Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft nuclear power

  1. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  2. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  3. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  4. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  5. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  6. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  7. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  8. Aircraft Photovoltaic Power-Generating System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet -engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are--in themselves --favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project. This new electrical power-generating system offers solid-state reliability with electrical power-output capability comparable to that of existing aircraft electromechanical power-generating systems (alternators and generators). In addition to improvements in aircraft performance, significant aircraft fuel- and weight-saving advantages are projected.

  9. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  10. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  11. Nuclear power: Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

  12. Aircraft photovoltaic power-generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet-engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are - in themselves - favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project.

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  14. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  15. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  16. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  17. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  18. Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1993-01-01

    It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

  19. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  20. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  1. Thermal batteries for aircraft emergency power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, David M.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal batteries are being proposed for the Emergency Power System for aircraft. Thermal batteries are a reserve type battery which is essentially inert until activated. Thermal batteries can generate full power in several seconds and nominally produce 20 WHr/Ib and operate over a temperature range of -65 deg to 165 deg. Thermal batteries have a proven field storage life exceeding 25 years. They contain no liquids, can be maintained at any attitude, operate at any altitude, and do not leak any toxic or noxious materials. Expended thermal batteries contain no lead or cadmium and do not represent a significant disposal or environmental problem. Thermal batteries have a thirty year history of excellent performance providing on-board power for missiles and other weapons and have a proven safety record with no field injuries ever. Thermal batteries have a relatively low cost of initial ownership and require no maintenance.

  2. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  3. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  4. Space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are considered for use in those particular spacecraft applications for which nuclear power systems offer unique advantages over solar and/or chemical space power systems. Both isotopic and reactor heated space electrical power units are described in an attempt to illustrate their operating characteristics, spacecraft integration aspects, and factory-to-end of mission operational considerations. The status of technology developments in nuclear power systems is presented. Some projections of those technologies are made to form a basis for the applications of space nuclear power systems to be expected over the next 10-15 years.

  5. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  6. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  8. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  9. Nuclear power attitude trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nealey, S.M.

    1981-11-01

    The increasing vulnerability of nuclear power to political pressures fueled by public concerns, particularly about nuclear plant safety and radioactive waste disposal, has become obvious. Since Eisenhower's Atoms-for-Peace program, utility and government plans have centered on expansion of nuclear power generating capability. While supporters have outnumbered opponents of nuclear power expansion for many years, in the wake of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident the margin of support has narrowed. The purpose of this paper is to report and put in perspective these long-term attitude trends.

  10. Nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Written and verbal testimony presented before the House Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development is documented. Current research efforts related to space nuclear power are discussed including the SP-100 Space Reactor Program, development of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and the Advanced Nuclear Systems Program. Funding, research and test facilities, specific space mission requirements, and the comparison of solar and nuclear power systems are addressed. Witnesses included representatives from DOD, NASA, DOE, universities, and private industry.

  11. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  12. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise. PMID:17794111

  13. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  14. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. 76 FR 48047 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Powered Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model H-36 ``DIMONA'' powered sailplanes. This proposed...

  16. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  17. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is provided. (MDH)

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  19. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  20. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  1. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  2. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  3. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  5. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  6. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  7. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  8. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  9. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  10. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  11. DC-link approach to constant-frequency aircraft power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorksi, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses a hybrid high-power aircraft electrical system that has very difficult and complex operating requirements. Many issues raised in selecting an approach for this application are similar to those that must eventually be addressed for a large all-electric aircraft. The requirements for this specific system are reviewed, a solution for those requirements is proposed, and some explanation is provided for the choice. Because the system requires a substantial amount of 400-Hz power, a dc-link system was selected to provide that power.

  12. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  13. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  14. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  15. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  16. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  17. Interior noise considerations for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    Powered-lift configurations which are currently under development for future use on STOL aircraft involve impingement of the jet engine exhaust onto wing and flap surfaces. Previous studies have suggested that the impinging jet produces higher noise levels at lower frequencies than does the jet alone. These higher levels, together with the close proximity of the engine and flap noise sources to the fuselage sidewall, suggest that the noise levels in these aircraft may be high enough to interfere with passenger comfort. To investigate this possibility, interior noise levels were estimated for both an upper surface blown (USB) and an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration. This paper describes the procedure used to estimate the interior noise levels and compares these levels with levels on existing jet aircraft and on ground transportation vehicles. These estimates indicate high levels in the STOL aircraft; therefore, areas of possible improvements in technology for control of STOL interior noise are also discussed.

  18. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  19. Nuclear power system

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules.

  20. Contributions Regarding the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Petre, Marian; Dima, Mihai Octavian; Stanciu, Virgil; Petre, Carmelia; Precup, Irinel

    2010-01-21

    The possibility to use a nuclear reactor for airplanes propulsion was investigated taking in to account 2 possible solutions: the direct cycle (where the fluid pass through the reactor's core) and the indirect cycle (where the fluid is passing through a heat exchanger). Taking in to account the radioprotection problems, the only realistic solution seems to be the indirect cycle, where the energy transfer should be performed by a heat exchanger that must work at very high speed of the fluid. The heat exchanger will replace the classical burning room. We had performed a more precise theoretical study for the nuclear jet engine regarding the performances of the nuclear reactor, of the heat exchanger and of the jet engine. It was taken in to account that in the moment when the burning room is replaced by a heat exchanger, a new model for gasodynamic process from the engine must be performed. Studies regarding the high flow speed heat transfer were performed.

  1. Contributions Regarding the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanciu, Virgil; Petre, Marian; Dima, Mihai Octavian; Petre, Carmelia; Precup, Irinel

    2010-01-01

    The possibility to use a nuclear reactor for airplanes propulsion was investigated taking in to account 2 possible solutions: the direct cycle (where the fluid pass through the reactor's core) and the indirect cycle (where the fluid is passing through a heat exchanger). Taking in to account the radioprotection problems, the only realistic solution seems to be the indirect cycle, where the energy transfer should be performed by a heat exchanger that must work at very high speed of the fluid. The heat exchanger will replace the classical burning room. We had performed a more precise theoretical study for the nuclear jet engine regarding the performances of the nuclear reactor, of the heat exchanger and of the jet engine. It was taken in to account that in the moment when the burning room is replaced by a heat exchanger, a new model for gasodynamic process from the engine must be performed. Studies regarding the high flow speed heat transfer were performed.

  2. Overview paper on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  3. Report Card on Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1974-01-01

    Problems facing the nuclear power industry include skyrocketing construction costs, technical failures, fuel scarcity, power plant safety, and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Possible solutions include: reductions in nuclear power plant construction, a complete moratorium on new plant construction, the construction of fast breeder reactors and the…

  4. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  5. Some design considerations for solar-powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Performance and operating characteristics are presented for a solar powered aircraft intended to remain aloft for long periods. The critical technologies which limit the performance are identified. By using the techniques presented, the effects of variation in the system parameters are studied. Practical design consideration are discussed.

  6. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  7. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  8. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  9. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  10. Mission analysis of solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Watson, D. A.; Tuttle, R. P.; Hall, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a real mission scenario on a solar powered airplane configuration which had been developed in previous work were assessed. The mission used was surveillance of crop conditions over a route from Phoenix to Tucson to Tombstone, Arizona. Appendices are attached which address the applicability of existing platforms and payloads to do this mission.

  11. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  12. Airworthiness criteria development for powered-lift aircraft: A program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Stapleford, R. L.; Rumold, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A four-year simulation program to develop airworthiness criteria for powered-lift aircraft is summarized. All flight phases affected by use of powered lift (approach, landing, takeoff) are treated with regard to airworthiness problem areas (limiting flight conditions and safety margins: stability, control, and performance; and systems failure). The general features of powered-lift aircraft are compared to conventional aircraft.

  13. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  15. Project ARES 2: High-altitude battery-powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A high-altitude, battery-powered, propeller-driven aircraft was designed and is being built by undergraduate students at California State University, Northridge. The aircraft will fly at an altitude of 104,000 ft at Mach 0.2 (190 ft/sec) and will be instrumented to record flight performance data, including low Reynolds number propeller and airfoil information. This project will demonstrate the feasibility of electric-powered flight in a low-density, low-temperature Earth environment that models the atmosphere of Mars. Data collected will be used to design a Mars aircraft to investigate the surface of Mars prior to manned missions. The instrumented payload and the mission profile for the high-altitude Earth flight were determined. Detailed aerodynamic and structural analyses were performed. Control, tracking, and data recording subsystems were developed. Materials were obtained and fabrication begun. The aircraft has a 32-ft wing span, a wing area of 105 sq ft, is 17.5 ft long, has a 12-in payload bay, and weighs 42 lb. It is composed primarily of lightweight materials, including Mylar, and composite materials, including graphite/epoxy and aramid core honeycomb sandwich. Low-altitude flight testing to check guidance and control systems and to calibrate data-gathering instruments will take place this summer, followed shortly by the 104,000-ft flight.

  16. Preliminary analysis of three cycles for nuclear propulsion of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, L V; Wachtl, W W; Doyle, R B

    1950-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the feasibility of three cycles for nuclear propulsion of aircraft: a direct-air-turbojet, a binary liquid-metal turbojet, and a helium compressor jet. All three cycles appeared feasible for flight at a Mach number of 0.9 and altitudes up to 50,000 feet; the liquid-metal cycle appeared feasible for flight at a Mach number of 1.5. The air and helium cycles resulted in heavier aircraft than did the liquid-metal cycle, particularly at a Mach number of 1.5. The relative advantage of the liquid-metal cycle became greater as the flight speed and altitude increased, and as the reactor wall temperature decreased.

  17. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  18. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  19. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  20. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  1. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  3. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  4. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  5. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  6. Why Teach about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reasons why nuclear power/technology should be taught. Indicates that the subject is not strictly science-related, the issues offering material for lessons in geography, history, politics, and economics. Also suggests presenting both sides of the nuclear power argument. (Author/JN)

  7. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  8. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  9. The distrust of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Hohenemser, C; Kasperson, R; Kates, R

    1977-04-01

    Society seems content to strike a more moderate or uncertain balance with other technologies than with nuclear power. This attitude is traced to the social history of nuclear power, the genuine uncertainty and complexity of safety issues, underestimation of the regulatory task, and the rancorous nature of the debate. Nuclear power is not just another problem of technology, of environment, or of health. It is unique in our time. To be more demanding of nuclear safety may be to apply a double standard, but not necessarily an irrational one. Our best course appears to be to keep the nuclear option open, work toward the rapid resolution of problems such as waste disposal, but postpone recycling and the breeder reactor. Time is needed to resolve immediate problems such as transport and disposal of nuclear wastes; to come to terms with trans-scientific issues such as plutonium toxicity, sabotage, and weapons proliferation; and to evaluate long-term energy alternatives. PMID:841337

  10. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  11. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  12. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  13. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-01-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  14. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-08-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  15. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  16. Approach path control for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, D. J.; Flora, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    A flight control system concept is defined for approach flightpath control of an augmentor wing (or similar) powered-lift STOL configuration. The proposed STOL control concept produces aircraft transient and steady-state control responses that are familiar to pilots of conventional jet transports, and has potential for good handling qualities ratings in all approach and landing phases. The effects of trailing-edge rate limits, real-engine dynamics, and atmospheric turbulence are considered in the study. A general discussion of STOL handling qualities problems and piloting techniques is included.

  17. Emerging Space Nuclear Power Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, F. J.; Fornoles, E. V.

    1984-01-01

    Growing interest in new classes of military and civil space systems which demand substantial increases in power over current satellites is generating a renewed interest in space qualified nuclear power systems. Indeed, one can say that power is a limiting technology to the achievement of many future goals in space. The speed of nuclear power system development is currently limited by the lack of a clear distinct definition of system requirements. Emerging system requirements are discussed for the following fields: robust surveillance systems, survivable communication systems with anti-jam capabilities, electric propulsion systems, and weapons applications.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  19. Nuclear power cap opposed

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-17

    This article is a review of litigation in Canada that challenges the country`s Nuclear Liability Act. Both parties agree that repeal of this law would raise operating costs, lead to earlier closing of older units, and reduce the likelihood of future plant construction. The suit is brought by the city of Toronto and the Energy Probe watchdog group. Comments by the plaintiffs and several Canadian nuclear utilities are offered.

  20. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  1. Calculated Condenser Performance for a Mercury-Turbine Power Plant for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Ronald B.

    1948-01-01

    As part of an investigation af the application of nuclear energy to various types of power plants for aircraft, calculations have been made to determine the effect of several operating conditions on the performance of condensers for mercury-turbine power plants. The analysis covered 8 range of turbine-outlet pressures from 1 to 200 pounds per square inch absolute, turbine-inlet pressures from 300 to 700 pounds per square inch absolute,and a range of condenser cooling-air pressure drops, airplane flight speeds, and altitudes. The maximum load-carrying capacity (available for the nuclear reactor, working fluid, and cargo) of a mercury-turbine powered aircraft would be about half the gross weight of the airplane at a flight speed of 509 miles per hour and an altitude of 30,000 feet. This maximum is obtained with specific condenser frontal areas of 0.0063 square foot per net thrust horsepower with the condenser in a nacelle and 0.0060 square foot per net thrust horsepower with the condenser submerged in the wings (no external condenser drag) for a turbine-inlet pressure of 500 pounds per square inch absolute, a turbine-outlet pressure of 10 pounds per square inch absolute, and 8 turbine-inlet temperature of 1600 F.

  2. Nuclear power: levels of safety.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, L M

    1988-02-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the "nuclear establishment" itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired. PMID:3340728

  3. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  4. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  5. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  6. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  7. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  8. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-01-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  9. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-11-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  10. High altitude solar power platform. [aircraft design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. D.; Bower, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Solar power is a preeminent alternative to conventional aircraft propulsion. With the continued advances in solar cells, fuel cells, and composite materials technology, the solar powered airplane is no longer a simple curiosity constrained to flights of several feet in altitude or minutes of duration. A high altitude solar powered platform (HASPP) has several potential missions, including communications and agriculture. In remote areas, a HASPP could be used as a communication link. In large farming areas, a HASPP could perform remote sensing of crops. The impact of HASPP in continuous flight for one year on agricultural monitoring mission is presented. This mission provides farmers with near real-time data twice daily from an altitude which allows excellant resolution on water conditions, crop diseases, and insect infestation. Accurate, timely data will enable farmers to increase their yield and efficiency. A design for HASPP for the foregoing mission is presented. In the design power derived from solar cells covering the wings is used for propulsion, avionics, and sensors. Excess power produced midday will be stored in fuel cells for use at night to maintain altitude and course.

  11. Nuclear reactors for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1985-02-01

    The growth in power demands for spacecraft, especially outer planet missions, is driving the development of space nuclear power systems. Nuclear reactors could also be used to process lunar materials to take advantage of order of magnitude lower fuel requirements to move construction components off the moon instead of the earth. Larger, more powerful broadcast satellites which lower the GEO station space demand could use nuclear power, as could navigational systems, orbital transfer vehicles and a manned Mars mission. The SP-100 design is currently undergoing parametric evaluation before engineering studies begin. Safety concerns are concentrated on preventing fissioning until the reactor is on-orbit and keeping the active or discarded reactor out of the atmosphere until the radioactivity has decayed to levels defined by international standards.

  12. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  13. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  14. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  15. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  16. Topics in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-04

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  17. Aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced aircraft turbine engine combustor technology was used to reduce low-power emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to levels significantly lower than those which were achieved with current technology. Three combustor design concepts, which were designated as the hot-wall liner concept, the recuperative-cooled liner concept, and the catalyst converter concept, were evaluated in a series of CF6-50 engine size 40 degree-sector combustor rig tests. Twenty-one configurations were tested at operating conditions spanning the design condition which was an inlet temperature and pressure of 422 K and 304 kPa, a reference velocity of 23 m/s and a fuel-air-ration of 10.5 g/kg. At the design condition typical of aircraft turbine engine ground idle operation, the best configurations of all three concepts met the stringent emission goals which were 10, 1, and 4 g/kg for CO, HC, and Nox, respectively.

  18. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  19. Technology and applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Rosen, Robert; Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Requirements for a number of potential NASA civil space missions are addressed, and the nuclear power technology base to meet these requirements is described. Particular attention is given to applications of space nuclear power to lunar, Mars, and science missions and the technology status of space nuclear power with emphasis on dynamic isotope and space nuclear reactor power systems.

  20. Acoustic intensity near a high-powered military jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Stout, Trevor A; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The spatial variation in vector acoustic intensity has been calculated between 100 and 3000 Hz near a high-performance military aircraft. With one engine of a tethered F-22A Raptor operating at military power, a tetrahedral intensity probe was moved to 27 locations in the geometric near and mid-fields to obtain the frequency-dependent intensity vector field. The angles of the maximum intensity region rotate from aft to sideline with increasing frequency, becoming less directional above 800 Hz. Between 100 and 400 Hz, which are principal radiation frequencies, the ray-traced dominant source region rapidly contracts and moves upstream, approaching nearly constant behavior by 1000 Hz. PMID:26233049

  1. Nuclear power for Mars surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Buksa, John J.; Howe, Steven D.

    1993-02-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass, low-volume, long-life nuclear fission power supplies are an attractive option for meeting lunar and Martian surface power requirements. Two factors will have a strong impact on the suitability of a surface nuclear power supply: the technology used by the reactor and the overall system mass. Because thermionic technology is well suited for surface applications, this paper briefly discusses the existing 6 kWe Russian TOPAZ II reactor and two near-term US thermionic space nuclear power supplies capable of providing 40 kWe. Man-rated shielding will be a significant fraction of the mass of any surface nuclear fission power supply. Because of the importance of optimizing the reactor shield, this paper presents detailed calculations related to the shielding properties of lunar and Martian soil, and the effectiveness of using existing craters to shield a reactor. Preliminary results indicate that it may be desirable to incorporate neutron shielding into the reactor design, but when possible in-situ materials should be used. Preliminary calculations also indicate that while existing craters could provide substantial shielding, radiation scatter off of the crater rim may limit the overall shielding effectiveness of the crater.

  2. Nuclear power for Mars surface

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Buksa, J.J.; Howe, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass, low-volume, long-life nuclear fission power supplies are an attractive option for meeting lunar and Martian surface power requirements. Two factors will have a strong impact on the suitability of a surface nuclear power supply: the technology used by the reactor and the overall system mass. Because thermionic technology is well suited for surface applications, this paper briefly discusses the existing 6 kWe Russian TOPAZ II reactor and two near-term US thermionic space nuclear power supplies capable of providing 40 kWe. Man-rated shielding will be a significant fraction of the mass of any surface nuclear fission power supply. Because of the importance of optimizing the reactor shield, this paper presents detailed calculations related to the shielding properties of lunar and Martian soil, and the effectiveness of using existing craters to shield a reactor. Preliminary results indicate that it may be desirable to incorporate neutron shielding into the reactor design, but when possible in-situ materials should be used. Preliminary calculations also indicate that while existing craters could provide substantial shielding, radiation scatter off of the crater rim may limit the overall shielding effectiveness of the crater. 7 refs.

  3. Intergenerational issues regarding nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons raise substantial public concern in many countries. While new support for nuclear power can be found in arguments concerning greenhouse gases and global warming, the long-term existence of radioactive waste has led to requirements for 10,000-year isolation. Some of the support for such requirements is based on intergenerational equity arguments. This, however, places a very high value on lives far in the future. An alternative is to use discounting, as is applied to other resource applications. Nuclear weapons, even though being dismantled by the major nations, are growing in number due to the increase in the number of countries possessing these weapons of mass destruction. This is an unfortunate legacy for future generations. PMID:11314726

  4. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are the major environmental effects resulting from the production of electricity by nuclear power plants. Discussed are effects of waste heat, radioactivity, radioactive waste elimination, costs, and future prospects. Included are diagrams illustrating cooling tower operation, effects of thermal discharge into water systems, radioactive…

  5. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This booklet is a summary of an international symposium, held in August 1970 in New York City, on the environmental aspects of nuclear power stations. The symposium was convened under the sponsorship of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC). The information is presented in a condensed and…

  6. Convective Array Cooling for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A general characteristic of photovoltaics is that they increase in efficiency as their operating temperature decreases. Based on this principal, the ability to increase a solar aircraft's performance by cooling the solar cells was examined. The solar cells were cooled by channeling some air underneath the cells and providing a convective cooling path to the back side of the array. A full energy balance and flow analysis of the air within the cooling passage was performed. The analysis was first performed on a preliminary level to estimate the benefits of the cooling passage. This analysis established a clear benefit to the cooling passage. Based on these results a more detailed analysis was performed. From this cell temperatures were calculated and array output power throughout a day period were determined with and without the cooling passage. The results showed that if the flow through the cooling passage remained laminar then the benefit in increased output power more than offset the drag induced by the cooling passage.

  7. Design of a turbofan powered regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The majority of the market for small commercial transport aircraft is dominated by high efficiency propeller driven aircraft of non-U.S. manufacture. During the past year, an aircraft was designed with ranges of up to 1500 nautical miles and passenger loads between 50 and 90. Special emphasis was placed upon keeping acquisition cost and direct operating costs at a low level while providing passengers with quality comfort levels. Several designs are presented which place a high premium on design innovation.

  8. Helping nuclear power help us

    SciTech Connect

    Schecker, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    After a prolonged absence, the word 'nuclear' has returned to the lexicon of sustainable domestic energy resources. Due in no small part to its demonstrated reliability, nuclear power is poised to playa greater role in the nation's energy future, producing clean, carbon-neutral electricity and contributing even more to our energy security. To nuclear scientists, the resurgence presents an opportunity to inject new technologies into the industry to maximize the benefits that nuclear energy can provide. 'By developing new options for waste management and exploiting new materials to make key technological advances, we can significantly impact the use of nuclear energy in our future energy mix,' says Chris Stanek, a materials scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanek approaches the big technology challenges by thinking way small, all the way down to the atoms. He and his colleagues are using cutting edge atomic-scale simulations to address a difficult aspect of nuclear waste -- predicting its behavior far into the future. Their research is part of a broader, coordinated effort on the part of the Laboratory to use its considerable experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities to explore advanced materials central to not only waste issues, but to nuclear fuels as well.

  9. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  10. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  11. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  12. Role of nuclear power in the Philippine power development program

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as: the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development (STAND); the Large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power systems compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclear power program. The electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power.

  13. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Reciprocity §...

  14. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Reciprocity §...

  15. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Reciprocity §...

  16. Design of a turbofan powered regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The majority of the market for small commercial transport aircraft is dominated by high-efficiency, propeller-driven aircraft of non-U.S. manufacture. During the past year senior student design teams at Purdue developed and then responded to a Request For Proposal (RFP) for a regional transport aircraft. The RFP development identified promising world markets and their needs. The students responded by designing aircraft with ranges of up to 1500 n.m. and passenger loads of 50 to 90. During the design project, special emphasis was placed upon keeping acquisition cost and direct operating costs at a low level while providing passengers with quality comfort levels. Twelve student teams worked for one semester developing their designs. Several of the more successful designs and those that placed a high premium on innovation are described. The depth of detail and analysis in these student efforts are also illustrated.

  17. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft- 2013 ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.; McDonald, Robert; Campbell, Robbie; Chase, Adam; Daniel, Jason; Darling, Michael; Green, Clayton; MacGregor, Collin; Sudak, Peter; Sykes, Harrison; Waddington, Michael; Fredericks, William J.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Martin, John G.; Moore, Mark D.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Felder, James L.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the final written documentation for the Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Seedling Fund's Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) Aircraft Phase I project. The findings presented include propulsion system concepts, synergistic missions, and aircraft concepts. LENR is a form of nuclear energy that potentially has over 4,000 times the energy density of chemical energy sources. It is not expected to have any harmful emissions or radiation which makes it extremely appealing. There is a lot of interest in LENR, but there are no proven theories. This report does not explore the feasibility of LENR. Instead, it assumes that a working system is available. A design space exploration shows that LENR can enable long range and high speed missions. Six propulsion concepts, six missions, and four aircraft concepts are presented. This report also includes discussion of several issues and concerns that were uncovered during the study and potential research areas to infuse LENR aircraft into NASA's aeronautics research.

  18. Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab-Marzouk, Ahmad

    A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.

  19. The economics of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  20. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  2. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  3. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  4. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. DC-to-DC power supply for light aircraft flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    The power supply unit was developed to serve as the power source for a loran-C receiver. The power supply can be connected directly to the aircraft's electrical system, and is compatible with either 14 or 28 volt electrical systems. Design specifications are presented for the unit along with a description of the circuit design.

  6. Materials in space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H.; Moore, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Man's presence in space has been limited by the availability of reliable lightweight sources of power. Over the course of the last 30 years, a variety of space nuclear power systems have been designed and, in some cases, built and flown. Although a number of technology issues effect the overall performance of these systems, technical issues associated with the materials of construction have most often been a major limitation in obtaining the desired system performance goals. This paper will review selected materials limitations associated with the three major nuclear power systems being considered at this time: radioisotope power, nuclear power, and nuclear propulsion systems.

  7. Introduction and overall description of nuclear power plant. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include content and purpose of booklets; how to study; producing electricity; the fossil fuel power plant; the nuclear power plant; the nuclear reactor; generating steam in a nuclear power plant; using the steam in a nuclear power plant; nuclear power station facilities; and special features of nuclear power plants.

  8. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  9. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  10. Resergence of U.S. Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-15

    Over the past quarter century, things have not gone well for the nuclear industry. First came the Three Mile Island accident in America in 1979, then the disaster at the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine in 1986. In Japan, Tokyo Electric Power, the world's largest private electricity company, shut its 17 nuclear reactors after it was caught falsifying safety records to hide cracks at some of its plants in 2002. In addition, the attacks on September 11, 2001 were a sharp reminder that the risks of nuclear power generation were not only those inherent in the technology. But lately, prospects have brightened for the nuclear industry. Nuclear power is an important source of electricity in many countries. In 2003, 19 countries depended on nuclear power for at least 20 percent of their electricity generation. As of March 2005, there were 441 nuclear power reactors in operation around the world, and another 25 were under construction. Five new nuclear power plants began operation in 2004 - one each in China, Japan, and Russia and two in Ukraine. In addition, Canada?s Bruce 3 reactor was reconnected to the grid. Five nuclear power plants were permanently shut down in 2004 - one in Lithuania and four in the United Kingdom. Nuclear power is expected to see a revival in the next decade given the availability of uranium and the prospect of emission-free power generation, Also, with conventional energy sources such as oil and gas likely to see severe depletion over the next 30 years, the price of conventional power generation is set to rise significantly, which would put nuclear power generation in focus again. The report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry and gives a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its

  11. Hydrogen powered aircraft : The future of air transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Bhupendra; Karakurt, Adam; Sekaran, Paulas R.; Sethi, Vishal; Singh, Riti

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates properties and traits of hydrogen with regard to environmental concerns and viability in near future applications. Hydrogen is the most likely energy carrier for the future of aviation, a fuel that has the potential of zero emissions. With investigation into the history of hydrogen, this study establishes issues and concerns made apparent when regarding the fuel in aero applications. Various strategies are analyzed in order to evaluate hydrogen's feasibility which includes production, storage, engine configurations and aircraft configurations.

  12. Frequency Estimates for Aircraft Crashes into Nuclear Facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    SciTech Connect

    George D. Heindel

    1998-09-01

    In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a new standard for evaluating accidental aircraft crashes into hazardous facilities. This document uses the method prescribed in the new standard to evaluate the likelihood of this type of accident occurring at Los Alamos National Laboratory's nuclear facilities.

  13. Feasibility study for a microwave-powered ozone sniffer aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, David F.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Forden, Noah P.; Helsing, Martin A.; Jutras, Thomas H.; Kim, Dohoon; Labarre, Christopher; Odin, Ethan M.; Sandler, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design of a high-altitude, remotely-piloted, atmospheric-sampling aircraft powered by microwave energy beamed from ground-based antenna was completed. The vehicle has a gross weight of 6720 pounds and is sized to carry a 1000 pound payload at an altitude of 100,000 feet. The underside of the wing serves as the surface of a rectenna designed to receive microwave energy at a power density of 700 watts per square meter and the wing has a planform area of 3634 square feet to absorb the required power at an optimum Mach number M = 0.44. The aircraft utilizes a horizontal tail and a canard for longitudinal control and to enhance the structural rigidity of the twin fuselage configuration. The wing structure is designed to withstand a gust-induced load factor n = 3 at cruise altitude but the low-wing loading of the aircraft makes it very sensitive to gusts at low altitudes, which may induce load factors in excess of 20. A structural load alleviation system is therefore proposed to limit actual loads to the designed structural limit. Losses will require transmitted power on the order of megawatts to be radiated to the aircraft from the ground station, presenting environmental problems. Since the transmitting antenna would have a diameter of several hundred feet, it would not be readily transportable, so we propose that a single antenna be constructed at a site from which the aircraft is flown. The aircraft would be towed aloft to an initial altitude at which the microwave power would be utilized. The aircraft would climb to cruise altitude in a spiral flight path and orbit the transmitter in a gentle turn.

  14. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  15. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  16. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  17. Flight test techniques for validating simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse aircraft responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, R. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the effects of nuclear EM pulses (NEMPs) on aircraft systems, using a highly instrumented NASA F-106B to document the simulated NEMP environment at the Kirtland Air Force Base's Vertically Polarized Dipole test facility. Several test positions were selected so that aircraft orientation relative to the test facility would be the same in flight as when on the stationary dielectric stand, in order to validate the dielectric stand's use in flight configuration simulations. Attention is given to the flight test portions of the documentation program.

  18. Teaching About Nuclear Power: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that simulation games be used to teach high school students in social studies courses about contemporary and controversial issues such as nuclear power. A simulation is described which involves students in deciding whether to build a nuclear power plant in the California desert. Teaching and debriefing tips are also provided. (DB)

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. A Nuclear Power Primer: Issues for Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beane, Marjorie

    The history, problems, arguments, and controversy concerning power created by nuclear fission are outlined. The purpose of the booklet is to present unbiased information for the layman in understandable language in order to improve the quality of national debate over nuclear power. Information for the booklet was gathered from journals, government…

  1. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  2. Nuclear power expansion: thinking about uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Lynne; Sotkiewicz, Paul; Berg, Sanford

    2010-06-15

    Nuclear power is one of many options available to achieve reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The real-option value model can help explain the uncertainties facing prospective nuclear plant developers in developing mitigation strategies for the development, construction, and operation of new nuclear plants. (author)

  3. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  4. Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

  5. The 400-Hz aircraft power-generation systems: Advancing the baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, T.

    1983-06-01

    Today's benchmark system for the Boeing 757/767/A310 airplanes and future trends in hydromechanical aircraft power generating systems are discussed. The 757/767/A310 system represents the commercial state of the art and the direction in which Sundstrand Corp. is headed, particularly in regard to weight reduction. Sundstrand introduced microprocessor control in an in service system in the Boeing 767 and was the first to use databus communications between the controls. Plans to develop this technology are briefly discussed. Alternative ways to produce and use power in aircraft are discussed. The integrated starter drive is discussed.

  6. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  7. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, R. W.

    2004-02-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  8. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  9. The role of nonlinear effects in the propagation of noise from high-power jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Sparrow, Victor W; James, Michael M; Downing, J Micah; Hobbs, Christopher M; Gabrielson, Thomas B; Atchley, Anthony A

    2008-06-01

    To address the question of the role of nonlinear effects in the propagation of noise radiated by high-power jet aircraft, extensive measurements were made of the F-22A Raptor during static engine run-ups. Data were acquired at low-, intermediate-, and high-thrust engine settings with microphones located 23-305 m from the aircraft along several angles. Comparisons between the results of a generalized-Burgers-equation-based nonlinear propagation model and the measurements yield favorable agreement, whereas application of a linear propagation model results in spectral predictions that are much too low at high frequencies. The results and analysis show that significant nonlinear propagation effects occur for even intermediate-thrust engine conditions and at angles well away from the peak radiation angle. This suggests that these effects are likely to be common in the propagation of noise radiated by high-power aircraft. PMID:18537360

  10. Longitudinal handling qualities during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Longitudinal handling qualities evaluations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA) for the approach and landing tasks of a powered lift STOL research aircraft. The test vehicle was a C-8A aircraft modified with a new wing incorporating internal blowing over an augmentor flap. The investigation included: (1) use of various flight path and airspeed control techniques for the basic vehicle; (2) assessment of stability and command augmentation schemes for pitch attitude and airspeed control; (3) determination of the influence of longitudinal and vertical force coupling for the power control; (4) determination of the influence of pitch axis coupling with the thrust vector control; and (5) evaluations of the contribution of stability and command augmentation to recovery from a single engine failure. Results are presented in the form of pilot ratings and commentary substantiated by landing approach time histories.

  11. Human Factors and Information Operation for a Nuclear Power Space Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Brown-Van Hoozer, S. Alenka

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes human-interactive systems needed for a crew nuclear-enabled space mission. A synthesis of aircraft engine and nuclear power plant displays, biofeedback of sensory input, virtual control, brain mapping for control process and manipulation, and so forth are becoming viable solutions. These aspects must maintain the crew's situation awareness and performance, which entails a delicate function allocation between crew and automation. (authors)

  12. Human Factors and Information Operation for a Nuclear Power Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Brown-VanHoozer, S. Alenka

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes human-interactive systems needed for a crewed nuclear-enabled space mission. A synthesis of aircraft engine and nuclear power plant displays, biofeedback of sensory input, virtual control, brain mapping for control process and manipulation, and so forth are becoming viable solutions. These aspects must maintain the crew's situation awareness and performance, which entails a delicate function allocation between crew and automation.

  13. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  14. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  15. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  16. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  17. An evolutionary strategy for space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1996-03-01

    A number of exciting mission opportunities are being considered for the 21st century, including (1) advanced robotic science missions to the outer planets and beyond; (2) advanced space transportation systems; and (3) human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Several of these missions will require some form of nuclear power; however, it is clear that current budgetary constraints preclude developing many different types of space nuclear power systems. This paper reviews the specific civil space missions which have been identified, the power levels and lifetimes required, and the technologies available. From this an evolutionary space nuclear power program is developed which builds upon the experience of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, improved static and dynamic isotope power systems, and space nuclear reactors. It is strongly suggested that not only does this approach make technical and budgetary sense but that it is consistent with the normal development of new technologies.

  18. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  20. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND...

  1. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  2. Inductive energy harvesting from variable frequency and amplitude aircraft power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, T. T.; Wright, S. W.; Kiziroglou, M. E.; Mueller, J.; Sessinghaus, M.; Yeatman, E. M.; Mitcheson, P. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a non-contact method of harvesting energy from an aircraft power line that has an AC current of variable amplitude and a frequency range of 360-800 Hz. The current and frequency characteristics of the aircraft power line are dependent on the rotation speed of the electrical generators and will therefore change during a flight. The harvester consists of an inductive coil with a ferrite core, which is interfaced to a rectifier, step-down regulator and supercapacitor. A prototype system was constructed to demonstrate reliable output voltage regulation across a supercapacitor that will supply a peak power of 100 mW under duty cycled load conditions. The system could fully charge a 40 mF supercapacitor to 3.3 V in 78 s from a power line current of 1.5 Arms at 650 Hz.

  3. High-voltage (270 V) dc power-generating system for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginley, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of using high voltage, direct current advanced power generating systems in fighter aircraft are discussed. Weight reduction is achieved. Efficiency is increased 85 to 90 percent by eliminating the constant speed drive. Power interruptions are eliminated. There are no speed restrictions and no powerline constraints. Personal safety is increased by eliminating the hold on frequency, present in ac systems, which causes muscle contractions.

  4. Development and evaluation of automatic landing control laws for power lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinreich, B.; Gevaert, G.

    1981-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to generate and verify through ground bases simulation and flight research a data base to aid in the design and certification of advanced propulsive lift short takeoff and landing aircraft. Problems impacting the design of powered lift short haul aircraft that are to be landed automatically on STOL runways in adverse weather were examined. An understanding of the problems was gained by a limited coverage of important elements that are normally included in the certification process of a CAT 3 automatic landing system.

  5. Flight test results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are

  6. The ground effects of a powered-lift STOL aircraft during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Victor C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ground proximity on a powered lift STOL aircraft are presented. The data are from NASA's Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) flown at landing approach airspeeds of less than 60 knots with an 80 lb/sq ft wing loading. These results show that the ground effect change in lift is positive and does significantly reduce the touchdown sink rate. These results are compared to those of the YC-14 and YC-15. The change in drag and pitching moment caused by ground effects is also presented.

  7. Competitive economics of nuclear and coal power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.; Hellman, C.J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors analyze the competitive economics of nuclear and coal power plants newly ordered for initial commercial operation in 1985-95. The focus is on bottom-line costs and on identifying and analyzing the engineering and economic factors. Using the architect/engineer cost estimations of four best-case studies prepared by the AEC (1974), ERDA (1976), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1970), and Exxon (1977-79), the authors show that the total average lifetime busbar costs for coal are 22 to 50% cheaper than for nuclear. Further, they note that the results are conservative in favor of nuclear power because they probably underestimate capital costs and do not include federal subsidies. Nuclear power's cost disadvantages in the new study is attributable to a design/performance gap. 33 references, 61 tables.

  8. Making space nuclear power a reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Our current space exploration missions are power limited. Space nuclear reactors could provide the power for both onboard electrical power and propulsion to enable a new generation of space science and exploration. Implementing a mission using a space nuclear reactor presents many technical challenges. However, nuclear technologies are safely and reliably used throughout U.S. industries and the Government. Well-defined processes and regulations currently exist for the use of nuclear technologies in space or any other application. These processes and regulations assure safe, reliable use of nuclear technology in a manner that protects the public and the environment. The question is not one of choosing between safety and space science, but of investing in a technology that includes rigorous processes and procedures to assure safe.

  9. Power to the people: Can public referenda kill nuclear power?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of the current public anxiety toward nuclear power. It focuses on activities in each member of the European nuclear community, with the common thread being concern over the disposal of radioactive wastes. It is noted that the consensus appears to be that disposal of high-level waste is a problem for tomorrow and not for today.

  10. Nuclear power - How safe in space

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, P.

    1987-09-01

    The use of nuclear-powered spacecraft is examined. The nuclear-powered radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) serve only as power generators and are not involved in the propulsion of the spacecraft. The plutonium power core is contained in a graphite container in order to ensure safety in the event of a launch accident or the possible reentry of the lunar module into the earth's atmosphere. The operation of the RTG is described. Various experiments and applications for the RTGs, such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, the Viking Mars explorers, and Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, are discussed.

  11. Aerodynamics of powered missile separation from F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, J. U.; Shanks, S. P.; Buning, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    A 3D dynamic 'chimera' algorithm that solves the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations over multiple moving bodies was modified to numerically simulate the aerodynamics, missile dynamics, and missile plume interactions of a missile separating from a generic wing and from an F/A-18 aircraft in transonic flow. The missile is mounted below the wing for missile separation from the wing and on the F/A-18 fuselage at the engine inlet side for missile separation from aircraft. Static and powered missile separation cases are considered to examine the influence of the missile and plume on the wing and F/A-18 fuselage and engine inlet. The aircraft and missile are at two degrees angle of attack, Reynolds number of 10 million, freestream Mach number of 1.05 and plume Mach number of 3.0. The computational results show the details of the flow field.

  12. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  13. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  14. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  15. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As visions of space applications expand and as probes extend further and further out into the universe, the need for power also expands, and missions evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources are defined. These include earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration and extraterrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. This paper presents results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear-reactor energy sources combined with various energy-conversion devices for earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rover and surface power, and planetary exploration.

  16. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  17. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  18. Noise Certification Predictions for FJX-2-Powered Aircraft Using Analytic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Williams International Co. is currently developing the 700-pound thrust class FJX-2 turbofan engine for the general Aviation Propulsion Program's Turbine Engine Element. As part of the 1996 NASA-Williams cooperative working agreement, NASA agreed to analytically calculate the noise certification levels of the FJX-2-powered V-Jet II test bed aircraft. Although the V-Jet II is a demonstration aircraft that is unlikely to be produced and certified, the noise results presented here may be considered to be representative of the noise levels of small, general aviation jet aircraft that the FJX-2 would power. A single engine variant of the V-Jet II, the V-Jet I concept airplane, is also considered. Reported in this paper are the analytically predicted FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels appropriate for Federal Aviation Regulation certification. Also reported are FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels using noise metrics appropriate for the propeller-driven aircraft that will be its major market competition, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the certification noise levels to major system uncertainties.

  19. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  20. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  1. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  2. Nuclear power: key to man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The start of the Third Millennium will be highlighted by the establishment of man's extraterrestrial civilization with three technical cornerstones leading to the off-planet expansion of the human resource base. These are (1) the availability of compact energy sources for power and propulsion, (2) the creation of permanent manned habitats in space, and (3) the ability to process materials anywhere in the Solar System. In the 1990s and beyond, nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. The manned and unmanned space missions of tomorrow will demand first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. Various nuclear power plant technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on derivatives from the nuclear rocket technology.

  3. Description of an aircraft lightning and simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) threat based on experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustan, Pedro L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Lightning data obtained by measuring the surface electromagnetic fields on a CV-580 research aircraft during 48 lightning strikes between 1500 and 18,000 feet in central Florida during the summers of 1984 and 1985, and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) data obtained by surface electromagnetic field measurements using a 1:74 CV-580 scale model, are presented. From one lightning event, maximum values of 3750 T/s for the time rate of change of the surface magnetic flux density, and 4.7 kA for the peak current, were obtained. From the simulated NEMP test, maximum values of 40,000 T/s for the time rate of change of the surface magnetic flux density, and 90 A/sq m for the total normal current density, were found. The data have application to the development of a military aircraft lightning/NEMP standard.

  4. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  5. The Fukushima Nuclear Event and its Implications for Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, Michael

    2011-07-06

    The combined strong earthquake and super tsunami of 12 March 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant imposed the most severe challenges ever experienced at such a facility. Information regarding the plant response and status remains uncertain, but it is clear that severe damage has been sustained, that the plant staff have responded creatively and that the offsite implications are unlikely to be seriously threatening to the health, if not the prosperity, of the surrounding population. Re-examination of the regulatory constraints of nuclear power will occur worldwide, and some changes are likely, particularly concerning reliance upon active systems for achieving critical safety functions and concerning treatments of used reactor fuel. Whether worldwide expansion of the nuclear power economy will be slowed in the long run is perhaps unlikely and worth discussion.

  6. Definition and analytical evaluation of a power management system for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. J.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the special design criteria which apply to power management in a tilt-rotor aircraft. These include the need for accurate and fast control of rpm and thrust, while accounting for the dynamic interactions between rotor systems caused by cross-shafting and aircraft lateral/directional response. The power management system is also required to provide acceptable high speed sensitivity to longitudinal turbulence. It is shown that the criteria can best be met using a single governor adjusting the collective pitch by an amount proportional to a combination of the average rpm and the integral of the average rpm of the two rotors. This system is evaluated and compared with other candidate systems in hover and cruise flight.

  7. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Based Control Power Optimization on Tailless Aircraft. [ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.

  9. The longevity of nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Speiwak, I.; Livingston, R.S.

    1985-08-01

    It appears likely that nuclear power plants can be operated safely in excess of the licensed 40 years. This conclusion is based on a systematic review of the plant systems and favorable experience in refurbishing old fossil plants, the Savannah River production reactors and the early British Magnox reactors. The technical areas that may present the greatest difficulty are the reactor pressure vessel, the electrical cable, and reinforced concrete structures. Utilities are also concerned about the difficulty of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's relicensing process, which has not as yet been defined. If license extensions can be obtained, utilities can afford to spend many hundreds of millions of dollars to achieve an additional ten or more years of operation. Nuclear plant life extension has favorable implications for the long-term price of electricity in systems containing nuclear power plants.

  10. Multimegawatt nuclear power systems for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Results from systems analysis studies of multimegawatt nuclear power systems are presented for application to nuclear electric propulsion. Specific mass estimates are presented for nearer term SP-100 reactor-based potassium Rankine and Brayton power systems for piloted and cargo missions. Growth SP-100/Rankine systems were found to range from roughly 7 to 10 kg/kWe specific mass depending on full power life requirements. The SP-100/Rankine systems were also found to result in a 4-kg/kWe savings in specific mass over SP-100/Brayton systems. The potential of advanced, higher temperature reactor and power conversion technologies for achieving reduced mass Rankine and Brayton systems was also investigated. A target goal of 5 kg/kWe specific mass was deemed reasonable given either 1400 K potassium Rankine with 1500 K lithium-cooled reactors or 2000 K gas cooled reactors with Brayton conversion.

  11. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  12. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  13. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.; Chi, J. W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Comparative analyses reveal that the nuclear power option significantly reduces the logistic burden required to support a lunar base. The paper considers power levels from tens of kWe for early base operation up to 2000 kWe for a self-sustaining base with a CELSS. It is shown that SP-100 and NERVA derivative reactor (NDR) technology for space power can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are described.

  14. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan-draft section revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  15. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  16. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  17. Iran's nuclear-power program revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-09-01

    Iran's new government has not yet decided the fate of the country's once-ambitious nuclear power program. If the program is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway then the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear-power program between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrasturctural, and political criticisms of the program as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. 13 references, 3 tables.

  18. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  19. US nuclear power remains on hold

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s decision to end its nuclear program signaled the end of an era for the nuclear industry in the United States. Despite significant improvements in operational efficiency, nuclear power plants have not proven to be cost-efficient, says John F. Ahearne, executive director of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. A decade ago, Ahearne suspected that recovery of the nuclear power industry would depend on increasing demand for energy, a solution to the waste management problem, an unblemished safety record, and competent management. But for utility executives and public officials, the question whether to go nuclear comes down to the question of cost. Despite concerns about greenhouse gasses produced from traditional fossil-fuel plants, even the Environmental Protection Agency recommends sources of energy other than nuclear, says Ahearne. And even if the perennial problem of waste disposal were to be resolved tomorrow, Ahearne says, it is unlikely that utility executives would be scrambling to order new plants. {open_quotes}For now and into the forseeable future, electricity demand in the United States can be met by conservation, load management, and non-nuclear sources of energy, Ahearne predicts.

  20. Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

  1. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  2. Power-dependent speciation of volatile organic compounds in aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Winstead, Edward L.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Blake, Donald R.; Timko, Michael T.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the third NASA Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX-3, November 2005), whole air samples were collected to determine the emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aircraft equipped with three different gas-turbine engines (an Allison Engine 3007-A1E, a Pratt-Whitney 4158, and a Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4B). Samples were collected 1 m behind the engine exhaust plane of the engines while they were operated at powers ranging from idle up to 30% of maximum rated thrust. Exhaust emission indices (mass emitted per kilogram of fuel used) for CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were calculated based on enhancements over background relative to CO2. Emissions of all NMHCs were greatest at low power with values decreasing by an order of magnitude with increasing power. Previous studies have shown that scaling idle hydrocarbon emissions to formaldehyde or ethene (which are typically emitted at a ratio of 1-to-1 at idle) reduces variability amongst engine types. NMHC emissions were found to scale at low power, with alkenes contributing over 50% of measured NMHCs. However, as the power increases hydrocarbon emissions no longer scale to ethene, as the aromatics become the dominant species emitted. This may be due in part to a shift in combustion processes from thermal cracking (producing predominantly alkenes) to production of new molecules (producing proportionally more aromatics) as power increases. The formation of these aromatics is an intermediate step in the production of soot, which also increases with increasing power. The increase in aromatics relative to alkenes additionally results in a decrease in the hydroxyl radical reactivity and ozone formation potential of aircraft exhaust. Samples collected 30 m downwind of the engine were also analyzed for NMHCs and carbonyl compounds (acetone, 2-butanone and C1-C9 aldehydes). Formaldehyde was the predominant carbonyl emitted; however, the ratio of ethene-to-formaldehyde varied between the

  3. New energy conversion techniques in space, applicable to propulsion. [powering of aircraft with laser energy from SPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    The powering of aircraft with laser energy from a solar power satellite may be a promising new approach to the critical problem of the rising cost of fuel for aircraft transportation systems. The result is a nearly fuelless, pollution-free flight transportation system which is cost-competitive with the fuel-conservative airplane of the future. The major components of this flight system include a laser power satellite, relay satellites, laser-powered turbofans and a conventional airframe. The relay satellites are orbiting optical systems which intercept the beam from a power satellite and refocus and redirect the beam to its next target.

  4. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon Cycling with Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline, diesel or jet fuel are the most efficient ways of delivering energy to the transportation sector, in particular cars, ships and airplanes. Unfortunately, their use nearly unavoidably leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Unless an equivalent amount is removed from the air, the carbon dioxide will accumulate and significantly contribute to the man-made greenhouse effect. If fuels are made from biomass, the capture of carbon dioxide is a natural part of the cycle. Here, we discuss technical options for capturing carbon dioxide at much faster rates. We outline the basic concepts, discuss how such capture technologies could be made affordable and show how they could be integrated into a larger system approach. In the short term, the likely source of the hydrocarbon fuels is oil or gas; in the longer term, technologies that can provide energy to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide and water molecules and combine the remaining components into liquid fuels make it possible to recycle carbon between fuels and carbon dioxide in an entirely abiotic process. Here we focus on renewable and nuclear energy options for producing liquid fuels and show how air capture combined with fuel synthesis could be more economic than a transition to electric cars or hydrogen-fueled cars.

  6. Fluctuating pressures on aircraft wing and flap surfaces associated with powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Schoenster, J. A.; Willis, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present work presents results from two research studies that provide information on the fluctuating pressures generated by the use of powered-lift systems in STOL aircraft. Data are given for several chordwise and spanwise locations on large-scale models of an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration and an upper surface blown flap (USB) configuration in which actual jet engines were used. Pressure levels were high enough to indicate that special design effort will be required to avoid acoustic fatigue failures of wing and flap sturctures. The observation that pressure levels did not decrease very much with increased distance from the engine exhaust center line suggests that a STOL aircraft fuselage, which is in relatively close proximity to the engines for aerodynamic reasons, will be subjected to unusually high external overall fluctuating pressure levels (OAFPLs) that may cause difficulty in control of the cabin noise level.

  7. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  8. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, J.; Prussel, M.

    1986-02-01

    EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is being largely ignored in the design of nuclear power instrumentation and control systems. As a result, EMI (electromagnetic interference) is causing costly startup delays and spurious reactor trips. This paper describes existing problems, basic causes, and approaches to their solutions.

  10. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  11. Modesty garment use at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.E. ); Johnstone, G. )

    1990-02-01

    This article presents the results of a telephone survey of modesty garment use at U.S. nuclear power plants. Modesty garments are launderable or disposable lightweight garments worn in radiological areas under cloth protective clothing (PCs). The types of modesty garments used, the benefits they provide, and other issues related to their used are discussed.

  12. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  13. Aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit emissions from combusting JP-8 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, L.T.; Sylvia, D.A.; Gerstle, T.C.; Virag, P.

    1997-12-31

    Due to safety considerations and in an effort to standardize Department of Defense fuels, the US Air Force (USAF) replaced the naptha-based JP-4, MIL-T-5624, with the kerosene-based JP-8, MIL-T-83133, as the standard turbine fuel. Although engine emissions from combustion of JP-4 are well documented for criteria pollutants, little information exists for criteria and hazardous air pollutants from combustion of JP-8 fuel. Due to intrinsic differences between these two raw fuels, their combustion products were expected to differ. As part of a broader engine testing program, the Air Force, through the Human Systems Center at Brooks AFB, TX, has contracted to have the emissions characterized from aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs). Criteria pollutant and targeted HAP emissions of selected USAF aircraft engines were quantified during the test program. Emission test results will be used to develop emission factors for the tested aircraft engines and APUs. The Air Force intends to develop a mathematical relationship, using the data collected during this series of tests and from previous tests, to extrapolate existing JP-4 emission factors to representative JP-8 emission factors for other engines. This paper reports sampling methodologies for the following aircraft engine emissions tests: F110-GE-100, F101-GE-102, TF33-P-102, F108-CF-100, T56-A-15, and T39-GE-1A/C. The UH-60A helicopter engine, T700-GE-700, and the C-5A/B and C-130H auxiliary power units (GTCP165-1 and GTCP85-180, respectively) were also tested. Testing was performed at various engine settings to determine emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, total hydrocarbon, and selected hazardous air pollutants. Ambient monitoring was conducted concurrently to establish background pollutant concentrations for data correction.

  14. Radiation hardening design of nuclear powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of space systems utilizing nuclear fueled power systems must consider the radiation environment from the earliest stages of their design. A range of nuclear systems are being considered for present and future satellite systems capable of supplying tens of kilowatts to multimegawatt and generating a corresponding range of radiation environments. The effects of these radiations on electronics and materials can be minimized by implementing early design considerations which maximize the design efficiency and minimize the impact on system mass. Space systems design considerations for the radiation environment must include all sources in addition to the self induced gamma ray and neutron radiation. These include the orbital dependent environment from the high energy electron and protons encountered in natural space. The system trades which the designer must consider in the development of space platforms which utilize nuclear reactor power supplies are discussed.

  15. NASA advanced design program: Analysis, design, and construction of a solar powered aircraft. B.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Agnes; Conley, Kristin; Javorski, Christian T.; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Crivelli, Paul M.; Torrey, Nancy P.; Traver, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as the most logical alternative source of power. The major objective of this project was to build a solar powered remotely controlled aircraft to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design was optimized for minimum weight and maximum strength of the structure. These design constraints necessitated a carbon fiber composite structure. Surya is a lightweight, durable aircraft capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar cells.

  16. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69...

  17. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  18. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  19. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  20. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  1. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  2. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  3. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  4. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  5. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  6. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

  7. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  8. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  9. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  10. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  11. Key issues in space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  12. The Resurgence of U.S. Nuclear Power, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The updated report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry, including a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its history, the current market environment, and the future of nuclear power in the U.S.; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in nuclear power; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of new nuclear power plants; a description of nuclear power technology including existing reactors, as well as 3rd and 4th generation reactor designs; a review of the economics of new nuclear power projects and comparison to other generation alternatives; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting nuclear power development; profiles of the key reactor manufacturers participating in the U.S. nuclear power market; and, profiles of the leading U.S. utilities participating in the U.S. nuclear power market.

  13. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  14. Infrared monitoring of nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1988-12-01

    Using parameters for unclassified astronomical observatories based on Maui and on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have determined the level of confidence of monitoring a ban on nuclear power in earth orbit. Existing military and astronomical observatories can detect and identify operating nuclear power sources on satellites, such as the Soviet RORSAT and American SP100, with a very high level of confidence to distances beyond geosynchronous orbit. A cold reactor can be detected with a medium level of confidence with visual observations by close-flying reconnaissance satellites with medium confidence, and in the future with very high confidence with the interrogation of neutrons. The smaller thermal sources, RTG and DIPS, could be detected with medium level of confidence under certain conditions. Large pulsed reactors can be detected with a medium confidence level with visual observations from close satellites, and with a very high level of confidence with neutron interrogation.

  15. Childhood cancer near German nuclear power stations.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study in Germany reported a 60% increase in solid cancers and a 120% increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from radionuclides incorporated by pregnant women living near nuclear reactors. Doses and risks from environmental emissions to embryos and fetuses may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made. PMID:20390965

  16. Accommodation of Nuclear Power and Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steven M.; Bolch, Wesley e.; Thomas, J. Kelley

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear systems for propulsion and power are being examined as system options for implementing the lunar and Mars human exploration missions currently being studied by NASA. Systems might include nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles, operating reactors on coorbiting platforms, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and others. The space station, as a transportation node, would have to store, assemble, launch and refurbish elements containing these systems. Care must be taken to safeguard humans from the radiation imposed by these systems, in addition to the naturally occuring background of the space environment. Key issues need to be identified early to enable their proper consideration in planning activities and the baseline space station design. A study was conducted over the past year with Texas A&M University to identify and explore key issues and quantify findings in a way useful to the Space Station Program.

  17. Power systems and requirements for the integration of smart structures into aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockyer, Allen J.; Martin, Christopher A.; Lindner, Douglas K.; Walia, Paramjit S.

    2002-07-01

    Electrical power distribution for recently developed smart actuators becomes an important air-vehicle challenge if projected smart actuation benefits are to be met. Among the items under development are variable shape inlets and control surfaces that utilize shape memory alloys (SMA); full span, chord-wise and span-wise contouring trailing control surfaces that use SMA or piezoelectric materials for actuation; and other strain-based actuators for buffet load alleviation, flutter suppression and flow control. At first glance, such technologies afford overall vehicle performance improvement, however, integration system impacts have yet to be determined or quantified. Power systems to support smart structures initiatives are the focus of the current paper. The paper has been organized into five main topics for further discussion: (1) air-vehicle power system architectures - standard and advanced distribution concepts for actuators, (2) smart wing actuator power requirements and results - highlighting wind tunnel power measurements from shape memory alloy and piezoelectric ultrasonic motor actuated control surfaces and different dynamic pressure and angle of attack; (3) vehicle electromagnetic effects (EME) issues, (4) power supply design considerations for smart actuators - featuring the aircraft power and actuator interface, and (5) summary and conclusions.

  18. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  19. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  20. Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2013-02-01

    Traditional engineering methods do not make provision for the integration of human considerations, while traditional human factors methods do not scale well to the complexity of large-scale nuclear power plant projects. Although the need for up-to-date human factors engineering processes and tools is recognised widely in industry, so far no formal guidance has been developed. This article proposes such a framework.

  1. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-08-15

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

  2. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made. PMID:19775438

  3. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  4. FIREDATA. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Database

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean `and` or `or` logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name or calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information.

  5. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  6. Nuclear Power: The Market Test. Worldwatch Paper 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including…

  7. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  8. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

  9. Nuclear-electric power in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Prospective missions requiring large power supplies that might be satisfied with space nuclear reactors (SNR) are discussed, along with design concepts and problems and other potential high-power space systems. Having a minimum economic output of 10 kWe, SNR seem well-suited as the power sources for DBS systems, space-based ATC systems manned planetary missions, an expanding Space Station, materials processing, and outer planets missions. SNR avoid the large area problems of solar cell arrays, short lifetimes of thermionic converters, and vibration and heat control in Stirling engines. Design problems exist for SNR in the heat transfer and rejection systems, radioactive emissions and degradation of reactor materials, and size. The latter is a function of Shuttle payload constaints and raises the possibility of having to load the fuel while in orbit. The earliest operational date of SNRs is projected for the early 1990s, if progress is good in the current SP-100 program.

  10. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-30

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  11. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  12. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles. PMID:19000075

  13. Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  14. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  15. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  16. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP),...

  17. Solid wastes from nuclear power production.

    PubMed Central

    Soule, H F

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity in nuclear power effluents is negligible compared to that in retained wastes to be disposed of as solids. Two basic waste categories are those for which shallow disposal is accepted and those for which more extreme isolation is desired. The latter includes "high level" wastes and others contaminated with radionuclides with the unusual combined properties of long radioactive half-life and high specific radiotoxicity. The favored method for extreme isolation is emplacement in a deep stable geologic formation. Necessary technologies for waste treatment and disposal are considered available. The present program to implement these technologies is discussed, including the waste management significance of current policy on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Recent difficulties with shallow disposal of waste are summarized. PMID:738244

  18. Surface nuclear power for human Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-22

    The Design Reference Mission for NASA's human mission to Mars indicates the desire for in-situ propellant production and bio-regenerative life systems to ease Earth launch requirements. These operations, combined with crew habitation and science, result in surface power requirements approaching 160 kilowatts. The power system, delivered on an early cargo mission, must be deployed and operational prior to crew departure from Earth. The most mass efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters. The resulting system satisfies the key mission requirements including autonomous deployment, high reliability, and cost effectiveness at an overall system mass of 12 tonnes and a stowed volume of about 63 m{sup 3}.

  19. Surface Nuclear Power for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    The Design Reference Mission for NASA's human mission to Mars indicates the desire for in-situ propellant production and bio-regenerative life systems to ease Earth launch requirements. These operations, combined with crew habitation and science, result in surface power requirements approaching 160 kilowatts. The power system, delivered on an early cargo mission, must be deployed and operational prior to crew departure from Earth. The most mass efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters. The resulting system satisfies the key mission requirements including autonomous deployment, high reliability, and cost effectiveness at a overall system mass of 12 tonnes and a stowed volume of about 63 cu m.

  20. Loss rate of NO y from a power plant plume based on aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillani, N. V.; Luria, M.; Valente, R. J.; Tanner, R. L.; Imhoff, R. E.; Meagher, J. F.

    1998-09-01

    This study was motivated by the recent work of Buhr et al. [1996] which reported losses of NOy from large power plant plumes as high as 0.25 hour-1, much higher than generally accepted values. If true, conclusions pertaining to the efficiency of ozone and nitrate production in the lower troposphere would need major revisions. The results of Buhr et al. were based on aircraft measurements in four TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) power plant plumes on July 7, 1995, as part of the Nashville/Middle Tennessee Ozone Study, a measurement program of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS), whereas the results reported in this paper are also based on measurements made in the same SOS study aboard another instrumented aircraft (the TVA helicopter), in plumes of one of these power plants (the Cumberland Steam Plant in northwestern Tennessee) during five different days in 1994 and 1995. Between the 1994 and 1995 sampling periods, emissions of SO2 at the Cumberland plant were reduced by nearly 95% by installation of scrubbers. Our data from the one 1994 day show that the ratio of excess SO2 to NOy, in the plume core increased significantly with plume age, indicating a potentially high differential loss rate of NOy (excess loss of NOy relative to SO2) of about 0.12 hour-1. However, results based on the larger 1995 data set indicate a low differential NOy loss rate of only 0.00±0.03 hour-1, consistent with accepted low loss rates. Because the SOS-Nashville/Middle Tennessee Ozone Study was not specifically designed to explore the NOy loss issue, the question of NOy loss rates in plumes is not currently resolved and additional focused field studies are needed.

  1. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  2. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Bottle bill loses, nuclear power gains

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The November 3, 1987 elections saw a number of environmental-related referenda defeated for what was seen as economic reasons. Maine voters decided 59 to 41 percent against a proposal which would have closed down the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. In the District of Columbia, a litter reducing bill that would have required a 5 to 20 cent deposit on cans and bottles was defeated by 55 to 45 percent. Finally, in California, Indian Wells voters supported a project to build a one billion dollar resort in the nearby desert.

  4. SP-100 space nuclear power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Given, R. W.; Morgan, R. E.; Chi, J. W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A baseline design concept for a 100 kWe nuclear reactor space power system is described. The concept was developed under contract from JPL as part of a joint program of the DOE, DOD, and NASA. The major technical and safety constraints influencing the selection of reactor operating parameters are discussed. A lithium-cooled compact fast reactor was selected as the best candidate system. The material selected for the thermoelectric conversion system was silicon germanium (SiGe) with gallium phosphide doping. Attention is given to the improved safety of the seven in-core control rod configuration.

  5. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  6. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  7. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  8. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  9. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  10. Study of a safety margin system for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin system for powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The objective of the safety margin system was to present multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked manually or automatically and which could be monitored for the purpose of deriving safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several safety margin system concepts and a simulation experiment to evaluate those concepts which showed promise of providing a good solution. A system was ultimately configured which offered reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate the safety margin at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  11. A safety margin and flight reference system and display for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hardy, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin and flight reference system for those powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The main objective was to display multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked both manually and automatically and which could be monitored in order to derive safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several system concepts and a simulator experiment to evaluate those concepts showing promise. A system was ultimately configured which yielded reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate safety margins at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  12. Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth C.

    A study projected employment needs created by growth and employee turnover for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Only employment by electric utilities in the commercial generation of nuclear power was investigated. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey of 60 member utilities of the Institute of Nuclear Power…

  13. Low-power nuclear engineering for heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursky, A. S.; Kalygin, V. V.; Semidotsky, I. I.

    2012-05-01

    The paper shows the expediency and importance of the development of low-power nuclear engineering as well as feasibility indices of an up-to-date nuclear power plant intended for regional energy production. A high reliability of the vessel-type boiling reactor with a natural coolant circulation is shown under various operating conditions of a nuclear heat production plant.

  14. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  15. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  16. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  18. A Nuclear Powered ISRU Mission to Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Finzi, Elvina; Davighi, Andrea; Finzi, Amalia

    2006-01-20

    Space exploration has always been drastically constrained by the masses that can be launched into orbit; Hence affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) is a key element to allow the human presence on Mars or the Moon. In fact a Mars ISRU mission is planned in the Aurora Program, the European program for the exploration of the solar system. Orpheus mission is a technological demonstrator whose purpose is to show the advantages of an In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP). Main task of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear ISPP plant. The mission designed has been sized to launch back form Mars an eventual manned module. The ISPP mission requires two different: the ISPP power plant module and the nuclear reactor module. Both modules reach the escape orbit thanks to the launcher upper stage, after a 200 days cruising phase the Martian atmosphere is reached thanks to small DV propelled manoeuvres, aerobreaking and soft landing. During its operational life the ISPP plant produces. The propellant is produced in one synodic year. 35000 kg of Ethylene are produced at the Martian equator. The resulting systems appear feasible and of a size comparable to other ISRU mission designs. This mission seems challenging not only for the ISPP technology to be demonstrated, but also for the space nuclear reactor considered; Though this seems the only way to allow a permanent human presence on Mars surface.

  19. A Nuclear Powered ISRU Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, Elvina; Davighi, Andrea; Finzi, Amalia

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration has always been drastically constrained by the masses that can be launched into orbit; Hence affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) is a key element to allow the human presence on Mars or the Moon. In fact a Mars ISRU mission is planned in the Aurora Program, the European program for the exploration of the solar system. Orpheus mission is a technological demonstrator whose purpose is to show the advantages of an In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP). Main task of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear ISPP plant. The mission designed has been sized to launch back form Mars an eventual manned module. The ISPP mission requires two different: the ISPP power plant module and the nuclear reactor module. Both modules reach the escape orbit thanks to the launcher upper stage, after a 200 days cruising phase the Martian atmosphere is reached thanks to small DV propelled manoeuvres, aerobreaking and soft landing. During its operational life the ISPP plant produces. The propellant is produced in one synodic year. 35000 kg of Ethylene are produced at the Martian equator. The resulting systems appear feasible and of a size comparable to other ISRU mission designs. This mission seems challenging not only for the ISPP technology to be demonstrated, but also for the space nuclear reactor considered; Though this seems the only way to allow a permanent human presence on Mars surface.

  20. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  1. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  2. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  3. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. PMID:21977961

  4. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  5. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  6. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  7. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  8. Aircraft IR/acoustic detection evaluation. Volume 2: Development of a ground-based acoustic sensor system for the detection of subsonic jet-powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of a ground-based acoustic sensor system for the detection of subsonic jet-powered aircraft is described and specified. The acoustic detection system performance criteria will subsequently be used to determine target detection ranges for the subject contract. Although the defined system has never been built and demonstrated in the field, the design parameters were chosen on the basis of achievable technology and overall system practicality. Areas where additional information is needed to substantiate the design are identified.

  9. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. 91.205 Section 91.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL...

  10. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. 91.205 Section 91.205 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL...

  11. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  12. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision Notice is hereby given that the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...

  13. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory.... Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption from Title...

  14. Nuclear Reactors for Space Power, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    The historical development of rocketry and nuclear technology includes a specific description of Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) programs. Solar cells and fuel cells are considered as alternative power supplies for space use. Construction and operation of space power plants must include considerations of the transfer of heat energy to…

  15. BN-800 advanced nuclear power plant with fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkin, A.N.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sobolev, V.A.; Shestakov, G.V.; Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Matveyev, V.I.; Poplavsky, V.M.

    1993-12-31

    Bn-800 reactor plant with fast reactor and sodium coolant in the primary and secondary circuits is designed for operation as part of the power units in the Yuzhno-Uralskaya nuclear power plant scheduled to be constructed in Chelyabinsk region and as part unit 4 in the Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant. Reactor operations are described.

  16. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Consideration (73 FR 17148; March 31, 2008), states that ``Plant emergencies are extraordinary circumstances... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

  17. Historical overview of the US use of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1961, the United States has successfully flown 35 space nuclear power sources on 20 space systems. These space systems have included the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking and Voyager spacecraft launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and navigation and communications satellites launched by the Department of Defense. These power sources performed as planned and i8n many cases exceeded their power requirements and/or lifetimes. All of the power sources met their safety requirements. This paper surveys past uses of space nuclear power in the US and thus serves as a historical framework for other papers in this Conference dealing with future US applications of space nuclear power.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  19. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  20. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  1. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  2. Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  3. Some aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khvostova, M. S.

    2012-03-15

    The major factors influencing the choice of a national concept for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are examined. The operating lifetimes of power generating units with nuclear reactors of various types (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK-1000, EGP-6, and BN-600) are analyzed. The basic approaches to decommissioning Russian nuclear power plants and the treatment of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are discussed. Major aspects of the ecological and radiation safety of personnel, surrounding populations, and the environment during decommissioning of nuclear installations are identified.

  4. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  5. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  7. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34). PMID:24378494

  8. Condenser performance recovery in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, G. Jr.; Putman, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Fouling of the tubes in the main condenser can have a significant impact on nuclear plant performance. Recent experiences suggest that the effects of fouling have been underestimated and that the results of an effective tube cleaning can be measured in improved unit capacity. In particular two nuclear power plants have reported recovery of 20 and 25 MW respectively. While the types of deposition often vary as they did in these two cases, the deposit elements were accurately identified, the deposits` impact on heat transfer was evaluated and an effective cleaning methodology was developed for successful deposit removal. These experiences have prompted the development of a number of diagnostic monitoring and inspection methods which can be utilized in the field or in the laboratory; to detect, identify and quantify the presence of fouling and its impact on heat transfer, to determine the relative effectiveness of a cleaning method and to evaluate condenser performance as related to MW capacity for both single and multiple compartment condensers.

  9. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

  10. Fly on the wings of the sun - a study of solar-powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.W.

    1985-06-01

    Solar High Altitude Powered Platform (Solar HAPP) aircraft are unmanned remote sensing vehicles designed for cruises lasting up to one year at 20-km altitude, while carrying up to 250 pounds of cameras and electrooptic sensors in an underslung payload pod. It is anticipated that real time IR and UV images of earth features may be more inexpensively and accurately obtained by this means than by the conventional geosynchronous earth resources satellites. Solar HAPPs, with wing spans of over 300 ft and weights of only 2000 lb, require ultralight composite structures with external wire bracing. Solar cells will cover both sides of the vertical wing stabilizers and wing tips, which hinge up in daytime to capture the maximum amount of sunlight. A 15-hp electric propulsion unit drives a low-rpm, large diameter propeller; power will be derived from the solar cells diurnally, and from hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells nocturnally. The fuel gases will be generated in a water electrolyzer during the day by excess solar cell output.

  11. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  12. Civil applications of high speed rotorcraft and powered lift aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1988-01-01

    Advanced subsonic vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft configurations offer new transportation options for civil applications. Described is a range of vehicles from low-disk to high-disk loading aircraft, including high-speed rotorcraft, V/STOL aircraft, and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft. The status and advantages of the various configurations are described. Some of these show promise for relieving congestion in high population-density regions and providing transportation opportunities for low population-density regions.

  13. Civil applications of high-speed rotorcraft and powered-lift aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1987-01-01

    Advanced subsonic vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft configurations offer new transportation options for civil applications. Described is a range of vehicles from low-disk to high-disk loading aircraft, including high-speed rotorcraft, V/STOL aircraft, and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft. The status and advantages of the various configurations are described. Some of these show promise for relieving congestion in high population-density regions and providing transportation opportunities for low population-density regions.

  14. China's Nuclear Power Program: Options for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The issue of American nuclear cooperation with the People's Republic of China is examined with regards to political relations, commercial benefits to the United States, and nonproliferation. China's interest in nuclear power is examined, and its nuclear program is briefly reviewed from the 1950's to present. China's international nuclear relations with other countries are discussed, and implications for the United States examined, particularly with regards to China's intentions toward nuclear proliferation, danger of diversion of material for nuclear weapons, use of pressurized water reactor technology for Chinese naval reactors, and the terms of the nuclear cooperation agreement. (LEW)

  15. Regenerative fuel cells for High Altitude Long Endurance Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Colella, N. J.; Myers, B.; Anderson, C. J.

    1993-06-01

    High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned missions appear to be feasible using a lightweight, high efficiency, span-loaded, Solar Powered Aircraft (SPA) which includes a Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) system and novel tankage for energy storage. An existing flightworthy electric powered flying wing design was modified to incorporate present and near-term technologies in energy storage, power electronics, aerodynamics, and guidance and control in order to substantiate feasibility. The design philosophy was to work with vendors to identify affordable near-term technological opportunities that could be applied to existing designs in order to reduce weight, increase reliability, and maintain adequate efficiency of components for delivery within 18 months. The energy storage subsystem for a HALE SPA is a key driver for the entire vehicle because it can represent up to half of the vehicle weight and most missions of interest require the specific energy to be considerably higher than 200 W-hr/kg for many cycles. This stringent specific energy requirement precludes the use of rechargeable batteries or flywheels and suggests examination of various RFC designs. An RFC system using lightweight tankage, a single fuel cell (FC) stack, and a single electrolyzer (EC) stack separated by the length of a spar segment (up to 39 ft), has specific energy of approximately 300 W-hr/kg with 45% efficiency, which is adequate for HALE SPA requirements. However, this design has complexity and weight penalties associated with thermal management, electrical wiring, plumbing, and structural weight. A more elegant solution is to use unitized RFC stacks (reversible stacks that act as both FC's and EC's) because these systems have superior specific energy, scale to smaller systems more favorably, and have intrinsically simpler thermal management.

  16. Regenerative fuel cells for High Altitude Long Endurance Solar Powered Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F.; Colella, N.J.; Myers, B.; Anderson, C.J.

    1993-06-02

    High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned missions appear to be feasible using a lightweight, high efficiency, span-loaded, Solar Powered Aircraft (SPA) which includes a Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) system and novel tankage for energy storage. An existing flightworthy electric powered flying wing design was modified to incorporate present and near-term technologies in energy storage, power electronics, aerodynamics, and guidance and control in order to design philosophy was to work with vendors to identify affordable near-term technological opportunities that could be applied to existing designs in order to reduce weight, increase reliability, and maintain adequate efficiency of components for delivery within 18 months. The energy storage subsystem for a HALE SPA is a key driver for the entire vehicle because it can represent up to half of the vehicle weight and most missions of interest require the specific energy to be considerably higher than 200 W-hr/kg for many cycles. This stringent specific energy requirement precludes the use of rechargeable batteries or flywheels and suggests examination of various RFC designs. An RFC system using lightweight tankage, a single fuel cell (FC) stack, and a single electrolyzer (EC) stack separated by the length of a spar segment (up to 39 ft), has specific energy of {approximately}300 W-hr/kg with 45% efficiency, which is adequate for HALE SPA requirements. However, this design has complexity and weight penalties associated with thermal management, electrical wiring, plumbing, and structural weight. A more elegant solution is to use unitized RFC stacks (reversible stacks that act as both FCs and ECs) because these systems have superior specific energy, scale to smaller systems more favorably, and have intrinsically simpler thermal management.

  17. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  18. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) is considering issuance of an exemption,...

  19. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  20. 76 FR 5 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft'' (Sport Pilot Rule) (69 FR 44772, July 27... pilot training requirements were important. In that NPRM (67 FR 5376), we stated that ``a light sport... (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . ] Docket: To read background...

  1. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an amendment to Title 10 of the Code of...

  2. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption, pursuant to Title 10 of...

  3. 75 FR 76498 - Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment And Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, or the Commission) is considering issuance of an...

  4. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  5. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  6. Major factors impacting costs of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Z.A.; James, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    China is striving to complete construction of 10,000 MWe of nuclear power plants by the year 2000. The Chinese government is concerned about the costs and is interested in minimizing the economic risks. The paper discusses the problems of cost control in the US and the special problems expected as China begins its nuclear power development.

  7. Energy Education: Responding to the Nuclear Power Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry-Miller, Kathleen M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the use of nuclear power as a source of energy. Sources of exposure to radiation, the effects of exposure to radiation on children's health, and safe alternatives to nuclear power that can be taught to children are among the topics addressed. (Author/RH)

  8. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  9. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  10. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  11. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8902), for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  12. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... decommissioning. II. Further Information DG-4016, was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14637; dated March 26, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations,...

  14. The Hazards Posed by the Global Development of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the growth in the demand for energy on a world-wide basis. Reviews the development of nuclear power and points out the many hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle. Describes the nature of nuclear wastes and explains the quantities involved and the current techniques for waste disposal. (GS)

  15. Modeling of gas turbine - solid oxide fuel cell systems for combined propulsion and power on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Daniel Francis

    This dissertation investigates the use of gas turbine (GT) engine integrated solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in aircraft with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The concept offers a number of advantages: the GT absorbs many SOFC balance of plant functions (supplying fuel, air, and heat to the fuel cell) thereby reducing the number of components in the system; the GT supplies fuel and pressurized air that significantly increases SOFC performance; heat and unreacted fuel from the SOFC are recaptured by the GT cycle offsetting system-level losses; good transient response of the GT cycle compensates for poor transient response of the SOFC. The net result is a system that can supply more electrical power more efficiently than comparable engine-generator systems with only modest (<10%) decrease in power density. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors, and three GT engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed that account for equilibrium gas phase and electrochemical reaction, pressure losses, and heat losses in ways that capture `down-the-channel' effects (a level of fidelity necessary for making meaningful performance, mass, and volume estimates). Models are created in a NASA-developed environment called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). A sensitivity analysis identifies important design parameters and translates uncertainties in model parameters into uncertainties in overall performance. GT-SOFC integrations reduce fuel burn 3-4% in 50 kW systems on 35 kN rated engines (all types) with overall uncertainty <1%. Reductions of 15-20% are possible at the 200 kW power level. GT-SOFCs are also able to provide more electric power (factors >3 in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. Aerodynamic drag effects of engine-airframe integration are by far the most important

  16. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  17. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  18. Nuclear Powered Laser Driven Plasma Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    A relativistic plasma thruster that could open up the solar system to near-term human exploration is presented. It is based on recent experimental and theoretical research, which show that ultrafast (very short pulse length) lasers can accelerate charged particles to relativistic speeds. In table top-type experiments charge-neutral proton beams containing more than 1014 particles with mean energies of tens of MeV's have been produced when high intensity lasers with femtosecond (10-15 s) pulse lengths are made to strike thin solid targets. When viewed from a propulsion standpoint such systems can produce specific impulses of several million seconds albeit at modest thrusts and require nuclear power systems to drive them. Several schemes are proposed to enhance the thrust and make these systems suitable for manned interplanetary missions. In this paper we set forth the physics principles that make relativistic plasma driven by ultrafast lasers particularly attractive for propulsion applications. We introduce the “Laser Accelerated Plasma Propulsion System” LAPPS, and demonstrate its potential propulsive capability by addressing an interstellar mission to the Oort Cloud, and a planetary mission to Mars. We show that the first can be carried out in a human's lifetime and the second in a matter of months. In both instances we identify the major technological problems that must be addressed if this system is to evolve into a leading contender among the advance propulsion concepts currently under consideration.

  19. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  20. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  1. Important technology considerations for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuspa, J.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.; Bitz, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses the technology considerations that guide the development of space nuclear power sources (NPS) by the Department of Energy (DOE) to meet a wide variety of applications. The Department and its predecessor agencies have been developing NPS since the 1950s and producing NPS for spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) since the early 1960s. No one nuclear power type, isotope or reactor, will suffice over the entire range of mission power required. Nor is one type of power conversion system, be it static or dynamic, the optimum choice of all space nuclear power system applications. There is a need for DOE, in partnership with its users, NASA and DOD, to develop a variety of types of space nuclear power sources -- isotope-static, isotope-dynamic, reactor-static, and reactor-dynamic -- to meet mission requirements well into the next century. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Important technology considerations for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuspa, John P.; Wahlquist, Earl J.; Bitz, Dennis A.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses the technology considerations that guide the development of space nuclear power sources (NPS) by the Department of Energy (DOE) to meet a wide variety of applications. The Department and its predecessor agencies have been developing NPS since the 1950s and producing NPS for spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) since the early 1960s. No one nuclear power type, isotope or reactor, will suffice over the entire range of mission power required. Nor is one type of power conversion system, be it static or dynamic, the optimum choice of all space nuclear power system applications. There is a need for DOE, in partnership with its users, NASA and DOD, to develop a variety of types of space nuclear power sources - isotope-static, isotope-dynamic, reactor-static, and reactor-dynamic - to meet mission requirements well into the next century.

  3. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  4. Preserving the nuclear option: The AIAA position paper on space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas M.; Bennett, Gary L.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Newhouse, Alan R.; Rose, M. Frank; Rovang, Richard D.

    1996-03-01

    In response to published reports about the decline in funding for space nuclear power, the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) approved a position paper in March 1995 that recommends (1) development and support of an integrated space nuclear power program by DOE, NASA and DoD; (2) Congressional support for the program; (3) advocacy of the program by government and industry leaders; and (4) continuation of cooperation between the U.S. and other countries to advance nuclear power source technology and to promote safety. This position paper has been distributed to various people having oversight of the U.S. space nuclear power program.

  5. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  6. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Karla B.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  7. Nuclear Power Now and in the Near Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchill, William

    2006-04-01

    The presentation will describe the present status of nuclear power in the United States including its operating, economic, and safety record. This status report will be based on publicly-available records of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The report will provide a brief description and state the impact of both the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. It will list the lessons learned and report significant improvements in U.S. nuclear power plants. The major design differences between Chernobyl and U.S. nuclear reactors will be discussed. The presentation will project the near future of nuclear power considering the 2005 Energy Bill, initiatives by the U.S. Department of Energy and industry, and public opinions. Issues to be considered include plant operating safety, disposition of nuclear waste, protection against proliferation of potential weapons materials, economic performance, environmental impact and protection, and advanced nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycle options. The risk of nuclear power plant operations will be compared to risks presented by other industrial activities.

  8. Manpower requirements in the nuclear power industry, 1982-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.

  9. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  10. The results of application studies for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, L.; Mcgraw, K.; Mankins, J.; Mondt, J.; Olivieri, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are summarized of the studies over the last several years to identify and characterize potential applications for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system in powering spacecraft. SP-100 is a space power system based on a fast spectrum nuclear reactor with thermoelectric power conversion and liquid metal and heat pipe thermal transport. SP-100 reactor systems are designed to provide electric power with user designated characteristics at levels in the range from 10 to 1000 kWe. The use of nuclear reactors such as SP-100 as a power source provides a potential means of providing uninterrupted electrical power as required for many of todays space missions within acceptable cost and safety constraints.

  11. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently. PMID:22811610

  12. 76 FR 40403 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent.... Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), currently held by R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner...

  13. EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DISASTERS

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and over-utilization of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that nonmental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics. PMID:24378494

  14. State regulation of nuclear power and national energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, J.W.

    1992-12-31

    In April 1983 and January 1984, the United States Supreme Court rendered two decisions that redefined the metes and bounds of federal preemption of commercial nuclear power plant regulation. In Pacific Gas & Electric Co. v. State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (PG&E), the court decided that the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), did not preempt a California state law that established a moratorium on commercial nuclear power plant construction. In Silkwood v. Kerr-McGee Corporation, the Court also decided that the Act did not preempt a claim for damages under state tort law for radiological injuries suffered in a nuclear fuel facility regulated by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The two decisions redefined the extent of federal preemption, under the Act and other federal law, of nuclear plant regulation as well as the extend of state regulation of nuclear plants. In the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, numerous other developments have eroded further the breadth of federal preemption of commercial nuclear power plant regulation. This Article explores the developments, since PG&E and Silkwood, that have expanded further the scope of state and local regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. Specifically, the Article first identifies the extent of state and local participation in nuclear power regulation provided by the Act and other federal loan relevant to commercial nuclear power. Second, it discusses in detail the PG&E and Silkwood decisions. The Article also considers the impact of seven specific developments on the legislative implementation of a national energy policy that contemplates a role for nuclear power.

  15. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  16. The importance of nuclear power in emissions avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.

    1999-11-01

    Most people knowledgeable about the nuclear power industry are aware that nuclear power plants do not emit air pollutants or greenhouse gases in the generation of electricity. What is commonly not known, however, is that these avoided emissions have become important for compliance with increasingly stringent limitations on air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Kyoto Protocol. This article is intended to heighten the awareness of this important environmental service and how its valuation can have an impact on the future operation of existing nuclear power plants

  17. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  18. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  19. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2006-01-20

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  20. Integrated topology for an aircraft electric power distribution system using MATLAB and ILP optimization technique and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhikar, Pratik Ravindra

    The most important and crucial design feature while designing an Aircraft Electric Power Distribution System (EPDS) is reliability. In EPDS, the distribution of power is from top level generators to bottom level loads through various sensors, actuators and rectifiers with the help of AC & DC buses and control switches. As the demands of the consumer is never ending and the safety is utmost important, there is an increase in loads and as a result increase in power management. Therefore, the design of an EPDS should be optimized to have maximum efficiency. This thesis discusses an integrated tool that is based on a Need Based Design method and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to achieve the optimum design of an EPDS to provide maximum reliability in terms of continuous connectivity, power management and minimum cost. If an EPDS is formulated as an optimization problem then it can be solved with the help of connectivity, cost and power constraints by using a linear solver to get the desired output of maximum reliability at minimum cost. Furthermore, the thesis also discusses the viability and implementation of the resulted topology on typical large aircraft specifications.

  1. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  2. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 11205; dated March 10, 2010). This exemption is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  3. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  4. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... environment (75 FR 12311; dated March 15, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0...

  5. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14638). This exemption is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  6. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  7. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... FR 14635). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 26th day of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0...

  8. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... environment (77 FR 76541, December 28, 2012). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  9. Pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed control during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical investigations and piloted moving base simulator evaluations were conducted for manual control of pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed for the approach and landing of a powered lift jet STOL aircraft. Flight path and speed response characteristics were described analytically and were evaluated for the simulation experiments which were carried out on a large motion simulator. The response characteristics were selected and evaluated for a specified path and speed control technique. These charcteristics were: (1) the initial pitch response and steady pitch rate sensitivity for control of attitude with a pitch rate command/ attitude hold system, (2) the initial flight path response, flight path overshoot, and flight path-airspeed coupling in response to a change in thrust, and (3) the sensitivity of airspeed to pitch attitude changes. Results are presented in the form of pilot opinion ratings and commentary, substantiated where appropriate by response time histories and aircraft states at the point of touchdown.

  10. The development of advanced automatic flare and decrab for powered lift short haul aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevaert, G.; Feinreich, B.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for future powered lift STOL aircraft using the NASA-C-8A augmentor wing vehicle as the aircraft model. The longitudinal control laws utilize the throttle for flight path control and use the direct lift augmentor flap chokes for flight path augmentation. The elevator is used to control airspeed during the approach phase and to enhance path control during the flare. The forward slip maneuver was selected over the flat decrab technique for runway alignment because it can effectively handle the large crab angles obtained at STOL approach speeds. Performance evaluation of selected system configurations were obtained over the total landing environment. Limitations were defined and critical failure modes assessed. Pilot display concepts are discussed.

  11. Potassium Rankine cycle nuclear power systems for spacecraft and lunar-mass surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has high potential for application to nuclear power systems for spacecraft and surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of Rankine cycle space power systems was carried out in the 1960`s. That effort is summarized and the status of the technology today is presented. Space power systems coupling Rankine cycle power conversion to both the SP-100 reactor and thermionic reactors as a combined power cycle are described in the paper.

  12. Nuclear power for space based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Ivanenok, Joseph F., III

    1991-09-01

    A 100 kWe closed Brayton cycle power conversion system utilizing a recuperator coupled to a NERVA derivative reactor for a lunar power plant is presented. Power plant mass versus recuperator effectiveness, compressor inlet temperature, and turbine pressure ratio are described.

  13. Determining the power performance effect from modernization of power equipment and process systems at a nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.; Sokolov, K. V.

    2012-05-01

    The main stages of a calculation and experimental analysis of measures aimed at achieving better power performance of a nuclear power station and a procedure for carrying out such analysis are considered. The results of a calculated and experimental assessment of the power-performance effect from modernization of the moisture separators-steam superheaters used in turbine generators Nos. 7 and 8 of Unit 4 at the Leningrad nuclear power station are presented.

  14. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  15. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  17. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  18. Nuclear power risks: challenge to the credibility of science

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Federal Government and the nuclear industry have deliberately deceived the American public about the risks of nuclear power. Facts have been systematically withheld, distorted, and obscured, and calculations have been deliberately biased in order to present nuclear power in an unrealistically favorable light. Most persistent and flagrant have been: (a) attempts to normalize public perception of nuclear accident casualties with those of more familiar accidents; and (b) the cloaking of the objectively undocumentable faith of the atomic energy establishment that a nuclear accident is extremely unlikely in a smokescreen of invalid, pseudoquantitative statistical probabilities in order to convince the public that the chance of an accident is negligible. Prime examples of these abuses are found in the Rasmussen report on nuclear reactor safety and in its representation to the public.

  19. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Leven B.; Pyatt, David W.; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Winchester, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  20. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  1. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  2. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Boron control system for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.W.; Van der Schoot, M.R.

    1980-09-30

    Ion exchangers which reversibly store borate ions in a temperature dependent process are combined with evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus to provide a boron control system for controlling the reactivity of nuclear power plants. A plurality of ion exchangers are operated sequentially to provide varying amounts of boric acid to a nuclear reactor for load follow operations. Evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus is utilized for major changes in the boron concentration within the nuclear reactor.

  4. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

  5. Decommissioning: Nuclear Power's Missing Link. Worldwatch Paper 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia

    The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure…

  6. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  7. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that NRC staff considers acceptable to implement the requirements related to an access authorization...

  8. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  9. Mathematical Modeling Of A Nuclear/Thermionic Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Ewell, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses mathematical modeling to predict performance and lifetime of spacecraft power source that is integrated combination of nuclear-fission reactor and thermionic converters. Details of nuclear reaction, thermal conditions in core, and thermionic performance combined with model of swelling of fuel.

  10. Nuclear Power: The Fifth Horseman. Worldwatch Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication is the sixth in a series of papers on global environmental issues. This paper evaluates the future of nuclear power, subjecting it to several tests: (1) economics; (2) safety; (3) adequacy of fuel supplies; (4) environmental impact; and (5) both national and international security. Section headings include: (1) The nuclear fuel…

  11. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  12. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  13. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Several combustor concepts were designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the hot wall combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners; the recuperative cooling combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber; and the catalytic converter combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultralow levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved.

  14. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  15. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved with this technology.

  16. Nuclear electric power for multimegawatt orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casagrande, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Multimegawatt nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for orbit transfer vehicles. The masses of these platforms are expected to exceed the capability of a single launch from Earth necessitating assembly in space in a parking orbit. The OTV would transfer the platform from the parking orbit to the operational orbit and then return for the next mission. Electric propulsion is advantageous because of the high specific impulse achieved by the technology, 1000 to 5000 s and beyond, to reduce the propellant required. Nuclear power is attractive as the power system because of the weight savings over solar systems in the multimegawatt regime, and multimegawatts of power are required. A conceptual diagram is shown of an OTV with a command control module using electric thrusters powered from an SP-100 class nuclear reactor power system.

  17. An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

  18. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  19. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  20. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  1. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, K.; Park, K. M.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  2. A Review of Solar-Powered Aircraft Flight Activity at the Pacific Missile Range Test Facility, Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Donohue, Casey; Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A series of solar-powered aircraft have been designed and operated by AeroVironment, Inc. (Monrovia, CA) as a part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) objectives to develop energy-efficient high-altitude long-endurance platforms for earth observations and communications applications. Flight operations have been conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards CA and at the U.S. Navy Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands, Kauai, HI. These aircraft flown at PMRF are named Pathfinder , Pathfinder Plus and Helios . Sizes of these three aircraft range from 560 lb with a 99-ft wingspan to 2300 lb with a 247-ft wingspan. Available payload capacity reaches approximately 200 lb. Pathfinder uses six engines and propellers: Pathfinder Plus 8; and Helios 14. The 2003 Helios fuel cell configurations used 10 engines and propellers. The PMRF was selected as a base of operations because if offers optimal summertime solar exposure, low prevailing wind-speeds on the runway, modest upper-air wind-speeds and the availability of suitable airspace. Between 1997 and 2001, successive altitude records of 71,530 ft, 80,200 ft, and 96,863 ft were established. Flight durations extended to 18 hours.

  3. 78 FR 26241 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Powered Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...-08, amendment 39-17365 (78 FR 14160, March 5, 2013), for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models... certain publications listed in this AD as of April 9, 2013 (78 FR 14160, March 5, 2013). We must receive... products. Actions Since AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2013-04-08 (78 FR 14160, March 5, 2013), it...

  4. Nuclear power technology requirements for NASA exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that future exploration of the moon and Mars will mandate developments in many areas of technology. In particular, major advances will be required in planet surface power systems. Critical nuclear technology challenges that can enable strategic self-sufficiency, acceptable operational costs, and cost-effective space transportation goals for NASA exploration missions have been identified. Critical technologies for surface power systems include stationary and mobile nuclear reactor and radioisotope heat sources coupled to static and dynamic power conversion devices. These technologies can provide dramatic reductions in mass, leading to operational and transportation cost savings. Critical technologies for space transportation systems include nuclear thermal rocket and nuclear electric propulsion options, which present compelling concepts for significantly reducing mass, cost, or travel time required for Earth-Mars transport.

  5. Nuclear power risks: challenge to the credibility of science.

    PubMed

    Welch, B L

    1980-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Federal Government and the nuclear industry have deliberately deceived the American public about the risks of nuclear power. Facts have been systematically withheld, distorted, and obscured, and calculations have been deliberately biased in order to present nuclear power in an unrealistically favorable light. Most persistent and flagrant have been: (a) attempts to "normalize" public perception of nuclear accident casualties with those of more familiar accidents by emphasizing only acute fatalities and ignoring or downplaying the major effects of nuclear accidents, namely, health impairment and death years delayed; and (b) the cloaking of the objectively undocumentable faith of the atomic energy establishment that a nuclear accident is extremely unlikely in a smokescreen of invalid, pseudoquantitative statistical probabilities in order to convince the public that the chance of an accident is negligible. Prime examples of these abuses are found in the Rasmussen report on nuclear reactor safety and in its representation to the public. The deceptive practices used in promoting nuclear power have seriously shaken public faith in government, technology, and science. The scientific community has a special responsibility to minimize such future political abuses of science. For those who were responsible for the deliberate breeches of public trust which resulted in this loss of faith, mere professional disdain will not suffice. They should be punished to the fullest extent of the law. PMID:7353936

  6. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  7. Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

  8. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations annual report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1993 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry.

  9. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  10. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  11. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

  12. Finding the flaws in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, E.

    1982-09-01

    Describes how nondestructive, remote testing techniques are being devised to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques developed by the EPRI include high-energy, portable X-ray systems; ultrasonic methods; advanced eddy-current inspection; and automated inspection. References for further information on NDE are given.

  13. Bibliography on aerodynamics of airframe/engine integration of high-speed turbine-powered aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography was developed as a first step in the preparation of a monograph on the subject of the aerodynamics of airframe/engine integration of high speed turbine powered aircraft. It lists 1535 unclassified documents published mainly in the period from 1955 to 1980. Primary emphasis was devoted to aerodynamic problems and interferences encountered in the integration process; however, extensive coverage also was given to the characteristics and problems of the isolated propulsion system elements. A detailed topic breakdown structure is used. The primary contents of the individual documents are indicated by the combination of the document's title and its location within the framework of the bibliography.

  14. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both clean'' and dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  15. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ``clean`` and ``dirty``; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  16. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  17. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  18. Nuclear Power, Small Nuclear Technology, and the Role of Technical Innovation: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R N; Brown, N W; Smith, C F

    2001-05-18

    An overview of energy-system projections into the new century leads to the conclusion that nuclear power will play a significant role. How significant a role will be determined by the marketplace. Within the range of nuclear-power technologies available, small nuclear-power plants of innovative design appear to fit the needs of a number of developing nations and states. These plants have the potential advantage of modularity, are proliferation-resistant, incorporate passive safety features, minimize waste, and could be cost-competitive with fossil-fuel plants.

  19. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... environment (February 15, 2012; 77 FR 8903). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, the licensee, doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas Inc.,...

  20. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3942, dated January 25, 2010). This... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy...

  1. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  2. Radiological impact of power plants: coal vs nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.

    1981-12-23

    A definitive comparison of the radiological impact of coal power plants with that of (normally operating) nuclear power plants is quite difficult because of (1) insufficient data on both types of plants; (2) the diversity in design and performance of coal-fired plants and emission control systems; and (3) the relatively low concentrations of radionuclides to be measured. Radiation doses to the public estimated for coal and normally operating nuclear power plants are quite small when compared to natural background, and the level of uncertainty associated with estimates of radiological impact is so large that it is not possible at this time to demonstrate a significant difference between radiological risks of coal and nuclear power.

  3. Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

  4. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Poston, Dave; Lipinski, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A report presents a design concept for an instrumented robotic vehicle (rover) to be used on a future mission of exploration of the planet Mars. The design incorporates a nuclear fission power system to provide long range, long life, and high power capabilities unachievable through the use of alternative solar or radioisotope power systems. The concept described in the report draws on previous rover designs developed for the 2009 Mars Science laboratory (MSL) mission to minimize the need for new technology developments.

  5. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Mills, Joseph C.; Baumeister, Ernie B.

    1991-01-01

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level.

  6. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems. PMID:18049233

  7. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Overall system efficiency and performance of a Beech Model 20 Duke aircraft was studied to provide analytical representations of an aircraft piston engine system, including all essential components required for onboard hydrogen generation. Lower emission levels and a 20% reduction in fuel consumption may be obtained by using a catalytic hydrogen generator, incorporated as part of the air induction system, to generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen is then mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The special properties of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline allow the engine to operate at ultra lean fuel/air ratios, resulting in higher efficiencies.

  8. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  9. Space nuclear power applied to electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, F. A.; Karras, T.; Darooka, D.; Isenberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Space reactor power systems with characteristics ideal for advanced spacecraft systems applications are discussed. These characteristics are: high power-to-weight ratio (15 to 33 W/kg); high volume density (high ballistic coefficient); no preferential orientation in orbit; long operational life; high reliability; and total launch and operational safety. These characteristics allow the use of electric propulsion to raise spacecraft from low earth parking orbits to operational orbits, greatly increasing the useful orbit payload for a given launch vehicle by eliminating the need for a separation injection stage. A proposed demonstration mission is described.

  10. Feasibility study for a microwave-powered ozone sniffer aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Using 3-D design techniques and the Advanced Surface Design Software on the Computervision Designer V-X Interactive Graphics System, the aircraft configuration was created. The canard, tail, vertical tail, and main wing were created on the system using Wing Generator, a Computervision based program introduced in Appendix A.2. The individual components of the plane were created separately and were later individually imported to the master database. An isometric view of the final configuration is presented.

  11. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The special properties of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline allow the engine to operate at ultralean fuel/air ratios, resulting in higher efficiencies and hence less fuel consumption. This paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study. Calculations assuming a Beech Duke aircraft indicate that fuel savings on the order of 20% are possible. An estimate of the potential for the utilization of hydrogen enrichment to control exhaust emissions indicates that it may be possible to meet the 1979 Federal emission standards.

  12. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  13. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-21

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors.Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat.The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  14. What future for nuclear power? Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    A Workshop on this highly controversial subject, organized by the Energy and Environment Programme of the RIIA, was held on 10th November 1997 at Green College, Oxford. The meeting was attended by some forty people from eight countries, coming from the nuclear and electricity generating industry, governments, research organizations, academic institutions, environmental pressure groups and inter-governmental organizations. In addition, subsequent to this Workshop, there have been a number of smaller, more informal discussions on various aspects of the subject. This paper summarizes the main conclusions arising from the Workshop and from these later discussions.

  15. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  16. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  17. TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.

  18. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P. A.; Lasenby, R. N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Jenkins, J. H.; Kerford, J. L.; Lee, R. H.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Morreale, B. L.; Morris, D. B.; Mudry, R. N.; Newport, J. R.; O'Keefe, D.; Petrelli, M. A.; Silver, M. A.; Stewart, C. A.; Terry, B.

    2010-10-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  19. Nuclear Archeology for CANDU Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is the development of so-called 'nuclear archeology' techniques to predict the irradiation history of both fuel-related and non-fuel-related materials irradiated in the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) family of nuclear reactors. In this application to CANDU-type reactors, two different scenarios for the collection of the appropriate data for use in these procedures will be assumed: the first scenario is the removal of the pressure tubes, calandria tubes, or fuel cladding and destructive analysis of the activation products contained in these structural materials; the second scenario is the nondestructive analysis (NDA) of the same hardware items via high-resolution gamma ray scans. There are obvious advantages and disadvantages for each approach; however, the NDA approach is the central focus of this work because of its simplicity and lack of invasiveness. The use of these techniques along with a previously developed inverse capability is expected to allow for the prediction of average flux levels and irradiation time, and the total fluence for samples where the values of selected isotopes can be measured.

  20. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  1. Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants.

  2. Evaluation of site characteristics for Guangdong nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ruming, Z.; Dizhong, W.; Zhongmin, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the features of the site of Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant in general and in particular evaluates the outstanding site characteristics related to nuclear safety and public health. It is composed of two parts: the first part describes the seismo-geologic conditions of the site and the other treats the atmospheric dispersion conditions. It also contains the discussion why the possibility of inhabitancy within 5km from the exclusion area boundary would not be affected.

  3. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  4. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Prelas, M.A.

    1991-01-16

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  5. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  6. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  7. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  8. Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2012-05-17

    Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

  9. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  10. Identifying and bounding uncertainties in nuclear reactor thermal power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Hauser, E.; Estrada, H.

    2012-07-01

    Determination of the thermal power generated in the reactor core of a nuclear power plant is a critical element in the safe and economic operation of the plant. Direct measurement of the reactor core thermal power is made using neutron flux instrumentation; however, this instrumentation requires frequent calibration due to changes in the measured flux caused by fuel burn-up, flux pattern changes, and instrumentation drift. To calibrate the nuclear instruments, steam plant calorimetry, a process of performing a heat balance around the nuclear steam supply system, is used. There are four basic elements involved in the calculation of thermal power based on steam plant calorimetry: The mass flow of the feedwater from the power conversion system, the specific enthalpy of that feedwater, the specific enthalpy of the steam delivered to the power conversion system, and other cycle gains and losses. Of these elements, the accuracy of the feedwater mass flow and the feedwater enthalpy, as determined from its temperature and pressure, are typically the largest contributors to the calorimetric calculation uncertainty. Historically, plants have been required to include a margin of 2% in the calculation of the reactor thermal power for the licensed maximum plant output to account for instrumentation uncertainty. The margin is intended to ensure a cushion between operating power and the power for which safety analyses are performed. Use of approved chordal ultrasonic transit-time technology to make the feedwater flow and temperature measurements (in place of traditional differential-pressure- based instruments and resistance temperature detectors [RTDs]) allows for nuclear plant thermal power calculations accurate to 0.3%-0.4% of plant rated power. This improvement in measurement accuracy has allowed many plant operators in the U.S. and around the world to increase plant power output through Measurement Uncertainty Recapture (MUR) up-rates of up to 1.7% of rated power, while also

  11. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering changes to the Emergency Plan, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54,...

  12. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  13. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already

  14. Major safety provisions in nuclear-powered ships

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopkin, N.S.; Belyaev, V.M.; Dubrovin, A.M.; Mel'nikov, E.M.; Pologikh, B.G.; Samoilov, O.B.

    1984-12-01

    Considerable experience has been accumulated in the Soviet Union on the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered civilian ships: the icebreakers Lenin, Leonid Brezhnev and Sibir. The nuclear steam plants (NSP) used on these as the main energy source have been found to be highly reliable and safe, and it is desirable to use them in the future not only in icebreakers but also in transport ships for use in ice fields. The Soviet program for building and developing nuclear-powered ships has involved careful attention to safety in ships containing NSP. The experience with the design and operation of nuclear icebreakers in recent years has led to the revision of safety standards for the nuclear ships and correspondingly ship NSP and international guidelines have been developed. If one meets the requirements as set forth in these documents, one has a safe basis for future Soviet nuclear-powered ships. The primary safety provisions for NSP are presented in this paper.

  15. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  16. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

  17. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K. )

    1991-01-10

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented.

  18. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  19. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  20. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  2. Aging of nuclear power plant safety cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an extensive aging program on polymeric materials stripped from unused nuclear reactor safety cables are described. Mechanical damage was monitored after room temperature aging in a Co-60 gamma radiation source at various humidities and radiation dose rates ranging from 1.2 Mrad/h to 2 krad/h. For chloroprene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and silicone materials, the mechanical degradation was found to depend only on the total integrated radiation dose, implying that radiation dose rate effects are small. On the other hand, strong evidence for radiation dose rate effects were found for an ethylene propylene rubber material and a cross-linked polyolefin material. Humidity effects were determined to be insignificant for all the materials studied.

  3. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  4. Development of an Integrity Evaluation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Jae-Boong; Lee, Joon-Seong; Jun, Hyun-Kyu; Park, Youn-Won

    This paper describes the structure and development strategy for integrity evaluation system for nuclear power plants called NPP-KINS/SAFE. NPP-KINS/SAFE consists of three different programs covering the integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessel, pipings, and pressure tubes, respectively. The system has been developed based on currently available codes and standards, and includes a number of databases, expert systems, and numerical analysis schemes. NPP-KINS/SAFE is applicable for various types of nuclear power plants constructed in Korea with the aid of attached database systems including plant specific data. Case studies for the developed system are also provided.

  5. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  6. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  7. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  8. Neural networks and their application to nuclear power plant diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present a survey of artificial neural network-based computer systems that have been proposed over the last decade for the detection and identification of component faults in thermal-hydraulic systems of nuclear power plants. The capabilities and advantages of applying neural networks as decision support systems for nuclear power plant operators and their inherent characteristics are discussed along with their limitations and drawbacks. The types of neural network structures used and their applications are described and the issues of process diagnosis and neural network-based diagnostic systems are identified. A total of thirty-four publications are reviewed.

  9. Protective clothing laundering and monitoring at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Miller, M.L. , Inc., Albuquerque, NM ); Brehm, L.E.; Peterson, S.K. )

    1988-02-01

    This paper reports that a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in laundered, clean protective clothing. Since very little information was available on this mode of skin contamination, a two-part study was undertaken to evaluate it more fully. The first part of this study consisted of a survey of protective clothing laundering and monitoring practices at 24 nuclear power plants. The second part of the study was a simple experiment to evaluate the effect of perspiration on the transfer of residual contamination from laundered clothing.

  10. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor. PMID:22562963

  11. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  12. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  13. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  14. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  15. Ground-based testing of space nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.G.

    1990-10-22

    Small nuclear power plants for space applications are evaluated according to their testability in this two part report. The first part introduces the issues involved in testing these power plants. Some of the concerns include oxygen embrittlement of critical components, the test environment, the effects of a vacuum environment on materials, the practically of racing an activated test chamber, and possible testing alternative the SEHPTR, king develop at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

  17. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Carl W; Elkins, Ned Z

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  18. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  19. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... FR 13926), establish and update generically applicable security requirements similar to those... FR 77919 dated December 14, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption...

  20. Model Specification for Rework of Aircraft Engine, Power Transmission, and Accessory/Auxiliary Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a model specification for the rework and/or repair of bearings used in aircraft engines, helicopter main power train transmissions, and auxiliary bearings determined to be critical by virtue of performance, function, or availability. The rolling-element bearings to be processed under the provisions of this model specification may be used bearings removed after service, unused bearings returned from the field, or certain rejected bearings returned for reinspection and salvage. In commercial and military aircraft application, it has been a practice that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(sub 10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings. The remaining 8 percent of the bearings have the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent of that of new bearings depending on the cost, size, and complexity of the bearing