Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft operating conditions

  1. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  2. Information for Lateral Aircraft Spacing Enabling Closely-Spaced Runway Operations During Instrument-Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrush, Trent; Pritchett, Amy; Johnson, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport capacity, the U.S. plans on investing nearly $6 billion a year to properly maintain and improve the nation's major airports. Current FAA standards however, require a reduction in terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions at many airports, causing delays and reducing airport capacity. NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, has developed the Terminal Area Productivity Program to achieve clear-weather capacity in instrument- weather conditions for all phases of flight. This paper describes a series of experiments planned to investigate the conceptual design of different systems that provide information to flight crews regarding nearby traffic during the approach phase of flight. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate different display and auditory interfaces to the crew for use in closely-spaced parallel runway operations. Three separate experiments are planned for the investigation. The first two experiments will be conducted using part-task flight simulators located at the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory and at NASA Ames. The third experiment will be conducted in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator, a generic "glass-cockpit" simulator at NASA Ames. Subjects for each experiment will be current glass-cockpit pilots from major U.S. air carriers. Subject crews will fly several experimental scenarios in which pseudo-aircraft are "blundered" into the subject aircraft simulation. Runway spacing, longitudinal aircraft separation, aircraft performance and traffic information will be varied. Analyses of the subject reaction times in evading the blundering aircraft and the resulting closest points of approach will be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the data recorded during the part-task experiments. The impact of traffic information on closely-spaced parallel runway operations is discussed, cockpit displays to aid these operations are examined, and topics for future research

  3. Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

  4. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  5. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  6. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  7. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  8. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  9. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  10. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  11. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volavý, F.; Fišer, J.; Nöske, I.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF) located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  12. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  13. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  14. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  15. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  16. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  17. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  18. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  19. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  20. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  1. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  2. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  3. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  4. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  5. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  6. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  7. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  8. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  9. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  10. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  11. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... taking off from the airport shall execute a departure turn to the north as soon as practicable after take-off. ....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  12. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... taking off from the airport shall execute a departure turn to the north as soon as practicable after take-off. ....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  13. Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

  14. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  15. Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Sharon Wester

    Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel

  16. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  17. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  18. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  19. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  20. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  1. Effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, A. J.; Hoffman, D. J.; Hodges, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Long term effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on the properties and durability of composite materials are being systematically explored. Composite specimens configured for various mechanical property tests are exposed to environmental conditions on aircraft in scheduled airline service, on racks at major airports, and to controlled environmental conditions in the laboratory. Results of tests following these exposures will identify critical parameters affecting composite durability, and correlation of the data will aid in developing methods for predicting durability. Interim results of these studies show that mass change of composite specimens on commercial aircraft depends upon the regional climate and season, and that mass loss from composite surfaces due to ultraviolet radiation can be largely prevented by aircraft paint.

  2. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  3. Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

  4. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  5. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  6. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  7. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  8. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  9. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  10. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  11. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  12. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  13. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile, air-to-base... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a)...

  14. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  15. Computer simulation of aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics for the YF-12 aircraft at supersonic cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer simulation of the YF-12 aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics is presented. The propulsion system was represented in sufficient detail so that interactions between aircraft motions and the propulsion system dynamics could be investigated. Six degree-of-freedom aircraft motions together with the three-axis stability augmentation system were represented. The mixed compression inlets and their controls were represented in the started mode for a range of flow conditions up to the inlet unstart boundary. Effects of inlet moving geometry on aircraft forces and movements as well as effects of aircraft motions on the inlet behavior were simulated. The engines, which are straight subjects, were represented in the afterburning mode, with effects of changes in aircraft flight conditions included. The simulation was capable of operating in real time.

  16. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  17. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  18. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  19. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  20. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... sections of this part with respect to operation on specific frequencies, mobile stations first...

  1. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  2. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  3. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  4. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  5. Heat generation in Aircraft tires under yawed rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for approximating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of yawed rolling. The model employs an assembly of elements to represent the tire cross section and treats the heat generated within the tire as a function of the change in strain energy associated with predicted tire flexure. Special contact scrubbing terms are superimposed on the symmetrical free rolling model to account for the slip during yawed rolling. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from this program were compared with calculation over a range of operating conditions, namely, vertical deflection, inflation pressure, yaw angle, and direction of yaw. Generally the analytical model predicted overall trends well and correlated reasonably well with individual measurements at locations throughout the cross section.

  6. Heat generation in aircraft tires under braked rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to approximate the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of unyawed braked rolling. The model employs an array of elements to represent the tire cross section and considers the heat generated within the tire to be caused by the change in strain energy associated with cyclic tire deflection. The additional heating due to tire slip and stresses induced by braking are superimposed on the previously developed free rolling model. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from these tests were compared with calculations over a range of operating conditions. The model results were in reasonably good agreement with measured values.

  7. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  8. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  9. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  10. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  11. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  12. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  13. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  14. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  15. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  16. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  17. Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, L P

    1946-01-01

    A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.

  18. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  19. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The {open_quotes}building in{close_quotes} of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  1. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  2. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  3. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  4. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  5. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    It is difficult to categorize aircraft operating problems, human factors and safety. Much of NASA's research involves all three and considers the important inter-relationships between man, the machine and the environment, whether the environment be man-made or natural. Topics covered in 20 papers include terminal-area operations; avionics and human factors; and the atmospheric environment.

  8. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  9. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  10. IAGOS : operational start of atmospheric measurements on commercial Airbus aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, P.

    2011-12-01

    AUTHORS : Philippe Nedelec 1, Jean-Pierre Cammas 1, Gilles Athier 1, Damien Boulanger 1, Jean-Marc Cousin 1., Andreas Volz-Thomas 2. 1. Laboratoire d' Aerologie, CNRS and University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 2. FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany The MOZAIC program (http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr) measures atmospheric parameters since August 1994, on board 5 commercial Airbus A340 aircraft operated by European airlines, with about 33 000 flights up to present. Three aircraft are still in operation and a new project has been sponsored by the European Community, and French and German national budgets. This project is called IAGOS for "In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing system" and can be considered as an update of Mozaic systems, increasing the performances and the measuring capacity. Plans are to equip 10-20 aircraft in the coming years to ensure a global coverage of the observations. Instrumentation has been developed by the participating partners and has been certified for installation on commercial passenger aircraft. The basic instrumentation includes O3, CO, H2O and clouds sensors, as well as the position and meteorological parameters acquired by the aircraft. One of the optional equipment can also be installed: NOx or NOy or CO2/CH4 or Aerosols. Data measured during flight are automatically transmitted after aircraft landing to CNRS reception centre in Toulouse, France, and made available to scientist some days later. The installation on a Lufthansa Airbus A340 has been finalised and certified by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) on July 7th, 2011 and operations started the following day, with data transmitted every landing to the CNRS centre. We will present technical details of the IAGOS aeronautic installation, measuring instruments of the basic system and some results of the first months of IAGOS operation.

  11. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  12. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  13. Improvement in aircraft performance reduces operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The escalation of jet transport fuel prices has altered traditional economic formulas for commercial airplane operators. This economic change has provided the impetus to develop improvements for existing production run transports such as the Boeing 727, 737, and 747 airplanes. Improvements have been made in drag reduction, propulsion system, weight reduction, and operation.

  14. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat; Barmore, Bryan; Swieringa, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the wind information used to generate trajectories for aircraft performing Interval Management (IM) operations is critical to the success of an IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather provider. The second is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment, resulting in loss of additional information. This study focuses on what subset of forecast data, such as the number and location of the points where the wind is sampled should be made available to uplink to the aircraft.

  15. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan. 1560.109... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.109...

  16. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  17. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... preservation and protection, fire fighting and prevention, flood control, or avalanche control purposes, when... detonators and detonator assemblies) and detonators or detonator assemblies are carried for avalanche...

  18. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  19. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  20. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  1. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  2. 77 FR 7656 - Advisory Circular: Public Aircraft Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Aircraft Operations) (76 FR 16349). This advisory circular provides additional information on the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a proposed revision to Advisory Circular...

  3. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  4. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  5. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  6. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  7. Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.

  8. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather

  9. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  10. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  11. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  12. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  13. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  14. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  15. Documentation of Atmospheric Conditions During Observed Rising Aircraft Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in the fall of 1995 off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia in order to determine characteristics of wake vortices at flight altitudes. A NASA Wallops Flight Facility C130 aircraft equipped with smoke generators produced visible wakes at altitudes ranging from 775 to 2225 m in a variety of atmospheric conditions, orientations (head wind, cross wind), and airspeeds. Meteorological and aircraft parameters were collected continuously from a Langley Research Center OV-10A aircraft as it flew alongside and through the wake vortices at varying distances behind the C130. Meteorological data were also obtained from special balloon observations made at Wallops. Differential GPS capabilities were on each aircraft from which accurate altitude profiles were obtained. Vortices were observed to rise at distances beyond a mile behind the C130. The maximum altitude was 150 m above the C130 in a near neutral atmosphere with significant turbulence. This occurred from large vertical oscillations in the wakes. There were several cases when vortices did not descend after a very short initial period and remained near generation altitude in a variety of moderately stable atmospheres and wind shears.

  16. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  17. STDN network operations procedure for Apollo range instrumentation aircraft, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, A. R.; Pfeiffer, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo range instrumentation aircraft (ARIA) fleet which consists of four EC-135N aircraft used for Apollo communication support is discussed. The ARIA aircraft are used to provide coverage of lunar missions, earth orbit missions, command module/service module separation to spacecraft landing, and assist in recovery operations. Descriptions of ARIA aircraft, capabilities, and instrumentation are included.

  18. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  19. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  20. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  1. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  2. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  3. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  4. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. An aircraft operation is eligible for insurance if— (a) The President of the United States...

  5. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. An aircraft operation is eligible for insurance if— (a) The President of the United States...

  6. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  7. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  8. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  9. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  10. Weather Features Associated with Aircraft Icing Conditions: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk. PMID:24701152

  11. Weather features associated with aircraft icing conditions: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk. PMID:24701152

  12. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  13. NASA/JPL aircraft SAR operations for 1984 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/JPL aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was used to conduct major data acquisition expeditions in 1983 through 1985. Substantial improvements to the aircraft SAR were incorporated in 1981 through 1984 resulting in an imaging radar that could simultaneously record all four combinations of linear horizontal and vertical polarization (HH, HV, VH, VV) using computer control of the radar logic, gain setting, and other functions. Data were recorded on high-density digital tapes and processed on a general-purpose computer to produce 10-km square images with 10-m resolution. These digital images yield both the amplitude and phase of the four polarizations. All of the digital images produced so far are archived at the JPL Radar Data Center and are accessible via the Reference Notebook System of that facility. Sites observed in 1984 and 1985 included geological targets in the western United States, as well as agricultural and forestry sites in the Midwest and along the eastern coast. This aircraft radar was destroyed in the CV-990 fire at March Air Force Base on 17 July 1985. It is being rebuilt for flights in l987 and will likely be operated in a mode similar to that described here. The data from 1984 and 1985 as well as those from future expeditions in 1987 and beyond will provide users with a valuable data base for the multifrequency, multipolarization Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) scheduled for orbital operations in the early 1990's.

  14. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  15. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  16. Heat generation in aircraft tires under free rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  17. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  18. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  19. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  20. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  1. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  2. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  3. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  4. Fusion welding experiments under low-gravity conditions using aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masubuchi, Koichi; Nayama, Michisuke

    A series of gas tungsten arc welding experiments under low-gravity conditions created using parabolic flight of aircraft were performed. The materials used were aluminum and 2219 aluminum alloy. Welding was conducted in a small chamber filled with 100 percent argon gas, and the power source was a set of storage batteries. While welding was conducted, CCD image of welding phenomena, welding current, voltage, and the gravity level of the welding table were recorded continuously. It was found that sound welds can be obtained under low-gravity conditions. The bead appearance of the weld bead made under low-gravity conditions was very smooth and flat with no ripple lines which normally exist in welds made on the earth. The observed shape of the arc plasma under low-gravity conditions was larger than that made under normal gravity condition, but the difference was not so significant. Welds made under low-gravity conditions tend to contain more porosity compared with welds made under the earth conditions.

  5. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  6. 49 CFR 1550.7 - Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more... UNDER GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES § 1550.7 Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more. (a... maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or more except for those operations specified...

  7. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  8. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  9. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  10. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  11. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  12. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  13. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  14. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  15. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  16. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  17. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  18. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  19. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  20. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  1. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  2. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  3. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  4. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  5. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  6. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  7. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  8. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  9. Use of eternal flight unmanned aircraft in military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, Zafer

    2014-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), are planned to use solar energy, are being more common and interesting gradually. Today, these systems are very promising while fossil fuels are diminishing rapidly. Academic research is still being conducted to develop unmanned aerial systems which will store energy during day time and use it during night time. Development of unmanned aerial systems, which have eternal flight or very long loiter periods, could be possible by such an energy management. A UAV, which can fly very long time, could provide many advantages that cannot be obtained by conventional aircrafts and satellites. Such systems can be operated as fixed satellites on missions with very low cost in circumstances that require continuous intelligence. By improving automation systems these vehicles could be settled on operation area autonomously and can be grounded easily in case of necessities and maintenance. In this article, the effect of solar powered UAV on operation area has been done a literature review, to be used in surveillance and reconnaissance missions.

  10. Operational problems experienced by single pilots in instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a search strategy to extract pertinent reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System-2 (ASRS-2) database are described. For any particular occurence to be pertinent to the study, it must have satisfied the following conditions: the aircraft must be of the type usually flown by a single pilot; operation on an IFR flight plan in instrument meteorological conditions; pilot experienced an operational problem. The occurances consist of reports by the pilot about his own performance, by the pilot about the system performance, or by an air traffic controller about a pilot's performance.

  11. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  12. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  13. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  14. 76 FR 16349 - Notice of Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... operator with a written declaration (from the contracting officer or higher- level official) of public... statute; and The declaration is made in advance of the proposed public aircraft flight. To implement this... is a declaration of public aircraft status, all operations must be conducted in accordance with...

  15. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft operator... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by...

  16. Nowcasting Aircraft Icing Conditions in the Presence of Multilayered Clouds Using Meteorological Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L.; Chang, Fu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    Cloud properties retrieved from satellite data are used to diagnose aircraft icing threat in single layer and multilayered ice-over-liquid clouds. The algorithms are being applied in real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over the CONUS with multilayer data available over the eastern CONUS. METEOSAT data are also used to retrieve icing conditions over western Europe. The icing algorithm s methodology and validation are discussed along with future enhancements and plans. The icing risk product is available in image and digital formats on NASA Langley s Cloud and Radiation Products web site, http://wwwangler. larc.nasa.gov.

  17. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  18. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  19. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  20. Overview of Aircraft Operations during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seinfeld, J. H.; Huebert, B.

    2001-12-01

    The NSF/NCAR C-130 flew 19 flights out of Iwakuni, Japan between March 31 and May 4, 2001, and data were collected on 7 ferry flights crossing the Pacific. Many of the instruments derived their air from low-turbulence inlets, which enabled studies of supermicron particles vs altitude. Several flights sampled two heavy dust outbreaks, where the aerosol mass concentration exceeded 1000 †g/m3. Size-dependent chemical measurements indicated that this dust did not dramatically change the sulfate size distribution (by causing SO2 to convert to sulfate on its alkaline surfaces), since the vast majority of the sulfate was still in a submicron accumulation mode. Similarly, while the scattering in dust was dominated by large particles, the particle absorption was almost exclusively submicron. We found extensive layering, with as many as 6 distinct dust layers (and clean layers between them) in one profile to 6 km. During ACE-Asia research missions were also conducted using a modified De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft operated by the California Institute of Technology and the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft studies (CIRPAS). A total of 19 research flights were conducted between March 31 and May 1, 2001 from the base of operations at the MCAS Iwakuni, Japan. The sampling area included portions of the Sea of Japan south and east of the Korean Peninsula, the East China Sea between China, Japan and Korea, and the Philippine Sea south of Japan. Collected aerosols were analyzed to determine their chemical composition and physical properties such as size distribution, hygroscopic growth, light scattering and absorption properties. Simultaneous radiative measurements were also made using the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), which measured solar beam transmission at 14 wavelengths (353-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol

  1. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA is... carriage of noise certification documents on board aircraft that leave the United States (73 FR 63098). A... mandatory, the FAA had published a draft Advisory Circular (AC) (70 FR 60127, October 14, 2005)...

  2. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  3. NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation: A Compilation of the Papers Presented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    This volume contains copies of the technical papers presented at the NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation on October 9 and 10, 1950 at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. This conference was attended by members of the aircraft industry and military services. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee's system of complete and formal reports. A list of the conferees is included. [Contents include four subject areas: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Effect on Aircraft Operation; Some Aspects of Aircraft Safety - Icing, Ditching and Fire; Aerodynamic Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes; Propulsion Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes.

  4. Heat generation in aircraft tires under free rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Effort is directed toward construction of a rational method for evaluating internal temperatures of aircraft tires. Enhanced predictability of tire temperature buildup is a design tool in both the tire and airframe industries.

  5. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  6. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  7. 75 FR 41986 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Sport Pilot Rating'' was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 5204). In that rule, the FAA amended... Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating; OMB Approval of Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  8. 75 FR 5203 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Sport Pilot Rating'' (73 FR 20181). The NPRM proposed to address airman certification issues that have... Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 20 / Monday,...

  9. 75 FR 15609 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating'' (75 FR 5204). In that... of the final rule. Corrections In final rule FR Doc. 2010-2056, beginning on page 5204 in the Federal... Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With...

  10. Behavior of Sofradir detector dewar assembly under operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyrier, Jacques; Brodin, Christian; Magli, Serge

    1994-07-01

    Sofradir has built an infrared detector dewar assembly (DDA) capable of operating under various environmental conditions corresponding to various applications. In this paper it is shown that Sofradir DDA retain their performance for FLIR applications (ground vehicle, helicopter, or aircraft) as well as seeker applications. In particular, Sofradir DDAs permit the user to meet or to exceed the majority of environmental conditions defined in the US military standards such as MIL STD 81OD. Moreover, it has been shown from studies carried out at Sofradir that for components in production such as the 288 X 4 one, the reliability, thermal cycling, and operating and storage conditions are acceptable for this generation of components. Indeed, for instance, it has been demonstrated by test that the MTTF for standard operating conditions can be higher than 15,000 hours for the 288 X 4 focal plane array.

  11. Variable Geometry Aircraft Pylon Structure and Related Operation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Parthiv N. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft control structure can be utilized for purposes of drag management, noise control, or aircraft flight maneuvering. The control structure includes a high pressure engine nozzle, such as a bypass nozzle or a core nozzle of a turbofan engine. The nozzle exhausts a high pressure fluid stream, which can be swirled using a deployable swirl vane architecture. The control structure also includes a variable geometry pylon configured to be coupled between the nozzle and the aircraft. The variable geometry pylon has a moveable pylon section that can be deployed into a deflected state to maintain or alter a swirling fluid stream (when the swirl vane architecture is deployed) for drag management purposes, or to assist in the performance of aircraft flight maneuvers.

  12. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx aircraft gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental test rig program designed to define and demonstrates techniques which would allow the jet-induced circulation and vortex air blast combustors to operate stably with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle without compromise to the low NOx emissions under the high-altitude supersonic cruise condition. The discussion focuses on the test results of the key combustor modifications for both the simulated engine idle and cruise conditions. Several range-augmentation techniques are demonstrated that allow the lean-reaction premixed aircraft gas turbine combustor to operate with low NOx emissons at engine cruise and acceptable CO and UHC levels at engine idle. These techniques involve several combinations, including variable geometry and fuel switching designs.

  13. Significance of the Atmosphere and Aircraft Operations on Sonic-Boom Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Hilton, David A.

    1965-01-01

    The information of the paper is in the form of a status report on the state of knowledge of sonic-boom phenomena, dealing first with the pressure buildups in the transonic speed range and with the lateral extent of the pattern in steady flight for quiescent atmospheric conditions. There are also discussions of recent data from flight-test studies relating to atmospheric dynamic effects on the sonic-boom signatures, and finally, brief discussions of the significance of signature shape on the response of people and structures. The acceleration and lateral-spread phenomena appear to be fairly well understood and predictable for current and future aircraft. Variations in the sonic-boom signature as a result of the effects of the atmosphere can be expected during routine operations. From the data evaluated to date, very similar variations in pressure signatures are noted for both fighter and bomber aircraft. The greatest questions still exist in the area of community acceptance of sonic booms. A more definitive answer to the community-acceptance problem will have to await adequate flight experience with larger aircraft.

  14. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  15. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  16. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  17. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  18. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establishes a level of safety equivalent to that provided under the regulations for the deviation requested... repairman (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating, an appropriately rated mechanic, or an... limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate— (1) For other...

  19. 75 FR 29568 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aircraft Operator Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... comments, of the following collection of information on March 16, 2010. 75 FR 12559. The collection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... provided by the aircraft operator against acts of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and the...

  20. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. 91.317 Section 91.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... type or supplemental type certification of that aircraft; (2) For training flight crews,...

  1. Simulation investigation of the effect of the NASA Ames 80-by 120-foot wind tunnel exhaust flow on light aircraft operating in the Moffett field trafffic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streeter, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study of the exhaust flow from the Ames Research Center 80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel indicated that the flow might pose a hazard to low-flying light aircraft operating in the Moffett Field traffic pattern. A more extensive evaluation of the potential hazard was undertaken using a fixed-base, piloted simulation of a light, twin-engine, general-aviation aircraft. The simulated aircraft was flown through a model of the wind tunnel exhaust by pilots of varying experience levels to develop a data base of aircraft and pilot reactions. It is shown that a light aircraft would be subjected to a severe disturbance which, depending upon entry condition and pilot reaction, could result in a low-altitude stall or cause damage to the aircraft tail structure.

  2. The influence of ice accretion physics on the forecasting of aircraft icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The physics which control aircraft ice accretion are reviewed in the context of identifying and forecasting hazardous icing conditions. The severity of aircraft icing is found to be extremely sensitive to temperature, liquid water content and droplet size distribution particularly near the transition between rime and mixed icing. The difficulty in measurement and the variability of these factors with altitude, position and time coupled with variable aircraft sensitivity make forecasting and identifying icing conditions difficult. Automated Pilot Reports (PIREPS) are suggested as one mechanism for improving the data base necessary to forecast icing conditions.

  3. The influence of ice accretion physics on the forecasting of aircraft icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The physics which control aircraft ice accretion are reviewed in the context of identifying and forecasting hazardous icing conditions. The severity of aircraft icing is found to be extremely sensitive to temperature, liquid water content and droplet size distribution particularly near the transition between rime and mixed icing. The difficulty in measurement and the variability of these factors with altitude, position and time coupled with variable aircraft sensitivity make forecasting and identifying icing conditions difficult. Automated Pilot Reports (PIREPS) are suggested as one mechanism for improving the data base necessary to forecast icing conditions.

  4. New design and operating techniques and requirements for improved aircraft terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Taylor, R. T.; Walsh, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The Microwave Landing System (MLS) under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. The development of the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve terminal area problems are discussed. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices were explored. Flight procedures for avoiding the hazard were investigated. Terminal configured vehicles and their flight test development are discussed.

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of STOL transport operations (phase 2). [computer simulation program of commercial short haul aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welp, D. W.; Brown, R. A.; Ullman, D. G.; Kuhner, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation program which models a commercial short-haul aircraft operating in the civil air system was developed. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the effect of a given aircraft avionics capability on the ability of the aircraft to perform on-time carrier operations. The program outputs consist primarily of those quantities which can be used to determine direct operating costs. These include: (1) schedule reliability or delays, (2) repairs/replacements, (3) fuel consumption, and (4) cancellations. More comprehensive models of the terminal area environment were added and a simulation of an existing airline operation was conducted to obtain a form of model verification. The capability of the program to provide comparative results (sensitivity analysis) was then demonstrated by modifying the aircraft avionics capability for additional computer simulations.

  6. Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.

    1996-01-01

    A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.

  7. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... operated over water. No person may operate a land aircraft carrying passengers over water unless— (a) It is operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary...

  8. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING...

  9. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  10. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  12. Piloting considerations for terminal area operations of civil tiltwing and tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Tucker, George E.; Decker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing body of research to investigate airworthiness, performance, handling, and operational requirements for STOL and V/STOL aircraft was reviewed for its applicability to the tiltrotor and tiltwing design concepts. The objective of this study was to help determine the needs for developing civil certification criteria for these aircraft concepts. Piloting tasks that were considered included configuration and thrust vector management, glidepath control, deceleration to hover, and engine failure procedures. Flight control and cockpit display systems that have been found necessary to exploit the low-speed operating characteristics of these aircraft are described, and beneficial future developments are proposed.

  13. The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.; Swan, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various noise goals at minimum DOC. These vehicles ranged across the spectrum of possible noise levels from completely unconstrained to the quietest vehicles that could be designed within the study ground rules. Optimization parameters were varied to find the minimum DOC. This basic variation was then extended to different aircraft sizes and technology time frames.

  14. An Evidenced-Based Approach for Estimating Decompression Sickness Risk in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ronald R.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Conkin, Johnny

    1999-01-01

    Estimating the risk of decompression Sickness (DCS) in aircraft operations remains a challenge, making the reduction of this risk through the development of operationally acceptable denitrogenation schedules difficult. In addition, the medical recommendations which are promulgated are often not supported by rigorous evaluation of the available data, but are instead arrived at by negotiation with the aircraft operations community, are adapted from other similar aircraft operations, or are based upon the opinion of the local medical community. We present a systematic approach for defining DCS risk in aircraft operations by analyzing the data available for a specific aircraft, flight profile, and aviator population. Once the risk of DCS in a particular aircraft operation is known, appropriate steps can be taken to reduce this risk to a level acceptable to the applicable aviation community. Using this technique will allow any aviation medical community to arrive at the best estimate of DCS risk for its specific mission and aviator population and will allow systematic reevaluation of the decisions regarding DCS risk reduction when additional data are available.

  15. [Psychophysiological aspects of naval aviation pilots of the Navy in the operation of highly carrier-based aircraft].

    PubMed

    Mel'nik, S G; Chulaevskiĭ, A O

    2011-08-01

    The authors have shown that the most difficult elements of the flight deck of the ship are springboard takeoff and aerofinishing landing. An important task is to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the behavior of the aircraft during takeoff different characteristics, forming crews ready to act in particular situations. Adverse factors are the operating conditions of habitability of aircraft (noise, vibration, fumes in the air at work, and aircraft engines, etc.) that have a significant impact on the life of air crew and engineering staff. It is concluded that the development and use of effective means of protecting the organism from the effect of these factors is a priority for specialists in aviation medicine. PMID:22164988

  16. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  17. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  18. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  19. The environmental impact of 4(5)-methylbenzotriazole from aircraft deicing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Jeffrey Scott

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of gallons of aircraft deicer fluid (ADF) are applied to aircraft and runway surfaces annually. Recently public and regulatory attention has forced the air transport industry and military aviation community to examine the environmental impacts of aircraft deicing operations (ADOs), and to seek a balance between flight safety and environmental impact. Little data exists which is useful to evaluate the impact of ADF additives. 4(5)-methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) is used in a variety of industrial and commercial fluids to inhibit metal corrosion; it is a standard additive to most common ADF (approx. 0.5%). This MeBT component is actually a mixture of two isomers: 4-methylbenzotriazole (4-MeBT) and 5-methylbenzotriazole (5-MeBT). A significant amount of MeBT enters the natural environment through aircraft deicing operations. Research was conducted to address important data gaps impacting the ability to assess the environmental impact of MeBT and ADOs. Matrixed toxicity studies were conducted to determine the effect of different additives on ADF ecotoxicity. Aerobic liquid batch-fed microcosms were employed to investigate how MeBT affects the toxicity of wastewater containing ADF, describe how MeBT affects the aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol (PG), and determine the biodegradability of MeBT. Field samples from contaminated areas were collected and analyzed for comparison. Cell energy production and electron transport assays were conducted to determine if MeBT was capable of disrupting oxidative phosphorylation via uncoupling, as its chemical structure would suggest. MicrotoxRTM studies indicated MeBT was toxic to test bacteria below 10 mg/L. C. dubia and P. promelas , however, were less sensitive to MeBT than bacteria but more sensitive to other ADF additives. The effect of MeBT on PG biodegradation was complex and concentration-dependent. Cell yield and PG biodegradation rates generally decreased with increasing reactor MeBT concentration

  20. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  1. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  2. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  3. 14 CFR 61.319 - Can I operate a make and model of aircraft other than the make and model aircraft for which I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.319 Can I operate a make and... you hold a sport pilot certificate you may operate any make and model of light-sport aircraft in...

  4. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  5. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  6. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  7. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  8. Evaluation of Equivalent Vision Technologies for Supersonic Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Wilz, Susan P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four air transport-rated pilots participated as subjects in a fixed-based simulation experiment to evaluate the use of Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) and eXternal Vision System (XVS) technologies as enabling technologies for future all-weather operations. Three head-up flight display concepts were evaluated a monochromatic, collimated Head-up Display (HUD) and a color, non-collimated XVS display with a field-of-view (FOV) equal to and also, one significantly larger than the collimated HUD. Approach, landing, departure, and surface operations were conducted. Additionally, the apparent angle-of-attack (AOA) was varied (high/low) to investigate the vertical field-of-view display requirements and peripheral, side window visibility was experimentally varied. The data showed that lateral approach tracking performance and lateral landing position were excellent regardless of the display type and AOA condition being evaluated or whether or not there were peripheral cues in the side windows. Longitudinal touchdown and glideslope tracking were affected by the display concepts. Larger FOV display concepts showed improved longitudinal touchdown control, superior glideslope tracking, significant situation awareness improvements and workload reductions compared to smaller FOV display concepts.

  9. Prototype Development of an Operational Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.

    2009-12-01

    A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead mass shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. We also discuss issues encounter thus far as well as anticipated hurdles in the research to operations transition process.

  10. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  11. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  12. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Terminal area operations, avionics and human factors, atmospheric environment, and operating problems and potential solutions are discussed. Other topics include flight experiences, ground operations, and acoustics and noise reduction.

  13. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

  14. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... conditions of aircraft cabin crew while they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: This action becomes... the working conditions of aircraft cabin crewmembers while they are onboard aircraft in operation... enforcement onboard the aircraft. The FAA agrees with the proposed recommendation. Specific procedures...

  15. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  16. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  17. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  18. Recent developments in aircraft protection systems for laser guide star operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Murphy, Thomas W.; Campbell, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The astronomical community's use of high power laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) systems presents a potential hazard to aviation. Historically, the most common and trusted means of protecting aircraft and their occupants has been the use of safety observers (aka spotters) armed with shut-off switches. These safety observers watch for aircraft at risk and terminate laser propagation before the aircraft can be adversely affected by the laser. Efforts to develop safer and more cost-effective automated aircraft protection systems for use by the astronomical community have been inhibited by both technological and regulatory challenges. This paper discusses recent developments in these two areas. Specifically, with regard to regulation and guidance we discuss the 2011 release of AS-6029 by the SAE as well as the potential impact of RTCA DO-278A. With regard to the recent developments in the technology used to protect aircraft from laser illumination, we discuss the novel Transponder Based Aircraft Detection (TBAD) system being installed at W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO). Finally, we discuss our strategy for evaluating TBAD compliance with the regulations and for seeking appropriate approvals for LGS operations at WMKO using a fully automated, flexibly configured, multi-tier aircraft protection system incorporating this new technology.

  19. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  20. Noise Considerations in the Design and Operation of V/STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Hilton, David A.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1961-01-01

    Available propulsion-system noise data have been applied to the In particular, problems of design and operation of V/STOL aircraft. considerations have been given to minimizing adverse community reaction for operations between airports and to minimizing detection due to noise for special missions.

  1. Evaluation of a Trainer for Sensor Operators on Gunship II Aircraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cream, Bertram W.

    This report describes the design, development, and evaluation of a training device intended to enable ground-based practice of equipment operation and target-tracking skills that are required by the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Low Light Level TV (LLLTV) sensor operators assigned to Gunship II aircraft. This trainer makes use of a…

  2. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  3. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  5. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  7. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  8. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  9. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  10. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  11. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... safety of the flight. (b) No person may take off an aircraft when frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the... the takeoff would not be in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section. Takeoffs with frost under... conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the aircraft, unless...

  12. 75 FR 77524 - Special Conditions: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-92A Helicopter; Installation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) model S-92A helicopter. This helicopter, as modified by Sikorsky, will have novel or unusual design features associated with installing an optional SAR AFCS. The applicable airworthiness standards do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain......

  13. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  14. Search and Rescue Operations of Aircraft in Africa: Some Compelling Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I. R.

    2002-01-01

    The world aviation community has felt the compelling need for a well-coordinated global programme for search and rescue operations of aircraft ever since commercial aviation was regulated in 1944. Guidelines and plans of action for search and rescue have therefore been considered critical in the event of an aircraft accident. This fact is eminently brought to bear in the continental regions of Africa and South America in particular, where vast expanses of land are still uninhabited or sparsely populated and controlled flight into terrain (CFIT-where an aircraft may crash on land while still under the control of technical crew) is a common occurrence. There are numerous guidelines that have been adopted under the umbrella of the International Civil Aviation Organization which are already in place for the provision of search and rescue operations pertaining to aircraft. However, when an accident occurs in the territory of a State, there are sensitivities involving the State in which the aircraft concerned was registered and issues of sovereignty which have to be considered. Additionally. issues such as the voluntary nature of the search and rescue services offered. confidentiality, timeliness of such operations, fairness and uniformity all play a critical role. This article addresses the issue of search and rescue operations in Africa and examines in some detail where the world aviation community is right now and where it is headed in this important field of human endeavour.

  15. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  16. A Consideration of Constraints on Aircraft Departure Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Morello, Samuel A.; Shay, Richard F.; Lemos, Katherine A.; Jacobsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a system-level perspective on the operational issues and constraints that limit departure capacity at large metropolitan airports in today's air transportation system. It examines the influence of constraints evident in en route airspace, in metroplex operations, and at individual airports from today's perspective and with a view toward future gate-to-cruise operations. Cross cutting organizational and technological challenges are discussed in relation to their importance in addressing the constraints.

  17. Ice Shape Scaling for Aircraft in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This paper has summarized recent NASA research into scaling of SLD conditions with data from both SLD and Appendix C tests. Scaling results obtained by applying existing scaling methods for size and test-condition scaling will be reviewed. Large feather growth issues, including scaling approaches, will be discussed briefly. The material included applies only to unprotected, unswept geometries. Within the limits of the conditions tested to date, the results show that the similarity parameters needed for Appendix C scaling also can be used for SLD scaling, and no additional parameters are required. These results were based on visual comparisons of reference and scale ice shapes. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. The currently recommended methods to scale model size, icing limit and test conditions are described.

  18. 78 FR 75453 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Isolation or Protection From Internal Access AGENCY: Federal... control and navigation systems, 2. Operator business and administrative support, and 3....

  19. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation.

    PubMed

    Nish, W A; Walsh, W F; Land, P; Swedenburg, M

    1989-06-01

    The number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States has been steadily increasing. The quantity and sophistication of electronic equipment used during neonatal transport have also increased. All medical equipment generates some electromagnetic interference (EMI). Excessive EMI can interfere with any of an aircraft's electrical systems, including navigation and communications. The United States military has strict standards for maximum EMI in transport equipment. Over the past 15 years, approximately 70% of neonatal transport monitors, ventilators, and incubators have failed testing due to excessive EMI. As neonatal transport equipment becomes more sophisticated, EMI is increased, and there is greater potential for aircraft malfunction. The Federal Aviation Administration should develop civilian standards for acceptable EMI, civilian aircraft operators must be aware of the possible dangers of excessive EMI, and equipment which does not meet future FAA standards should not be purchased. PMID:2751593

  20. Soil runway friction evaluation in support of USAF C-17 transport aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of NASA Diagonal-Braked Vehicle (DBV) test runs were performed on the soil runway 7/25 at Holland landing zone, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, near Pope Air Force Base in March 1995 at the request of the Air Force C-17 System Program Office. These ground vehicle test results indicated that the dry runway friction level was suitable for planned C-17 transport aircraft landing and take-off operations at various gross weights. These aircraft operations were successfully carried out. On-board aircraft deceleration measurements were comparable to NASA DBV measurements. Additional tests conducted with an Army High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle equipped with a portable decelerometer, showed good agreement with NASA DBV data.

  1. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  2. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  3. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  4. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  5. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  6. Aircraft operator - Would you buy higher DOC to lower noise and fuel use. [Direct Operating Cost tradeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corning, G.; Hall, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method of optimization of the direct operating cost (DOC) and the effective perceived noise (in units of EPNdB) in aircraft is proposed. A computer program was used to generate a variety of aircraft designs meeting certain specifications, where wing loading, aspect ratio, cruise altitude, wing sweepback, and speed was varied, and DOC for each case was calculated. The higher aspect ratio, in combination with the appropriate wing loadings, cruise altitudes and wing sweep, is found to reduce the noise and the fuel used.

  7. Influence of friction forces on the motion of VTOL aircraft during landing operations on ships at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Chin, D. O.

    1981-01-01

    Equations describing the friction forces generated during landing operations on ships at sea were formulated. These forces depend on the platform reaction and the coefficient of friction. The platform reaction depends on the relative sink rate and the shock absorbing capability of the landing gear. The friction coefficient varies with the surface condition of the landing platform and the angle of yaw of the aircraft relative to the landing platform. Landings by VTOL aircraft, equipped with conventional oleopneumatic landing gears are discussed. Simplifications are introduced to reduce the complexity of the mathematical description of the tire and shock strut characteristics. Approximating the actual complicated force deflection characteristic of the tire by linear relationship is adequate. The internal friction forces in the shock strut are included in the landing gear model. A set of relatively simple equations was obtained by including only those tire and shock strut characteristics that contribute significantly to the generation of landing gear forces.

  8. V/STOL Aircraft Operation in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P.

    1965-01-01

    Some aspects of V/STOL operation in a terminal area have been presented. A V/STOL instrument approach with present-day displays and guidance systems requires about 5 minutes at low speeds, but this time could be cut to 1 1/2 to 2 minutes if the displays and guidance systems were improved. In order to keep approach-pattern time to a minimum, the conversion process should be simplified by interconnecting as many operations as possible with one control. Adequate vectoring for the lifting system, attitude stabilization to prevent excessive wandering, and automatic glide-path control for approaches over 6 deg. will also be required.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft? 102-33.200 Section 102-33.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft? 102-33.200 Section 102-33.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF...

  11. NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems: A Compilation of the Papers Presented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This compilation includes papers presented at the NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems held at the Langley Research Center on May 10 - 12, 1965. Contributions were made by representatives of the Ames Research Center, the Flight Research Center, end the Langley Research Center of NASA, as well as by representatives of the Federal Aviation Agency.

  12. 32 CFR 700.857 - Safe navigation and regulations governing operation of ships and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe navigation and regulations governing operation of ships and aircraft. 700.857 Section 700.857 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The...

  13. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. Comparison of Satellite and Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Microphysical Properties in Icing Conditions During ATREC/AIRS-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2004-01-01

    Satellites are ideal for continuous monitoring of aircraft icing conditions in many situations over extensive areas. The satellite imager data are used to diagnose a number of cloud properties that can be used to develop icing intensity indices. Developing and validating these indices requires comparison with objective "cloud truth" data in addition to conventional pilot reports (PIREPS) of icing conditions. Minnis et al. examined the relationships between PIREPS icing and satellite-derived cloud properties. The Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) and the second Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS-II) field programs were conducted over the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada during late 2003 and early 2004. The aircraft and surface measurements are concerned primarily with the icing characteristics of clouds and, thus, are ideal for providing some validation information for the satellite remote sensing product. This paper starts the process of comparing cloud properties and icing indices derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) with the aircraft in situ measurements of several cloud properties during campaigns and some of the The comparisons include cloud phase, particle size, icing intensity, base and top altitudes, temperatures, and liquid water path. The results of this study are crucial for developing a more reliable and objective icing product from satellite data. This icing product, currently being derived from GOES data over the USA, is an important complement to more conventional products based on forecasts, and PIREPS.

  15. The effect of operation conditions on slagging

    SciTech Connect

    Alekhnovich, A.N.; Bogomolov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    Operation conditions have an effect on slagging properties of fly ash due to changes of the flue gas temperature and the heat flux. The effect of the same factors for various coal types and boiler zones may differ not only in degree but in opposite sign. In addition, the effect of the factors may vary depending on a combination of other factors. The experimental results confirmed the above idea. It also presents examples of a successful decrease of slagging with the change of operating conditions.

  16. Acoustic measurements of F-4E aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-4E aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-4E aircraft aft fuselage structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an F-4E aircraft water cooled hush house at Hill AFB in the lower frequencies, but were increased over that measured during ground run up on some areas of the aircraft. It was recommended that the acoustic loads measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for aircraft which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment. Recommendations were also made to increase the fatigue life of the aft fuselage.

  17. Short Term Variation of Cosmic Radiation on Aircraft at Constant Flight Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Nam, U. W.; Pyo, J.; Kim, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variation of cosmic radiation was measured by Liulin detector on aircraft at constant flight condition. In this experiment, instead of using a commercial aircraft that flies over long distances, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight over Korean Peninsula. Measurements indicate that the radiation dose is approximately 2.12 ~ 2.88 Sv/hr at 30,000 ft. We obtained two observational results from this experiment. First, changes in dose rate occurred within a flight time of 5 - 7 hours. Second, no strong correlation was revealed between cosmic rays observed from the ground using the Neutron Monitor and the radiation dose. Our experimental results imply that changes in cosmic radiation at the flight altitude are affected by unknown factors that might be investigated in the point of space weather.

  18. Demonstration of Four Operating Capabilities to Enable a Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project has been a five-year effort fostering research and development that could lead to the transformation of our country s air transportation system. It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand keeps steadily increasing. The SATS vision is to increase mobility in our nation s transportation system by expanding access to more than 3400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized. The SATS project has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies and procedures to pave the way for a new way of air travel. The four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. These four capabilities are key to enabling low-cost, on-demand, point-to-point transportation of goods and passengers utilizing small aircraft operating from small airports. The focus of this paper is to discuss the technical and operational feasibility of the four operating capabilities and demonstrate how they can enable a small aircraft transportation system.

  19. Short-term variation of cosmic radiation measured by aircraft under constant flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejin; Nam, Uk-Won; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Dachev, Tsventan P.

    2015-11-01

    The temporal variations in cosmic radiation on aircraft under constant flight conditions were measured by a Liulin detector. Rather than a commercial long-distance aircraft, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight at a constant altitude over the Korean Peninsula. At 9144 m (30,000 ft), the mean and standard deviation of the radiation dose rate (among 35 measurements) was 2.3 and 0.17 μSv/h, respectively. The experiment yielded two observational results. First, the dose rate changed over a flight time of 5-7 h; second, no strong correlation was revealed between the cosmic rays observed from the ground-based neutron monitor and the radiation doses at aircraft altitude. These observations can provide insight into the short-term variation of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes. When discarding various negligible factors, it is postulated that the changes in the geomagnetic field and the air density still could affect the variation of cosmic radiation at aircraft altitude. However, various factors are less known about the dependence on the cosmic radiation. Therefore, investigations of possible factors are also warranted at the monitoring points of space weather.

  20. 26 CFR 1.883-1T - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of income from the international... § 1.883-1T Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary). (a... the ship or aircraft of another corporation engaged in the international operation of ships...

  1. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Scheduled international air services in airplanes of U.S. registry having a configuration of more than nine...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

  2. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Scheduled international air services in airplanes of U.S. registry having a configuration of more than nine...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

  3. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  4. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  5. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  6. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  7. Operational Weight Estimations of Commercial Jet Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1972-01-01

    In evaluating current or proposed commercial transport airplanes, there has not been available a ready means to determine weights so as to compare airplanes within this particular class. This paper describes the development of and presents such comparative tools. The major design characteristics of current American jet transport airplanes were collected, and these data were correlated by means of regression analysis to develop weight relationships for these airplanes as functions of their operational requirements. The characteristics for 23 airplanes were assembled and examined in terms of the effects of the number of people carried, the cargo load, and the operating range. These airplane characteristics were correlated for the airplanes as one of three subclasses, namely the small, twin-engine jet transport, the conventional three- and four-engine jets, and the new wide-body jets.

  8. Aircraft operating efficiency on the North Atlantic, a challenge for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    A number of changes are expected to occur in the near future which could have important consequences for Atlantic flight operations for the next decade. These changes are identified and their impact on aircraft operating efficiency is discussed. Possible alternatives for North Atlantic air carriers are reviewed and strategies and actions are suggested which may give a considerable impact on fuel savings for years to come.

  9. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  14. Structural health monitoring methodology for aircraft condition-based maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniger, Jordi; Reithler, Livier; Guedra-Degeorges, Didier; Takeda, Nobuo; Dupuis, Jean Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Reducing maintenance costs while keeping a constant level of safety is a major issue for Air Forces and airlines. The long term perspective is to implement condition based maintenance to guarantee a constant safety level while decreasing maintenance costs. On this purpose, the development of a generalized Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) is needed. The objective of such a system is to localize the damages and to assess their severity, with enough accuracy to allow low cost corrective actions. The present paper describes a SHMS based on acoustic emission technology. This choice was driven by its reliability and wide use in the aerospace industry. The described SHMS uses a new learning methodology which relies on the generation of artificial acoustic emission events on the structure and an acoustic emission sensor network. The calibrated acoustic emission events picked up by the sensors constitute the knowledge set that the system relies on. With this methodology, the anisotropy of composite structures is taken into account, thus avoiding the major cause of errors of classical localization methods. Moreover, it is adaptive to different structures as it does not rely on any particular model but on measured data. The acquired data is processed and the event's location and corrected amplitude are computed. The methodology has been demonstrated and experimental tests on elementary samples presented a degree of accuracy of 1cm.

  15. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  16. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM. PMID:23445114

  17. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  18. Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) hardware principles of operation, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, Edward

    1989-10-01

    The Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) makes possible the performance assessment of the Mode Select (Mode S) sensor under its specific maximum aircraft load. To do this, ARIES operates upon disk files for traffic model and interference to generate simulated aircraft replies and fruit, feeding them to the sensor at radio frequency. Support documentation for ARIES consists of: (1) the ARIES Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/3); (2) Appendixes of the Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 2; (3) the ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/4-1); (4) Appendixes of the Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 2; (5) ARIES Software Principles of Operation (DOT/FAA/CT-TN87/16); and (6) ARIES Software User's Manual (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/15). This document, the ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation, Volume 1, explains the theory of operation of the ARIES special purpose hardware designed and fabricated at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. Each hardware device is discussed. Functional block diagrams, signal timing diagrams, and state timing diagrams are included where appropriate.

  19. Use of augmented reality in aircraft maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, L.; Ceruti, A.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.; Liverani, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper illustrates a Human-Machine Interface based on Augmented Reality (AR) conceived to provide to maintenance operators the results of an impact detection methodology. In particular, the implemented tool dynamically interacts with a head portable visualization device allowing the inspector to see the estimated impact position on the structure. The impact detection methodology combines the signals collected by a network of piezosensors bonded on the structure to be monitored. Then a signal processing algorithm is applied to compensate for dispersion the acquired guided waves. The compensated waveforms yield to a robust estimation of guided waves difference in distance of propagation (DDOP), used to feed hyperbolic algorithms for impact location determination. The output of the impact methodology is passed to an AR visualization technology that is meant to support the inspector during the on-field inspection/diagnosis as well as the maintenance operations. The inspector, in fact, can see interactively in real time the impact data directly on the surface of the structure. Here the proposed approach is tested on the engine cowling of a Cessna 150 general aviation airplane. Preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the method and its exploitability in maintenance practice.

  20. Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) hardware principles of operation. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, Edward

    1989-10-01

    The Aircraft Reply and Interference Environment Simulator (ARIES) makes possible the performance assessment of the Mode Select (Mode S) sensor under its specific maximum aircraft load. To do this, ARIES operates upon disk files for traffic model and interference to generate simulated aircraft replies and fruit, feeding them to the sensor at radio frequency. Support documentation for ARIES consists of: (1) ARIES Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/3); (2) Appendixes of the Hardware Maintenance Manual: Volume 2; (3) ARIES Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 1 (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/4); (4) Appendices of the Hardware Principles of Operation: Volume 2; (5) ARIES Software Principles of Operation (DOT/FAA/CT-TN87/16); and (6) ARIES Software User's Manual (DOT/FAA/CT-TN88/15). The Appendices to the Hardware Principles of Operation provide: (1) the acronyms and abbreviations used within the document; (2) detailed information covering the development and implementation of controller microcode; and (3) uplink receiver digital alignment.

  1. Control and Non-Payload Communications Links for Integrated Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Griner, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for unmanned aircraft has advanced so rapidly in recent years that many new applications to public and commercial use are being proposed and implemented. In many countries, emphasis is now being placed on developing the means to allow unmanned aircraft to operate within non-segregated airspace along with commercial, cargo and other piloted and passenger-carrying aircraft.In the U.S., Congress has mandated that the Federal Aviation Administration reduce and remove restrictions on unmanned aircraft operations in a relatively short time frame. To accomplish this, a number of technical and regulatory hurdles must be overcome. A key hurdle involve the communications link connecting the remote pilot located at a ground control station with the aircraft in the airspace, referred to as the Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. This link represents a safety critical communications link, and thus requires dedicated and protected aviation spectrum as well as national and international standards defining the operational requirements the CNPC system. The CNPC link must provide line-of-site (LOS) communications, primarily through a ground-based communication system, and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) communication achieved using satellite communications. In the U.S., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is charged with providing the technical body of evidence to support spectrum allocation requirements and national and international standards development for the CNPC link. This paper provides a description of the CNPC system, an overview of NASA's CNPC project, and current results in technology assessment, air-ground propagation characterization, and supporting system studies and analyses will be presented.

  2. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  3. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  4. Detection of the Impact of Ice Crystal Accretion in an Aircraft Engine Compression System During Dynamic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation community. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. Here a detection algorithm is developed which has the capability to detect the impact of ice accretion in the Low Pressure Compressor of an aircraft engine during steady flight as well as during changes in altitude. Unfortunately, the algorithm as implemented was not able to distinguish throttle changes from ice accretion and thus more work remains to be done.

  5. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  6. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  7. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299. PMID:27018529

  8. Optimization of the terrain following radar flight cues in special operations aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Patrick J.; Trang, Jeff A.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past 18 months the Army has been developing a terrain following capability in it's next generation special operations aircraft (SOA), the MH-60K and the MH-47E. As two experimental test pilots assigned to the Army's Airworthiness Qualification Test Directorate of the US Army Aviation Technical Test Center, we would like to convey the role that human factors has played in the development of the MMR for terrain following operations in the SOA. In the MH-60K, the pilot remains the interface between the aircraft, via the flight controls and the processed radar data, and the flight director cues. The presentation of the processed radar data to the pilot significantly affects the overall system performance, and is directly driven by the way humans see, process, and react to stimuli. Our development has been centered around the optimization of this man-machine interface.

  9. The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: impacts on aircraft operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The December 1989-June 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano affected commercial and military air operations in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. These effects were due to the direct impact of volcanic ash on jet aircraft, as well as to the rerouting and cancellations of flight operations owing to eruptive activity. Between December and February, five commercial jetliners were damaged from ash encounters. The most serious incident took place on December 15, 1989 when a Boeing 747-400 aircraft temporarily lost power of all four engines after encountering an ash cloud as the airplane descended for a landing in Anchorage. While there were no injuries to passengers, the damage to engines, avionics, and aircraft structure from this encounter is estimated at $80 million. Four additional encounters between jet aircraft and Redoubt ash clouds occurred in the Anchorage area on December 15 and 16, 1989 and February 21, 1990; none resulted in engine failure. Two additional encounters took place on December 17, 1989 when jet airliners encountered the Redoubt cloud over west Texas. At the time of these encounters, the cloud was up to 55 hours old and had traveled in excess of 2,900 nautical miles (5,300 km). Following the December 15 encounters, Anchorage International Airport remained open, however, most airline companies canceled operations for up to several days. As communications between Federal agencies and airlines improved, and as a better understanding of the nature and behavior of ash-rich eruption clouds was achieved, most airlines resumed normal service by early January 1990. The resulting loss of revenue at Anchorage International Airport during several months following the eruption is estimated to total $2.6 million. The impact on general aviation and military operations consisted mostly of cancellation and rerouting of flights. ?? 1994.

  10. Simulated Rotor Wake Interactions Resulting from Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations Near Vertiport Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    A mid-fidelity computational fluid dynamics tool called RotCFD - specifically developed to aid in rotorcraft conceptual design efforts - has been applied to the study of rotor wake interactions of civil tiltrotor aircraft in the immediate vicinity of vertiport/airport ground infrastructure. This issue has grown in importance as previous NASA studies have suggested that civil tiltrotor aircraft can potentially have a significant impact on commercial transport aviation. Current NASA reference designs for such civil tiltrotor aircraft are focused on a size category of 90-120 passengers. Notional concepts of operations include simultaneous non-interfering flight into and out of congested airports having vertiports, that is, prepared VTOL takeoff and landing zones, or underutilized short runways for STOL operation. Such large gross-weight vehicles will be generating very high induced velocities. Inevitably, the interaction of the rotor wake with ground infrastructure such as terminals/jetways must be considered both from an operational as well as design perspective.

  11. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  12. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  13. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  14. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  15. Analysis of the effect of numbers of aircraft operations on community annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, W. K.; Patterson, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    The general validity of the equivalent-energy concept as applied to community annoyance to aircraft noise has been recently questioned by investigators using a peak-dBA concept. Using data previously gathered around nine U.S. airports, empirical tests of both concepts are presented. Results show that annoyance response follows neither concept, that annoyance increases steadily with energy-mean level for constant daily operations and with numbers of operations up to 100-199 per day (then decreases for higher numbers), and that the behavior of certain response descriptors is dependent upon the statistical distributions of numbers and levels.

  16. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1992-01-01

    This research project addresses the need to provide an efficient and safe mechanism to investigate the effects and requirements of the tiltrotor aircraft's commercial operations on air transportation infrastructures, particularly air traffic control. The mechanism of choice is computer simulation. Unfortunately, the fundamental paradigms of the current air traffic control simulation models do not directly support the broad range of operational options and environments necessary to study tiltrotor operations. Modification of current air traffic simulation models to meet these requirements does not appear viable given the range and complexity of issues needing resolution. As a result, the investigation of systemic, infrastructure issues surrounding the effects of tiltrotor commercial operations requires new approaches to simulation modeling. These models should be based on perspectives and ideas closer to those associated with tiltrotor air traffic operations.

  17. Integrated Mode Choice, Small Aircraft Demand, and Airport Operations Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor); Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    A mode choice model that generates on-demand air travel forecasts at a set of GA airports based on changes in economic characteristics, vehicle performance characteristics such as speed and cost, and demographic trends has been integrated with a model to generate itinerate aircraft operations by airplane category at a set of 3227 airports. Numerous intermediate outputs can be generated, such as the number of additional trips diverted from automobiles and schedule air by the improved performance and cost of on-demand air vehicles. The total number of transported passenger miles that are diverted is also available. From these results the number of new aircraft to service the increased demand can be calculated. Output from the models discussed is in the format to generate the origin and destination traffic flow between the 3227 airports based on solutions to a gravity model.

  18. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  19. Effect of operating conditions on gearbox noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Atherton, William; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1992-01-01

    Low contact ratio spur gears were tested in the NASA gear noise rig to study the noise radiated from the top of the gearbox. The measured sound power from the gearbox top was obtained from a near field acoustic intensity scan taken at 63 nodes just above the surface. The sound power was measured at a matrix of 45 operating speeds and torque levels. Results are presented in the form of a spectral speed map and as a plot of sound power versus torque (at constant speed) and as sound power versus speed (at constant torque). Because of the presence of vibration modes, operating speed was found to have more impact on noise generation than torque level. A NASA gear dynamics code was used to compute the gear tooth dynamic overload at the same 45 operating conditions used for the experiment. Similar trends were found between the analytical results for dynamic tooth overload and experimental results for sound power. Dynamic analysis may be used to design high quality gears with profile relief optimized for minimum dynamic load and noise.

  20. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  1. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  2. Intelligent tool condition monitoring in milling operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, P.; Hope, A.D.; King, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    One of the most important features of the modern machining system in an `unmanned` factory is to change tools that have been subjected to wear and damage. An integrated system composed of multi-sensors, signal processing device and intelligent decision making plans is a necessary requirement for automatic manufacturing process. An intelligent tool wear monitoring system for milling operation will be introduced in this report. The system is equipped with four kinds of sensors, signal transforming and collecting apparatus and microcomputer. A unique ANN (artificial neural network) driven fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm has been developed from this research. It can fuse the information from multiple sensors and has strong learning and noise suppression ability. This lead to successful tool wear classification under a range of machining conditions.

  3. Operation Ice Bridge overview and results from aircraft laser altimetry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Thomas, R. H.; Sonntag, J. G.; Manizade, S.; Fredrick, E.; Yungel, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Ice Mapping group (Project AIM) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility has been conducting systematic topographic surveys of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) since 1993, using scanning airborne laser altimeters (NASA ATM) combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. In 2009, with ICESat I nearing its operational end, and a replacement not due for at least 5 years, NASA HQ decided to expand the aircraft remote sensing of ice sheets and sea ice to provide the cryospheric science community with interim data sets to monitor changes in Polar Regions. The first of these surveys took place in the spring of 2009, in which numerous segments of ICESat ground tracks in critical areas in Greenland were resurveyed along with many of the previously surveyed aircraft lines. Planned for fall 2009 is a deployment to Punta Arenas, Chile, using NASA’s DC8 long-range aircraft to survey critical sites in Antarctica. Results from these new data sets will be presented. William B. Krabill Project Scientist for Arctic Ice Mapping Cryospheric Sciences Branch, Code 614.1 NASA/GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility, Building N-159, Room E201 Wallops Island, Virginia 23337 USA Tel 757 824 1417 Fax 757 824 1036 e-mail: William.B.Krabill@nasa.gov

  4. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. 129.17 Section 129.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. No foreign air carrier may conduct operations under IFR or over the top unless— (1) The en...

  5. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. 129.17 Section 129.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. No foreign air carrier may conduct operations under IFR or over the top unless— (1) The en...

  6. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. 129.17 Section 129.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. No foreign air carrier may conduct operations under IFR or over the top unless— (1) The en...

  7. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. 129.17 Section 129.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. No foreign air carrier may conduct operations under IFR or over the top unless— (1) The en...

  8. 14 CFR 129.17 - Aircraft communication and navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. 129.17 Section 129.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... navigation equipment for operations under IFR or over the top. (a) Aircraft navigation equipment requirements—General. No foreign air carrier may conduct operations under IFR or over the top unless— (1) The en...

  9. 14 CFR 91.327 - Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. 91.327 Section 91.327 Aeronautics and Space... special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category...

  10. 14 CFR 91.327 - Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. 91.327 Section 91.327 Aeronautics and Space... special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category...

  11. 14 CFR 91.327 - Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. 91.327 Section 91.327 Aeronautics and Space... special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category...

  12. 14 CFR 91.327 - Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. 91.327 Section 91.327 Aeronautics and Space... special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category...

  13. 14 CFR 91.327 - Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. 91.327 Section 91.327 Aeronautics and Space... special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category...

  14. A Method for the Study of Human Factors in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, W.; Billings, C.; Cooper, G.; Gilstrap, R.; Lauber, J.; Orlady, H.; Puskas, B.; Stephens, W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the study of human factors in the aviation environment is described. A conceptual framework is provided within which pilot and other human errors in aircraft operations may be studied with the intent of finding out how, and why, they occurred. An information processing model of human behavior serves as the basis for the acquisition and interpretation of information relating to occurrences which involve human error. A systematic method of collecting such data is presented and discussed. The classification of the data is outlined.

  15. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  16. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  17. Operational benefits from the Terminal Configured Vehicle. [aircraft equipment for air traffic improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Schmitz, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research activity is to provide improvements which lead to increased airport and runway capacity, increasing air traffic controller productivity, energy efficient terminal area operations, reduced weather minima with safety, and reduced community noise by use of appropriate measures. Some early results of this research activity are discussed, and present and future research needs to meet the broad research objectives are defined. Particular consideration is given to the development of the TCV B-737 aircraft, the integration of the TCV with MLS, and avionics configurations, flight profiles, and manually controlled approaches for TCV. Some particular test demonstrations are discussed.

  18. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  19. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  20. Air Force procedure for predicting aircraft noise around airbases: Airbase operations program (BASEOPS) description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert A.; Mohlman, Henry T.

    1990-01-01

    A user manual is presented for the BASEOPS 3.00 program developed by AAMRL/BBE. The installation, use and limitations of this program is described. BASEOPS is the menu driven computerized airbase operations input program used in doing airbase noise assessments under the USAF Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) program. BASEOPS will create a file that can be directly interfaced to the NOISEMAP 6.0 program, used to calculate the total noise exposure from these input operations. BASEOPS contains default performance profiles (takeoff and landing) for Military Transient and Civil aircraft. The program also allows the user to create a NOISEMAP input file for any subset of the input data through a Global Editing Menu. This can be used for quickly creating multiple noise analyses for different operational input scenarios.

  1. Regaining Lost Separation in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. While Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) tools would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. If an acceptable safety level can be demonstrated in these situations, then operations may be conducted with lower separation minimums. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley s Air Traffic Operations Lab to address issues associated with resolving near-term conflicts and the potential use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. As air-air separation concepts are evolved, further studies will consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).These types of non-normal events will require the ASAS to provide effective alerts and resolutions prior to the time that an Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) would give a Resolution Advisory (RA). When an RA is issued, a

  2. LHCb Conditions database operation assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Shapoval, I.; Cattaneo, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Santinelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Conditions Database (CondDB) of the LHCb experiment provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger (HLT), reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues. The first system is a CondDB state tracking extension to the Oracle 3D Streams replication technology, to trap cases when the CondDB replication was corrupted. Second, an automated distribution system for the SQLite-based CondDB, providing also smart backup and checkout mechanisms for the CondDB managers and LHCb users respectively. And, finally, a system to verify and monitor the internal (CondDB self-consistency) and external (LHCb physics software vs. CondDB) compatibility. The former two systems are used in production in the LHCb experiment and have achieved the desired goal of higher flexibility and robustness for the management and operation of the CondDB. The latter one has been fully designed and is passing currently to the implementation stage.

  3. Sense and Avoid Safety Analysis for Remotely Operated Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace System. Version 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor

    2006-01-01

    This document describes a method to demonstrate that a UAS, operating in the NAS, can avoid collisions with an equivalent level of safety compared to a manned aircraft. The method is based on the calculation of a collision probability for a UAS , the calculation of a collision probability for a base line manned aircraft, and the calculation of a risk ratio given by: Risk Ratio = P(collision_UAS)/P(collision_manned). A UAS will achieve an equivalent level of safety for collision risk if the Risk Ratio is less than or equal to one. Calculation of the probability of collision for UAS and manned aircraft is accomplished through event/fault trees.

  4. Navigation performance of the Triscan concept for shipboard VTOL aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Miyashiro, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the Triscan concept - a dual-antenna microwave landing guidance system, using triangulation for close-in accuracy - developed to facilitate the landing of VTOL aircraft on ships in all-weather conditions. Analysis of the navigation performance of an onboard system receiving data from Triscan and data-linked information regarding the motion of the ship showed that the approach navigation performance depends on the approach path profile flown, the magnitude of the measurement bias error, and the navigation system's knowledge of the shipboard landing pad motion, which was implemented through the concept of a landing pad deviation vector.

  5. CFD Variability for a Civil Transport Aircraft Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    A CFD sensitivity analysis is conducted for an aircraft at several conditions, including flow with substantial separation (buffet onset). The sensitivity is studied using two different Navier-Stokes computer codes, three different turbulence models, and two different grid treatments of the wing trailing edge. This effort is a follow-on to an earlier study of CFD variation over a different aircraft in buffet onset conditions. Similar to the earlier study, the turbulence model is found to have the largest effect, with a variation of 3.8% in lift at the buffet onset angle of attack. Drag and moment variation are 2.9% and 23.6%, respectively. The variations due to code and trailing edge cap grid are smaller than that due to turbulence model. Overall, the combined approximate error band in CFD due to code, turbulence model, and trailing edge treatment at the buffet onset angle of attack are: 4% in lift, 3% in drag, and 31% in moment. The CFD results show similar trends to flight test data, but also exhibit a lift curve break not seen in the data.

  6. Evaluation of Head-Worn Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  7. Evaluation of head-worn display concepts for commercial aircraft taxi operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lance, III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O'Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  8. Measurement and prediction of noise from low-altitude military aircraft operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Bernard F.; Payne, Richard C.; Harris, Anthony L.; Weston, Ralph J.

    1992-04-01

    In response to the rapid growth in demand for information on noise levels around military airfields in the UK, NPL developed AIRNOISE, a mathematical model for computing aircraft noise contours. Since its first applications in 1981, the model has been used to determine zones of eligibility within the MoD compensation scheme. The model has been subject to continuous development, e.g., the incorporation of Harrier V/STOL operations. We have now extended the model to include noise from high-speed, low-level operations. The model predicts not only maximum levels but the complete time-history, so that the time-onset rate can be estimated. To aid refinement and validation of the model, a special exercise has been conducted in which Tornado, Harrier, Jaguar, Hawk, F-15 and F-16 aircraft have flown straight and level at heights between about 100 and 400 feet, at various speeds and engine power settings over an array of microphones. This paper describes the trial and the results obtained. The prediction model is outlined and comparisons made between predictions and measurements.

  9. Real-time aircraft structural damage identification with flight condition variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a real-time structural damage identification method for aircraft with flight condition variations. The proposed approach begins by identifying the dynamic models under various test conditions from time-domain input/output data. A singular value decomposition technique is then used to characterize and quantify the parameter uncertainties from the identified models. The uncertainty coordinates, corresponding to the identified principal directions, of the identified models are computed, and the residual errors between the identified uncertainty coordinates and the estimated uncertainty coordinates of the health structure are used to identify damage status. A correlation approach is applied to identify damage type and intensity, based on the difference between the identified parameters and the estimated parameters of the healthy structure. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model.

  10. Description of a landing site indicator (LASI) for light aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H. V.; Outlaw, B. K. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental cockpit mounted head-up type display system was developed and evaluated by LaRC pilots during the landing phase of light aircraft operations. The Landing Site Indicator (LASI) system display consists of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and indicated airspeed images superimposed on the pilot's view through the windshield. The information is made visible to the pilot by means of a partially reflective viewing screen which is suspended directly in frot of the pilot's eyes. Synchro transmitters are operated by vanes, located at the left wing tip, which sense angle of attack and sideslip angle. Information is presented near the center of the display in the form of a moving index on a fixed grid. The airspeed is sensed by a pitot-static pressure transducer and is presented in numerical form at the top center of the display.

  11. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  13. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  14. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  15. Ultraviolet light propagation under low visibility atmospheric conditions and its application to aircraft landing aid.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Claire; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine

    2006-12-20

    Light scattering in the atmosphere by particles and molecules gives rise to an aureole surrounding the source image that tends to reduce the contrast of the source with respect to the background. However, UV scattering phase functions of the haze droplets present a very important forward peak. The spreading of a detected signal in the UV is not as important as in the case of a clear atmosphere where Rayleigh scattering predominates. This physical property has to be taken into account to evaluate the potential of UV radiation as an aircraft landing aid under low visibility conditions. Different results characterizing UV runway lights, simulations of UV radiation propagation in the atmosphere, and the use of a simple detection algorithm applied to one particular sensor are presented. PMID:17151753

  16. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  17. Hydrocarbon emissions from in-use commercial aircraft during airport operations.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Rogers, Todd; Dunlea, Edward J; Jayne, John T; Miake-Lye, Richard; Knighton, Berk

    2006-07-15

    The emissions of selected hydrocarbons from in-use commercial aircraft at a major airport in the United States were characterized using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) to probe the composition of diluted exhaust plumes downwind. The emission indices for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and toluene, as well as other hydrocarbon species, were determined through analysis of 45 intercepted plumes identified as being associated with specific aircraft. As would have been predicted for high bypass turbine engines, the hydrocarbon emission index was greater in idle and taxiway acceleration plumes relative to approach and takeoff plumes. The opposite was seen in total NOy emission index, which increased from idle to takeoff. Within the idle plumes sampled in this study, the median emission index for formaldehyde was 1.1 g of HCHO per kg of fuel. For the subset of hydrocarbons measured in this work, the idle emissions levels relative to formaldehyde agree well with those of previous studies. The projected total unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) deduced from the range of in-use idle plumes analyzed in this work is greater than a plausible range of engine types using the defined idle condition (7% of rated engine thrust) in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank reference. PMID:16903278

  18. Remote Sensing of In-Flight Icing Conditions: Operational, Meteorological, and Technological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryerson, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Remote-sensing systems that map aircraft icing conditions in the flight path from airports or aircraft would allow icing to be avoided and exited. Icing remote-sensing system development requires consideration of the operational environment, the meteorological environment, and the technology available. Operationally, pilots need unambiguous cockpit icing displays for risk management decision-making. Human factors, aircraft integration, integration of remotely sensed icing information into the weather system infrastructures, and avoid-and-exit issues need resolution. Cost, maintenance, power, weight, and space concern manufacturers, operators, and regulators. An icing remote-sensing system detects cloud and precipitation liquid water, drop size, and temperature. An algorithm is needed to convert these conditions into icing potential estimates for cockpit display. Specification development requires that magnitudes of cloud microphysical conditions and their spatial and temporal variability be understood at multiple scales. The core of an icing remote-sensing system is the technology that senses icing microphysical conditions. Radar and microwave radiometers penetrate clouds and can estimate liquid water and drop size. Retrieval development is needed; differential attenuation and neural network assessment of multiple-band radar returns are most promising to date. Airport-based radar or radiometers are the most viable near-term technologies. A radiometer that profiles cloud liquid water, and experimental techniques to use radiometers horizontally, are promising. The most critical operational research needs are to assess cockpit and aircraft system integration, develop avoid-and-exit protocols, assess human factors, and integrate remote-sensing information into weather and air traffic control infrastructures. Improved spatial characterization of cloud and precipitation liquid-water content, drop-size spectra, and temperature are needed, as well as an algorithm to

  19. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  20. Head-Worn Display Concepts for Surface Operations for Commerical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging with Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized. The results of three ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to improve transport aircraft surface operations. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater pilot performance with respect to staying on the path compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when comparing the HWD with the HUD concept, there were no differences in path performance. In addition, the HWD and HUD concepts were rated via paired-comparisons the same in terms of situation awareness and workload.

  1. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  2. An assessment of the effect of supersonic aircraft operations on the stratospheric ozone content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.; Capone, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment of the potential effect on stratospheric ozone of an advanced supersonic transport operations is presented. This assessment, which was undertaken because of NASA's desire for an up-to-date evaluation to guide programs for the development of supersonic technology and improved aircraft engine designs, uses the most recent chemical reaction rate data. From the results of the present assessment it would appear that realistic fleet sizes should not cause concern with regard to the depletion of the total ozone overburden. For example, the NOx emission of one type designed to cruise at 20 km altitude will cause the ozone overburden to increase by 0.03% to 0.12%, depending upon which vertical transport is used. These ozone changes can be compared with the predictions of a 1.74% ozone decrease (for 100 Large SST's flying at 20 km) made in 1974 by the FAA's Climatic Impact Assessment Program.

  3. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  4. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  5. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  6. 78 FR 70849 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection from Unauthorized Internal Access... regulatory adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues... between systems, including: 1. Flight-safety related control and navigation systems, 2. Operator...

  7. Exploring Operational Test and Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Qualitative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliceti, Jose A.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore and identify strategies that may potentially remedy operational test and evaluation procedures used to evaluate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology. The sample for analysis consisted of organizations testing and evaluating UASs (e.g., U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and Customs Border Protection). A purposeful sampling technique was used to select 15 subject matter experts in the field of operational test and evaluation of UASs. A questionnaire was provided to participants to construct a descriptive and robust research. Analysis of responses revealed themes related to each research question. Findings revealed operational testers utilized requirements documents to extrapolate measures for testing UAS technology and develop critical operational issues. The requirements documents were (a) developed without the contribution of stakeholders and operational testers, (b) developed with vague or unrealistic measures, and (c) developed without a systematic method to derive requirements from mission tasks. Four approaches are recommended to develop testable operational requirements and assist operational testers: (a) use a mission task analysis tool to derive requirements for mission essential tasks for the system, (b) exercise collaboration among stakeholders and testers to ensure testable operational requirements based on mission tasks, (c) ensure testable measures are used in requirements documents, and (d) create a repository list of critical operational issues by mission areas. The preparation of operational test and evaluation processes for UAS technology is not uniform across testers. The processes in place are not standardized, thus test plan preparation and reporting are different among participants. A standard method to prepare and report UAS technology should be used when preparing and reporting on UAS technology. Using a systematic process, such as mission

  8. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  9. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future

  10. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  11. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  12. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  13. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  14. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  15. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  16. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  17. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  18. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  19. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  20. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions of operation. 15.5 Section 15.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators shall not be deemed to have any vested...

  1. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions of operation. 15.5 Section 15.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators shall not be deemed to have any vested...

  2. Operator strategies under varying conditions of workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnegard, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to operationally define and measure strategic behavior in a complex multiple task environment. The Multi-Attribute Task battery was developed to simulate various aspects of flight and consisted of an auditory communication task, monitoring tasks, a tracking tasks, a resource management task which allowed a wide range of responding patterns, and a scheduling window which allowed operators to predict changes in workload. This battery was validated for its sensitivity to strategic behavior, and baseline measures for each individual task were collected. Twenty-four undergraduate and graduate students then performed the battery for four 64 minute sessions which took place over a period of 2 days. Each subject performed the task battery under four levels of workload, which were presented for equal lengths of time during all four sessions. Results indicated that in general, performance improves as a function of experience with the battery, but that performance decreased as workload level increased. The data also showed that subjects developed strategies for responding to the resource management task which allowed them to manage the high workload levels more efficiently. This particular strategy developed over time but was also associated with errors of complacency. These results are presented along with implications for the aviation field and areas of future research.

  3. Spray drying: Thermodynamics and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Normand, Valery; Subramaniam, Anandaraman; Donnelly, Jeffrey; Bouquerand, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-09-12

    A thermodynamic model has been built to draw a safety envelope of non-stickiness for maltopolymers of various molecular weight distributions. The model is based on the combination of two properties of maltopolymer-water interactions. These interactions include the plasticization and glass formation along with the water sorption properties at different temperatures. The model gives indications on the processing conditions to be used to produce an acceptable powder from a very dilute carbohydrate aqueous solution together with a maximization of the evaporation capacity of the drying equipment. PMID:23911475

  4. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... military flight check required for a pilot in command with instrument privileges, in an aircraft that the military requires to be operated by more than one pilot flight crewmember. (e) A check or test described in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot-in-command proficiency...

  5. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... military flight check required for a pilot in command with instrument privileges, in an aircraft that the military requires to be operated by more than one pilot flight crewmember. (e) A check or test described in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot-in-command proficiency...

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.190 - What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account? 102-33.190 Section 102-33.190 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.190 - What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account? 102-33.190 Section 102-33.190 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  8. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  9. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  10. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  11. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  12. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  13. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  14. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  15. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  16. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  17. 14 CFR 93.343 - Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR part 1562, subpart A; (2) Before departing, the pilot files an IFR or DC FRZ or DC SFRA... from College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield, or Washington Executive/Hyde Field Airport. 93.343 Section... Special Flight Rules Area § 93.343 Requirements for aircraft operations to or from College Park...

  18. 14 CFR 135.161 - Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment for aircraft operations under VFR over routes navigated by pilotage. 135.161 Section 135.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS...

  19. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... damage to aircraft while on property owned or controlled by the U.S. Government. (b) Military rules... fide emergency. However, whenever the nature of the emergency permits the pilot to select the time and place of landing, it is preferred that the pilot land his aircraft at a civil field. (1) The...

  20. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... damage to aircraft while on property owned or controlled by the U.S. Government. (b) Military rules... fide emergency. However, whenever the nature of the emergency permits the pilot to select the time and place of landing, it is preferred that the pilot land his aircraft at a civil field. (1) The...

  1. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    .... A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE...-tail airplane with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel engine and an increased maximum takeoff gross... Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine. 1. Electronic Engine Control a. For electronic...

  2. Operational conditions for random-number generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagner, A.

    1995-11-01

    Ensemble theory is used to describe arbitrary sequences of integers, whether formed by the decimals of π or produced by a roulette or by any other means. Correlation coefficients of any range and order are defined as Fourier transforms of the ensemble weights. Competing definitions of random sequences are considered. Special attention is given to sequences of random numbers needed for Monte Carlo calculations. Different recipes for those sequences lead to correlations that vary in range and order, but the total amount of correlation is the same for all sequences of a given length (without internal periodicities). For maximum-length sequences produced by linear algorithms, most correlation coefficients are zero, but the remaining ones are of absolute value 1. In well-tempered sequences, these complete correlations are of high order or of very long range. General conditions to be obeyed by random-number generators are discussed and a qualitative method for comparing different recipes is given.

  3. Gender classification under extended operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Howard N.; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    Gender classification is a critical component of a robust image security system. Many techniques exist to perform gender classification using facial features. In contrast, this paper explores gender classification using body features extracted from clothed subjects. Several of the most effective types of features for gender classification identified in literature were implemented and applied to the newly developed Seasonal Weather And Gender (SWAG) dataset. SWAG contains video clips of approximately 2000 samples of human subjects captured over a period of several months. The subjects are wearing casual business attire and outer garments appropriate for the specific weather conditions observed in the Midwest. The results from a series of experiments are presented that compare the classification accuracy of systems that incorporate various types and combinations of features applied to multiple looks at subjects at different image resolutions to determine a baseline performance for gender classification.

  4. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1998-01-01

    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  5. Infant Operant Conditioning and Its Implications for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giullo E.

    1980-01-01

    In this article infant operant conditioning studies are grouped according to distinct procedures: free operant; discrete trial with one discriminative stimulus; discrete trial with two or more discriminative stimuli; controlled operant with two or more discriminative stimuli; and unrestricted operant with two or more discriminative stimuli.…

  6. ROUTEMAP model for predicting noise exposure from aircraft operations on Military Training Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1988-09-01

    Low altitude, high speed training operations are routinely conducted along specially designated Military Training Routes (MTRs). The location of these routes is continually changed for a variety of reasons. Each new route requires an environmental assessment to determine the community noise impact. A computer program, ROUTEMAP, is described which calculates the noise level on the ground along an MTR corridor. Program ROUTEMAP is a menu-driven program that runs on any IBM PC or PC-compatible computer. ROUTEMAP requires MS DOS Version 2.0 or later, with at least one megabyte of available disk space, 640 K of random access memory, and an 8087/80287 math coprocessor. The model requires the Air Force planner to specify the nature of the flight activity for the segment of the route in question. The information needed for each aircraft type are the number of day and night operations during a month, and nominal values for the airspeed, engine power setting, and altitude. In addition, the user must input whether the activity is usually under visual or instrument flying rules and if there are single or multiple flight tracks within the route corridor. With this input data, the program computes the onset rate-adjusted monthly day-night average A-weighted sound level, L sub dnmr in dB for ground positions located within 13 miles of the route centerline. For comparison purposes, the program also computes the monthly average A-weighted noise exposure level without the penalty for high onset rates and without the penalty for operations during the night. The program also computes the probability of being highly annoyed as a function of the L sub dnmr values. This information, along with the noise-compatible land-use guides normally associated with planning around airbases, can be used to interpret the noise resulting from military training route operations.

  7. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  8. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  9. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  10. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  11. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  12. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Automation Impacts of ROA's in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the impact of Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) operations on current and planned Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation systems in the En Route, Terminal, and Traffic Flow Management domains. The operational aspects of ROA flight, while similar, are not entirely identical to their manned counterparts and may not have been considered within the time-horizons of the automation tools. This analysis was performed to determine if flight characteristics of ROAs would be compatible with current and future NAS automation tools. Improvements to existing systems / processes are recommended that would give Air Traffic Controllers an indication that a particular aircraft is an ROA and modifications to IFR flight plan processing algorithms and / or designation of airspace where an ROA will be operating for long periods of time.

  13. [A trouble in air conditioning in the operating area].

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Takehiko; Owaki, Akira

    2004-07-01

    We experienced malfunction of air conditioning system in the operating area. Rust inside the circulating pipe to the operating area was an obstacle to inflow of cold and hot water. Installing an additional air conditioning system and treatment with chemicals to remove the dust made it possible to adjust room temperature appropriately. Anesthesiologists should be interested and understand equipments used in the operation area such as air conditioning system. PMID:15298259

  14. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  15. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  16. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  17. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  18. Use of Traffic Intent Information by Autonomous Aircraft in Constrained Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision-making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous flight management were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity (traffic and airspace hazard density). The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of traffic state data for conflict detection and resolution and a manual approach to meeting operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of traffic state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed an automated approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints applied in the experiment included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. The strategic operational mode was found to be effective in reducing unnecessary maneuvering in conflict situations where the intruder's intended maneuvers would resolve the conflict. Conditions of high operational complexity and vertical maneuvering resulted in increased proliferation of conflicts, but both operational modes exhibited characteristics of stability based on observed conflict proliferation rates of less than 30 percent. Scenario case studies illustrated the need for maneuver flight restrictions to prevent the creation of new conflicts through maneuvering and the need for an improved user interface design that appropriately focuses the pilot's attention on conflict prevention information. Pilot real-time assessment of maximum workload indicated minimal sensitivity to operational complexity, providing further evidence that pilot workload is not the limiting factor for feasibility of an en-route distributed

  19. 14 CFR 93.341 - Aircraft operations in the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program (DASSP) (49 CFR part 1562) with a Transportation Security Administration (TSA) flight... the aircraft transponder on an Air Traffic Control-assigned beacon code. (c) The following aircraft...-assigned discrete transponder code. The pilot must monitor VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0....

  20. 14 CFR 93.341 - Aircraft operations in the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program (DASSP) (49 CFR part 1562) with a Transportation Security Administration (TSA) flight... the aircraft transponder on an Air Traffic Control-assigned beacon code. (c) The following aircraft...-assigned discrete transponder code. The pilot must monitor VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0....

  1. 14 CFR 93.341 - Aircraft operations in the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program (DASSP) (49 CFR part 1562) with a Transportation Security Administration (TSA) flight... the aircraft transponder on an Air Traffic Control-assigned beacon code. (c) The following aircraft...-assigned discrete transponder code. The pilot must monitor VHF frequency 121.5 or UHF frequency 243.0....

  2. 14 CFR 218.3 - Prohibition against unauthorized operations employing aircraft leased with crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS LEASE BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER OR... aircraft leased with crew. (a) No foreign air carrier, or other person not a citizen of the United States, shall lease an aircraft with crew to a foreign air carrier for use by the latter in performing...

  3. Trajectory-Based Complexity (TBX): A Modified Aircraft Count to Predict Sector Complexity During Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Lee, Paul U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new complexity metric to predict -in real-time- sector complexity for trajectory-based operations (TBO). TBO will be implemented in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Trajectory-Based Complexity (TBX) is a modified aircraft count that can easily be computed and communicated in a TBO environment based upon predictions of aircraft and weather trajectories. TBX is scaled to aircraft count and represents an alternate and additional means to manage air traffic demand and capacity with more consideration of dynamic factors such as weather, aircraft equipage or predicted separation violations, as well as static factors such as sector size. We have developed and evaluated TBX in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center during human-in-the-loop studies of trajectory-based concepts since 2009. In this paper we will describe the TBX computation in detail and present the underlying algorithm. Next, we will describe the specific TBX used in an experiment at NASA's AOL. We will evaluate the performance of this metric using data collected during a controller-inthe- loop study on trajectory-based operations at different equipage levels. In this study controllers were prompted at regular intervals to rate their current workload on a numeric scale. When comparing this real-time workload rating to the TBX values predicted for these time periods we demonstrate that TBX is a better predictor of workload than aircraft count. Furthermore we demonstrate that TBX is well suited to be used for complexity management in TBO and can easily be adjusted to future operational concepts.

  4. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  5. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  6. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Register on May 16, 2013 (78 FR 28719). One comment was received from Cessna Aircraft Company... cantilever high wing, with the SMA SR305- 230E-C1 diesel cycle engine and associated systems installed....

  7. The Regularities of Fatigue Crack Growth in Airframes Elements at Real Operation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelko, Igors; Pavelko, Vitalijs

    The results of analytical and experimental researches concerning predicting of fatigue crack growth in the operating conditions are presented. First of all the main factors causing a fatigue damage initiation and growth are analyzed and divided to two groups. Common conditions of fatigue damage precise predicting are established. The problem of fatigue crack growth at the stresses of variable amplitude was analyzed and an approach of description of this process is performed. Two examples present the efficiency of this approach. Theory of fatigue crack growth indication and the crack growth indicator (CGI) are developed. There is planned and executed a flight experiment using CGI located on two aircraft An-24 and An-26. Results of crack growth in CGI at operational load allowed to evaluate the parameters of generalized Paris-Erdogan law and statistical properties of crack increment per flight.

  8. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operational procedures for use in an assumed short haul transport route were evaluated. The curved path approaches in airline use by large jet airplanes were studied. The characteristics of these approaches were included in development of operational procedures for transitions and approaches by a jet STOL transport. These procedures were used in a simulation experiment and were satisfactory for autoflight operation. A minimum turn radius of 3,000 ft. for a 180 final turn was determined for the wind conditions tested. The accuracy of the approaches was very good.

  9. Air pollution from aircraft operations at San Jose Municipal Airport, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of air pollution discharged by arriving and departing aircraft at the San Jose Municipal Airport was estimated. These estimates were made for each one hour interval of a summer weekday in 1977. The contributions of both general aviation (personal and business aircraft) and certified air carriers (scheduled airliners) were considered. The locations at which the pollutants were discharged were estimated by approximating the flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft. Three types of pollutants were considered: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.

  10. Computer programs for producing single-event aircraft noise data for specific engine power and meteorological conditions for use with USAF (United States Air Force) community noise model (NOISEMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohlman, H. T.

    1983-04-01

    The Air Force community noise prediction model (NOISEMAP) is used to describe the aircraft noise exposure around airbases and thereby aid airbase planners to minimize exposure and prevent community encroachment which could limit mission effectiveness of the installation. This report documents two computer programs (OMEGA 10 and OMEGA 11) which were developed to prepare aircraft flight and ground runup noise data for input to NOISEMAP. OMEGA 10 is for flight operations and OMEGA 11 is for aircraft ground runups. All routines in each program are documented at a level useful to a programmer working with the code or a reader interested in a general overview of what happens within a specific subroutine. Both programs input normalized, reference aircraft noise data; i.e., data at a standard reference distance from the aircraft, for several fixed engine power settings, a reference airspeed and standard day meteorological conditions. Both programs operate on these normalized, reference data in accordance with user-defined, non-reference conditions to derive single-event noise data for 22 distances (200 to 25,000 feet) in a variety of physical and psycho-acoustic metrics. These outputs are in formats ready for input to NOISEMAP.

  11. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to ensure equipment operation and discharge under freezing conditions. (3) Any required vehicle that... other specified point of comparable distance on the movement area that is available to air carriers, and... required vehicles must reach the point specified in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section from their...

  12. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to ensure equipment operation and discharge under freezing conditions. (3) Any required vehicle that... other specified point of comparable distance on the movement area that is available to air carriers, and... required vehicles must reach the point specified in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section from their...

  13. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to ensure equipment operation and discharge under freezing conditions. (3) Any required vehicle that... other specified point of comparable distance on the movement area that is available to air carriers, and... required vehicles must reach the point specified in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section from their...

  14. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of an aircraft that requires more than one pilot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft that possesses, by original design or through modification, more than a single seat, the required... approaches as pilot in command when weather conditions are less than the basic VFR conditions described...

  15. Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

  16. 14 CFR 39.9 - What if I operate an aircraft or use a product that does not meet the requirements of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What if I operate an aircraft or use a product that does not meet the requirements of an airworthiness directive? 39.9 Section 39.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  17. 14 CFR 61.325 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and...

  18. 14 CFR 61.327 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft that has a VH greater than 87 knots...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft that has a VH greater than 87 knots CAS? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft that has a VH greater than 87 knots CAS? If you hold a sport...

  19. 14 CFR 61.325 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and...

  20. 14 CFR 61.325 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and...

  1. 14 CFR 61.325 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and...

  2. 14 CFR 61.323 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a make and model of light-sport aircraft in the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... make and model of light-sport aircraft in the same category and class within a different set of... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.323 How do I obtain privileges to operate a make and model of light-sport aircraft in the...

  3. 14 CFR 61.325 - How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and...

  4. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  5. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An initial rig program tested the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) and Vortex Air Blast (VAB) systems in small can combustor configurations for NOx emissions at a simulated high altitude, supersonic cruise condition. The VAB combustor demonstrated the capability of meeting the NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at the cruise condition. In addition, the program served to demonstrate the limited low-emissions range available from the lean, premixed combustor. A follow-on effort was concerned with the problem of operating these lean, premixed combustors with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle conditions. Various techniques have been demonstrated that allow satisfactory operation on both the JIC and VAB combustors at idle with CO emissions below 20 g/kg fuel. The VAB combustor was limited by flashback/autoignition phenomena at the cruise conditions to a pressure of 8 atmospheres. The JIC combustor was operated up to the full design cruise pressure of 14 atmospheres without encountering an autoignition limitation although the NOx levels, in the 2-3 g NO2/kg fuel range, exceeded the program goal.

  6. A Flight Examination of Operating Problems of V/STOL Aircraft in STOL-Type Landing and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innis, Robert C.; Quigley, Hervey C.

    1961-01-01

    A flight investigation has been conducted using a large twin-engine cargo aircraft to isolate the problems associated with operating propeller-driven aircraft in the STOL speed range where appreciable engine power is used to augment aerodynamic lift. The problems considered would also be representative of those of a large overloaded VTOL aircraft operating in an STOL manner with comparable thrust-to-weight ratios. The study showed that operation at low approach speeds was compromised by the necessity of maintaining high thrust to generate high lift and yet achieving the low lift-drag ratios needed for steep descents. The useable range of airspeed and flight path angle was limited by the pilot's demand for a positive climb margin at the approach speed, a suitable stall margin, and a control and/or performance margin for one engine inoperative. The optimum approach angle over an obstacle was found to be a compromise between obtaining the shortest air distance and the lowest touchdown velocity. In order to realize the greatest low-speed potential from STOL designs, the stability and control characteristics must be satisfactory.

  7. Comparing the performance of expert user heuristics and an integer linear program in aircraft carrier deck operations.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative. PMID:23934675

  8. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  9. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  10. On condition numbers of spectral operators in a hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil', Michael

    2015-12-01

    We consider a linear unbounded operator A in a separable Hilbert space. with the following property: there is a normal operator D with a discrete spectrum, such Vert A-DVert <∞ . Besides, all the Eigen values of D are different. Under certain assumptions it is shown that A is similar to a normal operator and a sharp bound for the condition number is suggested. Applications of that bound to spectrum perturbations and operator functions are also discussed. As an illustrative example we consider a non-selfadjoint differential operator.

  11. Operant place conditioning measures examined using two nondrug reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Crowder, W F; Hutto, C W

    1992-04-01

    Detection of water and social play reinforcers by a place conditioning method based on instrumental conditioning was investigated in rats and compared to detection by conditioned place preference, a method currently used primarily to measure drug reinforcement. Operant place conditioning measures of reinforcement were choices between the reward and nonreward chambers during an apparatus exploration test and during a discrete-trials choice test and also, in some experiments, choices and latencies of chamber entry during training. Three of these four measures showed larger reinforcement effects than did the conditioned place preference measure of relative time spent in the reward chamber. By all reinforcement measures, conditioned place preference training was effective with water reinforcement but was ineffective with social reinforcement. Operant place conditioning was effective with both reinforcers by all measures. PMID:1594650

  12. 76 FR 65105 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal..., a diverse set of functions, including: 1. Flight-safety related control, communication,...

  13. Identification of abnormal operating conditions and intelligent decision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuliang; Jiang, Junjie; Su, Hongye; Chu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In earth pressure balance (EPB) shield construction, the "plastic flow state" is difficult to form using the soil dug in the capsule because it can cause three abnormal operating conditions, including occlusion, caking in the capsule, and spewing at the outlet of the dump device. These abnormal operating conditions can, in turn, trigger failure in tunneling, cutter-device damage, and even catastrophic incidents, such as ground settlement. This present paper effectively integrates the mechanism of abnormal operating conditions and knowledge of soil conditioning, and establishes a uniform model of identifying abnormal conditions and intelligent decision support system based on the belief rule-base system. The model maximizes knowledge in improving the soil, construction experience, and data to optimize the model online. Finally, a numerical simulation with specific construction data is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. NASA's Operation Icebridge: Using Instrumented Aircraft to Bridge the Observational Gap Between Icesat and Icesat-2 Laser Altimeter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Operation IceBridge images Earth's polar ice in unprecedented detail to better understand processes that connect the polar regions with the global climate system. Operation IceBridge utilizes a highly specialized fleet of research aircraft and the most sophisticated suite of innovative science instruments ever assembled to characterize annual changes in thickness of sea ice, glaciers, and ice sheets. In addition, Operation IceBridge collects critical data used to predict the response of Earth's polar ice to climate change and resulting sea-level rise. IceBridge also helps bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's ICESat satellite missions. Combined with previous aircraft observations, as well as ICESat, CryoSat-2 and the forthcoming ICESat-2 observations, Operation IceBridge will produce a cross-calibrated 17-year time series of ice sheet and sea-ice elevation data over Antarctica, as well as a 27-year time series over Greenland. These time series will be a critical resource for predictive models of sea ice and ice sheet behavior. In addition to laser altimetry, Operation IceBridge is using a comprehensive suite of instruments to produce a three-dimensional view of the Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and the sea ice. The suite includes two NASA laser altimeters, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS); four radar systems from the University of Kansas' Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a Ku-band radar altimeter, accumulation radar, snow radar and the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS); a Sander Geophysics airborne gravimeter (AIRGrav), a magnetometer and a high-resolution stereographic camera (DMS). Since its start in 2009, Operation IceBridge has deployed 8 geophysical survey aircraft and 19 science instruments. All IceBridge data is freely available from NSIDC (http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge) 6 months after completion of a campaign.

  15. Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…

  16. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  17. Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology: NOAA's Application of the Global Hawk Aircraft for High Impact Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Dunion, J. P.; Black, M. L.; Kenul, P.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program has begun the project Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) to evaluate the potential of high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft like the Global Hawk to improve forecasts of high-impact weather events and mitigate any degradations in the forecasts that might occur if there were a gap in satellite coverage. The first phase of the project is occurring this August and September using the NASA Global Hawk to study the impact of targeted observations of hurricanes and tropical cyclones. This follows several successful research missions conducted by both NASA and NOAA. Instruments on the aircraft for SHOUT include the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS or dropsondes), the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR, a microwave sounder), the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP, a scanning Doppler precipitation radar), and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP). The observations are being utilized for real-time forecasting, ingestion into operational weather models, and in post mission impact studies. Data impact is being evaluated through a combination of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) and Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). This presentation describes observations collected during this year's campaign, utilization of the data at the National Hurricane Center, and the results of preliminary data impact assessments of the data from SHOUT and previous experiments.

  18. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for the Gulf of Mexico § 156.320 Maximum operating conditions. Unless otherwise specified, the....320 Section 156.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2)...

  19. 33 CFR 156.320 - Maximum operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for the Gulf of Mexico § 156.320 Maximum operating conditions. Unless otherwise specified, the....320 Section 156.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the following conditions exist: (1) The wind velocity is 56 km/hr (30 knots) or more; or (2)...

  20. OPTIM: Computer program to generate a vertical profile which minimizes aircraft fuel burn or direct operating cost. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A profile of altitude, airspeed, and flight path angle as a function of range between a given set of origin and destination points for particular models of transport aircraft provided by NASA is generated. Inputs to the program include the vertical wind profile, the aircraft takeoff weight, the costs of time and fuel, certain constraint parameters and control flags. The profile can be near optimum in the sense of minimizing: (1) fuel, (2) time, or (3) a combination of fuel and time (direct operating cost (DOC)). The user can also, as an option, specify the length of time the flight is to span. The theory behind the technical details of this program is also presented.

  1. Behavioral interactions across various aircraft types - Results of systematic observations of line operations and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clothier, Cathy C.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA/UT Line/LOS checklist is designed to capture critical components of crew interaction. The behaviors deemed critical to flight crew interaction include briefings, communications, inquiry, assertion/advocacy, and decisions communicated and acknowledged. Data shows significant behavioral interaction differences as a function of aircraft type, indicating that crew size and technology level were at least partly driving that difference.

  2. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: Comments Invited You are invited to comment on the SOP for the sequencing of certification and validation... used for sequencing new certification and validation projects worked in its Aircraft...

  3. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  4. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  5. Force and pressure characteristics for a series of nose inlets at Mach numbers from 1.59 to 1.99 V : analysis and comparison on basis of ram-jet aircraft range and operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, E; Luidens, R W; Allen, J L

    1951-01-01

    Performance of four experimentally investigated axially symmetric spike-type nose inlets is compared on basis of ram-jet-engine aircraft range and operational problems. At design conditions, calculated peak engine efficiencies varied 25 percent from the highest value which indicates importance of inlet design. Calculations for a typical supersonic aircraft indicate possible increase in range if engine is flown at moderate angle of attack and result in engine lift utilized. For engines with fixed exhaust nozzle, propulsive thrust increases with increasing heat addition in subcritical flow region in spite of increasing additive drag. For the perforated inlet there is a range of increasing total-temperature ratios in subcritical flow region that does not yield an increase in propulsive thrust. Effects of inlet characteristics on speed stability of a typical aircraft for three types of fuel control is discussed.

  6. MULTIRESOLUTION REPRESENTATION OF OPERATORS WITH BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON SIMPLE DOMAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Beylkin, Gregory; Fann, George I; Harrison, Robert J; Kurcz, Christopher E; Monzon, Lucas A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a multiresolution representation of a class of integral operators satisfying boundary conditions on simple domains in order to construct fast algorithms for their application. We also elucidate some delicate theoretical issues related to the construction of periodic Green s functions for Poisson s equation. By applying the method of images to the non-standard form of the free space operator, we obtain lattice sums that converge absolutely on all scales, except possibly on the coarsest scale. On the coarsest scale the lattice sums may be only conditionally convergent and, thus, allow for some freedom in their definition. We use the limit of square partial sums as a definition of the limit and obtain a systematic, simple approach to the construction (in any dimension) of periodized operators with sparse non-standard forms. We illustrate the results on several examples in dimensions one and three: the Hilbert transform, the projector on divergence free functions, the non-oscillatory Helmholtz Green s function and the Poisson operator. Remarkably, the limit of square partial sums yields a periodic Poisson Green s function which is not a convolution. Using a short sum of decaying Gaussians to approximate periodic Green s functions, we arrive at fast algorithms for their application. We further show that the results obtained for operators with periodic boundary conditions extend to operators with Dirichlet, Neumann, or mixed boundary conditions.

  7. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  8. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  9. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  10. Recursion operators, conservation laws, and integrability conditions for difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Wang, Jing Ping; Xenitidis, P.

    2011-04-01

    We attempt to propose an algebraic approach to the theory of integrable difference equations. We define the concept of a recursion operator for difference equations and show that it generates an infinite sequence of symmetries and canonical conservation laws for a difference equation. As in the case of partial differential equations, these canonical densities can serve as integrability conditions for difference equations. We obtain the recursion operators for the Viallet equation and all the Adler-Bobenko-Suris equations.

  11. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    DOEpatents

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  12. Conditional nonlinear operations by sequential Jaynes-Cummings interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear operations are essential for quantum information processing. We propose a way of implementing a class of nonlinear operations by sequential application of conditional gates based on Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction and projective measurements. The scheme has many advantages over the previously proposed all-optical methods and can be applied in several available experimental platforms, such as cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and others. We demonstrate performance of the approach on the example of the cubic nonlinearity. We show several different ways in which the full nonlinear operation can be decomposed into sequences of the individual gates, and we compare their performance.

  13. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  14. The applications of satellites to communications, navigation and surveillance for aircraft operating over the contiguous United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Otten, D. D.; Garabedian, A.; Morrison, D. D.; MALLINCKRODT; ZIPPER

    1970-01-01

    The objective was to determine on a priority basis the satellite applications to communications, navigation, and surveillance requirements for aircraft operating beyond 1975 over the contiguous United States and adjacent oceanic transition regions, and to determine if and how satellite technology can meet these requirements in a reliable, efficient, and economical manner. Major results and conclusions are as follows: (1) The satellite applications of greatest importance are surveillance and rapid collision warning communications; and (2) The necessary technology is available as demonstrated by an attractive system concept.

  15. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  16. Validation and Verification (V&V) of Safety-Critical Systems Operating Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft LOC accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. Research is underway at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the development of advanced onboard system technologies for preventing or recovering from loss of vehicle control and for assuring safe operation under off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft LOC accidents. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V&V) and ultimate certification. The V&V of complex integrated systems poses highly significant technical challenges and is the subject of a parallel research effort at NASA. This chapter summarizes the V&V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft LOC accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is referenced.

  17. Promoting wildness in sandhill cranes conditioned to follow an ultralight aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.W.; Lishman, W.A.; Clark, D.A.; Gee, G.F.; Sprague, D.T.; Ellis, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, we developed and tested a new protocol to teach sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to follow ultralight aircraft yet avoid humans. Although successful in teaching the cranes a migration route, our previous migration (1997) resulted in birds that were overly tame and sought association with humans. For this study, 16 sandhill cranes were costume-reared at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and transported to Ontario shortly before fledging. After the birds learned to follow the aircraft, 14 were transported to an isolated wintering site in South Carolina, 1300 km south of the training area. Twelve arrived safely. Eleven of 12 birds survived the winter. All of these 11 cranes moved north to Cape Hatteras in early May. Thereafter, 6 of the cranes were captured and translocated to northern New York state. The remaining 5 returned to South Carolina, autumn 1999. Prior to capture, although the cranes sometimes allowed humans to approach them, none of the cranes approached buildings or humans.

  18. Exposure conditions and Raynaud's phenomenon among riveters in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Engström, K; Dandanell, R

    1986-08-01

    Riveters in the aircraft industry work daily with such vibrating tools as riveting hammers, bucking bars, drills, and rivet shavers. The main contribution of the vibration exposure comes from the riveting tools. Three hundred and forty riveters working at the Aircraft Division of Saab-Scania were investigated in respect to vibration exposure and symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The employment time of this group varied from 1 to 44 years. Within the group, 86 riveters showed symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The latency until first sign of injury ranged from 0 to 27 years with a median of almost 11 years. Although the exposure time for the riveting hammer was 1 min and the total tool time was 40 min per day, more than 50% of the riveters had symptoms of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) after more than 10 years of work. The guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/DIS 5349) suggest a lesser risk, and they should therefore be complemented with additional criteria to be valid for percussion tools. PMID:3775314

  19. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  20. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degradation in lift and drag.

  1. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for operation. 960.11 Section 960.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF...

  2. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for operation. 960.11 Section 960.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF...

  3. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for operation. 960.11 Section 960.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF...

  4. Dirac operator on a disk with global boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Falomir, H.; Gamboa Saravi, R.E.; Santangelo, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    We compute the functional determinant for a Dirac operator in the presence of an Abelian gauge field on a bidimensional disk, under global boundary conditions of the type introduced by Atiyah{endash}Patodi{endash}Singer. We also discuss the connection between our result and the index theorem. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. 47 CFR 74.25 - Temporary conditional operating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary conditional operating authority. 74.25 Section 74.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74...

  6. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  7. Updating Coverage of Operant Conditioning in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William; Miller, Erin; Ecott, Cheryl; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Offers an example of determining what the experts of psychology deem as essential concepts in their subfield by investigating the current principles in operant conditioning through surveys of the board of editors of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior." Recommends concepts that are appropriate for up-to-date coverage of operant…

  8. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. PMID:21392558

  9. Transient effects of harsh luminous conditions on the visual performance of aviators in a civil aircraft cockpit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Yandan; Sun, Yaojie

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine how harsh luminous conditions in a cockpit, such as lightning in a thunderstorm or direct sunlight immediately after an aircraft passes through clouds, may affect the visual performance of pilots, and how to improve it. Such lighting conditions can result in the temporary visual impairment of aviators, which may greatly increase the risk of accidents. Tests were carried out in a full-scale simulator cockpit in which two kinds of dynamic lighting scenes, namely pulse changed and step changed lighting, were used to represent harsh luminous conditions. Visual acuity (VA), reaction time (RT) and identification accuracy (IA) were recorded as dependent variables. Data analysis results indicate that standardized VA values decreased significantly in both pulsing and step conditions in comparison with the dark condition. Standardized RT values increased significantly in the step condition; on the contrary, less reaction time was observed in the pulsing condition. Such effects could be reduced by an ambient illumination provided by a fluorescent lamp in both conditions. The results are to be used as a principle for optimizing lighting design with a thunderstorm light. PMID:22858009

  10. The measurement of linear and angular displacements in prototype aircraft - Instrumentation, calibration and operational accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm van Leeuwen, Sam

    The design and development of angular displacement transducers for flight test instrumentation systems are considered. Calibration tools, developed to meet the accuracy requirements, allowed in situ calibration with short turn around times. The design of the control surface deflection measurement channels for the Fokker 100 prototype aircraft is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that a bellows coupling provides accurate results, and that the levers and push-pull rod drive mechanisms perform well. The results suggest that a complex mechanical drive mechanism reduces the system accuracy.

  11. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning. PMID:1164844

  12. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  13. Determination of the Corrosive Conditions Present within Aircraft Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Karen S.; Kelly, Robert G.; Piascik, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The complexity of airframe structure lends itself to damage resulting from crevice corrosion. Fuselage lap-splice joints are a particularly important structural detail in this regard because of the difficulty associated with detection and measurement of corrosion in these occluded regions. The objective of this work is to develop a laboratory corrosion test protocol to identify the chemistry to which lap joints are exposed and to develop a model of the corrosion within the joints. A protocol for collecting and identifying the chemistry of airframe crevice corrosion has been developed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is used to identify the ionic species contained in corrosion product samples removed from fuselage lap splice joints. CE analysis has been performed on over sixty corrosion product samples removed from both civilian and military aircraft. Over twenty different ions have been detected. Measurements of pH of wetted corroded surfaces indicated an alkaline occluded solution. After determining the species present and their relative concentrations, the resultant solution was reproduced in bulk and electrochemical tests were performed to determine the corrosion rate. Electrochemical analyses of the behavior of AA2024-T3 in these solutions gave corrosion rates of up to 250 microns per year (10 mpy). Additional tests have determined the relative importance of each of the detected ions in model solutions used for future predictive tests. The statistically significant ions have been used to create a second generation solution. Laboratory studies have also included exposure tests involving artificial lap joints exposed to various simulated bulk and crevice environments. The extent and morphology of the attack in artificial lap joints has been compared to studies of corroded samples from actual aircraft. Other effects, such as temperature and potential, as well as the impact of the environment on fatigue crack growth have also been studied.

  14. Measurement of Lubricating Condition between Swashplate and Shoe in Swashplate Compressors under Practical Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukuta, Mitsuhiro; Yanagisawa, Tadashi

    In this paper, lubricating conditions between a swashplate and a shoe in a swashplate compressor for automotive air conditioners is investigated experimentally. The conditions are measured with an electric resistance method that utilizes the swash plate and the shoe as electrodes respectively. The instrumented compressor is connected to an experimental cycle with R134a and operated under various operating conditions of pressure and rotational speed. An improved measurement technique and applying a solid contact ratio to the measurement results permit to measure the lubricating condition at high rotational speed (more than 8000 rpm) and to predic an occurrence of scuffing between the swashplate and the shoe, and therefore enables a detailed study of lubricating characteristics. It is shown by the measurement that the voltage of the contact signal decreases, which means better lubricating condition, with the decrease of the compression pressure and with the increase of the rotational speed from 1000 rpm through 5000 rpm. The lubricating condition tends to worsen at more than 5000 rpm. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the lubricating condition under transient operation is worse obviously as compared with that under steady-state operation.

  15. Using memory for prior aircraft events to detect conflicts under conditions of proactive air traffic control and with concurrent task requirements.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Vanessa K; Loft, Shayne

    2016-06-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the impact of memory for prior events on conflict detection in simulated air traffic control under conditions where individuals proactively controlled aircraft and completed concurrent tasks. Individuals were faster to detect conflicts that had repeatedly been presented during training (positive transfer). Bayesian statistics indicated strong evidence for the null hypothesis that conflict detection was not impaired for events that resembled an aircraft pair that had repeatedly come close to conflicting during training. This is likely because aircraft altitude (the feature manipulated between training and test) was attended to by participants when proactively controlling aircraft. In contrast, a minor change to the relative position of a repeated nonconflicting aircraft pair moderately impaired conflict detection (negative transfer). There was strong evidence for the null hypothesis that positive transfer was not impacted by dividing participant attention, which suggests that part of the information retrieved regarding prior aircraft events was perceptual (the new aircraft pair "looked" like a conflict based on familiarity). These findings extend the effects previously reported by Loft, Humphreys, and Neal (2004), answering the recent strong and unanimous calls across the psychological science discipline to formally establish the robustness and generality of previously published effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295467

  16. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  17. Use of a Prototype Airborne Separation Assurance System for Resolving Near-Term Conflicts During Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAGTM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. In order to perform these tasks, pilots use prototype conflict detection, prevention, and resolution tools, collectively known as an Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS). While ASAS would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley's Air Traffic Operations Lab to evaluate the prototype ASAS for enabling pilots to resolve near-term conflicts and examine possible operational effects associated with the use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. In an effort to improve compliance rate, ASAS design changes are currently under consideration. Further studies will of evaluate these design changes and consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).

  18. On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

  19. Impact resistance of composite fan blades. [fiber reinforced graphite and boron epoxy blades for STOL operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premont, E. J.; Stubenrauch, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The resistance of current-design Pratt and Whitney Aircraft low aspect ratio advanced fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite fan blades to foreign object damage (FOD) at STOL operating conditions was investigated. Five graphite/epoxy and five boron/epoxy wide chord fan blades with nickel plated stainless steel leading edge sheath protection were fabricated and impact tested. The fan blades were individually tested in a vacuum whirlpit under FOD environments. The FOD environments were typical of those encountered in service operations. The impact objects were ice balls, gravel, stralings and gelatin simulated birds. Results of the damage sustained from each FOD impact are presented for both the graphite boron reinforced blades. Tests showed that the present design composite fan blades, with wrap around leading edge protection have inadequate FOD impact resistance at 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) tip speed, a possible STOL operating condition.

  20. Automatic control of an aircraft employing outboard horizontal stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Jason S.

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation concerns the study of radio-operated control of an aircraft using fixed gain and adaptive controllers. The real-time feedback control system is developed to enhance the flying qualities of an experimental model aircraft. The non-conventional flight dynamics of the Outboard Horizontal Stabilizer (OHS) aircraft cause significant differences in the piloting of the aircraft. The control system was added to augment stability as well as to adjust the flight characteristics so that the OHS aircraft handles similar to a conventional aircraft. The control system design process, as applied to recent innovations in aircraft design, is followed. The Outboard Horizontal Stabilizer concept is a non-conventional aircraft, designed to take advantage of the normally wasted energy developed by the wing tip vortices. The research is based on a remotely-controlled OHS aircraft fitted with various sensors and telemetry as part of a real time feedback control system. Fixed gain Linear Quadratic controllers are first applied to the aircraft and result in a dramatic increase in performance at a nominal operating condition. Non-linearities in the OHS aircraft behavior and a wide operating range demanded the development of a variable gain adaptive controller utilizing a parameter estimation scheme to model the plant. The adaptive LQR gain-scheduled controller that emerged gave good performance over a wide flight envelope.