces and the actions allowed on behalf of the users. The proposed framework extend the ITU Control Plane by adding based IP-centric policy mechanisms like admission control protocol COPS (Common Open Policy Service).

  10. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network

  11. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  12. Sensor Needs for Control and Health Management of Intelligent Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Gang, Sanjay; Hunter, Gary W.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Semega, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense are conducting programs which support the future vision of "intelligent" aircraft engines for enhancing the affordability, performance, operability, safety, and reliability of aircraft propulsion systems. Intelligent engines will have advanced control and health management capabilities enabling these engines to be self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, and adaptive to optimize performance based upon the current condition of the engine or the current mission of the vehicle. Sensors are a critical technology necessary to enable the intelligent engine vision as they are relied upon to accurately collect the data required for engine control and health management. This paper reviews the anticipated sensor requirements to support the future vision of intelligent engines from a control and health management perspective. Propulsion control and health management technologies are discussed in the broad areas of active component controls, propulsion health management and distributed controls. In each of these three areas individual technologies will be described, input parameters necessary for control feedback or health management will be discussed, and sensor performance specifications for measuring these parameters will be summarized.

  13. 76 FR 77453 - Clarification of Policy Regarding Designated Aircraft Dispatcher Examiners; Reopening of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This action reopens the comment period for guidance material that was published for comment in the Federal Register on November 8, 2011. In that document, the FAA clarifies guidance to employees on the responsibilities, qualifications, and oversight of designated aircraft dispatcher examiners. The comment period closed on December 8, 2011. This reopening is a result of a request for extension......

  14. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  15. Starting the Conversation: University-Wide Research Data Management Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erway, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    This call for action addresses the high-level benefits of adopting a university-wide policy regarding research data management. It identifies the various university stakeholders and suggests that the library initiate a conversation among them in order to get buy-in for a proactive, rather than reactive, high-level policy for responsible data…

  16. Panarchy, adaptive management and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the institutions...

  17. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  18. Federal facility compliance: Strategies, policies and management

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Federal Facility Compliance reviews developments in environmental legislative/regulatory analysis, climate change, and environmental management practices at the US Postal Service. It also covers the management of ozone-depleting chemicals at US Army Reserve facilities, Title 5, and wastewater system assessments at military installations.

  19. Thermal management for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft using endothermic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.

    1990-01-01

    The present thermal management system for a carrier-based Mach 5 cruise-capable aircraft whose propulsion system does not entail cryogenic fuels is predicated on the use of the catalytic endothermic reaction of a petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuel as the heat sink for engine cooling. The insulation of engine flowpath surfaces reduces cooling requirements. The primary elements of this closed-cycle cooling system are a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall-cooling panels; a silicone-based liquid polymer is used as the coolant. Structural, weight, and thermal analysis results are presented for each of the primary components.

  20. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  1. On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P; Rodwin, Victor G

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the field of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) ought to confront the gap between theory, policy, and practice. Although there are perennial efforts to reform healthcare systems, the conceptual barriers are considerable and reflect the theory-policy-practice gap. We highlight four dimensions of the gap: 1) the dominance of microeconomic thinking in health policy analysis and design; 2) the lack of learning from management theory and comparative case studies; 3) the separation of HPAM from the rank and file of healthcare; and 4) the failure to expose medical students to issues of HPAM. We conclude with suggestions for rethinking the field of HPAM by embracing broader perspectives, e.g. ethics, urban health, systems analysis and cross-national analyses of healthcare systems. PMID:25489592

  2. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J

    2015-01-01

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. PMID:26029899

  3. Tiltrotor noise reduction through flight trajectory management and aircraft configuration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Marc

    A tiltrotor can hover, takeoff and land vertically as well as cruise at high speeds and fly long distances. Because of these unique capabilities, tiltrotors are envisioned as an aircraft that could provide a solution to the issue of airport gridlock by operating on stub runways, helipads, or from smaller regional airports. However, during an approach-to-land a tiltrotor is susceptible to radiating strong impulsive noise, in particular, Blade-Vortex Interaction noise (BVI), a phenomenon highly dependent on the vehicle's performance-state. A mathematical model was developed to predict the quasi-static performance characteristics of a tiltrotor during a converting approach in the longitudinal plane. Additionally, a neural network was designed to model the acoustic results from a flight test of the XV-15 tiltrotor as a function of the aircraft's performance parameters. The performance model was linked to the neural network to yield a combined performance/acoustic model that is capable of predicting tiltrotor noise emitted during a decelerating approach. The model was then used to study noise trends associated with different combinations of airspeed, nacelle tilt, and flight path angle. It showed that BVI noise is the dominant noise source during a descent and that its strength increases with steeper descent angles. Strong BVI noise was observed at very steep flight path angles, suggesting that the tiltrotor's high downwash prevents the wake from being pushed above the rotor, even at such steep descent angles. The model was used to study the effects of various aircraft configuration and flight trajectory parameters on the rotor inflow, which adequately captured the measured BVI noise trends. Flight path management effectively constrained the rotor inflow during a converting approach and thus limited the strength of BVI noise. The maximum deceleration was also constrained by controlling the nacelle tilt-rate during conversion. By applying these constraints, low BVI noise

  4. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  5. Policy Description for Information Lifecycle Management Focused on Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tetsuo; Ueda, Ryoichi; Aizono, Toshiko; Ushijima, Kazutomo; Naitoh, Ichiro; Komoda, Norihisa

    Data retention, regulatory compliance, and security requirements are increasing by explosive information growth and government regulations. Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) has gotten a lot of attention as a solution for these requirements recently. The goal of ILM is to ensure that information is stored on the most effective and appropriate storage medium depending on the service level required in the phase of the life of information. And the goal of our research is to automate the ILM process using “policy" indicating managers' intension. This paper proposes the method for description and interpretation of the policy.

  6. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    PubMed Central

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J; Sih, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary changes. Such evolution-based management has potential to be a highly efficient and consistent way to create greater ecological resilience to widespread, rapid, and multifaceted environmental change. PMID:25567975

  7. ADS-B within a Multi-Aircraft Simulation for Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Chung, William W.; Loveness, Ghyrn W.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology for NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAG-TM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, aircraft exchange state and intent information over ADS-B with other aircraft and ground stations. This information supports various surveillance functions including conflict detection and resolution, scheduling, and conformance monitoring. To conduct more rigorous concept feasibility studies, NASA Langley Research Center s PC-based Air Traffic Operations Simulation models a 1090 MHz ADS-B communication structure, based on industry standards for message content, range, and reception probability. The current ADS-B model reflects a mature operating environment and message interference effects are limited to Mode S transponder replies and ADS-B squitters. This model was recently evaluated in a Joint DAG-TM Air/Ground Coordination Experiment with NASA Ames Research Center. Message probability of reception vs. range was lower at higher traffic levels. The highest message collision probability occurred near the meter fix serving as the confluence for two arrival streams. Even the highest traffic level encountered in the experiment was significantly less than the industry standard "LA Basin 2020" scenario. Future studies will account for Mode A and C message interference (a major effect in several industry studies) and will include Mode A and C aircraft in the simulation, thereby increasing the total traffic level. These changes will support ongoing enhancements to separation assurance functions that focus on accommodating longer ADS-B information update intervals.

  8. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K.

    1993-12-31

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.

  9. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  10. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  11. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  12. Policy Analysis for Rural Development and Growth Management in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, John S.; Duff, Mary K.

    Providing a broad analysis of Colorado's rural problems, the body of this report enumerates rural development and growth management problems; describes remedies worth study; and suggests a policy making system. The Appendix presents supporting material, including comparative socioeconomic data on each Colorado county. Opportunities and threats…

  13. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... affecting land or water uses in the coastal zone of a state will include a certification that the proposed... manner consistent with the law. (c) An activity affecting land or water uses in the coastal zone of...

  14. A Semantic Based Policy Management Framework for Cloud Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takabi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing paradigm has gained tremendous momentum and generated intensive interest. Although security issues are delaying its fast adoption, cloud computing is an unstoppable force and we need to provide security mechanisms to ensure its secure adoption. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on issues related to policy management and access…

  15. School Leadership: Beyond Education Management. An Essay in Policy Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    This book advances the new field of educational leadership--that of policy scholarship. It examines the ways in which concepts of educational leadership and management have evolved historically and culturally and reviews contemporary debates about the nature of school leadership. These debates involve cultural conservatives, New Right marketeers,…

  16. Administrators' Perceptions of Policy Influence: Conflict Management Styles and Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M.; Christovich, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Explores the relationship between urban executive officers and their political environments, first by reporting on how three types of these officers perceive their policy influence upon their urban legislatures and then by developing a paradigm of conflict management in the urban context to explore opportunities for research into social change and…

  17. Houston Cole Library Collection Management and Development Policy. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Sonja L., Comp.; Bevis, Mary D., Ed.; Poe, Jodi W., Ed.; Whitesel, George, Ed.

    In 1991, the staff of the Houston Cole Library (Jacksonville State University, Alabama) published its first formal "Collection Management and Development Policy." This was used as a guide in conducting a complete assessment of the Library's collections. This second edition is a revision of the 1991 publication. The first section is an introduction…

  18. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  19. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  20. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  1. Educative Accountability Policies for Tasmania's Locally Managed Schools: Interim Policy Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes interim findings of a policy research project in Tasmania, Australia, aimed at producing educative accountability options for identifying processes and criteria to improve learning, teaching, and leadership. Identifies preferred accountability criteria and processes in Tasmania's locally managed school district, maps patterns of…

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.275 - Are there restrictions on replacing aircraft by exchange or sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). In your letter of request to GSA, you must include the full details of your situation and the... request and justify a waiver from GSA, Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA), 1800 F Street,...

  3. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  4. What passes and fails as health policy and management.

    PubMed

    Chinitz, David; Rodwin, Victor G

    2014-10-01

    The field of health policy and management (HPAM) faces a gap between theory, policy, and practice. Despite decades of efforts at reforming health policy and health care systems, prominent analysts state that the health system is "stuck" and that models for change remain "aspirational." We discuss four reasons for the failure of current ideas and models for redesigning health care: (1) the dominance of microeconomic thinking; (2) the lack of comparative studies of health care organizations and the limits of health management theory in recognizing the importance of local contexts; (3) the separation of HPAM from the rank and file of health care, particularly physicians; and (4) the failure to expose medical students to issues of HPAM. We conclude with suggestions for rethinking how the field of HPAM might generate more-promising policies for health care providers and managers by abandoning the illusion of context-free theories and, instead, seeking to facilitate the processes by which organizations can learn to improve their own performance. PMID:25037829

  5. Influence of the energy management on the sizing of Electrical Energy Storage Systems in an aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillers, Nathalie; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Bienaimé, Daniel; Grojo, Marie-Laure

    2014-12-01

    In an aircraft, Electrical Energy Storage Systems (EESS) are used as support to other sources in few mission phases in order to ensure the energy availability. They are also used as electrical smoothing devices in order to guarantee the required levels of reliability, stability and quality for an embedded electrical network. This paper deals with the association of two EESS: supercapacitors and secondary battery, which exhibit complementary properties. In this paper, a sizing method for both EESS is developed by taking into account their hybridization and their characteristics (such as capacity or depth-of-discharge) so as to minimize the global storage system weight. Moreover, an energy management based on a frequency approach is implemented to dispatch the power between all the sources. The influence of this management on the sizing is studied. Indeed the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter is used as a setting parameter of the sizing algorithm. Finally, the sizing validity is assessed and discussed according to temperature constraints. Although battery performances are reduced at low temperature, the sizing determined with the algorithm at 20 °C is still valid on all the temperature range thanks to an adaptation of the energy management parameter.

  6. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2015-06-01

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. PMID:26029899

  7. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  8. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  9. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  10. Science, science policy, and risk-based management

    SciTech Connect

    Midgley, L.P.

    1997-09-01

    Recent national awareness of the economic infeasibility of remediating hazardous waste sites to background levels has sparked increased interest in the role of science policy in the environmental risk assessment and risk management process. As individual states develop guidelines for addressing environmental risks at hazardous waste sites, the role of science policy decisions and uncertainty must be carefully evaluated to achieve long-term environmental goals and solutions that are economically feasible and optimally beneficial to all stakeholders. Amendment to Oregon Revised Statute 465.315 establishes policy and Utah Cleanup Action and Risk-Based Closure Standards sets requirements for risk-based cleanup and closure at sites where remediation or removal of hazardous constituents to background levels will not be achieved. This paper discusses the difficulties in effectively integrating potential current and future impacts on human health and the environment, technical feasibility, economic considerations, and political realities into environmental policy and standards, using these references as models. This paper considers the role of both objective and subjective criteria in the risk-based closure and management processes and makes suggestions for improving the system by which these sites may be reclaimed.

  11. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  12. Performance Evaluation of SARDA: An Individual Aircraft-Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa

    2015-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASAs Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas-Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45 in medium scenarios and 60 in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23 in medium traffic and 33 in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Individual Aircraft Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Jung, Yoon; Hong, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa

    2013-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASA's Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas/Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45% in medium scenarios and 60% in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23% in medium traffic and 33% in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.10 - What is the basic facility management policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the basic facility management policy? 102-74.10 Section 102-74.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-74.10 What is the basic facility management policy? Executive...

  15. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures... established in accordance with 23 CFR 630.1006, shall include the consideration and management of road...

  16. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures... established in accordance with 23 CFR 630.1006, shall include the consideration and management of road...

  17. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures... established in accordance with 23 CFR 630.1006, shall include the consideration and management of road...

  18. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures... established in accordance with 23 CFR 630.1006, shall include the consideration and management of road...

  19. 77 FR 64394 - Order of Succession for the Office of Field Policy and Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for the Office of Field Policy and Management AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the..., designates the Order of Succession for the Office of Field Policy and Management. This Order of...

  20. U.S. Jet Contrail Frequency Changes: Influences of Jet Aircraft Flight Activity, Atmospheric Conditions, and Resultant Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, D. J.; Carleton, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    the transition seasons with greatest overall coverage during the spring (April). The mean daily coverage of contrail outbreaks for the coterminous U.S. is 229,238.9 km2, which is roughly the size of the U.S. state of Montana. The mean areal size of contrail outbreaks is 316,811.8 km2, which is similar in size to that of typical Mesoscale Convective Complexes, areas regularly avoided by aircraft. To reduce potential climate impacts of contrails, aviation policy decision-makers should consider implementing similar guidance whereby pilots avoid contrail susceptible regions. Between 1977-79 and 2000-02, a U.S.-wide average CFI of just over 100% occurred, similar to the percentage increase in JFA, but there are strong spatial and seasonal asymmetries to the CFI not reflected in the JFA. The most (least) positive CFI are associated with a cooling (warming) of the tropopause. The spatial pattern of tropopause temperature change generally matches that which occurs when the Arctic Oscillation index switches from negative to positive, suggesting a hemispheric-scale teleconnection to CFI. The role of upper-tropospheric conditions, their potential future changes, and links to hemispheric-scale teleconnections, should be considered when projecting CFI and its possible climate impacts.

  1. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-11-15

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community.

  2. 78 FR 36412 - Notice of Policy Clarification for the Registration of Aircraft to U.S. Citizen Trustees in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... register aircraft in the United States (76 FR 23353, April 26, 2011). In the notice, the FAA set forth... Trustors and Beneficiaries in the Federal Register on February 9, 2012. (77 FR 6694). That notice contained... aircraft (77 FR 15180, March 14, 2012). The FAA also extended the deadline for written comments on...

  3. The Implementation of Policies Regulating Institutional Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Petra; Kirchner, Ingo; Hirt, Mirjam

    2013-04-01

    Data management in geosciences, especially at university and other research institutes commonly isn't very well coordinated. Due to changing staff and limited funding this topic has no priority in general. The process to implement policies regulating data management in an university institute is complex. First of all existing structures and workflows had to be reviewed. That means an inventory of different data sets, reviewing quality tests, but also data requirements of scientists as well as their willingness to follow rules simplifying their work. Awareness of complying with regulations is essential for the acceptance of policies. A leading team, formed by several scientists, will bring together different points of view to control the development of institutional policies. Determining the actual state of personal data management using a questionary was one of the activities in the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences). The intention of the project is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives and in using documented data from these archives. Project partners are Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Other activities were to discuss existing problems and approved solutions with many institutions and tried to find out, where are the gaps in already realized workflows and which structures could be an ideal model to be generalized. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. University lectures were started to teach future scientific generations from the beginning on how to deal with all sorts of different data in a transparent way. Their feedback will be used to improve data documentations and data curation, so that the re-use of archived research data will be encouraged. The whole process of different approaches in the project EWIG, funded

  4. Development and testing of advanced redundancy management methods for the F-8 DFBW aircraft. [failure detection for Digital Fly By Wire systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyst, J.; Deckert, J.; Desai, M.; Willsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable aircraft sensor failure detection and identification (FDI) technique is presented. The technique exploits the kinematic and dynamic relationships that exist between variables measured by dissimilar sensors to identify failures in the sensors. The method is applied to management of dual redundant sensors on the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) research aircraft.

  5. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  6. Water resources management. (Arabic version). World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    A new approach, recognizing that water is a scarce natural resource-subject to many interdependencies in conveyance and use-should be adopted by the World Bank and its member countries. Chapter 2 discusses the management problems that have beset the sector in many countries and how these are being aggravated by increasing demands for water and rising costs of new supplies. Chapter 3 outlines the strategy for improving the management of water resources. Chapter 4 spells out the role of the World Bank in helping countries implement better approaches to water resources management. Five appendixes discuss in detail market failures and public policy; lessons learned about the relation among water, people, and the environment; privatization and user participation; Bank guidelines related to water resources; and Bank experience with investments in water resources.

  7. Interaction of management, policy and the ecohydrology of dead trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.; Winkler, R.; Boon, S.; Stadt, J.

    2011-12-01

    Canadian provincial governments manage large areas of public land and resources within provincial jurisdictions. The Alberta and British Columbia governments have been dealing with extensive and rapid die-off of pine trees. To date it is predicted that 293 billion board feet of lodgepole pine has been killed, or enough wood to build 29.3 million houses, and 59% of the pine volume in British Columbia is predicted to die by 2016. This insect epidemic has large environmental, economic and social implications, which is causing management challenges that are stretching our scientific understanding of the ecology and hydrology processes to the limit. In an attempt to better understand the potential impacts of this epidemic, and possible management solutions, substantial funding was directed to relevant research projects. These funds enabled research projects (some ecohydrology projects) designed to understand the interaction of dying trees and ecological and hydrological processes. Ultimately the goal is to provide information to help make informed decisions about how these changes and management strategies may impact society's values. In this presentation, we step back from individual research projects and use multiple examples to summarize what we know now that we did not know at the start of the research direction. We explore implications for ecohydrology research as it relates to incorporating the knowledge into management strategies when faced with catastrophic forest (and other ecosystem) disturbances. We also present discussion on how ecohydrology as a science can inform management and policy strategies.

  8. Living with trees. Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.P.; McNamara, K.

    1993-09-01

    This technical paper provides a broad analysis of forestry policy in Zimbabwe. Some two dozen contributors look at forestry as a provider of livelihood, homes and workplaces, and industrial commodities. The first section of the paper concentrates on the social and macroeconomic goals of forestry in Zimbabwe and on its place in rural agriculture. Contributors examine the issues of land tenure and the culture of common property, the practice of woodland management, and control of and participation in management and policy development. The second section focuses on the status of the forest industry in Zimbabwe and on its capacity to manage and expand existing commercial plantations. The paper explores the main issues the sector faces, including growing concentration of ownership versus the government`s objective of wider participation in the industry. They discuss the effects of trade liberalization on its competitive position, both among other agricultural sectors within Zimbabwe and with competitors outside the country. Included is a color map of Zimbabwe`s woodlands. Many forestry programs worldwide face the issues discussed in this work. It will be of interest to planners, policymakers, teachers, and students of rural development and forestry.

  9. Comparison of Aircraft Models and Integration Schemes for Interval Management in the TRACON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha; Hagen, George E.; Herencia-Zapana, Heber

    2012-01-01

    Reusable models of common elements for communication, computation, decision and control in air traffic management are necessary in order to enable simulation, analysis and assurance of emergent properties, such as safety and stability, for a given operational concept. Uncertainties due to faults, such as dropped messages, along with non-linearities and sensor noise are an integral part of these models, and impact emergent system behavior. Flight control algorithms designed using a linearized version of the flight mechanics will exhibit error due to model uncertainty, and may not be stable outside a neighborhood of the given point of linearization. Moreover, the communication mechanism by which the sensed state of an aircraft is fed back to a flight control system (such as an ADS-B message) impacts the overall system behavior; both due to sensor noise as well as dropped messages (vacant samples). Additionally simulation of the flight controller system can exhibit further numerical instability, due to selection of the integration scheme and approximations made in the flight dynamics. We examine the theoretical and numerical stability of a speed controller under the Euler and Runge-Kutta schemes of integration, for the Maintain phase for a Mid-Term (2035-2045) Interval Management (IM) Operational Concept for descent and landing operations. We model uncertainties in communication due to missed ADS-B messages by vacant samples in the integration schemes, and compare the emergent behavior of the system, in terms of stability, via the boundedness of the final system state. Any bound on the errors incurred by these uncertainties will play an essential part in a composable assurance argument required for real-time, flight-deck guidance and control systems,. Thus, we believe that the creation of reusable models, which possess property guarantees, such as safety and stability, is an innovative and essential requirement to assessing the emergent properties of novel airspace

  10. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  11. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  12. A national model for participative management and policy development.

    PubMed

    Valentine, N M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the virtual application of an innovative administrative model that addresses national nursing policy issues in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Using a constituency center model of organization, nurse and interdisciplinary experts in the areas of clinical, education, administration, research and informatics are drawn from throughout the country to manage projects that meet the specifications of the national nursing service strategic plan. The impetus for the development of the model, examples products developed and areas of interest explored to date, and an evaluation of the first 18 months of experience are discussed. PMID:8945258

  13. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  14. 77 FR 64393 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Field Policy and Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Deputy Secretary for Field Policy and Management. Authority: Section 7(d), Department of Housing and... October 19, 2012 Part II Department of Housing and Urban Development Delegation of Authority for the Office of Field Policy and Management; Redelegation of Authority for the Office of Field Policy...

  15. 15 CFR 930.153 - Coordination between States in developing coastal management policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developing coastal management policies. 930.153 Section 930.153 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects §...

  16. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  17. Statistical Turbofan Architecture Management for Use in a Supercirculation Wing Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drãgan, Valeriu

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an attempt to determine weather the architecture difference between the two spool and three spool turbofan engines can have any significant effect uppon their use in super circulation wing (SCW) aircraft. Such aircraft have been experimented with since 1970's and have been revived because of growing interest in silent STOL aircraft. The approach used is statistical, i.e. actual data provided by engine manufacturers and regulating authorities such as ICAO and EASA was used to derive certain relevant parameters which were then analyzed and conclusions were formulated.

  18. Rationale and description of a coordinated cockpit display for aircraft flight management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design for aircraft cockpit display systems is discussed in detail. The system consists of a set of three beam penetration color cathode ray tubes (CRT). One of three orthogonal projects of the aircraft's state appears on each CRT which displays different views of the same information. The color feature is included to obtain visual separation of information elements. The colors of red, green and yellow are used to differentiate control, performance and navigation information. Displays are coordinated in information and color.

  19. Survey of EPA and Other Federal Agency Scientific Data Management Policies and Guidance, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to compile and assess internal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientific data management (SDM) policies and guidance. Additionally, this study examines SDM policies and guidance from other Federal Agencies engaged in science and technology, an...

  20. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public.

  1. Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Morgan L; Avenant, Nico L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding ecosystems within and around airports can help to determine the causes and possible mitigation measures for collisions between aircraft and wildlife. Small mammal communities are an important component of the semi-arid savanna ecosystems of Namibia, its productivity and its ecosystem integrity. They are also a major direct attractant for raptors at airports. The present study compared the abundance and diversity of small mammals between Namibia's 2 main airport properties (Hosea Kutako International Airport and Eros Airport), and among areas of land used for various purposes surrounding the airports. A total of 2150 small mammals (3 orders, 11 species) were captured over 4 trapping seasons. Small mammal abundance was significantly higher at the end of the growing season than during the non-growing season. The grass mowing regimen in current management plans at the airports resulted in a significant reduction of small mammal abundance at Hosea Kutako during the non-growing season only, thus indicating that annual mowing is effective but insufficient to reduce the overall abundance of mammal prey species for raptors. Small mammal numbers were significantly higher at Hosea Kutako Airport compared to the cattle and game farming land surrounding the airport, while no differences in small mammal densities or diversity were found for areas with different land uses at and surrounding Eros. The study suggests that the fence around Hosea Kutako provides a refuge for small mammals, resulting in higher densities. It also indicates that different surrounding land use practices result in altered ecosystem function and productivity, an important consideration when identifying wildlife attractants at airports. PMID:26331534

  2. Policy based network management : state of the industry and desired functionality for the enterprise network: security policy / testing technology evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christine A.; Ernest, Martha J.; Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Klaus, Edward J.; MacAlpine, Timothy L.; Rios, Michael A.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    Policy-based network management (PBNM) uses policy-driven automation to manage complex enterprise and service provider networks. Such management is strongly supported by industry standards, state of the art technologies and vendor product offerings. We present a case for the use of PBNM and related technologies for end-to-end service delivery. We provide a definition of PBNM terms, a discussion of how such management should function and the current state of the industry. We include recommendations for continued work that would allow for PBNM to be put in place over the next five years in the unclassified environment.

  3. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  4. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  5. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  6. European experience in chemicals management: integrating science into policy.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Frans M; Eisenreich, Steven J; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Sintes, Juan Riego; Sokull-Kluettgen, Birgit; Van de Plassche, Erik J

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the first legislation on chemicals management in 1967 with the Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD). Over time the underlying concepts evolved: from hazard identification over risk assessment to safety assessment. In 1981 a premarketing notification scheme was introduced. Approximately 10 years later a risk assessment program started for existing substances following a data collection and prioritization exercise. Integration of science into EU chemicals legislation occurred via several technical committees managed by the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) and resulted in the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment (TGD), which harmonized the risk assessment methodology. The TGD was revised several times to adapt to scientific developments. The revision process, and the risk assessments for new and existing substances, led to scientific research on chemical risk assessment and thus increased in complexity. The new EU chemicals policy REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) builds on previous experiences and aims to further enhance health and safety. REACH places the burden of proof for chemical safety on industry focusing on managing risks. REACH formalizes the precautionary principle. Furthermore, it underlines a continued scientific underpinning in its implementation, also via stakeholder involvement, and a focus on aligning with international fora. PMID:20958022

  7. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications. PMID:23113627

  8. 77 FR 6694 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification for the Registration of Aircraft to U.S. Citizen Trustees...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... aircraft in the United States. See 76 FR 23353 (April 26, 2011). In the notice, the FAA set forth several... trustee applicant is making a bona fide effort to comply with existing legal requirements imposed on all... Working Group) that represents a wide range of aviation industry participants on aviation regulatory...

  9. [Policy, planning and health management: the current understanding].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2006-08-01

    This work provides a literature review of Policy, Planning and Health Management between 1974 and 2005. Information is presented from previous research and publications, incorporating the production contained within the LILACS database from the last five years. The emergence of studies in these sub-themes is described in an attempt to associate them with political circumstances, with particular emphasis on: the Sanitary Reform Process, the construction of the National Health System and the reorientation of health practices. The particularities of the production in this field are discussed and the need for historical and epistemological work in Brazil is emphasized. The practical challenges impose techno-scientific expertise and, primarily, socio-political militancy on individual and collective subjects. PMID:16924306

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.10 - What is the basic facility management policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the basic facility management policy? 102-74.10 Section 102-74.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY...

  11. Analysis of Complexity Evolution Management and Human Performance Issues in Commercial Aircraft Automation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakil, Sanjay S.; Hansman, R. John

    2000-01-01

    Autoflight systems in the current generation of aircraft have been implicated in several recent incidents and accidents. A contributory aspect to these incidents may be the manner in which aircraft transition between differing behaviours or 'modes.' The current state of aircraft automation was investigated and the incremental development of the autoflight system was tracked through a set of aircraft to gain insight into how these systems developed. This process appears to have resulted in a system without a consistent global representation. In order to evaluate and examine autoflight systems, a 'Hybrid Automation Representation' (HAR) was developed. This representation was used to examine several specific problems known to exist in aircraft systems. Cyclomatic complexity is an analysis tool from computer science which counts the number of linearly independent paths through a program graph. This approach was extended to examine autoflight mode transitions modelled with the HAR. A survey was conducted of pilots to identify those autoflight mode transitions which airline pilots find difficult. The transitions identified in this survey were analyzed using cyclomatic complexity to gain insight into the apparent complexity of the autoflight system from the perspective of the pilot. Mode transitions which had been identified as complex by pilots were found to have a high cyclomatic complexity. Further examination was made into a set of specific problems identified in aircraft: the lack of a consistent representation of automation, concern regarding appropriate feedback from the automation, and the implications of physical limitations on the autoflight systems. Mode transitions involved in changing to and leveling at a new altitude were identified across multiple aircraft by numerous pilots. Where possible, evaluation and verification of the behaviour of these autoflight mode transitions was investigated via aircraft-specific high fidelity simulators. Three solution

  12. DE-FG02-04ER25606 Identity Federation and Policy Management Guide: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty, A

    2011-05-25

    The goal of this 3-year project was to facilitate a more productive dynamic matching between resource providers and resource consumers in Grid environments by explicitly specifying policies. There were broadly two problems being addressed by this project. First, there was a lack of an Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)-compliant mechanism for expressing, storing and retrieving user policies and Virtual Organization (VO) policies. Second, there was a lack of tools to resolve and enforce policies in the Open Services Grid Architecture. To address these problems, our overall approach in this project was to make all policies explicit (e.g., virtual organization policies, resource provider policies, resource consumer policies), thereby facilitating policy matching and policy negotiation. Policies defined on a per-user basis were created, held, and updated in MyPolMan, thereby providing a Grid user to centralize (where appropriate) and manage his/her policies. Organizationally, the corresponding service was VOPolMan, in which the policies of the Virtual Organization are expressed, managed, and dynamically consulted. Overall, we successfully defined, prototyped, and evaluated policy-based resource management and access control for OGSA-based Grids. This DOE project partially supported 17 peer-reviewed publications on a number of different topics: General security for Grids, credential management, Web services/OGSA/OGSI, policy-based grid authorization (for remote execution and for access to information), policy-directed Grid data movement/placement, policies for large-scale virtual organizations, and large-scale policy-aware grid architectures. In addition to supporting the PI, this project partially supported the training of 5 PhD students.

  13. Scheduling and Delivering Aircraft to Departure Fixes in the NY Metroplex with Controller-Managed Spacing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalley, Eric; Parke, Bonny; Kraut, Josh M.; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Palmer, Everett A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, successful Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) scheduling systems for arrivals are considered and adapted to apply to departures. We present a concept of operations that integrates Controller-Managed Spacing tools for departures (CMS-D) with existing tactical departure scheduling tools to coordinate demand at departure fixes in a metroplex environment. We tested our concept in a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and compared the effect of two scheduling conditions: 1) "Departure Scheduling" consisting of an emulation of the Integrated Departure and Arrival Capability (IDAC) where Towers and a Planner (Traffic Management Coordinator at the appropriate facility) coordinate aircraft scheduled takeoff times to departure fixes; and 2) "Arrival Sensitive Departure Scheduling" where, in addition, the Tower and Planner also consider arrival Scheduled Time of Arrivals (STAs) at the airport's dependent runway. Results indicate little difference between the two scheduling conditions, but a large difference between the No Tools and the two scheduling conditions with CMS-D tools. The scheduling/CMS-D tools conditions markedly reduced heading, speed clearances, and workload for controllers who were merging flows at the departure fixes. In the tool conditions, departure controllers conditioned departures earlier rather than later when aircraft were tied near the departure fixes. In the scheduling/CMS-D tools conditions, departures crossed the departure fixes 50 seconds earlier and with an 8% error rate (consisting of time ahead or behind desired time of arrival) compared to a 19% error rate in the No Tool condition. Two exploratory runs showed that similar beneficial effects can be obtained only with the CMS-D tools without scheduling takeoff times, but at the cost of a somewhat higher workload for controllers, indicating the benefits of pre-departure scheduling of aircraft with minimal delays. Hence, we found that CMS-D tools were very beneficial in the metroplex

  14. Many-objective reservoir policy identification and refinement to reduce policy inertia and myopia in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P.

    2014-04-01

    This study contributes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key trade-offs between alternative policies for balancing competing demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. We have identified a baseline operating policy for the Conowingo Dam that closely reproduces the dynamics of current releases and flows for the Lower Susquehanna and thus can be used to represent the preferences structure guiding current operations. Starting from this baseline policy, our proposed decision analytic framework then combines evolutionary many-objective optimization with visual analytics to discover new operating policies that better balance the trade-offs within the Lower Susquehanna. Our results confirm that the baseline operating policy, which only considers deterministic historical inflows, significantly overestimates the system's reliability in meeting the reservoir's competing demands. Our proposed framework removes this bias by successfully identifying alternative reservoir policies that are more robust to hydroclimatic uncertainties while also better addressing the trade-offs across the Conowingo Dam's multisector services.

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.125 - If we use Federal aircraft, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting for aircraft parts; (e) Reporting inventory, cost, and utilization data (for reporting... and FMR subchapter B (41 CFR chapter 102, subchapter B). ... Standards, as defined in §§ 102-33.140 through 102-33.185; (b) Accounting for the cost of...

  16. Best Fiscal Management for Rural Schools. Rural Trust Policy Brief Series on Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Malhoit, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This policy brief is intended to highlight some of the leading policy issues faced by states, local school districts, policymakers, education leaders, and concerned citizens. State and local policies vary appreciably, a definitive statement on how school finances can and should be managed in every setting is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather,…

  17. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  18. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... in charge of the navigational watch concerning the need for continuously reassessing how...

  19. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... in charge of the navigational watch concerning the need for continuously reassessing how...

  20. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... in charge of the navigational watch concerning the need for continuously reassessing how...

  1. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... in charge of the navigational watch concerning the need for continuously reassessing how...

  2. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... in charge of the navigational watch concerning the need for continuously reassessing how...

  3. Perceptions and Implications of No-Fee School Policy: School-Based Management Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naong, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inception of no-fee schools and a school-fee exemption policy has become a contentious issue but also an exciting one for school managers in South Africa. Managers opposed to the policy have cited amongst others things, academic standards dropping, as well as parents who can afford to pay jumping on the bandwagon and refusing to pay. While the…

  4. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  5. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  6. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  7. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  8. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  9. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  10. Role of hydrology and economics in water management policy under increasing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, A.; Adamson, D.; Mallawaarachchi, T.

    2014-10-01

    Well-designed public policy stimulates social progress. However, when governments translate political vision into programmes for social change, the complexity of issues can overwhelm the policy-making process, creating disappointment and suboptimal outcomes. In this paper we examine why evidence-based policy-making approaches often fail to provide policy-makers with credible, consistent and clear outcomes matching broad social interest. The need for public policy primarily arises from a lack of perfect knowledge, which causes individuals and agencies to behave in ways that counter social interest. We therefore suggest that effective public policy formulation involves: determining what evidence is available, relevant and useful; as well as identifying critical gaps to making public policy necessary and meaningful. Murray-Darling Basin case examples highlight key stages in effective natural resource policy formulation, and sources of difficulties that need to be managed to maximize scientific contributions. These examples show that effective public policy decisions can still be made and information asymmetry managed via strong evidence, expert analysis to verify that evidence, and an understanding of knowledge gaps such that critical interventions can be agreed upon and objectives achieved in view of how they will be managed and resourced. Finally, we draw attention to the opportunities available and challenges that exist for hydrologists, economists and other social scientists to work together in assisting the policy process, and in particular to minimize the burden of information constraints in making effective water resource policy.

  11. MANAGEMENT POLICY FOR THE ASSURANCE OF RESEARCH QUALITY, HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY, RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document presents policies, goals, and an organizational structure for the implementation of a management policy for the Quality Assurance program in the Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Directed toward functional managers, a system ...

  12. 41 CFR 301-70.801 - When may we authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may we authorize travel on Government aircraft? 301-70.801 Section 301-70.801 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE...

  14. 41 CFR 301-70.803 - How must we authorize travel on a Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must we authorize travel on a Government aircraft? 301-70.803 Section 301-70.803 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE...

  15. 41 CFR 301-70.800 - Whom may we authorize to travel on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Whom may we authorize to travel on Government aircraft? 301-70.800 Section 301-70.800 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE...

  16. 41 CFR 301-70.806 - What documentation must we retain for travel on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What documentation must we retain for travel on Government aircraft? 301-70.806 Section 301-70.806 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND...

  17. Managing oil disruptions: issues and policy options. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Webre, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) prepared the analysis of policy options to help Congress decide whether to extend or expand the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, or whether to let it lapse on September 30, 1981. The central theme is that large disruptions of imported oil can deal the economy a severe blow that reduces output and increases unemployment and inflation. Alternative policies might allow this blow to be offset in different ways, but they cannot eliminate an impact. Some policies better contain the inflationary effects of a disruption, but are less effective in mitigating losses in aggregate production and higher unemployment. For others, the converse is true. Further, the appropriateness of each policy varies with the size and anticipated duration of the import disruption. Congress may wish to consider a portfolio of standby policies as well as the selection of just one. Two appendices offer further policy analyses. 10 references, 3 tables.

  18. Dynamic policy enforcement in JBI information management services with the KAoS Policy and Domain Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Justin; Madden, Jacob; Roberts, Alden; Greenberg, Matthew; Bradshaw, Jeffrey; Uszok, Andrzej

    2007-04-01

    English-language policies about the desired behavior of computer systems often suffer from translation errors when implemented with a proliferation of low-level rules governing access control, resource allocation and configuration. To solve this, Dynamic Policy Enforcement systems replace these low-level rules with a relatively small number of semantically grounded, machine-understandable policy statements. These statements use domain terms defined in an ontology that are formally defined so that they can be enforced by the system but also meaningful to human administrators to ensure that they accurately represent organizational policies. In this paper, we describe the application of one such Dynamic Policy Enforcement system, KAoS, to the control of distributed, information-management services defined by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) program. Our research allows administrators to define the desired behavior of the participants in the system, both human and software, with one collection of well defined policies. As a result, a single set of tools for the definition, analysis, control, and monitoring of policy can be used to implement access control, service configuration, and service delivery prioritization.

  19. Optimal management of a stochastically varying population when policy adjustment is costly.

    PubMed

    Boettiger, Carl; Bode, Michael; Sanchirico, James N; Lariviere, Jacob; Hastings, Alan; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological systems are dynamic and policies to manage them need to respond to that variation. However, policy adjustments will sometimes be costly, which means that fine-tuning a policy to track variability in the environment very tightly will only sometimes be worthwhile. We use a classic fisheries management problem, how to manage a stochastically varying population using annually varying quotas in order to maximize profit, to examine how costs of policy adjustment change optimal management recommendations. Costs of policy adjustment (changes in fishing quotas through time) could take different forms. For example, these costs may respond to the size of the change being implemented, or there could be a fixed cost any time a quota change is made. We show how different forms of policy costs have contrasting implications for optimal policies. Though it is frequently assumed that costs to adjusting policies will dampen variation in the policy, we show that certain cost structures can actually increase variation through time. We further show that failing to account for adjustment costs has a consistently worse economic impact than would assuming these costs are present when they are not. PMID:27411252

  20. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    -closure monitoring program implementation and financing. Apart from the Mining Law, the Government Decision, which transposes EU Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries, as well as Government Emergency Ordinance, which implements the requirements of EU Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability, requests financial guarantees for waste facilities maintenance and for environment restoration in the case of pollution, respectively. In practice, there are problems in the calculation of the financial guarantee and the development of financial security instruments and markets as required by Directive, due to the lack of expertise in financial, economic and liability matters. Mining companies are usually not required to set up a special guarantee for the waste facilities, but only to set up and maintain the financial guarantee regulated under the Mining Law. Romania - because of the structure of its mining sector - has serious environmental legacies, a lack of funds for their restoration and the need to strengthen the administrative capacity in this area, as well as the important tasks on harmonization and/or implementation of the EU mining waste legislation. This work is presented within the framework of SUSMIN project. Key words : sustainable development, waste management, policy

  1. Energy management of three-dimensional minimum-time intercept. [for aircraft flight optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Visser, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time computer algorithm to control and optimize aircraft flight profiles is described and applied to a three-dimensional minimum-time intercept mission. The proposed scheme has roots in two well known techniques: singular perturbations and neighboring-optimal guidance. Use of singular-perturbation ideas is made in terms of the assumed trajectory-family structure. A heading/energy family of prestored point-mass-model state-Euler solutions is used as the baseline in this scheme. The next step is to generate a near-optimal guidance law that will transfer the aircraft to the vicinity of this reference family. The control commands fed to the autopilot (bank angle and load factor) consist of the reference controls plus correction terms which are linear combinations of the altitude and path-angle deviations from reference values, weighted by a set of precalculated gains. In this respect the proposed scheme resembles neighboring-optimal guidance. However, in contrast to the neighboring-optimal guidance scheme, the reference control and state variables as well as the feedback gains are stored as functions of energy and heading in the present approach. Some numerical results comparing open-loop optimal and approximate feedback solutions are presented.

  2. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Soccer; (7) Major League Baseball All-Star Game; (8) World Series; (9) Kodak Albuquerque International... mixed high and low performance aircraft. (10) Impact on non-participating aircraft. (11)...

  3. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Soccer; (7) Major League Baseball All-Star Game; (8) World Series; (9) Kodak Albuquerque International... mixed high and low performance aircraft. (10) Impact on non-participating aircraft. (11)...

  4. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Soccer; (7) Major League Baseball All-Star Game; (8) World Series; (9) Kodak Albuquerque International... mixed high and low performance aircraft. (10) Impact on non-participating aircraft. (11)...

  5. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Soccer; (7) Major League Baseball All-Star Game; (8) World Series; (9) Kodak Albuquerque International... mixed high and low performance aircraft. (10) Impact on non-participating aircraft. (11)...

  6. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Soccer; (7) Major League Baseball All-Star Game; (8) World Series; (9) Kodak Albuquerque International... mixed high and low performance aircraft. (10) Impact on non-participating aircraft. (11)...

  7. The Impact of Collective Bargaining on School Management and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    One-year study of policy effects of collective bargaining in eight Illinois and California school districts found both sides' emotional commitment to bargaining positions, conflict over security and autonomy, and bargaining styles generated policy changes. Available from American Journal of Education, University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis…

  8. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10{sup 128} combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz

  9. Co-operation processes in dynamic environment management: evolution through training experienced pilots in flying a highly automated aircraft.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, J

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic environment management (process control, aircraft piloting, etc.) increasingly implies collective work components. Pragmatic purposes as well as epistemological interests raise important questions on collective activities at work. In particular, linked to the technological evolution in flight management, the role of the 'collective fact' appears as a key point in reliability. Beyond the development of individual competencies, the quality of the 'distributed' crew activity has to be questioned. This paper presents an empirical study about how experienced pilots co-ordinate their information and actions during the last period of training on a highly automated cockpit. A task of disturbance management (engine fire during takeoff) is chosen as amplifying cognitive requirements. Analysis focuses on the transitions between the main task and the incident to be managed. Crew performance and co-operation between two pilots are compared in three occurrences of the same task: the results are coherent with the hypothesis of a parallel evolution of the crew performance and its internal co-operation, and show that prescribed explicit co-operation is more present on action than on information about the 'state of the world'. Methodological issues are discussed about the possible effects of the specific situation of training, and about the psychological meaning of the results. PMID:11540153

  10. 24 CFR 990.310 - Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management Systems, Monitoring, and Reporting § 990.310 Purpose—General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting. All PHA financial management systems, reporting, and monitoring of program performance and financial reporting shall be in compliance with the requirements of 24 CFR 85.20, 85.40,...

  11. 77 FR 40310 - Proposed Policy Clarification for the Registration of Aircraft to U.S. Citizen Trustees in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration is correcting a document published on June 26, 2012 (77 FR 38016). That..., Federal Aviation Administration. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Corrections In FR Doc. 2012-15339 published on... Register on February 9, 2012 (77 FR 6694), proposing to clarify its policy regarding the registration...

  12. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  13. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  14. Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Technology for Flight Test on the C-17 T-1 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Venti, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The C-I 7 T-l Globemaster III is an Air Force flight research vehicle located at Edwards Air Force Base. NASA Dryden and the C-17 System Program Office have entered into a Memorandum of Agreement to permit NASA the use of the C-I 7 T-I to conduct flight research on a mutually coordinated schedule. The C-17 Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Working Group was formed in order to foster discussion and coordinate planning amongst the various government agencies conducting PCHM research with a potential need for flight testing, and to communicate to the PCHM community the capabilities of the C-17 T-l aircraft to support such flight testing. This paper documents the output of this Working Group, including a summary of the candidate PCHM technologies identified and their associated benefits relative to NASA goals and objectives.

  15. Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided

  16. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  17. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. 630.1106 Section 630.1106 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Temporary Traffic Control Devices § 630.1106 Policy and procedures for work zone...

  18. The Policy-Science Interface for Land Management in a Changing Climate -- Closing the Gap Between Scientists, Natural Resource Managers and Policy Makers. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Laursen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and related perturbations present significant challenges and opportunities for effective communications among natural resource managers, scientists and policy makers. Communication is important because of the potential dire and sometimes irreversible impacts of climate change, but challenges abound because of the lack of perceived immediacy and direct impact upon the public and land managers. The USGS national network of eight Climate Science Centers endeavors to increase communications among scientists, managers and policy makers through processes of consultation during the establishment of a science agenda and science prioritization based on inputs from a broad array of stakeholders. A Climate Science Boot Camp also fosters open dialogue and working relationships between early career climate scientists and an array of practicing natural resource managers. Professor of Natural Resources, former Dean of NR and University President Interim, PI Northwest Climate Science Center, Director Northwest Knowledge Network, Federal Relations Officer

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.230 - May we use military FSCAP on non-military FAA-type certificated Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Managing Aircraft Parts § 102-33.230 May we use military FSCAP on non-military...

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.230 - May we use military FSCAP on non-military FAA-type certificated Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Managing Aircraft Parts § 102-33.230 May we use military FSCAP on non-military...

  1. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainability in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Ha, W.; Almas, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource. Currently, approximately ten alternative water management policies are being debated by policy makers in the Central and Southern High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer region. Before implementing any new policy or modifying current policies, newer alternative policies should be evaluated for their impact on groundwater levels with eventual extension to regional economic impacts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate four water management policies, from the debated ones, on future groundwater levels in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath four heavily irrigated counties (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore) located in the northwest corner of the Texas High Plains using a calibrated ModFlow model. The four water management policies were (1) voluntary permanent conversion to dry land production up to 10% of the total irrigated area, (2) adoption of advances in biotechnology that allow water use reductions at a rate of 1% per year up to 10% of current use, (3) mandatory water use reduction to decrease the total water pumped by 10% (volume per unit land area per year), and (4) voluntary temporary conversion to dry land production during 15 years for a maximum area of 10% of the total irrigated area. The water management policies were converted into water demand rates for ModFlow model inputs. Simulations were conducted for a 50-year (2010-2060) period. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of more than one policy will be required to produce a significant reduction in the current groundwater depletion rates.

  2. Scheduling-capable autonomic manager for policy-based IT change management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelSalam, Hady S.; Maly, Kurt; Mukkamala, Ravi; Zubair, Mohammad; Kaminsky, David

    2010-11-01

    Managing large IT environments is expensive and labour intensive. Maintaining and upgrading with minimal disruption and administrative support has always been a challenging task for system administrators. One challenge faced by IT administrators is arriving at schedules for applying one or more change requests to one of the system components. Most of the time, the impact analysis of the proposed changes is done by humans and is often laborious and error-prone. Although this methodology might be suitable to handle changes that are planned way ahead in time, it is completely inappropriate for changes that need to be done sooner. In addition, such manual handling does not scale well with the size of the IT infrastructure. In this article, the focus is on the problem of scheduling change requests in the presence of organisational policies governing the use of its resources. The authors propose two approaches for change management scheduling and present the implementation details of two prototypes that prove the feasibility of the proposed approaches. Their implementation is integrated with an autonomic manager which they had described in their earlier work.

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-80.10 What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? The basic safety...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-80.10 What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? The basic safety...

  5. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

  6. Science, policy and the management of sewage materials. The New York City experience.

    PubMed

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Bortman, Marci L; O'Connor, Thomas P; Stanford, Harold M

    2004-11-01

    Development of national policy on sewage sludge management is a classic example of incremental policy formulation [Fiorino, D.J. 1995. Making Environmental Policy. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. p. 269]. Consequently, policy has developed piecemeal, and results are, in some ways, different than intended. Land application of sewage sludge has not been a panacea. Many of the same types of policy are now being raised about it. We demonstrate this by examining the management of sewage materials by New York City from near the turn of the 20th century, when ocean dumping was viewed as a means to alleviate some of the gross pollution in New York Harbor, to when ocean dumping was banned, and thence to the present when sludge is applied to land as "biosolids." Lessons learned during this long, sometimes contentious history can be applied to present situations--specifically not understanding the long-term consequences of land-based reuse and disposal technologies. PMID:15530510

  7. Models of science-policy interaction: exploring approaches to Bisphenol A management in the EU.

    PubMed

    Udovyk, O

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated science-policy interaction models and their limitations under conditions of uncertainty. In detail, it looked at the management of the suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). Despite growing evidence that BPA is hazardous to human and environmental health, the level of scientific uncertainty is still high and, as a result, there is significant disagreement on the actual extent and type of risk. Analysis of decision-making processes at different regulatory levels (EU, Sweden, and the Swedish municipality of Gothenburg) exposed chemicals risk management and associated science-policy interaction under uncertainty. The results of the study show that chemicals management and associated science-policy interaction follow the modern model of science-policy interaction, where science is assumed to 'speak truth to policy' and highlights existing limitations of this model under conditions of uncertainty. The study not only explores alternative models (precautionary, consensus, science-policy demarcation. and extended participation) but also shows their limitations. The study concludes that all models come with their particular underlying assumptions, strengths, and limitations. At the same time, by exposing serious limitations of the modern model, the study calls for a rethinking of the relationship between science, policy, and management. PMID:24704953

  8. Insect detection and nitrogen management for irrigated potatoes using remote sensing from small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Rondon, Silvia I.; Hamm, Philip B.; Turner, Robert W.; Bruce, Alan E.; Brungardt, Josh J.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing with small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has potential applications in agriculture because low flight altitudes allow image acquisition at very high spatial resolution. We set up experiments at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center with different platforms and sensors to assess advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for precision farming. In 2013, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of N fertilizer, and followed the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over time. In late June, there were no differences in chlorophyll content or leaf area index (LAI) among the 3 higher application rates. Consistent with the field data, only plots with the lowest rate of applied N were distinguished by low NDVI. In early August, N deficiency was determined by NDVI, but it was too late to mitigate losses in potato yield and quality. Populations of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) may rapidly increase, devouring the shoots, thus early detection and treatment could prevent yield losses. In 2014, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of CPB infestation. Over one day, damage from CPB in some plots increased from 0 to 19%. A visual ranking of damage was not correlated with the total number of CPB or treatment. Plot-scale vegetation indices were not correlated with damage, although the damaged area determined by object-based feature extraction was highly correlated. Methods based on object-based image analysis of sUAS data have potential for early detection and reduced cost.

  9. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  11. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  12. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on...

  13. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  14. Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahid, Md. Abu

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

  15. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities. PMID:23113418

  16. 76 FR 75860 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... policy was issued on June 3, 2011, (76 FR 32135-32141) in the Federal Register for a 60-day public... direction is necessary, however, as described in the June 3, 2011, Federal Register Notice (76 FR 32135... on the National Forest System and associated resources. Agency procedure at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73...

  17. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  18. Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

  19. Sport Governance and Policy Development: An Ethical Approach to Managing Sport in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    "Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…

  20. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  1. 77 FR 427 - EPAAR Clause for Compliance With EPA Policies for Information Resources Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Management AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA will amend the EPA Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) to revise the content of a clause that addresses compliance policies for information resources management in contracts. This revision incorporates to the EPAAR, administrative...

  2. 50 CFR 648.21 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council risk policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council risk policy. 648.21 Section 648.21 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  3. Management and policy implications of cross-and within-site, long-term studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter explains the implications long-term data bring to natural resource management and policy-making. It first explains the two perspectives of long-term data, then explains the values brought by the two perspectives to natural resource management. The two perspectives are retrospective an...

  4. 77 FR 64394 - Redelegation of Authority for Office of Field Policy and Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ...Through this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary for Field Policy and Management redelegates certain operational management authority to the HUD Regional Administrators located in Region I (Boston, MA); Region II (New York, NY); Region III (Philadelphia, PA); Region IV (Atlanta, GA); Region V (Chicago, IL), Region VI (Fort Worth, TX), Region VII (Kansas City, KS); Region VIII (Denver, CO);......

  5. The Medicaid managed care policy consensus for welfare recipients: a reflection of traditional welfare concerns.

    PubMed

    Grogan, C M

    1997-06-01

    An Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)-Medicaid managed care policy consensus has emerged in the American states. Although there are two main organizational forms--primary care case management and risk-based capitation models--states are converging on the risk-based approach for their AFDC recipients. Risk-based Medicaid managed care for AFDC recipients assumes a distinct purpose and meaning. The reform is not just about cost control and improving access but about enduring welfare concerns: deservingness, need, and empowerment. Despite recent federal policies that have essentially severed the eligibility link between AFDC and Medicaid, state policy elites still conceive of poor families on Medicaid as a "welfare" group. Assumptions about the need for behavior modification and the need to integrate this group into "mainstream" America shape perceptions about why Medicaid managed care is appropriate for AFDC-Medicaid recipients. PMID:9185019

  6. 41 CFR 301-70.904 - Must travelers whom we carry on Government aircraft be authorized to travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must travelers whom we carry on Government aircraft be authorized to travel? 301-70.904 Section 301-70.904 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY...

  7. 41 CFR 301-70.905 - What documentation must we retain for travel on our Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What documentation must we retain for travel on our Government aircraft? 301-70.905 Section 301-70.905 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND...

  8. Boutique to Booming: Medicare Managed Care and the Private Path to Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollment surpassed 30 percent of eligible beneficiaries. Twenty-five years earlier, enrollment hovered at just 3 percent. The expansion of private Medicare plans presents a puzzling instance of policy change within Medicare-a program long held to be a quintessential case of policy stasis. This article investigates the policy features that made Medicare susceptible to this dramatic policy shift, as well as the processes by which the initial policy change remade the politics of Medicare and solidified the MA program. The first enrollment surge occurred in the absence of a proximate legislative or administrative change. Instead, increased spending and expanded benefits were the result of the interaction of new market dynamics with an existing legislative framework-demonstrating an expansionary form of policy drift. The 1982 Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act created a policy space that gave the new and lightly controlled managed care industry considerable operational discretion. As the interests of the government's private partners changed in response to new market dynamics, a change occurred in the output and performance of the Medicare managed care program. As enrollment and spending increased, Medicare's politics were remade by the political empowerment of the managed care industry and the creation of a new subconstituency of beneficiaries. PMID:26921379

  9. A Policy Change Strategy for Head Lice Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Kathleen; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to formulate an effective change strategy for head lice management in a group of five separate school districts within one county. Despite a desire to use evidence to support their practice, school nurses often encounter educational system barriers that prevent independent management of health conditions. The use of…

  10. Spectrum management policy in the United States, an historical account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. O.

    1985-04-01

    The report recounts the early history of spectrum management by federal regulation culminating in the Radio Act of 1927 which, with little change, became Title III of the Communications Act of 1934. Using the land mobile radio services as a case study, the results of spectrum management by regulation are reviewed. It was found that long delay in arriving at management decisions, especially in the matter of spectrum allocation, has been a prominent feature of regulation. This delay has been due primarily to the inability of the regulatory process to acquire the necessary information on which to base decisions with the public interest as the sole criterion. This delay has resulted in social costs in the form of foregone spectrum use. The report concludes that the deficiencies cited are inherent in regulated spectrum management and that they will persist unless market forces are permitted significantly to influence spectrum management decisions.

  11. Science Communication: Recognizing the Obligation to Effectively Inform Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Society, managers and policy makers are increasingly calling upon the role of science to inform the development of sound and effective policy decisions. This growing recognition of the potential contributions of science is reflected in the recent frequency in which "science- based" decision making is required by policy recommendations and legislative acts. This endorsement of science-based decision making is motivated both by the ability of scientific information to guide relevant decisions, and by the perception of science as an objective mediator of contentious decisions in a political process. Only by active participation of scientists that are both objective and truly knowledgeable in the relevant science can science inform management and policy decisions effectively. Only by participation and effective communication of multiple scientific perspectives can science inform policy objectively. For society and policy makers to maintain and increase how much they value science in policy making, it is essential that scientists recognize the necessity, the obligation, to develop skills to effectively communicate scientific information to non-scientific audiences. I draw from recent personal experiences on the science advisory team to California's Marine Life Protection Act to provide examples of both the difficulty and necessity in participating and communicating effectively in policy making processes.

  12. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  13. Policy challenges facing integrated community case management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Sara; George, Asha; Rodriguez, Daniela; Shearer, Jessica; Diallo, Brahima; Konate, Mamadou; Dalglish, Sarah; Juma, Pamela; Namakhoma, Ireen; Banda, Hastings; Chilundo, Baltazar; Mariano, Alda; Cliff, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report an in-depth analysis of policy change for integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) in six sub-Saharan African countries. We analysed how iCCM policies developed and the barriers and facilitators to policy change. Methods Qualitative retrospective case studies drawing from document reviews, semi-structured interviews and in-country validation workshops were conducted in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique and Niger. These countries were selected to maximise variation in iCCM policy status, community health worker (CHW) models and different African regions. Results Country iCCM policies evolved in an ad hoc fashion, but were substantially influenced by the history of primary health care and the nature of CHW programmes. Technical officers within Ministries of Health led iCCM policy change with support from international donors, but neither communities nor political leadership was mobilised. Concerns about achieving the Millennium Development Goals, together with recognition of the shortcomings of existing child health programmes, led to the adoption of iCCM policies. Availability of external financing played a critical role in facilitating policy change. Conclusions iCCM policy change has been promoted by international agencies, but national governments have struggled to align iCCM with country health systems. Greater investment is needed in tailoring global policy initiatives to match country needs. High-level, political ownership of iCCM policies could facilitate policy change, as could clearer strategies for ensuring the long-term sustainability of such policies. PMID:24750516

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.45 - What is a Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aircraft? 102-33.45 Section 102-33.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.45 What is a Government aircraft? A Government aircraft is one that is operated for the exclusive use of an executive agency and...

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.45 - What is a Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aircraft? 102-33.45 Section 102-33.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.45 What is a Government aircraft? A Government aircraft is one that is operated for the exclusive use of an executive agency and...

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.45 - What is a Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft? 102-33.45 Section 102-33.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.45 What is a Government aircraft? A Government aircraft is one that is operated for the exclusive use of an executive agency and...

  17. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole. PMID:17851211

  18. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  19. 24 CFR 964.15 - HUD policy on resident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation. Potential benefits of resident-managed entities include improved quality of life, experiencing the dignity of meaningful work, enabling residents to choose where they want to live, and...

  20. 24 CFR 964.15 - HUD policy on resident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... corporation. Potential benefits of resident-managed entities include improved quality of life, experiencing the dignity of meaningful work, enabling residents to choose where they want to live, and...

  1. Many-objective reservoir policy identification and refinement to reduce institutional myopia in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Herman, Jonathan D.; Castelletti, Andrea; Reed, Patrick M.

    2014-05-01

    Current water reservoir operating policies are facing growing water demands as well as increasing uncertainties associated with a changing climate. However, policy inertia and myopia strongly limit the possibility of adapting current water reservoir operations to the undergoing change. Historical agreements and regulatory constraints limit the rate that reservoir operations are innovated and creates policy inertia, where water institutions are unlikely to change their current practices in absence of dramatic failures. Yet, no guarantee exists that historical management policies will not fail in coming years. In reference to policy myopia, although it has long been recognized that water reservoir systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, the broader understanding of the multi-objective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome both policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. The proposed framework initially uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the current but unknown operating policy of Conowingo Dam. The quality of the identified baseline

  2. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  3. Role of Science, Policy, and Society in Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Richard M. T.

    2009-03-01

    Planning for an Uncertain Future: Monitoring, Integration, and Adaptation; Estes Park, Colorado, 8-11 September 2008; Water managers around the world are being tasked to include potential effects of climate change in their future operations scenarios. One important water manager, the federal government, owns and manages 30% of all land in the United States, the vast majority of which is in western states and Alaska. On 9 March 2007, the Secretary of the Interior signed Order 3270, which states that adaptive management should be considered when (1) there are consequential decisions to be made; (2) there is an opportunity to apply learning; (3) the objectives of management are clear; (4) the value of reducing uncertainty is high; (5) uncertainty can be expressed as a set of competing, testable models; and (6) an experimental design and monitoring system can be put in place with a reasonable expectation of reducing uncertainty. The Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds provided an appropriate forum to discuss science-driven resource management in the context of new adaptive management strategies. The conference was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cosponsored by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agricultural Research Service, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  4. [Policy, management and participation in health: a reflection based on Habermas' theory of communicative action].

    PubMed

    Müller Neto, Júlio Strubing; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses the appropriation of the theory developed by Habermas to analyze health policies and management. The fundamental concepts of the discursive theory of democracy as a deliberative policy, procedural democracy, the public sphere and civil society are analyzed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that the concepts of deliberative policies are grounded on basic theoretical categories of Habermas's conception of language, namely the theory of communicative action (TCA): lifeworld and system; communicative action and discourse; the ideal speech situation. The possibility of translating the categories presented in analytical categories, such as the experiences of social participation in deliberative forums and the results for the formulation and implementation of policies and health management is discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the theoretical categories reveal great explanatory potential and analytical categories are important provided that they are mediated and contextualized. PMID:23175416

  5. VTOL aircraft in emergency planning and management: a model for a helipad network.

    PubMed

    Caprì, Salvatore; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2009-03-01

    The scientific literature regarding HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service) planning lacks a method for defining optimal sites for helipads that takes into account risk distribution and hospital location. Such a method could minimise overall rescue time in emergency situations. In this paper a method that supports the decisions taken by disaster planners and managers is developed, focusing on the quantification of necessary air resources for the management of some probable calamities. Given a region characterised by a natural and non-natural disaster risk map, along with a comprehensive transport system (also characterised by a risk map), a set of emergency destinations (hospitals), a set of heliports/helipads dislocated on the territory and a number of available HEMS rotorcraft, the aim of the paper is to assess the adequacy of the VTOL/FATO (Vertical Take-Off and Landing/Final Take-Off and Landing Area) system in order to deal with a set of possible emergencies. PMID:18498369

  6. Managing for biodiversity unresolved science and policy questions

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, W.E. )

    1990-01-01

    A discussion is presented of efficient strategies for species preservationin spite of continued human alteration of the environment. Current policy and unresolved questions are included in the discussion. Incentives to maintain seminatural areas as a conservation strategy are recommended: planting of hedgerows or windbreaks to provide corridors for migration of species during climate change; purchase of development rights of natural and seminatural land for conversion to park reserves when climate stabilizes; use of intercropping, traditional forest gardens and crop plantings in the tropics; and maintenance of seminatural habitats on public and private lands.

  7. Disability Management: Organizational Diversity and Dutch Employment Policy

    PubMed Central

    Haafkens, Joke A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction While Human Resource Managers (HRM) and line managers could play a significant role in the prevention of job-related problems and in promotion of early job-continuation, it is not clear wether the chronically ill workers are recognized as a group. Unlike some other groups, distinguished by gender, age or ethnicity, those with chronic illness are less distinct and may not be included in diversity management programs. The aim of this research is to address theory and evidence in literature about the topic, as well as to inquire whether chronic illness of the employees is ‘visible’ in practice. Methods For desk research, we used a systematic search strategy involving medical, statistical, management, and social science databases (Web of Science, MedLine, Pub Med, Psych Info, etc.). Research results are based on case studies conducted with the managers and HRM of government and commercial organizations between March 2007 and October 2008 and between October 2008 and April 2009. These case studies were based on open interviews and focus group sessions (for human resource departments) which were consequently analyzed using thematical analysis. For group sessions, we used concept mapping to collect information from two groups of HRM professionals and managers. Secondary analysis included thematic and content analysis of ‘best practice’ organizations carried out by the Dutch organization Gatekeeper. Conclusions We have discovered that the chronically ill employees are largely invisible to HRM practitioners, line managers who do not always have the right instruments for implementation of the European or national frameworks. Most practitioners are unaware of the impact of chronic illness in their organizations and in employees work life. PMID:20383740

  8. Soil erosion, policy and management in China coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Qiao; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    The coastal zone is very important in the world. China coastal zone was granted the first priority of developing economy in the late 1980s. Since then, high population density and rapid economic development hace caused intensive changes of LUCC in this zone. Those changes have lead to land degradation. Besides, China governments launched series of projects and policy to improve such problems. Those will inevitably cause to diverse spatial dynamics of land degradtion. However, the state of land degradation in certain time is still unknown. Soil erosion is an important indicator of land degradation.Therefore, we use RS images,RUSLE model to anlyze the spatial pattern of soil erosion for 2000. By spatial analysis, we found that soil erosion in China coastal zone is not serious. Widespread soil erosion is only occurred on coastal zones in Shandong, Hainan and werstern Guangdong Province. Although rainfall eosivity factor(R) is higher in southern coastal zone, erosion tends to occur on the slopes with lower LS values in northern coastal zone than southern coastal zone. Goevernments have enforced some policy to reduce the extent of soil erosion by conversion of farmland to woodland and barren mountains to woodland. But the difference between southern and northern coastal zone is still not realized. To improve soil eorosion in those areas, we should let governments put more funds to increase vegetation cover in north. Such study will provide helpful suggestions for governments to prevent soil erosion in coastal zone.

  9. Research on the Application of Life Cycle Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao

    Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life cycle of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of project list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life cycle management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.

  10. Monitoring Achievement of Educational Governance/Management Policy Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sederberg, Charles H.; Hendrix, Vernon L.

    This paper reports on a field test of a system for monitoring the achievement of selected educational governance/management goals. The study entailed (1) collection of enrollment, revenue, expenditure, and teacher assignment data from a stratified random sample of Minnesota districts for a seven-year period, 1969-70 through 1975-76; (2) reduction…

  11. Reviewing Institutional Policies for Electronic Management of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voce, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Electronic assignment submission (e-submission) tools, such as those within course management systems (e.g. Blackboard), or systems such as Turnitin, which enable students to submit coursework online are now one of the main centrally supported institutional tools in Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK), however the development of…

  12. AEIS Policy vs. Site-Based Management: Research Agenda Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John B.

    This paper examines the problems of centralized academic-indicator systems in light of the move toward site-based management. Problems with current practice are examined in the framework of critical inquiry. Alternatives to current accountability guidelines are presented that harmonize positivism with critical inquiry, while respecting both local…

  13. The High-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Dilemma: Prospects for a Realistic Management Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Since the dawn of the atomic age, the United States and every other nation that has chosen to use nuclear power have created hazardous substances that have the capacity to outlast human civilization, and possibly even the human species, and the potential to devastate the environment. The management of these substances that make up what has been…

  14. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  15. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  16. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each program manager must establish an aircraft inspection program for each make and model program aircraft and...

  18. Aircraft scanner data availability via the version 0 Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) development, NASA and other government agencies have developed an operational prototype of the Information Management System (IMS). The IMS provides access to the data archived at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) that allows users to search through metadata describing the (image) data. Criteria based on sensor name or type, date and time, and geographic location are used to search the archive. Graphical representations of coverage and browse images are available to further refine a user's selection. previously, the EROS Data Center (EDC) DAAC had identified the Advanced SOlid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS), Airborne Visible and infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), NS-001, and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) as precursor data sets similar to those the DAAC will handle in the Earth Observing System era. Currently, the EDC DAAC staff, in cooperation with NASA, has transcribed TIMS, NS-001, and Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data from Ames Research Center and also TIMS data from Stennis Space Center. During the transcription process, the IMS metadata and browse images were created to populate the inventory at the EDC DAAC. These data sets are now available in the IMS and may be requested from the any of the DAAC's via the IMS.

  19. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  20. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  1. Policy and Research in a Post-Conflict Context: Issues and Challenges in the Implementation of the Rwandan Teacher Development and Management Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutaisire, John; Gahima, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between policy development and research evidence with specific reference to the Rwandan Teacher Development and Management Policy introduced in 2005. It aims to highlight the complexity of implementing large-scale system wide change in the specific context of a small African nation…

  2. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  3. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy. PMID:23475653

  4. User self-governance in a complex policy design for managing water commons in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Ashutosh; Itoh, Tadao; Kada, Ryohei; Abe, Takaki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Herath, Gamini

    2014-03-01

    Studies have typically emphasized one of three major policy alternatives-government (state) ownership, privatization, or user self-governance-to address overuse of “the commons” as a natural resource shared by many competing users. Studies tend to focus on each alternative separately. Government ownership or privatization is usually understood to undermine user self-governing institutional arrangements, while user self-governance has proved to be a very powerful policy alternative in managing the commons in many cases. An important research question arises as to whether a complex policy design can strengthen the competence of user self-governing institutional arrangements. This article defines a complex policy design as one that involves a mix of flexible policy alternatives rather than a rigid alternative to address overuse issues. Drawing on Japan's irrigation water management experience, this study demonstrates that when a complex policy design is tailored to facilitate user autonomy, it further strengthens user self-governance. The study provides scholars with insight into how self-governing institutional arrangements-which were primarily developed in the existing literature with the government's role assumed as absent or implicit-could be enhanced when the role is strategically explicit.

  5. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  6. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  7. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Assistance and Fire Management Assistance AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...

  8. Ecosystem-based river basin management: its approach and policy-level application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takehiro

    2003-10-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is an approach aimed at achieving sustainable development with a focus on water resources. This management concept is characterized by its catchment approach, inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach and multiple management objectives. There is an effort to widen the management scope to include multiple resources and environmental considerations in the river basin management schemes. In order to achieve river basin management objectives and multiple global environmental benefits, an ecosystem approach to river basin management is promoted. The Ecosystem-based River Basin Management aims to maximize and optimize the total value of the ecosystem functions relevant to classified ecosystems within a river basin by conserving and even enhancing these functions for the next generations. A procedure to incorporate such ecosystem functions into policy framework is presented in this paper. Based on this policy framework of the Ecosystem-based River Basin Management, a case study is introduced to apply the concept to the Yangtze River basin. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assessment report, this basin suffers from frequent floods of large magnitudes, which are due to the degradation of ecosystem functions in the basin. In this case, the government of the People's Republic of China introduced Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to conserve ecosystem functions related to flood events and magnitude, such as soil conservation, agricultural practices and forestry, while producing economic benefits for the local population. Copyright

  9. 32 CFR 766.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.4 Policy. Navy and Marine Corps aviation facilities are... or maintenance of civil aircraft or non U.S. Government aircraft, except as noted below. (Nothing in... to the procedures established elsewhere in this part, civil aircraft and government aircraft,...

  10. 32 CFR 766.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.4 Policy. Navy and Marine Corps aviation facilities are... or maintenance of civil aircraft or non U.S. Government aircraft, except as noted below. (Nothing in... to the procedures established elsewhere in this part, civil aircraft and government aircraft,...

  11. 32 CFR 766.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.4 Policy. Navy and Marine Corps aviation facilities are... or maintenance of civil aircraft or non U.S. Government aircraft, except as noted below. (Nothing in... to the procedures established elsewhere in this part, civil aircraft and government aircraft,...

  12. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  13. Co-Construction of Agency and Environmental Management. The Case of Agri-Environmental Policy Implementation at Finnish Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    One of the main challenges of European environmental policies is to recruit local-level actors to fulfill set targets. This article explores how targets of European agri-environmental policy have been achieved in Finland. It also analyses how implementation practices produce conditions for agri-environmental management and how policy success-or…

  14. Higher Educational Policy, Interest Politics and Crisis Management: Facets and Aspects of the Greek Case within the EHEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Nikos E.; Tsakanika, Theofano; Kyridis, Argyris

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we approach the new policy making paradigm for Europe's higher education policy, set with the Bologna Process, given emphasis to the legitimacy deficit of this political venture and the necessity of a crisis management over the implementation phase within national frames. The implementation of the Bologna's policies, using Greece…

  15. Space Station logistics policy - Risk management from the top down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville; Graham, James L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Considerations are presented in the area of risk management specifically relating to logistics and system supportability. These considerations form a basis for confident application of concurrent engineering principles to a development program, aiming at simultaneous consideration of support and logistics requirements within the engineering process as the system concept and designs develop. It is shown that, by applying such a process, the chances of minimizing program logistics and supportability risk in the long term can be improved. The problem of analyzing and minimizing integrated logistics risk for the Space Station Freedom Program is discussed.

  16. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  17. A Proposed Strategy for Research Misconduct Policy: A Review on Misconduct Management in Health Research System

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Owlia, Parviz; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Ghanei, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, with the rapid growth of scientific production, research misconduct has become a worldwide problem. This article is intended to introduce the successful experience on the management of research paper misconducts in the field of health research. Methods: Our aim was to design and develop the strategy for research misconduct policy. Focusing on the national regulatory system, we developed a hierarchical model for paper misconduct policy in all the medical sciences universities and their affiliated research units. Results: Through our regulatory policy for paper misconduct management, specific protocol was followed in the field of health research publications through which the capabilities of covering the four main elements of prevention, investigation, punishment, and correction have come together. Conclusions: Considering the proposed strategy, regarding the strengths and weaknesses, utilization of evaluation tool can be one of the best strategies to achieving the prospective of health research papers by 2025. PMID:27512558

  18. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  19. 24 CFR 990.310 - Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting. 990.310 Section 990.310 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  20. Managing and Mobilising Talent in Malaysia: Issues, Challenges and Policy Implications for Malaysian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azman, Norzaini; Sirat, Morshidi; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The future of Malaysia as a high-income and competitive nation largely depends on its pool of highly skilled human capital. Hence, the issue of human capital development has taken centre stage in numerous reform agendas of Malaysia. This paper seeks to provide examples of policy initiatives aimed at facilitating the management of highly educated…

  1. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainbility in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource....

  2. Language Management Theory as One Approach in Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvapil, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Language Policy and Planning is currently a significantly diversified research area and thus it is not easy to find common denominators that help to define basic approaches within it. Richard B. Baldauf attempted to do so by differentiating between four basic approaches: (1) the classical approach, (2) the language management approach (Language…

  3. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  4. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

  5. Conservation of Resources for Sustainable Ecosystems: A Dialogue on Connecting Science, Policy, and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century rangeland science has focused, with varying degrees of success, on issues of sustainable goods and services. Our goal in this paper is to analyze this research history for insights into how best to link science, policy, and management of natural resources. We describe three broa...

  6. Managing Information Technology: Facing the Issues. Track IV: Policy and Standards Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers making up Track IV of the 1989 conference of the Professional Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education (known as CAUSE; an acronym of the association's former name) are presented in this document. The focus of Track IV is on policy and standards issues and the papers include: "Developing Guidelines…

  7. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  8. The "Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management:" An Output Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the contents of the first thirty years of the "Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management" and its predecessor, the "Journal of Tertiary Education Administration." The paper examines the papers published between 1979 and 2008 according to their authorship, country of origin and broad content, noting changes over time. In…

  9. Managed Group Formation: An Approach to Team Formation in Policy Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Reed E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Managed group formation uses student personal value data and sociometric nomination to optimize the influence of work group formation on student learning. Resulting work group formations are used to enhance the effectiveness of traditional course content and to increase students' sensitization to important group process issues in business policy.…

  10. Conservation of resources for sustainable ecosystems: a dialogue on connecting science, policy,and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century rangeland science has focused, with varying degrees of success, on issues of sustainable goods and services. Our goal in this paper is to analyze this research history for insights into how best to link science, policy, and management of natural resources. We describe three broad ...

  11. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  12. 48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA policies for information resources management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with EPA policies for information resources management. 1552.211-79 Section 1552.211-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  13. A Conceptual Model of Management Learning in Micro Businesses: Implications for Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, David; Gold, Jeff; Johnson, Steve; Holden, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes the development of a conceptual model to help understand the nature of management learning in the micro business context and to inform research and policy discourse. Design/Methodology/Approach: The model is developed on the basis of a literature search and review of academic and grey literature. Findings: The…

  14. Toward a Policy for Managing the Use of Computer Mediated Communication in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    Noting that there has been tremendous growth in the number of businesses and not-for-profit organizations which have become equipped with computers and have empowered workers to communicate with them, this paper sheds light on policy issues related to managing the use of computer mediated communication (CMC). The paper first summarizes CMC's…

  15. A life cycle model of public policy issues in health care: the importance of strategic issues management.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Feit, M D

    2001-01-01

    Public policy affects health and social services organizations. Senior management has a responsibility to prevent inappropriate demands of stakeholders from predominating and to influence the outcome of public policy to the benefit of their organization through the strategic issues management process. This article presents a public policy issue life cycle model, life-cycle stages and suggested strategies, paths issues can take in the life cycle, and factors that affect issue paths. An understanding of these dynamics can aid senior managers in shaping and changing public policy issues and lessening external environment threats to their organization. PMID:11263098

  16. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Also, costs necessary to comply with the requirements of 24 CFR part 58, including project specific... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities....

  17. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Also, costs necessary to comply with the requirements of 24 CFR part 58, including project specific... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities....

  18. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and... risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant...

  19. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and... Investments § 225.175 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to...

  20. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and... Investments § 225.175 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to...

  1. Impact of changed management policies on operating room efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase operating room (OR) efficiency, a new resource allocation strategy, a new policy for patient urgency classification, and a new system for OR booking was implemented at a tertiary referral hospital. We investigated the impact of these interventions. Methods We carried out a before-and-after study using OR data. A total of 23 515 elective (planned) and non-elective (unplanned) orthopaedic and general surgeries were conducted during calendar year 2007 (period 1) and July 2008 to July 2009 (period 2). The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate statistical significance. Results An increased amount of case time (7.1%, p < 0.05) was conducted without any increase in out-of-hours case time. Despite having three fewer ORs for electives, slightly more elective case time was handled with 26% less use of overtime (p < 0.05). Mean OR utilization was 56% for the 17 mixed ORs, 60% for the 14 elective ORs, and 62% for the 3 dedicated ORs. A 20% growth (p < 0.05) of non-elective case time was primarily absorbed through enhanced daytime surgery, which increased over 48% (p < 0.05). As a result, the proportions of case time on evenings and nights decreased. Specifically, case time at night decreased by 26% (p < 0.05), and the number of nights without surgery increased from 55 to 112 (out of 315 and 316, respectively). Median waiting time for the middle urgencies increased with 1.2 hours, but over 90% received treatment within maximum acceptable waiting time (MAWT) in both periods. Median waiting time for the lowest urgencies was reduced with 12 hours, and the proportion of cases treated within MAWT increased from 70% to 89%. The proportion of high urgency patients (as a proportion of the total) was reduced from 20% to 12%. Consequently, almost 90% of the operations could be planned at least 24 hours in advance. Conclusions The redesign facilitated effective daytime surgery and a more selective use of the ORs for high urgency

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Congress has not authorized your agency to acquire or Federal aircraft or commercial aircraft and services... on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33.55 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts...

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Congress has not authorized your agency to acquire or Federal aircraft or commercial aircraft and services... on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33.55 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts...

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Congress has not authorized your agency to acquire or Federal aircraft or commercial aircraft and services... on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33.55 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts...

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Congress has not authorized your agency to acquire or Federal aircraft or commercial aircraft and services... on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33.55 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts...

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Congress has not authorized your agency to acquire or Federal aircraft or commercial aircraft and services... on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33.55 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  8. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  9. The importance of environmental variability and management control error to optimal harvest policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, C.M.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    State-dependent strategies (SDSs) are the most general form of harvest policy because they allow the harvest rate to depend, without constraint, on the state of the system. State-dependent strategies that provide an optimal harvest rate for any system state can be calculated, and stochasticity can be appropriately accommodated in this optimization. Stochasticity poses 2 challenges to harvest policies: (1) the population will never be at the equilibrium state; and (2) stochasticity induces uncertainty about future states. We investigated the effects of 2 types of stochasticity, environmental variability and management control error, on SDS harvest policies for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) model, and contrasted these with a harvest policy based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Increasing stochasticity resulted in more conservative SDSs; that is, higher population densities were required to support the same harvest rate, but these effects were generally small. As stochastic effects increased, SDSs performed much better than MSY. Both deterministic and stochastic SDSs maintained maximum mean annual harvest yield (AHY) and optimal equilibrium population size (Neq) in a stochastic environment, whereas an MSY policy could not. We suggest 3 rules of thumb for harvest management of long-lived vertebrates in stochastic systems: (1) an SDS is advantageous over an MSY policy, (2) using an SDS rather than an MSY is more important than whether a deterministic or stochastic SDS is used, and (3) for SDSs, rankings of the variability in management outcomes (e.g., harvest yield) resulting from parameter stochasticity can be predicted by rankings of the deterministic elasticities.

  10. Estimating the impact of the home appliances trade-in policy on WEEE management in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuguang; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Juwen; Liang, Honggen; Han, Yuebin

    2012-11-01

    The ever-increasing amount of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem. In view of the deleterious effects of WEEE on the environment and the valuable materials that can be reused in them, many countries have focused their attention on the management of WEEE and the recovery technologies of WEEE. The Chinese government has been active in creating a legislative and institutional framework to realize WEEE recycling. In June 2009, Chinese government launched home appliances and electronics trade-in implementation solution. This paper elaborates the home appliances trade-in policy and its significant impact on the WEEE management. The trade-in policy is not only conducive to expanding the consumption demand and promoting the balance of domestic and overseas demand, but also favorable to improving the energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. Under this policy, China has successfully established an effective WEEE recycling system, using the financial means and network design. Experiences gained from the trade-in policy have shown that management systems of WEEE need to be designed and implemented in a multi-stakeholder dialogue. PMID:22492263

  11. Aquaculture: Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Hallerman, E.M.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outocme of risk assessment and risk management processes resulting from differences among the receiving ecosystems and sets of human values at issue. A number of countries and international institutions have begun development of policies for oversight of genetically modified aquatic organisms. In the United States, a working group commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture incorporated risk assessment and risk management principles into draft performance standards for safely conducting research with genetically modified finfish and shellfish. The performance standards address research with a broad range of aquatic GMO`s and compliance is intended to be voluntary. In contrast, the Canadian policy mandates adherence to specified guidelines for experiments with transgenic aquatic organisms; establishment as national policy is expended soon.

  12. Integration of visual quality considerations in development of Israeli vegetation management policy.

    PubMed

    Misgav, A; Amir, S

    2001-06-01

    This article deals with the visual quality of Mediterranean vegetation groups in northern Israel, the public's preference of these groups as a visual resource, and the policy options for their management. The study is based on a sample of 44 Mediterranean vegetation groups and three population groups of local residents, who were interviewed using a questionnaire and photographs of the vegetation groups. The results of the research showed that plant classification methods based on flora composition, habitat, and external appearance were found to be suitable for visual plant classification and for the evaluation of visual preference of vegetation groups by the interviewed public. The vegetation groups of planted pine forests and olive groves, characterizing a cultured vegetation landscape, were preferred over typical Mediterranean landscapes such as scrub and grassed scrub. The researchers noted a marked difference between the two products of vegetation management policy, one that proposes the conservation and restoration of the variety of native Mediterranean vegetation landscape, and a second that advanced the development of the cultured landscape of planted olive groves and pines forests, which were highly preferred by the public. The authors suggested the development of an integrated vegetation management policy that would combine both needs and thus reduce the gap between the policy proposed by planners and the local population's visual preference. PMID:11393319

  13. Management of corporate socio-economic policy by the energy corporations

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the energy corporations in the mitigation of the socio-economic impacts of rapid development. The study employed an exploratory descriptive research design. The sample was limited to an in-depth study of the socio-economic managerial processes at the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) and the Standard Oil Company of California, two of the nation's largest and wealthiest energy corporations. Findings demonstrated that division managers believe that socio-economic expenses are a normal cost of doing business and can, in fact, lead to cost savings for the corporation. The study confirmed other research findings that corporate executive management has a further role to play in the design of administrative systems that govern the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of socio-economic policy. The study recommended the development of specific centralized corporate socio-economic policies for energy-impact development, decentralization of policy implementation, integration of trained socio-economic project managers into the formal authority hierarchy, inclusion of specific socio-economic criterion in the formal performance-evaluation system, incorporation of socio-economic expenses into the operating budget format, and the development of a formal corporate-level socio-economic policy-evaluation committee.

  14. Managing diversity and European policy: Towards a typology for sport pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Dinold, Maria; Diketmüller, Rosa; Grix, Jonathan; Phillpots, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This article adds to the growing body of knowledge in sport pedagogy and focuses specifically upon the intersection of gender and disability. Its purpose is twofold, to create a typology for examining good practice in sport pedagogy that is reflective and inclusive and raises awareness of the diverse needs of all participants in physical activity 'regardless' of gender and ability for all children. We acknowledge that access to physical activity, education and sport are complex and multifaceted, however, the main purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of 'diversity' by focusing specifically upon the role of gender and ability. Through an examination of gender and disability policies in official European Union (EU) policy documents and commercial examples of policy-in-practice we propose a typology for diversity and diversity management. A close look at EU level is instructive because national policies of the member countries vary a lot with respect to diversity issues but should be in accordance in the main areas. Such a reading enables the building of a typology of recommendations for how such policy can be rendered in sport pedagogy practice. We suggest six significant, but related principles that include (1) mainstreaming; (2) teaching and coaching sensitive to difference; (3) empowerment; (4) inclusion; (5) adaptation; and (6) inner differentiation. This holistic typology seeks to 'mainstream' issues of gender and disability policy by providing a set of principles that can be applied to a range of teaching and coaching settings. PMID:24251747

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  16. Integrating Science, Management, and Policy for the Future of Water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Society faces complex, multifaceted problems that call for research that transcends disciplinary boundaries and informs public policy. Water resources management in the face of climate change in California is one such challenge. Understanding responses to future conditions requires integration of climatic, hydrologic, ecological, and social dynamics. To catalyze the development and application of this science, the graduate students of the U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Climate Change, Water, and Society Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (CCWAS IGERT) at the University of California, Davis organized a "State of the Science" workshop to identify knowledge gaps; promote cross-disciplinary communication, fertilization, and collaboration; and better connect science and policy.

  17. Policies, land use, and water resource management in an arid oasis ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xian; Liao, Jie; Hsing, Youtian; Huang, Cuihua; Liu, Famin

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses two questions concerning the relationship between state policies and environmental transformation in China in the past four decades. The first one deals with the promotion of agricultural productivity since the 1980s; the second, the water conservation measures as a response to the water crisis that peaked in the early 2000s. We had chosen Minqin County in northwestern China, one of the most fragile arid oasis systems in the world, as the study area. We found that the irrigated farmland in up and midstream areas had greatly expanded between the 1980s and the 2000s under the government policy of promoting commodity grain production. As a result, the runoff flowing into Minqin Oasis had reduced 80 % from the 1950s to early 2000s. Irrigated farmland in Minqin Oasis expanded 15.76 % from 1995 to 2000. In the 2000s, because of the changing policy discourse that has shifted from productivity to conservation, a new set of environmentally framed policies has restructured agricultural production in Minqin by 2005. These new policies included establishing a watershed-level water management system, promoting drought resistant crops, introducing water-saving irrigation measures, and forced reduction of irrigated farming acreage. These policies have produced positive results in terms of greater coverage of vegetation, rising ground water table, and reduction of evaporation. Nevertheless, new policies have also brought new challenges to both farmers and policy makers to keep the balance between poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in Minqin Oasis in the historically poor region in China's Northwest. PMID:25740224

  18. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  19. Policies, Land Use, and Water Resource Management in an Arid Oasis Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xian; Liao, Jie; Hsing, Youtian; Huang, Cuihua; Liu, Famin

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses two questions concerning the relationship between state policies and environmental transformation in China in the past four decades. The first one deals with the promotion of agricultural productivity since the 1980s; the second, the water conservation measures as a response to the water crisis that peaked in the early 2000s. We had chosen Minqin County in northwestern China, one of the most fragile arid oasis systems in the world, as the study area. We found that the irrigated farmland in up and midstream areas had greatly expanded between the 1980s and the 2000s under the government policy of promoting commodity grain production. As a result, the runoff flowing into Minqin Oasis had reduced 80 % from the 1950s to early 2000s. Irrigated farmland in Minqin Oasis expanded 15.76 % from 1995 to 2000. In the 2000s, because of the changing policy discourse that has shifted from productivity to conservation, a new set of environmentally framed policies has restructured agricultural production in Minqin by 2005. These new policies included establishing a watershed-level water management system, promoting drought resistant crops, introducing water-saving irrigation measures, and forced reduction of irrigated farming acreage. These policies have produced positive results in terms of greater coverage of vegetation, rising ground water table, and reduction of evaporation. Nevertheless, new policies have also brought new challenges to both farmers and policy makers to keep the balance between poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in Minqin Oasis in the historically poor region in China's Northwest.

  20. Ecosystem services from a degraded peatland of Central Kalimantan: implications for policy, planning, and management.

    PubMed

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Bretr A; Meijaard, Erik; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Struebig, Matthew; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, landscapes are managed for multiple objectives to balance social, economic, and environmental goals. The Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia provides a timely example with globally significant development, carbon, and biodiversity concerns. To inform future policy, planning, and management in the EMRP, we quantified and mapped ecosystem service values, assessed their spatial interactions, and evaluated the potential provision of ecosystem services under future land-use scenarios. We focus on key policy-relevant regulating (carbon stocks and the potential for emissions reduction), provisioning (timber, crops from smallholder agriculture, palm oil), and supporting (biodiversity) services. We found that implementation of existing land-use plans has the potential to improve total ecosystem service provision. We identify a number of significant inefficiencies, trade-offs, and unintended outcomes that may arise. For example, the potential development of existing palm oil concessions over one-third of the region may shift smallholder agriculture into low-productivity regions and substantially impact carbon and biodiversity outcomes. While improved management of conservation zones may enhance the protection of carbon stocks, not all biodiversity features will be represented, and there will be a reduction in timber harvesting and agricultural production. This study highlights how ecosystem service analyses can be structured to better inform policy, planning, and management in globally significant but data-poor regions. PMID:26255358

  1. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  2. Generation of Priority Research Questions to Inform Conservation Policy and Management at a National Level

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.60 - What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.60 Section 102-33.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.60 What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft? Following the requirements of §§...

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.60 - What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.60 Section 102-33.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.60 What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft? Following the requirements of §§...

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.60 - What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.60 Section 102-33.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview § 102-33.60 What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft? Following the requirements of §§...

  6. National Drought Policy: Shifting the Paradigm from Crisis to Risk-based Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhite, D. A.; Sivakumar, M. K.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a normal part of climate for virtually all of the world's climatic regimes. To better address the risks associated with this hazard and societal vulnerability, there must be a dramatic paradigm shift in our approach to drought management in the coming decade in the light of the increasing frequency of droughts and projections of increased severity and duration of these events in the future for many regions, especially in the developing world. Addressing this challenge will require an improved awareness of drought as a natural hazard, the establishment of integrated drought monitoring and early warning systems, a higher level of preparedness that fully incorporates risk-based management, and the adoption of national drought policies that are directed at increasing the coping capacity and resilience of populations to future drought episodes. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in partnership with other United Nations' agencies, the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, NOAA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other partners, is currently launching a program to organize a High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) in March 2013 to encourage the development of national drought policies through the development of a compendium of key policy elements. The key objectives of a national drought policy are to: (1) encourage vulnerable economic sectors and population groups to adopt self-reliant measures that promote risk management; (2) promote sustainable use of the agricultural and natural resource base; and (3) facilitate early recovery from drought through actions consistent with national drought policy objectives. The key elements of a drought policy framework are policy and governance, including political will; addressing risk and improving early warnings, including vulnerability analysis, impact assessment, and communication; mitigation and preparedness, including the application of effective and

  7. An American plague: Pro-market believers in health policy: Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    de Kervasdoué, Jean

    2015-02-01

    Although American health policy debates address similar problems to other developed nations, it has factual and ideological specificities. I agree with Chinitz and Rodwin on the dominance of micro-economics thinking. However, I am not certain that learning from management theory or modifying medical education will be powerful enough to change the system. The vested interests of the stakeholders are too powerful, the more so when they are supported by economists who ideologically reinforce them and by neglecting the fact that the basic premises of market ideology are false when applied to medical care. There is enough empirical evidence to support that but, apparently, these facts do not dent these beliefs. PMID:25674574

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  9. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  10. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p < 0.001). Age, type of use, and three of the five policy-related factors were also significant individual predictors of acceptance. The most important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  11. The Evolution of Wildland Fire Management Policy in the USA: Successes and Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Caban, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires have been suppressed over the last 100 years in forest and brush landscapes. For the last three decades, fires occurrence and severity have significantly increased when compared to historical levels causing economic damage and suppression costs never experienced before in the US or globally. As the wildland fire problem evolved so did the public response through a wildland fire management policy guided by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management understanding of the problem. Globally it is estimated that more 350 million hectares of wildland burn annually. They oxidize approximately 3-8% of the total terrestrial net primary productivity. The economic and physical relevance of wildland fire management and protection programs is ever growing, particularly considering mounting wildfire costs and losses globally. In the US alone, from 2000 to 2013 more than 37 million hectares of wildland has been affected at a cost of over $21 billion. The increase in siege-like fires can be explained in part by increasing population, particularly in the wildland-urban interface and the accumulation of biomass fuel due to over a century of fire exclusion. Recent developments demonstrate a strong relationship between fire and weather and climate variations. How the wildland fire management policy has evolved through time? The development can be divided in three stages: the formative years between 1905 and 1911; the consolidation years from 1911 through 1968; and the modern era from 1995 to present. Each stage is characterized by a series of significant events that caused changes on how the problem was approached. For example, the establishment of the Forest Service in 1905 and the rash of large wildfires in the western USA set the base for the wildfire suppression of all wildfires in 1911. During the second stage we see the 1935 policy of suppressing all wildfires by 10-am next-day. By 1968 the policy has evolved to include the use of prescribed burning and the

  12. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    PubMed Central

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  13. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  14. Practice Management and Health Policy Education in Radiology: An Emerging Imperative.

    PubMed

    DeQuesada, Ivan M; Chokshi, Falgun H; Mullins, Mark E; Duszak, Richard

    2015-10-01

    As society places increased responsibility on practicing physicians for addressing accelerating health care costs and delivery system inefficiencies, traditional education and training programs have left most physicians ill equipped to assume this responsibility. A variety of new initiatives are underway that dramatically change how radiology training programs address these issues. We review the emerging need for better physician education in health policy and practice management, detail the history and requirements of the ACGME and the ABR Healthcare Economics Milestone Project, and outline mechanisms by which radiology residency programs can comply with these requirements. We describe our own new comprehensive pilot curriculum, Practice Management, Health Policy, and Professionalism for Radiology Residents (P(3)R(2)), which may serve as a potential model for other training programs seeking to develop targeted curricula in these newly required areas. PMID:26118664

  15. Implementing natural resources management policy in Africa: A document and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, D.W.; Gage, J.D.; Yeager, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The organizational and management tasks involved in implementing natural resource management (NRM) policy in Africa are examined in the desk study. There are two main chapters. The first reviews 19 A.I.D. projects and programs in forestry/agroforestry, sustainable agriculture, and protected areas/biodiversity conservation in Africa. The study also identifies several troublesome features of NRM policies: the underlying contradiction between sustainable NRM and the prevailing economic development paradigm; the nature of NRM costs and benefits; the negative orientation of NRM regulations; and the tendency of NRM issues to generate conflict. A final section presents a set of strategic questions as a way to begin clarifying the complexity and multiplicity of factors and linkages that characterize NRM.

  16. Screening Tactics in a Water Management Policy Analysis for the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Warren E.; Veen, Meinaard A.

    1987-07-01

    Large policy studies generally involve too many alternative policies to examine each in detail. As a result, such studies often include a step in which policy options (tactics) that are clearly unattractive are screened out. The output from this step is a small list of tactics that deserve a more thorough evaluation. We describe the screening of tactics to change the movement and storage of water in the lakes and waterways of the Netherlands. This analysis was part of a larger study to help the Dutch government develop a new water management policy. The screening process for each tactic involved obtaining an upper bound on the expected annual benefits from the tactic under various assumptions about future water demands (UB) and comparing this upper bound with the tactic's annualized fixed cost (AFC). If the AFC was less than the UB, the tactic was considered promising and was retained for further analysis. If not, the tactic was screened out. Results from the screening analysis informed policy decisions that will avoid investment expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars and will reduce agricultural damage by about $15 million/year.

  17. Pain management policies and practices in pediatric emergency care: a nationwide survey of Italian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain experienced by children in emergency departments (EDs) is often poorly assessed and treated. Although local protocols and strategies are important to ensure appropriate staff behaviours, few studies have focussed on pain management policies at hospital or department level. This study aimed at describing the policies and reported practices of pain assessment and treatment in a national sample of Italian pediatric EDs, and identifying the assocoated structural and organisational factors. Methods A structured questionnaire was mailed to all the 14 Italian pediatric and maternal and child hospitals and to 5 general hospitals with separate pediatric emergency room. There were no refusals. Information collected included the frequency and mode of pain assessment, presence of written pain management protocols, use of local anaesthetic (EMLA cream) before venipuncture, and role of parents. General data on the hospital and ED were also recorded. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to explore the multivariable associations between the characteristics of hospitals and EDs and their pain management policies and practices. Results Routine pain assessment both at triage and in the emergency room was carried out only by 26% of surveyed EDs. About one third did not use algometric scales, and almost half (47.4%) did not have local protocols for pain treatment. Only 3 routinely reassessed pain after treatment, and only 2 used EMLA. All EDs allowed parents’ presence and most (17, 89.9%) allowed them to stay when painful procedures were carried out. Eleven hospitals (57.9%) allowed parents to hold their child during blood sampling. Pediatric and maternal and child hospitals, those located in the North of Italy, equipped with medico-surgical-traumatological ED and short stay observation, and providing full assessment triage over 24 hours were more likely to report appropriate policies for pain management both at triage and in ER. A nurses to admissions ratio

  18. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    SciTech Connect

    Purdie, J.

    1995-09-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

  19. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. PMID:26164637

  20. Managing birds and controlling aircraft in the kennedy airport-jamaica bay wildlife refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Erwin, R M; Richmond, M E; Buckley, P A; Tanacredi, J T; Avrin, D

    2001-08-01

    During the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (Larus atricilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. In this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony population control would reduce the presence of gulls, and subsequently bird strikes, at the airport; and (3) all on-airport management alternatives have been adequately implemented. Since 1979, most (2987, 87%) of the 3444 bird strikes (number of aircraft struck) were actually bird carcasses found near runways (cause of death unknown but assumed to be bird strikes by definition). Of the 457 pilot-reported strikes (mean = 23 +/- 6 aircraft/yr, N = 20 years), 78 (17%) involved laughing gulls. Since a gull-shooting program was initiated on airport property in 1991, over 50,000 adult laughing gulls have been killed and the number of reported bird strikes involving laughing gulls has declined from 6.9 +/- 2.9 (1983-1990) to 2.6 +/- 1.3 (1991-1998) aircraft/yr; nongull reported bird strikes, however, have more than doubled (6.4 +/- 2.6, 1983-1990; 14.9 +/- 5.1, 1991-1998). We found no evidence to indicate that on-colony management would yield a reduction of bird strikes at Kennedy Airport. Dietary and mark-recapture studies suggest that 60%-90% of the laughing gulls collected on-airport were either failed breeders and/or nonbreeding birds. We argue that the Jamaica Bay laughing gull colonies, the only ones in New York State, should not be managed at least until all on-airport management alternatives have been properly implemented and demonstrated to be ineffective at reducing bird strikes, including habitat alterations and increasing the capability of the bird control unit to

  1. Managing birds and controlling aircraft in the Kennedy Airport-Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, K.M.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.; Buckley, P.A.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Avrin, D.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (Larus atrfcilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York City) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. In this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony population control would reduce the presence of gulls, and subsequently bird strikes, at the airport; and (3) all on-airport management alternatives have been adequately implemented. Since 1979, most (2987, 87%) of the 3444 bird strikes (number of aircraft struck) were actually bird carcasses found near runways (cause of death unknown but assumed to be bird strikes by definition). Of the 457 pilot-reported strikes (mean = 23 + 6 aircraft/yr, N = 20 years), 78 (17%) involved laughing gulls. Since a gull-shooting program was initiated on airport property in 1991, over 50,000 adult laughing gulls have been killed and the number of reported bird strikes involving laughing gulls has declined from 6.9 + 2.9 (1983-1990) to 2.8 + 1.3 (1991-1998) aircraft/yr; nongull reported bird strikes, however, have more than doubled (6.4 + 2.6, 1983-1990; 14.9 + 5.1, 1991-1998). We found no evidence to indicate that on-colony management would yield a reduction of bird strikes at Kennedy Airport. Dietary and mark-recapture studies suggest that 60%-90% of the laughing gulls collected on-airport were either failed breeders and/or nonbreeding birds. We argue that the Jamaica Bay laughing gull colonies, the only ones in New York State, should not be managed at least until all on-airport management alternatives have been properly implemented and demonstrated to be ineffective at reducing bird strikes, including habitat alterations and increasing the capability of the bird control unit to eliminate

  2. 41 CFR 302-15.70 - What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services? 302-15.70 Section 302-15.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  3. 41 CFR 302-15.70 - What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services? 302-15.70 Section 302-15.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  4. 41 CFR 302-15.70 - What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services? 302-15.70 Section 302-15.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  5. The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) at the Ames Research Center manages aircraft data in collaboration with an ecosystem research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, Jay

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a data and information system serving NASA-supported investigators in the land science community. The three nodes of the PLDS, one each at the Ames Research Center (ARC), the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), cooperate in providing consistent information describing the various data holding in the hardware and software (accessible via network and modem) that provide information about and access to PLDS-held data, which is available for distribution. A major new activity of the PLDS node at the Ames Research Center involves the interaction of the PLDS with an active NASA ecosystem science project, the Oregon Transect Ecosystems Research involves the management of, access to, and distribution of the large volume of widely-varying aircraft data collected by OTTER. The OTTER project, is managed by researchers at the Ames Research Center and Oregon State University. Its principal objective is to estimate major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water of forest ecosystems using an ecosystem process model driven by remote sensing data. Ten researchers at NASA centers and universities are analyzing data for six sites along a temperature-moisture gradient across the western half of central Oregon (called the Oregon Transect). Sensors mounted on six different aircraft have acquired data over the Oregon Transect in support of the OTTER project.

  6. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  7. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Kracalik, Ian T.; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock–human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated

  8. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  9. Middle Managers' Experience of Policy Implementation and Mediation in the Context of the Scottish Quality Enhancement Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Sin, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how middle managers perform and experience their role in enacting policy in Scottish higher education institutions. The policy focus is the quality enhancement framework (QEF) for learning and teaching in higher education, which was launched in 2003. The data-set was collected between 2008 and 2010, during the evaluation of the…

  10. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  11. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  12. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  13. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  14. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  15. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments. PMID:24717753

  16. Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem. PMID:23673204

  17. Interactions in hazard management policies: the case of drought in Nicaragua, 1976-2010.

    PubMed

    Segnestam, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The literature on adaptive and multi-level governance calls for interactive hazard management to increase societies' resilience. This paper maps the hazard management policies in a poor and hazard-prone country-Nicaragua-and examines what role the government gives to interactions among different actors at different societal levels. A new analytical framework is developed that includes scope and direction to capture unidirectional or mutual interactions that are either horizontal or vertical. This enables a more complex analysis of interactions than that found in previous research. The review shows that the historical change in the role given to interactions, as a result of a focus on short-term emergency response being complemented by long-term risk management, mainly lies in how they are characterised-with more participants and other types of content categories-and the awareness that interactions other than mutual ones can be positive. This illustrates the complexity of the issue of interactions. PMID:25754114

  18. Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey

    PubMed Central

    Dhungel, Amit; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; van Deventer, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe current risk management practices and policies across the world in relation to personal exposures from devices emitting radiofrequency fields, environmental exposures from fixed installations and exposures in the work environment. Data from 86 countries representing all WHO regions were collected through a survey. The majority of countries (76.8 %) had set exposure limits for mobile devices, almost all (90.7 %) had set public exposure limits for fixed installations and 76.5 % had specified exposure limits for personnel in occupational settings. A number of other policies had been implemented at the national level, ranging from information provisions on how to reduce personal exposures and restrictions of usage for certain populations, such as children or pregnant women to prevention of access around base stations. This study suggests that countries with higher mobile subscriptions tend to have set radiofrequency exposure limits for mobile devices and to have provisions on exposure measurements about fixed installations. PMID:25394650

  19. Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Amit; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; van Deventer, Emilie

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to describe current risk management practices and policies across the world in relation to personal exposures from devices emitting radiofrequency fields, environmental exposures from fixed installations and exposures in the work environment. Data from 86 countries representing all WHO regions were collected through a survey. The majority of countries (76.8 %) had set exposure limits for mobile devices, almost all (90.7 %) had set public exposure limits for fixed installations and 76.5 % had specified exposure limits for personnel in occupational settings. A number of other policies had been implemented at the national level, ranging from information provisions on how to reduce personal exposures and restrictions of usage for certain populations, such as children or pregnant women to prevention of access around base stations. This study suggests that countries with higher mobile subscriptions tend to have set radiofrequency exposure limits for mobile devices and to have provisions on exposure measurements about fixed installations. PMID:25394650

  20. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is <20 %. In addition, an average index was calculated using various methods to assess countries' conditions for agricultural water management. Ability of irrigation and drainage systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  1. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  2. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  3. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  4. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  5. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  6. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  7. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  8. Managing Talent for School Coherence: Learning from Charter Management Organizations. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael; Gross, Betheny; Bowen, Melissa; Demeritt, Allison; Lake, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The current wave of new teacher evaluation systems around the country offers an opportunity to broaden the conversation surrounding teacher effectiveness and its relationship to school coherence, to look at how schools and school systems might take a more integrated and intentional approach to attracting, training, and managing high-quality…

  9. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  10. Ecosocial consequences and policy implications of disease management in East African agropastoral systems

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Gilioli, Gianni; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2009-01-01

    International research and development efforts in Africa have brought ecological and social change, but analyzing the consequences of this change and developing policy to manage it for sustainable development has been difficult. This has been largely due to a lack of conceptual and analytical models to access the interacting dynamics of the different components of ecosocial systems. Here, we examine the ecological and social changes resulting from an ongoing suppression of trypanosomiasis disease in cattle in an agropastoral community in southwest Ethiopia to illustrate how such problems may be addressed. The analysis combines physiologically based demographic models of pasture, cattle, and pastoralists and a bioeconomic model that includes the demographic models as dynamic constraints in the economic objective function that maximizes the utility of individual consumption under different level of disease risk in cattle. Field data and model analysis show that suppression of trypanosomiasis leads to increased cattle and human populations and to increased agricultural development. However, in the absence of sound management, these changes will lead to a decline in pasture quality and increase the risk from tick-borne diseases in cattle and malaria in humans that would threaten system sustainability and resilience. The analysis of these conflicting outcomes of trypanosomiasis suppression is used to illustrate the need for and utility of conceptual bioeconomic models to serve as a basis for developing policy for sustainable agropastoral resource management in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19620722

  11. Groundwater Management Policies for Maintaining Stream Flow Given Variable Climatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohll, G.; Carroll, R. W.; Brozovic, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource to agriculture throughout the semi-arid United States, where farmers often supplement surface water diversions with groundwater pumping. Understanding the complex exchange over space and time between rivers and aquifers is important in developing management alternatives that are capable of preserving stream flow for habitat and increasing water deliveries downstream while minimizing lost crop production. Previous integrated hydrologic-economic models have generally assumed superposition of the impacts of groundwater pumping on the hydrologic system for analytical tractability. Although this assumption may be reasonable for some surface water-groundwater systems, in many systems the behavior diverges considerably from the linear assumption. We present analyses using an integrated hydrologic-economic model of surface water-groundwater interaction with nonlinear dynamics, developed for the Mason Valley area in Nevada. The study area has active water conflict between upstream and downstream water users, where groundwater pumping has an important impact on streamflow. The model replicates the movement of water throughout the coupled river and aquifer of the Walker River system and is used to analyze hypothetical tradeoffs between increasing streamflow at the basin outlet and meeting crop water demands for irrigation. The model is run from 1997 to 2006 to capture wet and dry climatic conditions, including a four year drought period in which groundwater pumping accounts for more than 50% of the irrigated water budget. Three alternate groundwater management policies are analyzed to compare economic performance (resulting from reductions in crop area due to reduced groundwater pumping) and hydrologic impact (in terms of increased stream discharge at the basin outlet). First, uniform pumping quotas are the simplest policy to implement and are modeled here as equal reductions in groundwater pumping for each stakeholder at a lumped field

  12. A review of management of infertility in Nigeria: framing the ethics of a national health policy

    PubMed Central

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Truter, Ernest J

    2011-01-01

    Infertility has recently been construed to be a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem seems to be viewed as of low priority with reference to the effective and efficient allocation of available health resources by national governments as well as by international donors sponsoring either research or service delivery in the public health sector. In this paper the problem of infertility in Nigeria is surveyed with a view to assessing the ethical dimension of proposals to manage infertility as a public sector priority in health care delivery. The population/individual and public/private distinction in the formulation of health policy has ethical implications that cannot simply be ignored and are therefore engaged in critically assessing the problem of infertility. Cost–utility analysis (such as Quality Adjusted Life-Year composite index) in the management of infertility in Nigeria entails the need for caution relevant to the country’s efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals. This should remain the case whether the ethical evaluation appeals to utilitarian or contractarian (Rawlsian) principles. The “worst off ” category of Nigerians includes (1) underweight children less than 5 years of age, with special concern for infants (0–1 years of age) and (2) the proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary consumption. The Rawlsian ethic implies that any Federal Ministry of Health policy aimed at establishing public programs for infertility management can be considered a “fair” allocation and expenditure if, and only if, the situation for these two cohorts is not thereby made worse. Nigerian health policy cannot assume this type of increased allocation of its resources to infertility care without it being hard pressed to warrant defensible moral or rational argument. PMID:21892337

  13. A review of management of infertility in Nigeria: framing the ethics of a national health policy.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Truter, Ernest J

    2011-01-01

    Infertility has recently been construed to be a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem seems to be viewed as of low priority with reference to the effective and efficient allocation of available health resources by national governments as well as by international donors sponsoring either research or service delivery in the public health sector. In this paper the problem of infertility in Nigeria is surveyed with a view to assessing the ethical dimension of proposals to manage infertility as a public sector priority in health care delivery. The population/individual and public/private distinction in the formulation of health policy has ethical implications that cannot simply be ignored and are therefore engaged in critically assessing the problem of infertility. Cost-utility analysis (such as Quality Adjusted Life-Year composite index) in the management of infertility in Nigeria entails the need for caution relevant to the country's efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals. This should remain the case whether the ethical evaluation appeals to utilitarian or contractarian (Rawlsian) principles. The "worst off " category of Nigerians includes (1) underweight children less than 5 years of age, with special concern for infants (0-1 years of age) and (2) the proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary consumption. The Rawlsian ethic implies that any Federal Ministry of Health policy aimed at establishing public programs for infertility management can be considered a "fair" allocation and expenditure if, and only if, the situation for these two cohorts is not thereby made worse. Nigerian health policy cannot assume this type of increased allocation of its resources to infertility care without it being hard pressed to warrant defensible moral or rational argument. PMID:21892337

  14. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural landscapes: quantification tools, policy development, and opportunities for improved management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Gurwick, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    Policy initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have promoted the development of agricultural management protocols to increase SOC storage and reduce GHG emissions. We review approaches for quantifying N2O flux from agricultural landscapes. We summarize the temporal and spatial extent of observations across representative soil classes, climate zones, cropping systems, and management scenarios. We review applications of simulation and empirical modeling approaches and compare validation outcomes across modeling tools. Subsequently, we review current model application in agricultural management protocols. In particular, we compare approaches adapted for compliance with the California Global Warming Solutions Act, the Alberta Climate Change and Emissions Management Act, and by the American Carbon Registry. In the absence of regional data to drive model development, policies that require GHG quantification often use simple empirical models based on highly aggregated data of N2O flux as a function of applied N - Tier 1 models according to IPCC categorization. As participants in development of protocols that could be used in carbon offset markets, we observed that stakeholders outside of the biogeochemistry community favored outcomes from simulation modeling (Tier 3) rather than empirical modeling (Tier 2). In contrast, scientific advisors were more accepting of outcomes based on statistical approaches that rely on local observations, and their views sometimes swayed policy practitioners over the course of policy development. Both Tier 2 and Tier 3 approaches have been implemented in current policy development, and it is important that the strengths and limitations of both approaches, in the face of available data, be well-understood by those drafting and adopting policies and protocols. The reliability of all models is contingent on sufficient observations for model development and validation. Simulation models applied without site-calibration generally

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  18. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking... designed to: (i) Monitor and assess the carrying value, market value and performance of each investment...

  19. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? (a) What... and assess the carrying value, market value and performance of each investment and the...

  20. The African Capacity Building Initiative: Toward Improved Policy Analysis and Development Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of the African Capacity Building Initiative is to build and strengthen local capabilities for policy analysis and development management in Sub-Saharan Africa. This report examines the nature and magnitude of the problem, which basically consists of a shortage of development management skills combined with weakness in the area of…

  1. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer. PMID:25898957

  2. Transdisciplinary synthesis for ecosystem science, policy and management: The Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J J; Thackway, R; Specht, A; Beggs, P J; Brisbane, S; Burns, E L; Byrne, M; Capon, S J; Casanova, M T; Clarke, P A; Davies, J M; Dovers, S; Dwyer, R G; Ens, E; Fisher, D O; Flanigan, M; Garnier, E; Guru, S M; Kilminster, K; Locke, J; Mac Nally, R; McMahon, K M; Mitchell, P J; Pierson, J C; Rodgers, E M; Russell-Smith, J; Udy, J; Waycott, M

    2015-11-15

    Mitigating the environmental effects of global population growth, climatic change and increasing socio-ecological complexity is a daunting challenge. To tackle this requires synthesis: the integration of disparate information to generate novel insights from heterogeneous, complex situations where there are diverse perspectives. Since 1995, a structured approach to inter-, multi- and trans-disciplinary(1) collaboration around big science questions has been supported through synthesis centres around the world. These centres are finding an expanding role due to ever-accumulating data and the need for more and better opportunities to develop transdisciplinary and holistic approaches to solve real-world problems. The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS ) has been the pioneering ecosystem science synthesis centre in the Southern Hemisphere. Such centres provide analysis and synthesis opportunities for time-pressed scientists, policy-makers and managers. They provide the scientific and organisational environs for virtual and face-to-face engagement, impetus for integration, data and methodological support, and innovative ways to deliver synthesis products. We detail the contribution, role and value of synthesis using ACEAS to exemplify the capacity for synthesis centres to facilitate trans-organisational, transdisciplinary synthesis. We compare ACEAS to other international synthesis centres, and describe how it facilitated project teams and its objective of linking natural resource science to policy to management. Scientists and managers were brought together to actively collaborate in multi-institutional, cross-sectoral and transdisciplinary research on contemporary ecological problems. The teams analysed, integrated and synthesised existing data to co-develop solution-oriented publications and management recommendations that might otherwise not have been produced. We identify key outcomes of some ACEAS working groups

  3. 48 CFR 1428.306-70 - Insurance for aircraft services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance for aircraft... aircraft services contracts. (a) Policy. The CO shall insert minimum insurance requirements in aircraft... prescribed in section 1428.311-2 are applicable to all fixed-price contracts involving use of aircraft...

  4. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26...-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...... HK 36 R...

  5. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  6. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  7. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Andrew H; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. PMID:26874768

  8. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    PubMed

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy. PMID:25387745

  9. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: implications for policy and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, A. H.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines the factors and mechanisms that influence the long-term sequestration of organic nitrogen in mineral soils. It examines the policy and management implications which stem from this newly accepted paradigm, such as critical loads considerations and nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions.

  10. New policy to manage tools in flexible manufacturing systems using network part programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Andrea; Tolio, Tullio; Grieco, Antonio; Nucci, Francesco

    2000-10-01

    The high investment related to the acquisition of Flexible Manufacturing Systems forces firms to a better utilization of the machines. Different actions can be taken in order to avoid idle times of the machines: reduction of the unproductive times (time dedicated to rapid movements, tool exchange, pallet exchange, etc.), improvement of machines and, not last, a better management of the resources. The paper proposes a new policy for the management of tool operations in parallel machine FMS to minimize the idle times due to the lack of tools. The proposed policy uses new opportunities in manufacturing technology related with the use of network part programs in NC machines. It is already known in literature the potentiality of network part programs, more flexible than traditional sequential part programs that execute simply the rigid list of operations. Network part programs allow the different alternative ways to process each part. The way in which network part programs are executed by machines depends on the state of the tools and availability of the tools. The proposed method has been compared with other existing ones based on a real test case, a parallel machine FMS with two machines and a tool carrier.

  11. Evaluating the effects of local floodplain management policies on property owner behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollens, Scott A.; Kaiser, Edward J.; Burby, Raymond J.

    1988-05-01

    Floodplain management programs have been adopted by more than 85% of local governments in the nation with designated flood hazard areas. Yet, there has been little evaluation of the influence of floodplain policies on private sector decisions. This article examines the degree to which riverine floodplain management affects purchase and mitigation decisions made by owners of developed floodplain property in ten selected cities in the United States. We find that the stringency of such policies does not lessen floodplain property buying because of the overriding importance of site amenity factors. Indeed, flood protection measures incorporated into development projects appear to add to the attractiveness of floodplain location by increasing the perceived safety from the hazard. Property owner responses to the flood hazard after occupancy involve political action more often than individual on-site mitigation. Floodplain programs only minimally encourage on-site mitigation by the owner because most owners have not experienced a flood and many are unaware of the flood threat. It is suggested that floodplain programs will be more effective in meeting their objectives if they are directed at intervention points earlier in the land conversion process.

  12. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  13. Channelling science into policy: enabling best practices from research on land degradation and sustainable land management in dryland Africa.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Lindsay C; Dougill, Andrew J

    2013-01-15

    Demands are increasing for scientific research to be explicitly and demonstrably policy relevant. Research funders are requiring greater returns on their investments and scientists are expected to demonstrate clearly how their research can inform policy and regulation to deliver positive consequences for societal, economic and environmental wellbeing. Within the co-evolving context of environmental management research in dryland Africa and the policy approaches designed to mitigate land degradation, few academic analyses have deconstructed the practical 'bottom-up' actions that can help to channel scientific research into national decision-making and policy. Similarly, while international platforms developed by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification have started to facilitate greater knowledge exchange between scientists and policymakers, analyses have failed to consider the powerful informal actions that scientists can take to allow their research to inform evidence-based international policy. Drawing on examples in the literature from research on land degradation and sustainable land management across sub-Saharan African drylands, we identify key enabling activities that help make scientific research more visible, accessible to, and compatible with, policy processes at local, national and international levels. We argue that these enablers are applicable to other environmental research areas beyond land degradation, and suggest that improved understanding of science into policy processes that look across multiple scales and levels will help researchers and policy-makers to better match information supply and demand to the mutual benefit of both groups. PMID:23158525

  14. Policy development in malaria vector management in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Woelk, Godfrey; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Sevene, Esperança; Daniels, Karen; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew; Lavis, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), two principal malaria control strategies, are similar in cost and efficacy. We aimed to describe recent policy development regarding their use in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Using a qualitative case study methodology, we undertook semi-structured interviews of key informants from May 2004 to March 2005, carried out document reviews and developed timelines of key events. We used an analytical framework that distinguished three broad categories: interests, ideas and events. Results A disparate mix of interests and ideas slowed the uptake of ITNs in Mozambique and Zimbabwe and prevented uptake in South Africa. Most respondents strongly favoured one strategy over the other. In all three countries, national policy makers favoured IRS, and only in Mozambique did national researchers support ITNs. Outside interests in favour of IRS included manufacturers who supplied the insecticides and groups opposing environmental regulation. International research networks, multilateral organizations, bilateral donors and international NGOs supported ITNs. Research evidence, local conditions, logistic feasibility, past experience, reaction to outside ideas, community acceptability, the role of government and NGOs, and harm from insecticides used in spraying influenced the choice of strategy. The end of apartheid permitted a strongly pro-IRS South Africa to influence the region, and in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, floods provided conditions conducive to ITN distribution. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs have a place in integrated malaria vector management, but pro-IRS interests and ideas slowed or prevented the uptake of ITNs. Policy makers needed more than evidence from trials to change from the time-honoured IRS strategy that they perceived was working. Those intending to promote new policies such as ITNs should examine the interests and ideas motivating key stakeholders and their own

  15. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    PubMed

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  16. Dynamical stabilization of grazing systems: An interplay among plant-water interaction, overgrazing and a threshold management policy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michel Iskin da Silveira; Meza, Magno Enrique Mendoza

    2006-12-01

    In a plant-herbivore system, a management strategy called threshold policy is proposed to control grazing intensity where the vegetation dynamics is described by a plant-water interaction model. It is shown that this policy can lead the vegetation density to a previously chosen level under an overgrazing regime. This result is obtained despite both the potential occurrence of vegetation collapse due to overgrazing and the possibility of complex dynamics sensitive to vegetation initial densities and parameter uncertainties. PMID:17014869

  17. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  18. Positioning resilience for 2015: the role of resistance, incremental adjustment and transformation in disaster risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Matyas, David; Pelling, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a ubiquitous term in disaster risk management and is an increasingly prominent concept in early discussions focused on elaborating the post-2015 international policy landscape. Riddled with competing meanings and diverse policy implications, however, it is a concept caught between the abstract and operational. This paper provides a review of the rise to prominence of the concept of resilience and advances an elaboration of the related concepts of resistance, incremental adjustment and transformation. We argue that these concepts can contribute to decision-making by offering three distinct options for risk management policy. In order to deliberately and effectively choose among these options, we suggest that critical reflexivity is a prerequisite, necessitating improved decision-making capacity if varied perspectives (including those of the most vulnerable) are to be involved in the selection of the best approach to risk management. PMID:25494954

  19. The Impact of Medical Tourism on Thai Private Hospital Management: Informing Hospital Policy

    PubMed Central

    James, Paul TJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. Methods: The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualise the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Results: Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. Conclusions: As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand’s health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology. PMID:22980119

  20. A Security-Awareness Virtual Machine Management Scheme Based on Chinese Wall Policy in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Xiaolin; Lin, Jiancai; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Dai, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing gets increasing attention for its capacity to leverage developers from infrastructure management tasks. However, recent works reveal that side channel attacks can lead to privacy leakage in the cloud. Enhancing isolation between users is an effective solution to eliminate the attack. In this paper, to eliminate side channel attacks, we investigate the isolation enhancement scheme from the aspect of virtual machine (VM) management. The security-awareness VMs management scheme (SVMS), a VMs isolation enhancement scheme to defend against side channel attacks, is proposed. First, we use the aggressive conflict of interest relation (ACIR) and aggressive in ally with relation (AIAR) to describe user constraint relations. Second, based on the Chinese wall policy, we put forward four isolation rules. Third, the VMs placement and migration algorithms are designed to enforce VMs isolation between the conflict users. Finally, based on the normal distribution, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate SVMS. The experimental results show that SVMS is efficient in guaranteeing isolation between VMs owned by conflict users, while the resource utilization rate decreases but not by much. PMID:24688434

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33.415 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33.415 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  3. The policies of ethics committees in the management of biobanks used for research: an Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Porteri, Corinna; Togni, Elena; Pasqualetti, Patrizio

    2014-02-01

    Gaps in regulations pertaining to the collection and storage of biological materials in a biobank, at least in the European context, have made the writing of local guidelines essential from an ethical point of view. Nevertheless, until recently, the elaboration of local guidelines for the collection, use and storage of biological materials in a biobank has been the exception in Italy and all European countries. In this context, it is of value to know the policies, even if they are unwritten, of local ethics committees (ECs) engaged in the evaluation of research protocols involving biobanks and biological materials. This paper presents the results of a survey carried out among local Italian ECs (229) to document their attitudes and policies regarding the management of the ethical issues related to biobanks and the use of biological materials. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the areas regarded as critical from an ethical-legal point of view: informed consent and information to the subjects; protection of confidentiality; communication of research results; access/transfer of biological materials and related data; ownership of samples and data and intellectual property rights; and subjects' remuneration and benefit sharing. Twenty-six ECs from the Italian Institutes for Research and Care (62%) and 26 other ECs (14%) participated in the survey. PMID:23695284

  4. New directions in water resources management: The role of water pricing policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Eva; Blanco, MaríA.

    2008-06-01

    Water resources will face increasing competition and higher environmental concerns during this century. To meet these challenges, the new Water Framework Directive has drawn up an integrated framework and established the basic principles for a sustainable water policy in the European Union. The introduction of water prices reflecting the true cost of irrigation is one of its most innovative components. In this paper, a positive mathematical programming model is developed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of water pricing policies in Spanish irrigated lands. The model interface allows friendly use and easy replication in a large number of irrigation districts, selected throughout the Spanish territory. The model results show the impact on environmental indicators, water consumption, cropping patterns, technology adoption, labor, farmers' income, and the water agency revenues when different scenarios of cost recovery are considered. It is argued that this modeling approach may be used as a management tool to assist in the implementation of the cost recovery approach of the new Water Framework Directive.

  5. The Origin of Invasive Microorganisms Matters for Science, Policy, and Management: The Case of Didymosphenia geminata

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brad W.; Bothwell, Max L.

    2014-01-01

    The value of distinguishing native from nonnative invasive species has recently been questioned. However, this dichotomy is important for understanding whether a species’ successful dominance is caused by introductions, changing environmental conditions that facilitate an existing population, or both processes. We highlight the importance of knowing the origin of hard-to-detect invasive microorganisms for scientific research, management, and policy using a case study of recent algal blooms of the stalk-producing diatom Didymosphenia geminata. Nuisance blooms have been reported in rivers worldwide and have been hastily attributed to introductions. However, evidence indicates that blooms are probably not caused by introductions but, rather, by environmental conditions that promote excessive stalk production by this historically rare species. Effective responses to invasive microorganisms depend on knowing whether their proliferation is caused by being nonnative or is the result of changing environmental conditions that promote invasive characteristics of native species. PMID:26955071

  6. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  7. The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Luling; He, Wenzhi Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The paper systematically introduces recycling system of WEEE management in China. • The paper introduces the new policy about WEEE management in China. • This paper analyzes the results of its implementation. • This paper evaluates the effectiveness to WEEE management in China. - Abstract: The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is surging, so is the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to the large quantity, high potential risk and valuable capacity of WEEE, many countries are taking measures to regulate the management of WEEE. The environmental pollution and human health-harming problems caused by irregular treatment of WEEE in China make the government pay more and more attention to its management. This paper reviews the development of WEEE management in China, introduces the new policy which is established for WEEE recycling and especially analyzes the effectiveness of the policy, including huge recovery, formation of new recycling system, strict supervision to related enterprises, and the stimulation to public awareness. Based on the current achievement, some recommendations are given to optimize the WEEE management in China.

  8. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  9. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  10. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  11. Incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into fishery management: comparing policy challenges and potentials from Alaska and Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawai'i community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawai'i to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework. PMID:23529814

  12. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  13. French policy for managing the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Gallay, F; Godet, J L; Niel, J C

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, at the request of the French Government, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) established a Steering Committee for the Management of the Post-Accident Phase of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency, with the objective of establishing a policy framework. Under the supervision of ASN, this Committee, involving several tens of experts from different backgrounds (e.g. relevant ministerial offices, expert agencies, local information commissions around nuclear installations, non-governmental organisations, elected officials, licensees, and international experts), developed a number of recommendations over a 7-year period. First published in November 2012, these recommendations cover the immediate post-emergency situation, and the transition and longer-term periods of the post-accident phase in the case of medium-scale nuclear accidents causing short-term radioactive release (less than 24 h) that might occur at French nuclear facilities. They also apply to actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents during the transportation of radioactive materials. These recommendations are an important first step in preparation for the management of a post-accident situation in France in the case of a nuclear accident. PMID:25915552

  14. Landholder Profiling and Typologies for Natural Resource-Management Policy and Program Support: Potential and Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emtage, Nick; Herbohn, John; Harrison, Steve

    2007-09-01

    The use of landholder typologies to aid the development, implementation, and monitoring natural-resource management (NRM) policies and programs has increased considerably during the past decade. This article explores the potential for using such typologies for a variety of NRM and rural and regional development applications. Review of typology use further suggests that there is potential to refine the way that typologies are developed and applied to better aid NRM, farming systems analyses, and rural and regional development. Before typologies will be adopted more widely, a number of theoretical and methodologic issues must be addressed. These include the following questions: (1) Which criteria and methods should or can be used to classify landholders? (2) How should studies across spatial and temporal scales be integrated? (3) How should multiple and single industry studies be integrated to gain the most value from research? We argue that quantitative research techniques are well suited to provide an underlying structure for landholder typologies, and qualitative research techniques are useful for developing understanding of the nature of variation within and between landholder types. We argued further that because of the potential utility and breadth for the application of landholder typologies, a nested set of landholder typologies could be developed that are coordinated at the national, regional, and local geographic levels, with repeated measures used to track the evolution with time of landholder practices, management values, and socioeconomic characteristics.

  15. Policies, Administration, and Management: As published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S--7/2009. A La Croisee des Recherches, pages 627 to 641)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melody M.; Vidal, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The chapters in Part IV of "Handbook of Distance Education" (2007), "Policies, Administration, and Management," focus on the ways in which policies encourage or hamper the integration of distance education into mainstream educational institutions. The authors provide insights and perspectives into the key policies, roles, structures, processes,…

  16. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  17. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  18. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  19. Urban Flood Risk Insurance Models as a Strategy for Proactive Water Management Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graciosa, M. C.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2006-12-01

    To improve the water management through hydrological sciences, novel integration strategies could be underpinned to bridge up both engineering and economics. This is especially significant in developing nations where hydrologic extremes are expressive while the financial resources to mitigate that variability are scarce. One example of this problem is related to floods and their global and regional consequences. Floods mainly cause disasters in terms of human and material losses. In 2002, more than 30% of extreme climatic events occurred worldwide were floods, representing 42% of fatalities and 66% of material losses, mostly related to reactive policies. Throughout the last century, hydrological variability and rapidly growing of urban areas have developed new environmental problems in Brazilian cities, such as inundation occurrences on non-planned river basins. One of the causes of flood impacts is that public funds (national, state or municipal) have barely introduced wise proactive polices to follow up rapidly growing urban areas. Inexistent flood-risk-transfer mechanisms have caused the so-called `flood poverty cycle' due to reactive polices that have been increasing flood losses and, sometimes, became flood disasters. Flood risk management (FRM) is part of pro-active policies to mitigate inundation losses, in order to sustain environmental, social and economic aspects. Concepts and principles of FRM are part of a process that encompasses three phases: (1) preparedness stage, that consists in structural and non-structural actions to prevent and protect potential risk areas, such as early warning systems and scenarios development; (2) control stage, that refers to help actions and protection facilities during the event, and (3) restoration stage, that is related to rebuild affected areas, restore the river dynamics and transfer the socio-economic risks through flood insurances. Flood risk insurances agree to the goals of losses mitigation programs. Their use is

  20. Diffusion of policy discourse into rural spheres through co-management of state forestlands: two cases from West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hideyuki

    2008-07-01

    In the context of state forestland management in tropical regions, the implementation of a co-management approach has been widely advocated in order to include the voices of local people and accommodate their interests in management decision-making. Most co-management literatures, however, underestimate the significance of statutory authority held by state to control forestlands and resources. By clarifying the implications of state ownership of forestland, this article aims to critically examine co-management processes with reference to Foucault's notion of power and subject. Case studies were conducted at two co-management pilot sites in Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Findings demonstrate that co-management processes actually materialize shared decision-making arrangements between state forest bureaucracy and rural people through the application of equity approaches, such as deliberation, negotiation, and experimentation. At the same time, these processes can also function to diffuse state policy discourse in rural spheres, which makes rural subjects who accept and practice the policy discourse. The research also reveals that the diffusion process is complex and does not necessarily make a durable subject unless they are pertinently organized. The results of this research indicate that co-management of state forestlands is a double-edged process for local people who risk becoming a proxy of state bureaucracy in the implementation of state policy. Proponents of co-management should, therefore, critically examine whether new institutional arrangements, which are developed through co-management, truly reflect values and needs of local people and assist them to develop a pertinent subject to deal with it. PMID:18389305

  1. How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away. PMID:18728292

  2. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  3. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  4. Another Link in the Chain: State Policies and Practices for Case Management and Environmental Investigation for Lead-Poisoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Anne M.; McLaine, Pat

    Policy and practice for screening children for lead poisoning have dominated the dialogue about the health care system's role in lead poisoning prevention, with little attention directed to how the health care system responds to a lead-poisoned child once identified. This report details a study of the case management and environmental…

  5. Managing the Risky Humanity of Academic Workers: Risk and Reciprocity in University Work-Life Balance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2015-01-01

    University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…

  6. Information Science and Information Policy: The Use of Constant Dollars and Other Indicators To Manage Research Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Albert

    1999-01-01

    Compares constant dollar spending on research with constant dollar spending on libraries 1960-1995. Evaluation of the indirect cost policy by which library costs are reimbursed as a function of science grant management suggests it has failed to promote cost-effective research. Evaluation of the impact of various information technologies finds…

  7. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Eligible planning, urban... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a)...

  8. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a)...

  9. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a.... Also, costs necessary to comply with the requirements of 24 CFR part 58, including project...

  10. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a)...

  11. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a)...

  12. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a.... Also, costs necessary to comply with the requirements of 24 CFR part 58, including project...

  13. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible planning, urban... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a.... Also, costs necessary to comply with the requirements of 24 CFR part 58, including project...

  14. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Eligible planning, urban... ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK...

  16. New Public Management as a Global Education Policy: Its Adoption and Re-Contextualization in a Southern European Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Curran, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In the education sector, new public management (NPM) has crystallized in policies such as school autonomy, professionalization of school principals, standardized evaluation and teachers' accountability, and it has been widely disseminated by international organizations, such as the OECD, which enjoy a great prestige when it comes to frame…

  17. How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review…

  18. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  19. Multi-resolution integrated modeling for basin-scale water resources management and policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Hoshin V. ,; Brookshire, David S.; Springer, E. P.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the land surface of the Earth is considered to be arid or semi-arid with an annual average of less than 12-14 inches of rainfall. The availability of water in such regions is of course, particularly sensitive to climate variability while the demand for water is experiencing explosive population growth. The competition for available water is exerting considerable pressure on the water resources management. Policy and decision makers in the southwestern U.S. increasingly have to cope with over-stressed rivers and aquifers as population and water demands grow. Other factors such as endangered species and Native American water rights further complicate the management problems. Further, as groundwater tables are drawn down due to pumping in excess of natural recharge, considerable (potentially irreversible) environmental impacts begin to be felt as, for example, rivers run dry for significant portions of the year, riparian habitats disappear (with consequent effects on the bio-diversity of the region), aquifers compact resulting in large scale subsidence, and water quality begins to suffer. The current drought (1999-2002) in the southwestern U.S. is raising new concerns about how to sustain the combination of agricultural, urban and in-stream uses of water that underlie the socio-economic and ecological structure in the region. The water stressed nature of arid and semi-arid environments means that competing water uses of various kinds vie for access to a highly limited resource. If basin-scale water sustainability is to be achieved, managers must somehow achieve a balance between supply and demand throughout the basin, not just for the surface water or stream. The need to move water around a basin such as the Rio Grande or Colorado River to achieve this balance has created the stimulus for water transfers and water markets, and for accurate hydrologic information to sustain such institutions [Matthews et al. 2002; Brookshire et al 2003

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.70 - What directives must we follow when planning to acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... follow when planning to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.70 Section 102-33.70 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Planning to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.70 What directives must we follow when...

  1. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  2. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  3. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  4. Ethical principles as a guide in implementing policies for the management of food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to handle the advent of anaphylaxis and policies for the prevention of allergen exposure are missing essential components. Furthermore, certain policies are inappropriate because they are blatantly discriminatory. This article aims to provide further guidance for school health officials involved in creating food allergy policies. By structuring policies around ethical principles of confidentiality and anonymity, fairness, avoiding stigmatization, and empowerment, policy makers gain another method to support better policy making. The main ethical principles discussed are adapted from key values in the bioethics and public health ethics literatures and will be framed within the specific context of food allergy policies for schools. PMID:20348215

  5. Summary of Policies: What the Association Thinks To Help You Plan, Teach, Negotiate, Manage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Herts (England).

    This document contains a summary of the policies adopted by the Association for Science Education (ASE). These policies are applicable to teachers of science at all levels in all formal places of learning in Great Britain. Summaries of policy statements pertaining to quality in science education, a flowchart that provides an overview of these…

  6. Behaviour, Classroom Management and Student "Control": Enacting Policy in the English Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on an ESRC-funded study of policy enactments in English secondary schools (RES-062-23-1484) based on case-study work in four similar "ordinary" schools. The study has two main objectives; to develop a theory of policy enactment and to explore empirically the differences in the enactment of policy in similar contexts. Taking these…

  7. European Policy of Career Guidance: The Interrelationship between Career Self-Management and Production of Human Capital in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Anki

    2011-01-01

    "Everyone has a career to be managed" is the simple message in new policy strategies for career guidance in Europe. In this article, the promotion of career management for "all" will be unsettled by analysis of career self-management put in relation to rationalities of government and self-government. We are governed to self-manage our career and…

  8. Participants’ Perceptions of a Multidisciplinary Training Program for Graduate and Postgraduate Students in Drug Use Management and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Patricia; Langille-Ingram, Ethel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine graduate and postgraduate students’ perceptions of a drug use management and policy program that applied wide-ranging policy research skills to inform pharmaceutical decision-making. Design. Nine cohorts of graduate and postgraduate students from diverse academic and professional backgrounds were paired with health-system preceptors for 4 months, and supported by faculty advisors and administrators, to complete research projects that generated evidence to inform policy decisions. Assessment. A self-administered survey instrument was sent to all alumni of the program over the previous 10 years. The majority of respondents indicated: their prior academic coursework could be applied to everyday life; service-learning projects complemented university programs; participation led to greater awareness of decision-makers’ needs and appreciation of their tacit knowledge; and communication abilities were enhanced with decision-makers, and academics. Many also reported personal desire to fulfill healthcare-system research needs; personal belief in their ability to make a difference; and increased postgraduation marketability. Conclusion. A drug use management and policy program allowed graduate students from various disciplines to develop new skills and collaborate with experts to produce research evidence that was relevant to drug policy that addressed real-world problems. PMID:23788813

  9. Anesthetic Implications of Ebola Patient Management: A Review of the Literature and Policies.

    PubMed

    Missair, Andres; Marino, Michael J; Vu, Catherine N; Gutierrez, Juan; Missair, Alfredo; Osman, Brian; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2015-09-01

    met search criteria for information related to inpatient Ebola virus disease management or animal virology studies as primary or secondary sources. In addition, 9 articles met search criteria as tertiary sources, representing published guidelines. The recommendations developed in this article are based on these 29 source documents. Anesthesia-specific literature regarding the care of Ebola patients is very limited. Secondary-source guidelines and policies represent the majority of available information. Data from controlled animal experiments and tuberculosis patient research provide some evidence for the existing recommendations and identify future guideline considerations. PMID:25551317

  10. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  11. Clinical policy: Critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sigrid A; Lavonas, Eric J; Mace, Sharon E; Napoli, Anthony M; Fesmire, Francis M

    2012-09-01

    This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of the 2003 Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Initial Evaluation and Management of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department in Early Pregnancy.(1) A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature to derive evidence-based recommendations to help clinicians answer the following critical questions: (1) Should the emergency physician obtain a pelvic ultrasound in a clinically stable pregnant patient who presents to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding and a beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level below a discriminatory threshold? (2) In patients who have an indeterminate transvaginal ultrasound, what is the diagnostic utility of β-hCG for predicting possible ectopic pregnancy? (3) In patients receiving methotrexate for confirmed or suspected ectopic pregnancy, what are the implications for ED management? Evidence was graded and recommendations were developed based on the strength of the available data in the medical literature. A literature search was also performed for a critical question from the 2003 clinical policy.(1) Is the administration of anti-D immunoglobulin indicated among Rh-negative women during the first trimester of pregnancy with threatened abortion, complete abortion, ectopic pregnancy, or minor abdominal trauma? Because no new, high-quality articles were found, the management recommendations from the previous policy are discussed in the introduction. PMID:22921048

  12. State Policies Regulating the Practice of Pain Management: Statutes, Rules, and Guidelines That Shape Pain Care.

    PubMed

    Twillman, Robert K; Gilson, Aaron M; Duensing, Kathryn N

    2016-06-01

    In response to increased awareness of prescription opioid misuse, abuse, addiction, diversion, and overdose, states have promulgated a large number of public policies intended to regulate the practice of pain medicine. Nearly every state now has at least 1 type of policy; others only provide recommendations to physicians. This article reviews the existing policies and extracts specific provisions within each of them. Although there are many similarities across policies, unique features are found in some and are specifically reviewed. This review can serve as a quick reference for policymakers and as a guide for researchers interested in the impacts of such policies. PMID:27208718

  13. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  14. Water management policy for the Albuquerque Basin: What can we learn from Tucson?

    SciTech Connect

    McGuckin, M.

    1995-12-31

    Albuquerque long believed itself to be a uniquely gifted city, an enchanted exotic anomaly, a desert metropolis with plentiful water stored in the deep alluvial sand and gravel sloughed off the Sandia Mountains. That is, until 1992, when the US Geological Survey`s report entitled Geohydrologic Framework and Hydrologic Conditions in the Albuquerque Basin in Central New Mexico revealed a fault, or rather several, in their water plan. The aquifer is not all of a piece. Instead of a veritable lake underfoot, there is a series of ponds or isolated cells of water. Tucson and Albuquerque have long been, in a sense, sister cities; they share similar physical situations, but with one major difference: in Tucson it has always been understood there wasn`t much water, not in the upland Sonoran Desert. The author outlines the recent history of water management policy in Tucson with possible lessons for Albuquerque. There are some very important differences between the two cities. The first is that in Tucson, water is, for the most part, a local issue. What Albuquerque decides to do with their water affects every community along the Rio Grande, but in addition, by rippling through the economy what they decide to do impacts every community in the state. And secondly, Tucson is the terminus of the Central Arizona Project (CAP).

  15. Combined Methods for Quantifying Uncertainty of Regional Climate Change for Use in Policy and Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.; Tebaldi, C.

    2006-12-01

    Over tha past few years, methods for quantifying uncertainty in regional climate change have seen an upswing in development, and this was greatly facilitated by the creation of a relatively large multi-member ensemble of coupled climate model runs for the Fourth Assessment of the IPCC. Usually the rationale for developing such probabilistic methods is for use by impacts researchers, policy makers, and resource managers, to aid in their decision making. While these developments have been welcome, it is clear that probabilisitc information developed in a Bayesian framework, alone will not suffice for providng levels of confidence in the future projections. While some of the methods have attempted to weight the members of multi-model ensembles by evaluating how well the models reproduce current climate, so far these methods have been overly simplistic. It may well be that qualitative information regarding the model's reproduction of critical processes that determine the climate of a particular region needs to be considered along with probabilistic information. We discuss how these different types of information (qualitative process-based and probability density functions) could be combined to provide a more complete assessment of how confident we should be regarding regional cliamte change. measure of uncertainty for regional scale climate change.

  16. Multimethod Evaluation of Health Policy Change: An Application to Medicaid Managed Care in a Rural State

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Schillaci, Michael; Willging, Cathleen E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To answer questions about the impacts of Medicaid managed care (MMC) at the individual, organizational/community, and population levels of analysis. Data Sources/Study Setting Multimethod approach to study MMC in New Mexico, a rural state with challenging access barriers. Study Design Individual level: surveys to assess barriers to care, access, utilization, and satisfaction. Organizational/community level: ethnography to determine changes experienced by safety net institutions and local communities. Population level: analysis of secondary databases to examine trends in preventable adverse sentinel events. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Survey: multivariate statistical methods, including factor analysis and logistic regression. Ethnography: iterative coding and triangulation to assess documents, field observations, and in-depth interviews. Secondary databases: plots of sentinel events over time. Principal Findings The survey component revealed no consistent changes after MMC, relatively favorable experiences for Medicaid patients, and persisting access barriers for the uninsured. In the ethnographic component, safety net institutions experienced increased workload and financial stress; mental health services declined sharply. Immunization rate, as an important sentinel event, deteriorated. Conclusions MMC exerted greater effects on safety net providers than on individuals and did not address problems of the uninsured. A multimethod approach can facilitate evaluation of change in health policy. PMID:18384362

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.390 - What information must we report on Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... report on Government aircraft? 102-33.390 Section 102-33.390 Public Contracts and Property Management....390 What information must we report on Government aircraft? (a) You must report the following...) Inventory data on Federal aircraft through FAIRS. (2) Cost and utilization data on Federal aircraft...

  18. 41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Category of aircraft Description A Aircraft authorized for sale and exchange for commercial use. B Aircraft... disposing of excess aircraft? 102-36.340 Section 102-36.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling...

  19. 41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Category of aircraft Description A Aircraft authorized for sale and exchange for commercial use. B Aircraft... disposing of excess aircraft? 102-36.340 Section 102-36.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling...

  20. 41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Category of aircraft Description A Aircraft authorized for sale and exchange for commercial use. B Aircraft... disposing of excess aircraft? 102-36.340 Section 102-36.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling...

  1. 41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Category of aircraft Description A Aircraft authorized for sale and exchange for commercial use. B Aircraft... disposing of excess aircraft? 102-36.340 Section 102-36.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling...

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... technology to insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial...

  4. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.; Swanson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is presented to see whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet area. Significant differences between the two periods were demonstated. Current technological and operational economic perspectives were investigated in detail. Some conclusions are drawn to aircraft retirement policies.

  5. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... (accumulative cost 7,820. for all four spar assemblies). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... aircraft, (5) Hours TIS of aircraft, (6) Description of failure if applicable, (7) Part(s) and part...

  6. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-062-AD; Amendment 39-17251; AD 2012-22-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M), and S-70C(M1) helicopters with...

  7. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  8. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  9. The UNCCD Science-Policy Interface (SPI) - Exploring the sustainable land management nexus among the Rio Conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safriel, Uriel; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Abraham, Elena Maria; Cowie, Annette; Daradur, Mihail; de Vente, Joris; Dema Dorji, Karma; Kust, German; Metternicht, Graciela; Orr, Barron; Pietragalla, Vanina

    2015-04-01

    At its 11th meeting in Windhoek/Namibia, in September 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Conference of the Parties (COP) decided to establish a Science-Policy Interface (SPI)* (decision 23/COP.11). The goal of the SPI is to facilitate a two-way dialogue between scientists and policy makers in order to ensure the delivery of policy-relevant information, knowledge and advice on desertification/land degradation and drought (DLDD). The SPI established several initial objectives, including working with the scientific community to bring to the UNCCD and the other Rio conventions (climate change and biodiversity) the scientific evidence for the contribution of sustainable land use and management to climate change adaptation/mitigation and to safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. *For more on the SPI see: http://www.unccd.int/en/programmes/Science/International-Scientific-Advice/Pages/SPI.aspx?HighlightID=282

  10. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  11. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  12. Highlighting the importance of social dimension with Social Impact Assessment for more transparent Water Policy and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitalar, Maruša. Å.; Mitja Brilly, , ., Dr. _., Prof.

    2010-05-01

    We are often faced with the situation that phase of creating a policy tends to be a field where all ideas, visions seem clear, realistic and simple but when it comes to the next stage which means transferring policy into reality we are suddenly confronted with complex network that because of its human dimension consequently shows us that while planning we must have forgotten to consider this important segment. Implementation reveals were things went wrong in stage of planning, were tend to be "black holes" and with evaluation we point out positive and negative connotation of implementation and policy itself. Theory can often build the ground that cannot support the sequence of events or cannot create an appropriate system that could potentially function in society. Any kind of policy should be done in a conjunction with society, people. Therefore it is important that we fill first gap which is human capital. A social dimension is very important and needs attention. We need to assure that social component will be considered and discussed in water policy management if we want it to be transparent and accountable. Usage of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is very essential when considering new projects, policies etc. Its role to assess impact on people, society highlights the meaning of this method itself as an important source of information. We have to be aware of importance of human and social capital and that its understanding, satisfaction is key to success. Having all the analysis done, having good theory, project or policy it still not the end. Because putting policy into happening is not enough. Next gap that needs to be filled is related to organisation. This takes under a need of keeping a good coordination between all the actors which means all the people, institutions, stakeholders involved. Well defined roles are crucial and also a good cooperation between all the segments involved. Regarding to this, system should consider transparent local self

  13. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  14. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    PubMed

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation. PMID:24854733

  15. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  16. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  17. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  18. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem. This article is part of a themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216511

  19. Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from Fire and Rescue Services, forestry and cross-sector groups.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Rob; McMorrow, Julia; Aylen, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Severe wildfires are an intermittent problem in England. The paper presents the first analysis of wildfire policy, showing its halting evolution over two decades. First efforts to coordinate wildfire management came from local fire operation groups, where stakeholders such as fire services, land owners and amenity groups shared knowledge and equipment to tackle the problem. A variety of structures and informal management solutions emerged in response to local needs. Knowledge of wildfire accumulated within regional and national wildfire forums and academic networks. Only later did the need for central emergency planning and the response to climate change produce a national policy response. Fire statistics have allowed wildfires to be spatially evidenced on a national scale only since 2009. National awareness of wildfire was spurred by the 2011 fire season, and the high-impact Swinley Forest fire, which threatened critical infrastructure and communities within 50 miles of London. Severe wildfire was included in the National Risk Register for the first time in 2013. Cross-sector approaches to wildfire proved difficult as government responsibility is fragmented along the hazard chain. Stakeholders such as the Forestry Commission pioneered good practice in adaptive land management to build fire resilience into UK forests. The grass-roots evolution of participatory solutions has also been a key enabling process. A coordinated policy is now needed to identify best practice and to promote understanding of the role of fire in the ecosystem.This article is part of a themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216511

  20. 78 FR 70354 - Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... PRA policy statement (60 FR 42622, August 16, 1995) be replaced or subsumed/incorporated into this policy statement? (12) What would be the benefit? What would be the detriment? Section III.B (13) If... publicly available documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html ....

  1. Managing ISR sharing policies at the network edge using Controlled English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Preece, Alun; Zerfos, Petros

    2013-05-01

    In domains such as emergency response and military operations the sharing of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets among different coalition partners is regulated through policies. Traditionally, poli­ cies are created at the center of a coalitions network by high-level decision makers and expressed in low-level policy languages (e.g. Common Information Model SPL) by technical personnel, which makes them difficult to be understood by non-technical users at the edge of the network. Moreover, policies must often be modified by negotiation among coalition partners, typically in rapid response to the changing operational situation. Com­ monly, the users who must cope first with situational changes are those on the edge, so it would be very effective if they were able to create and negotiate policies themselves. We investigate the use of Controlled English (CE) as a means to define a policy representation that is both human-friendly and machine processable. We show how a CE model can capture a variety of policy types, including those based on a traditional asset ownership model, and those defining team-based asset sharing across a coalition. The use of CE is intended to benefit coalition networks by bridging the gap between technical and non-technical users in terms of policy creation and negoti­ ation, while at the same time being directly processable by a policy-checking system without transformation to any other technical representation.

  2. Developing an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy for Evergreen Valley College Library Patrons. Governance and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Ruth I.

    The increased use of interlibrary loan (ILL) services at the Evergreen Valley College (EVC) library which resulted from joining OCLC automated Interlibrary Loan subsystem in 1979 led to the development of an Interlibrary Loan Borrowing Policy by the EVC library staff. The policy is designed to explain to library patrons the limitations on…

  3. Carrying out a Language Policy Change: Advocacy Coalitions and the Management of Linguistic Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marian; Szabo-Gilinger, Eszter; Vigers, Dick; Simicic, Lucija

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on agency in language policy change. The object of the analysis is the processes of bilingualization of signage in three European towns. Located in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Wales, the towns differ in various respects, including the extent to which signage language policies have faced opposition and threatened social…

  4. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  5. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 855.1 Section 855.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses its airfields to support the scope and level...

  6. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  7. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  8. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  9. European public health policies for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease cases better harmonised in 2013 than in 2007.

    PubMed

    Vygen, Sabine; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Stefanoff, Pawel; Hanquet, Germaine; Heuberger, Sigrid; Stuart, James

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, a European survey identified variation in country policies on public health management of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In 2009-10, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published evidence-based guidance on IMD. We therefore surveyed again European countries to describe policies for managing IMD cases and contacts in 2013. We asked national IMD public health experts from 32 European countries to complete a questionnaire focusing on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for IMD contacts and meningococcal vaccination. Proportions in 2007 and 2013 were compared using the chi-squared test. All 32 countries responded, with responses from two regions for Belgium and Italy; half stated having used ECDC guidance to update national recommendations. PEP was recommended to close contacts in 33 of 34 countries/regions, mainly ciprofloxacin for adults (29/32 countries) and rifampicin for children (29/32 countries). ECDC guidance for managing IMD contacts in airplanes was strictly followed by five countries/regions. Twenty-three countries/regions participated in both surveys. Compared with 2007, in 2013, more countries/regions recommended i) ceftriaxone for children (15/23 vs 6/20; p = 0.03), ii) PEP for all children in the same preschool group (8/23 vs 17/23; p = 0.02). More countries/regions recommended evidence-based measures for IMD public health management in 2013 than 2007. However, some discrepancies remain and they call for further harmonisation. PMID:26875517

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel...

  12. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  13. REGIONAL MANAGEMENT OF AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR LOS ANGELES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has two objectives: first, to develop procedures to evaluate policies for controlling automobile emissions; and second, to use these procedures to evaluate specific pollution control strategies for Los Angeles. The first objective is achieved by developing a relatively...

  14. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  15. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  16. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  17. Development and consideration of global policies for managing the future risks of poliovirus outbreaks: insights and lessons learned through modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Watkins, Margaret; Gary, Howard; Alexander, James P; Venczel, Linda; Johnson, Denise; Cáceres, Victor M; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Jafari, Hamid; Cochi, Stephen L

    2006-12-01

    The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative promises to bring large benefits, including sustained improvements in quality of life (i.e., cases of paralytic disease and deaths avoided) and costs saved from cessation of vaccination. Obtaining and maintaining these benefits requires that policymakers manage the transition from the current massive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to a world without OPV and free of the risks of potential future reintroductions of live polioviruses. This article describes the analytical journey that began in 2001 with a retrospective case study on polio risk management and led to development of dynamic integrated risk, economic, and decision analysis tools to inform global policies for managing the risks of polio. This analytical journey has provided several key insights and lessons learned that will be useful to future analysts involved in similar complex decision-making processes. PMID:17184398

  18. Human-centered aircraft automation: A concept and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.

  19. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  20. Healthcare Professionals’ and Policy Makers’ Views on Implementing a Clinical Practice Guideline of Hypertension Management: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ping Yein; Liew, Su May; Abdullah, Adina; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Chia, Yook Chin; Lai, Pauline S. M.; Wong, Stalia S. L.; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most studies have reported barriers to guideline usage mainly from doctors’ perspective; few have reported the perspective of other stakeholders. This study aimed to determine the views and barriers to adherence of a national clinical practice guideline (CPG) on management of hypertension from the perspectives of policymakers, doctors and allied healthcare professionals. Methods This study used a qualitative approach with purposive sampling. Seven in depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with 35 healthcare professionals (policy makers, doctors, pharmacists and nurses) at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February and June 2013. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. Thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Results Two main themes and three sub-themes emerged from this study. The main themes were (1) variation in the use of CPG and (2) barriers to adherence to CPG. The three sub-themes for barriers were issues inherent to the CPG, systems and policy that is not supportive of CPG use, and attitudes and behaviour of stakeholders. The main users of the CPG were the primary care doctors. Pharmacists only partially use the guidelines, while nurses and policy makers were not using the CPG at all. Participants had suggested few strategies to improve usage and adherence to CPG. First, update the CPG regularly and keep its content simple with specific sections for allied health workers. Second, use technology to facilitate CPG accessibility and provide protected time for implementation of CPG recommendations. Third, incorporate local CPG in professional training, link CPG adherence to key performance indicators and provide incentives for its use. Conclusions Barriers to the use of CPG hypertension management span across all stakeholders. The development and implementation of CPG focused mainly on doctors with lack of involvement of other healthcare stakeholders. Guidelines