Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft parking apron

  1. Repair Aircraft Parking Apron at Naval Station Norfolk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    officials stated that the approval chain for DD Form 1391 understood FOD operational risks, so they did not detail FOD -related matters. They also stated that...Acronyms CIM Chevron Industrial Membrane FOD Foreign Object Debris HPA Heliport Apron IG Inspector General NAVFAC Naval...with pavement condition indexes at or below the specified values or where foreign object debris ( FOD )* is in the immediate or foreseeable future. The

  2. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 1. Credit PSR. View looks north from aircraft apron at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Credit PSR. View looks north from aircraft apron at south and east facades of the first hangar built at North Base in 1942. Note Building 4306 attached to hangar in distance; this structure is the boiler house to heat hangar during winters. Cable reels in foreground are from fiber optic and electrical cable installations ongoing at Edwards Air Force Base. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Unicon Portable Hangar, First & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    SO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (03), and lead ( Pb ). Although the ozone standards are being reduced significantly with... lead ( Pb ). Response: Similar statement modification inserted. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron 29 Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron 30

  6. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. Thermochemical Concrete Pavement Scaling Mechanism: Navy F/A-18 Jet Aircraft Parking Apron Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Ca3 (P04)2 phosphoric acid calcium carbonate (b) CaSi03 + calcium silicate (c)CaAl204 + calcium aluminate (top carbonated crust... calcium phosphate H3P04 -» Ca3 (P04)2 (cement paste) phosphoric acid calcium phosphate H3P04 -> Ca3 (P04)2 (cement paste) phosphoric acid...carbonate (H) water 2. The parallel between calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide is not very accurate. Potassium hydroxide is a much stronger alkali

  8. 75 FR 65377 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within the Alaska Region. SUMMARY: The National Park...

  9. 75 FR 1404 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: The Secretary of the Interior is giving notice of the renewal of the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights...

  10. 76 FR 62090 - Meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... National Park Service Meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within...

  11. 77 FR 12878 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within the Alaska Region. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) announces a meeting of the...

  12. 76 FR 12367 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region Meeting ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within the Alaska Region. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) announces...

  13. 77 FR 16857 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council; Meeting ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within the Alaska Region. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) announces a meeting of the...

  14. 44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS IS THE IDENTICAL PERSPECTIVE GIVEN I CA-290-43 (CT), BUT THIS IS A TIGHTER (CLOSER) SHOT. APRONS AND STAIRWAY ARE OMITTED. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE SAMPS. TWO OR THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 77 FR 61024 - Notice of Meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) announces a meeting of the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss mitigation of impacts from aircraft overflights at Denali National Park and Preserve. The Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council is authorized to operate in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee......

  16. Aircraft parking area with Facility No. S364 in the background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aircraft parking area with Facility No. S364 in the background. Note the strafing marks and recessed securing ring for aircraft in the foreground - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Ramps - World War II Type, Southwest and west shore of Ford Island, near Wasp Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-43 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. 45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L. SEE CA-290-18 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 75 FR 19996 - Notice of Meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... based on weather or local circumstances. If the meeting dates and location are changed, notice of the... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-16 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. 18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE AND INTACT. NAMEPLATE CASTING IS CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L, SEE CA-290-45 (CT) FOR A SIMILAR COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. High altitude aircraft remote sensing during the 1988 Yellowstone National Park wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of the wildfires that occurred in the Yellowstone National Park during 1988 and the techniques employed to combat these fires with the use of remote sensing. The fire management team utilized King-Air and Merlin aircraft flying night missions with a thermal IR line-scanning system. NASA-Ames Research Center assisted with an ER-2 high altitude aircraft with the ability to down-link active data from the aircraft via a teledetection system. The ER-2 was equipped with a multispectral Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner and the resultant map data and video imagery was provided to the fire command personnel for field evaluation and fire suppression activities. This type of information proved very valuable to the fire control management personnel and to the continuing ecological research goals of NASA-Ames scientists analyzing the effects of burn type and severity on ecosystem recovery and development.

  3. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  4. 14 CFR 151.83 - Aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aprons. 151.83 Section 151.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.83 Aprons. (a) The construction, alteration,...

  5. 14 CFR 151.83 - Aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aprons. 151.83 Section 151.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.83 Aprons. (a) The construction, alteration,...

  6. 14 CFR 151.83 - Aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aprons. 151.83 Section 151.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.83 Aprons. (a) The construction, alteration,...

  7. 14 CFR 151.83 - Aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aprons. 151.83 Section 151.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.83 Aprons. (a) The construction, alteration,...

  8. 14 CFR 151.83 - Aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aprons. 151.83 Section 151.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.83 Aprons. (a) The construction, alteration,...

  9. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  10. The relationship between aircraft noise exposure and day-use visitor survey responses in backcountry areas of national parks.

    PubMed

    Rapoza, Amanda; Sudderth, Erika; Lewis, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between aircraft noise exposure and the quality of national park visitor experience, more than 4600 visitor surveys were collected at seven backcountry sites in four U.S. national parks simultaneously with calibrated sound level measurements. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate parameters describing the relationship among visitor responses, aircraft noise dose metrics, and mediator variables. For the regression models, survey responses were converted to three dichotomous variables, representing visitors who did or did not experience slightly or more, moderately or more, or very or more annoyance or interference with natural quiet from aircraft noise. Models with the most predictive power included noise dose metrics of sound exposure level, percent time aircraft were audible, and percentage energy due to helicopters and fixed-wing propeller aircraft. These models also included mediator variables: visitor ratings of the "importance of calmness, peace and tranquility," visitor group composition (adults or both adults and children), first visit to the site, previously taken an air tour, and participation in bird-watching or interpretive talks. The results complement and extend previous research conducted in frontcountry areas and will inform evaluations of air tour noise effects on visitors to national parks and remote wilderness sites.

  11. Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View to north - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  13. Attenuation properties of lead composite aprons.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P H; Wu, Y; Glaze, S A

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the absorption properties of protective aprons used in diagnostic radiology have been specified in units of lead equivalent thickness. This is appropriate and accurate when lead is the only high-atomic-numbered component in the apron. In an attempt to manufacture light-weight protective apparel, however, some manufacturers have included other elements with k absorption edges in the energy range of interest, to provide equivalent absorption properties with less weight. With these other high-atomic-numbered elements added, the lead equivalence of the apparel becomes a function of the photon energy. This must be recognized and specified by the supplier, because lead apparel is used in environments other than diagnostic radiology, where the shielding benefits may be substantially less than expected when specifications are based on the diagnostic x-ray energy range.

  14. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. SR-71 with LASRE pod parked on ramp next to SR-71B trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71A with the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment mounted parks beside a NASA SR-71B trainer aircraft. The linear aerospike experiment was mounted on the SR-71 No. 844 on Aug. 26, at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in preparation for its first flight, which took place on 31 October 1997. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the

  18. 7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of concrete apron. Photograph taken from east side of lower dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  19. 1. General view of Boeing EC135 looking aircraft. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Boeing EC-135 looking aircraft. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 31. VIEW OF COLLAPSED APRON OF BRIDGE NO. 10 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF COLLAPSED APRON OF BRIDGE NO. 10 AND ELEMENTS OF SUSPENSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTH. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL OF PIERS SET INTO UPPER APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL OF PIERS SET INTO UPPER APRON TO SUPPORT ACCESS ROAD BRIDGE - Norwich Water Power Company, Canal Spillway, West bank of Shetucket River between Thirteenth & Fourteenth Streets, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  2. 38. DETAIL OF TIMBER, STONE, AND CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF TIMBER, STONE, AND CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR APRON SUSPENSION STRUCTURE AT BRIDGE NO. 11. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 53. INTERIOR OF APRON SUSPENSION STRUCTURE ABOVE BRIDGE NO. 11. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR OF APRON SUSPENSION STRUCTURE ABOVE BRIDGE NO. 11. LOOKING NORTH. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL TOWER (FACILITY NO. 365), AND RESERVOIR HILL BEYOND Hangar NO. 9, AT RIGHT - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  5. FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 90. VIEW OF OXIDIZER APRON AND SOUTH SIDE OF SKID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. VIEW OF OXIDIZER APRON AND SOUTH SIDE OF SKID 9, SKID 7, AND SKID 9A. COOLING TOWER ON NORTH SIDE OF OXIDIZER APRON. LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: METEOROLOGICAL TOWER, SLC-3W MST, SURPLUS ATLAS E/F LAUNCHER, PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), CABLE TRAYS, AND TOP OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING (BLDG. 763). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  9. New Results from Topographic Studies of Martian Debris Aprons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Lobate debris aprons in the mid- to high latitudes for Mars' northern and southern hemispheres have been interpreted as ice-related features [e.g. 1, 2, 3]. Using MOLA topographic profiles perpendicular to apron flow fronts, we surveyed 45 debris aprons in the 35-55° Nøª latitude range of both the northern and hemispheres, specifically Mareotis, Protonilus, and Deuteronilus Mensae and Acheron Fossae, Argyre and eastern Hellas Basin. The profiles of these aprons were compared with predictions from idealized simple plastic and viscous power law models for ice-rock mixtures. All aprons studied exhibit convex profiles that closely match or follow the overall trend of a simple plastic model. This result is consistent with previous interpretations [1, 2, 3, 4] that debris aprons are ice-rich mixtures with rheologies similar to stagnant ice sheets and furthermore requires high ice concentration (>40 percent by volume) in apron deposits. About 60 percent of the surveyed debris apron population deviates from the idealized simple plastic model profile, which may be due to locally reduced ice content, with ice content likely being the primary control on apron topography. Although post-emplacement modification due to near-surface ice sublimation may play a secondary role in defining the overall shape of aprons, it causes conspicuous surface textures. Degradation by ice sublimation results in pitted and ridge-and-furrow surface textures revealed by high resolution MOC images. Such textures may indicate decreased near-surface ice stability since the formation of the aprons, consistent with a recently proposed interglacial period after their emplacement [5]. Despite their elevation difference, northern and southern hemisphere debris aprons have essentially identical profile shape and exhibit similar surface texture and surface age. These similarities suggest two groups of aprons share same origin and degradation processes and their most recent reactivation likely occurred

  10. South Polar Cap Erosion and Aprons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    While Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have shown that the north and south polar cap surfaces are very different from each other, one thing that the two have in common is that they both seem to have been eroded. Erosion in the north appears mostly to come in the form of pits from which ice probably sublimed to vapor and was transported away from the polar cap by wind. Erosion in the south takes on a wider range of possible processes that include collapse, slumping and mass-movement on slopes, and probably sublimation. Among the landforms created by these process on the south polar cap are the 'aprons' that surround mesas and buttes of remnant layers such as the two almost triangular features in the lower quarter of this image. The upper slopes of the two triangular features show a stair-stepped pattern that suggest these hills are layered.

    This image shows part of the south polar residual cap near 86.9oS, 78.5oW, and covers an area approximately 1.2 by 1.0 kilometers (0.7 x 0.6 miles) in size. The image has a resolution of 2.2 meters per pixel. The picture was taken on September 11, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  12. 72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON IN BACKGROUND. NORTHEAST CORNER OF WEST CAMERA TOWER ALSO IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. Building across river is part of Muckleshoot Indian fish hatchery, constructed in 1989. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. 1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from crest of lower dam in foreground). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  15. 138. VIEW OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (213), FROM FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. VIEW OF ACID TRUCK ROOM (213), FROM FUEL APRON ON WEST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 751), WITH FREIGHT DOOR OPEN. BRICK FLOOR DATES FROM AGENA PERIOD WHEN ACID WAS STORED IN THE ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 70. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. ROCKET FUEL TANKS ON LEFT; GASEOUS NITROGEN AND HELIUM TANKS IN CENTER; AND A LARGE LIQUID NITROGEN TANK ON RIGHT. SKID 1 FOR GASEOUS NITROGEN TRANSFER AND SKID 5 FOR HELIUM TRANSFER IN THE CENTER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 71. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM THE NORTHWEST. LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF FUEL APRON FROM THE NORTHWEST. LEFT TO RIGHT: HELIUM TANKS, GASEOUS NITROGEN TANKS, DIESEL FUEL TANK AND BACKUP GENERATOR, AND ROCKET FUEL TANKS. NORTHWEST CORNER OF THE LSB (BLDG. 751) AND LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND ON LEFT; SOUTH CAMERA TOWER IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 88. VIEW OF OXIDIZER APRON ON EAST SIDE OF LSB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. VIEW OF OXIDIZER APRON ON EAST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 751). LIQUID OXYGEN TOPPING TANK ON RIGHT; GASEOUS NITROGEN IN CENTER; LIQUID OXYGEN RAPID-LOAD TANK ON LEFT. SKID 9 ON RIGHT; SKID 7 IN CENTER; SKID 9A ON LEFT. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH DECK, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND NORTH CAMERA TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and cockpit hatch. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Zuguchi, Masayuki; Chida, Koichi; Taura, Masaaki; Inaba, Yohei; Ebata, Ayako; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh approximately 20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic.

  1. The relationship between back pain and lead apron use in radiologists

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Casola, G.; Novelline, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Anecdotal experience has suggested that back pain in radiologists may result from extensive wearing of lead aprons. To investigate this possibility, the authors sent questionnaires to 688 radiologists in various subspecialties whose use of lead aprons varied from none to moderate to extensive. The questionnaire included both objective items that quantitated apron use and back pain and subjective items that asked, for example, if the respondent believed that lead aprons were responsible for his or her back pain. They received 236 responses (34% response rate). Objective data from those radiologists who had experienced no back pain before wearing a lead apron (179 radiologists, 26% of those surveyed) were tabulated; respondents were grouped according to age, time spent wearing a lead apron, and degree of back pain. Odds ratios were calculated. Answers to subjective questions for all respondents were tabulated. Back pain was reported by 52% of those who estimated their lead apron use at greater than or equal to 10 hr per week, the mean response, as opposed to 46% of those who wore lead aprons fewer than 10 hr a week. These and related results were not statistically significant. Our study does not prove that wearing a lead apron is a significant risk factor for the development of back pain.

  2. 6. "TEST STAND NO. 13, RETAINING WALLS & APRON, SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "TEST STAND NO. 1-3, RETAINING WALLS & APRON, SECTIONS & ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. OC11-50-10; Drawing No. 60-09-06; no sheet number within title block. D.O. SERIES 1109/20, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract DA-04-353 Eng. 177, Rev. B; Date: 26 Dec. 1951. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-3, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Carbonate apron models: Alternatives to the submarine fan model for paleoenvironmental analysis and hydrocarbon exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, H.T.; Cook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Sediment gravity flow deposition along the deep-water flanks of carbonate platforms typically does not produce submarine fans. Rather, wedge-shaped carbonate aprons develop parallel to the adjacent shelf/slope break. The major difference between submarine fans and carbonate aprons is a point source with channelized sedimentation on fans, versus a line source with sheet-flow sedimentation on aprons. Two types of carbonate aprons may develop. Along relatively gentle (< 4??) platform-margin slopes, aprons form immediately adjacent to the shallow-water platform and are referred to as carbonate slope aprons. Along relatively steep (4-15??) platform margin slopes, redeposited limestones accumulate in a base-of-slope setting, by-passing an upper slope via a multitude of small submarine canyons, and are referred to as carbonate base-of-slope aprons. Both apron types are further subdivided into inner and outer facies belts. Inner apron sediments consist of thick, mud-supported conglomerates and megabreccias (Facies F) as well as thick, coarse-grained turbidites (Facies A) interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine-grained, peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Outer apron sediments consist of thinner, grain-supported conglomerates and turbidites (Facies A) as well as classical turbidites (Facies C) with recognizable Bouma divisions, interbedded with approximately equal proportions of peri-platform ooze (Facies G). Seaward, aprons grade laterally into basinal facies of thin, base-cut-out carbonate turbidites (Facies D) that are subordinate to peri-platform oozes (Facies G). Carbonate base-of-slope aprons grade shelfward into an upper slope facies of fine-grained peri-platform ooze (Facies G) cut by numerous small canyons that are filled with coarse debris, as well as intraformational truncation surfaces which result from submarine sliding. In contrast, slope aprons grade shelfward immediately into shoal-water, platform-margin facies without an intervening by-pass slope. The two

  4. Sediment transport and mixing depth on a coral reef sand apron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Concejo, Ana; Harris, Daniel L.; Power, Hannah E.; Shannon, Amelia M.; Webster, Jody M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of sediment transport on a subtidal sand apron located on a coral reef environment. In this environment 100% of the sediment is carbonate bioclasts generated in situ. The sand apron is located on the back reef and only affected by waves during high tides. It is commonly accepted in the literature that sand aprons are features that prograde lagoonwards and that most of the progradation occurs during high-energy events. Measurements of water depths, waves, currents and near bed suspended sediment concentrations (all at 10 Hz) on the sand apron were undertaken over a nine day intensive field campaign over both spring and neap tides; waves and tides were also measured in the lagoon. The topography and bathymetry of the sand apron were measured and mixing depth was obtained on three transects using depth of disturbance rods. We found that sediment transport on sand aprons is not solely restricted to high-energy events but occurs on a daily basis during spring tides. The main factor controlling the sediment transport was the water depth above the bed, with depths of 2-2.3 m allowing waves to promote the most sediment transport. This corresponds to a depth over the reef crest of 1.6-1.9 m. The second most important control was waves; transport was observed when Hs on the apron was 0.1 m or greater. In contrast, current magnitude was not a controlling mechanism for sediment entrainment but did affect sediment transport. The morphology of the sand apron was shown to affect the direction of currents with the currents also expected to influence the morphology of the sand apron. The currents measured during this field campaign were aligned with a shallow channel in the sand apron. Mixing depths were small (< 2.5 cm) yet they were larger than the values predicted by empirical formulae for gentle siliciclastic ocean beaches.

  5. Episodic Late Quaternary slopewash deposition as recorded in colluvial aprons, Southeastern Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Paul R.; Mason, Joseph A.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2004-09-01

    Colluvial aprons found along fluvial terraces of the Laramie River and Sybille Creek in southeastern Wyoming are interpreted as late Quaternary slopewash deposits. Each apron studied contained multiple buried soils, interpreted to indicate that slopewash activity was episodic and short-lived, and was followed by relatively long periods of landscape stability and soil development. Apron deposits were described and subsequently correlated based on their internal stratigraphy and their relative degree of soil development. Optical dating was used to chronologically constrain periods of slopewash deposition, and based on 17 optical ages taken from five aprons, aggradation occurred at ˜65-56, 16.0, 12.9, 11.8, 8.1, 7.3, 5.0, and 1.7 ka. Several of these events correspond with climatic transitions such as the termination of Heinrich Event 1, the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas, and the 8.2 ka event, suggesting that apron aggradation was driven by changes in climatic regime. Although either increased aridity or a change in precipitation regime could result in increased erosion of terrace scarps, apron aggradation events do not correlate with regional records of aridity. Instead, periods of increased precipitation intensity and/or frequency that occur during climatic transitions most likely drive apron aggradation events.

  6. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section 13.1004 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section 13.1004 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and...

  8. Evaluation of Grounding and Mooring Points for Army Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Polk during this period to observe and videotape the test procedures. Upon our arrival, we met with Mr. Ed Ducote , DEH, who had previously made...arrangements for us to test anchors that had been installed on a parking apron at Polk Army Airfield (PAAF). Mr. Ducote and personnel from the airfield

  9. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Influence of lead apron shielding on absorbed doses from cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rottke, Dennis; Andersson, Jonas; Ejima, Ken-Ichiro; Sawada, Kunihiko; Schulze, Dirk

    2016-09-24

    The aim of the present work was to investigate absorbed and to calculate effective doses (EDs) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study was conducted using examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. A full-body male RANDO(®) phantom was loaded with 110 GR200A thermoluminescence dosemeter chips at 55 different sites and set up in two different CBCT systems (CS 9500(®), ProMax(®) 3D). Two different protocols were performed: the phantom was set up (1) with and (2) without a lead apron. No statistically significant differences in organ and absorbed doses from regions outside the primary beam could be found when comparing results from exposures with and without lead apron shielding. Consequently, calculating the ED showed no significant differences between the examination protocols with and without lead apron shielding. For the ProMax(®) 3D with shielding, the ED was 149 µSv, and for the examination protocol without shielding 148 µSv (SD = 0.31 µSv). For the CS 9500(®), the ED was 88 and 86 µSv (SD = 0.95 µSv), respectively, with and without lead apron shielding. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in the absorbed doses between examination with and without lead apron shielding, especially in organs outside the primary beam.

  11. Lithofacies of deep marine basalts emplaced on a Jurassic backarc apron, Baja California (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1987-09-01

    Basalts of the mid-Jurassic Gran Canon Formation, Cedros Island, Mexico, were emplaced on a volcaniclastic apron in a deep marine backarc basin. Elongate pillows and lava tubes, as well as paleocurrent data from the volcaniclastic apron, indicate a southward regional paleoslope away from the island arc source. Basalts emplaced on relatively proximal parts of the apron are nearly entirely pillowed and have thick flow units with mega-pillows. Basalts on distal parts of the apron (about 15 to 20 km down paleo-current) are dominated by pillow fragment breccias (flow foot rubble), and individual lava flows are generally thin, with small pillows, suggesting that the distal ends of lava flows, erupted upslope, are represented. These distal flow fronts, however, are interstratified with features that typically form close to a vent, including thick massive to mega-pillowed lavas and lava tubes up to 8 m in diameter. It is inferred that a fissure (or system of fissures) extended from the arc into the backarc basin, erupting basalt lavas onto both proximal and distal parts of the volcaniclastic apron. Such intraplate volcanism may be common on the hot frontal arc side of backarc basins. 26 references.

  12. 77 FR 27835 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... issues relating to aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also state what expertise you... accepted quiet aircraft technology for use in commercial air tour operations over a national park or...

  13. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Peretyazhko, T.

    2014-12-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  14. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Farrand, William H.; Grant, John A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Parker, Timothy J.; Peretyazhko, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  15. 32 CFR 855.16 - Parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.16 Parking and storage. The.... At those locations where there are Air Force aero clubs, parking and storage privileges may...

  16. 32 CFR 855.16 - Parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.16 Parking and storage. The.... At those locations where there are Air Force aero clubs, parking and storage privileges may...

  17. 32 CFR 855.16 - Parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.16 Parking and storage. The.... At those locations where there are Air Force aero clubs, parking and storage privileges may...

  18. 32 CFR 855.16 - Parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.16 Parking and storage. The.... At those locations where there are Air Force aero clubs, parking and storage privileges may...

  19. 32 CFR 855.16 - Parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.16 Parking and storage. The.... At those locations where there are Air Force aero clubs, parking and storage privileges may...

  20. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  1. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  2. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  3. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  4. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  5. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  6. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  7. Life cycle of a geyser discharge apron: Evidence from Waikite Geyser, Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2011-05-01

    Waikite, a geyser located in the Whakarewarewa geothermal area on the North Island, New Zealand, has a history of eruptive-dormancy cycles that have been attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes. The last cycle involved an active period from ~ 1932 to 1968/69 that was followed by a period of dormancy that continues today. Such cycles are important because they control the temporal development of the discharge apron. When the geyser is active, growth of the discharge apron is dictated by the precipitation of opal-A, which is controlled by factors such as discharge patterns, water chemistry, pH, temperature, rate of cooling, and the resident microbiota. With dormancy, conditions change radically because water no longer flows down the discharge apron. Instead, the discharge apron lapses into a phase of degradation that, on Waikite, is evident from (1) deflation of the apron surface, (2) blocks splaying off the apron margins along margin-parallel fractures, (3) tension fractures, (4) saucer-shaped collapse zones, (5) increasingly unstable surfaces resulting from subsurface opal-A dissolution, (6) fractures, from which steam and other gases emanate, and (7) incursion of native vegetation around the edge of the apron and on the distal parts of the discharge apron. When the geyser becomes active again, silica precipitation will resume and the discharge apron will once again accrete vertically and expand laterally. Analysis of the Waikite system shows that successions that develop on geyser discharge aprons are formed of unconformity-bounded packages of sinter that reflect the eruptive-dormancy history of the parent geyser.

  8. 78. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W FUEL APRON FROM NORTH. HELIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON FROM NORTH. HELIUM AND NITROGEN STORAGE TANKS AND CONTROL SKIDS IN LEFT CENTER. FUEL STORAGE TANK AND CONTROL SKID IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. SLC-3E MST IN DISTANT RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    SciTech Connect

    Syh, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers.

  10. Answers to if the Lead Aprons are Really Helpful in Nuclear Medicine from the Perspective of Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhao, R; Rong, L; Yao, K; Chen, S; Wei, B

    2016-09-09

    Wearing lead X-ray-protective aprons is a routine in nuclear medicine department in parts of China. However, the staff are often perplexed by questions such as if it is imperative to wear aprons when injecting radioactive drugs, how much radiation dosage can be shielded and if the apron will produce secondary radiation instead? To answer these questions, a semiconductor detector was employed to record different gamma and X-ray spectra with and without the lead apron or lead sheet. Then, we could estimate the signal shielding ratio to different photons for the lead apron and compare with the hospitals measured data. In general, the two results coincided well. The spectral results showed that the detrimental secondary X-rays irradiation rises when the energy of gamma rays exceeds the K absorption edge of lead (88 keV). Moreover, the aprons are not so effective for gamma rays of 364 keV emitted from (131)I and 511 keV emitted from the positron radioactive nuclides. This work is purely a physical measurement in the laboratory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study on the level of gamma rays protection offered by the medical lead aprons and the importance of the spectroscopic measurements is discussed in this paper.

  11. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within...

  12. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within...

  13. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within...

  14. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within...

  15. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within...

  16. A Research Needs Workshop on Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Fish and Wildlife Held in Estes Park, Colorado on 18-21 April 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34 ,- EFET OF AIRCRAFT NOISE-AND SONIC BOOMS ON- FISH AND WILDLFE: SA RESEARCH NEEDS WORKSHOP z < DTI-C MS~IJ IISS ’EFFETS O AICRAF NO Engineering and...Services Center "D~to RTB LnNSAMNEY,U.S. Air ForceISH AD WEj Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Department of the Interior I1 . .. . ..m z m - m m m mloE...I l l I l l ~ n .. / ESL-TR-88-64 NERC-88/23 /AAugust 1988 August 1988 EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE AND SONIC BOOMS ON FISH AND WILDLIFE: A RESEARCH

  17. Geomorphic evidence for former lobate debris aprons at low latitudes on Mars: Indicators of the Martian paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; van Gasselt, S.; Chapman, M. G.; Neukum, G.

    2008-02-01

    Circumferential depressions enclosing mesas and plateaus in the northern Kasei Valles and in the Tartarus Colles regions of Mars are interpreted as indicators of the former extent of lobate debris aprons, thought to be mixtures of ice and clastic particles. These former lobate debris aprons existed about 1 Ga ago and were embayed by lavas or other flow deposits. After the lobate debris aprons had been removed by sublimation and deflation, topographic depressions with a depth of 50 m and a width of several kilometers were left behind between the mesa or plateau scarp and the solidified flow materials. These depressions or moats are located equatorward of +/-30° at significantly lower latitudes than generally observed for occurrences of modern, intact lobate debris aprons. This observation provides evidence that the paleoclimate at that time was different than today, probably due to a higher averaged obliquity of the planet's rotational axis.

  18. Geomorphic evidence for former lobate debris aprons at low latitudes on Mars: Indicators of the Martian paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauber, E.; Van Gasselt, S.; Chapman, M.G.; Neukum, G.

    2008-01-01

    Circumferential depressions enclosing mesas and plateaus in the northern Kasei Valles and in the Tartarus Colles regions of Mars are interpreted as indicators of the former extent of lobate debris aprons, thought to be mixtures of ice and elastic particles. These former lobate debris aprons existed about 1 Ga ago and were embayed by lavas or other flow deposits. After the lobate debris aprons had been removed by sublimation and deflation, topographic depressions with a depth of 50 m and a width of several kilometers were left behind between the mesa or plateau scarp and the solidified flow materials. These depressions or moats are located equatorward of ??30?? at significantly lower latitudes than generally observed for occurrences of modem, intact lobate debris aprons. This observation provides evidence that the paleoclimate at that time was different than today, probably due to a higher averaged obliquity of the planet's rotational axis. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  20. SU-E-I-56: Diagnostic Lead Apron Radiation Exposure Comparison Between Manufacture-Stated and Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Syh, J; Patel, B; Syh, J; Song, X; Freund, D; Ding, X; Wu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several vendors of diagnostic lead apron used routinely in radiology/fluoroscopy claim to manufacture 0.5 mm lead equivalent shielding. The purpose of this investigation was to address the concern of the weight of lead aprons versus the radiation protection they provide. Methods: Seven diagnostic lead aprons were measured and compared for their radiation transmission and attenuation characteristics. The measurements were performed on a Philips Integris. Two settings were used, normal (76 kVp, 14.3 mA) and high (110 kVp, 12.3 mA) to represent typical patient and large patient thickness. Plastic water was placed on the table to represent patient scatter. A Capintec PM-500 ion chamber was placed at approximate chest height where hospital personnel would stand. An uncovered, i.e. lead-unhindered, ion chamber reading was taken to establish the baseline reading of an unprotected personnel. The ion chamber was then wrapped with 0.5mm 99.9% pure Pb material to establish the measurement reading when a diagnostic lead apron attenuates as adequately as 0.5mm Pb. The lead aprons were measured one at a time with the ion chamber fully covered and enclosed within the aprons. Results: On Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm pure Pb showed a transmission of 0.4%. No aprons showed a transmission value as low as 0.5mm Pb. The lowest transmission value measured from the aprons was 2.0%, having a 1.5% higher transmission than pure lead. On High fluoroscopy setting, the lowest apron transmission measurement was at 2.8%, which was comparable to the 0.5mm pure Pb which gave a transmission of 3.0%. Conclusion: At Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm Pb provided an attenuation that could not be matched by any apron measured. At High fluoroscopy setting, only one apron exhibited comparable transmission values as 0.5mm pure Pb.

  1. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  5. Origin of Sinuous Channels on the SW Apron of Ascraeus Mons and the Surrounding Plains, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schierl, Z.; Signorella, J.; Collins, A.; Schwans, B.; de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Ascraeus Mons is one of three large shield volcanoes located along a NE-SW trending lineament atop the Tharsis Bulge on Mars. Spacecraft images, beginning with Viking in the 1970 s, revealed that the SW rift apron of Ascraeus Mons is cut by numerous sinuous channels, many of which originate from large, elongated, bowl shaped amphitheaters known as the Ascraeus Chasmata. A number of these channels can be traced onto the flatter plains to the east of the rift apron. These features have been interpreted as either fluvial [1] or volcanic [2] in origin. Most recently, it has been shown that one of the longest channels on the Ascraeus rift apron appears to transition into a roofed-over lava channel or lava tube at its distal end, and thus the entire feature is likely of a volcanic origin [2]. In addition, field observations of recent lava flows on Hawaii have shown that lava is capable of producing features such as the complex braided and anastomosing channels and streamlined islands that are observed in the Ascraeus features [2].

  6. Radiation protection of staff in 111In radionuclide therapy--is the lead apron shielding effective?

    PubMed

    Lyra, M; Charalambatou, P; Sotiropoulos, M; Diamantopoulos, S

    2011-09-01

    (111)In (Eγ = 171-245 keV, t1/2 = 2.83 d) is used for targeted therapies of endocrine tumours. An average activity of 6.3 GBq is injected into the liver by catheterisation of the hepatic artery. This procedure is time-consuming (4-5 min) and as a result, both the physicians and the technical staff involved are subjected to radiation exposure. In this research, the efficiency of the use of lead apron has been studied as far as the radiation protection of the working staff is concerned. A solution of (111)In in a cylindrical scattering phantom was used as a source. Close to the scattering phantom, an anthropomorphic male Alderson RANDO phantom was positioned. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were located in triplets on the front surface, in the exit and in various depths in the 26th slice of the RANDO phantom. The experiment was repeated by covering the RANDO phantom by a lead apron 0.25 mm Pb equivalent. The unshielded dose rates and the shielded photon dose rates were measured. Calculations of dose rates by Monte Carlo N-particle transport code were compared with this study's measurements. A significant reduction of 65 % on surface dose was observed when using lead apron. A decrease of 30 % in the mean absorbed dose among the different depths of the 26th slice of the RANDO phantom has also been noticed. An accurate correlation of the experimental results with Monte Carlo simulation has been achieved.

  7. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration.

  8. A comparison of dose savings of lead and lightweight aprons for shielding of 99m-Technetium radiation.

    PubMed

    Warren-Forward, Helen; Cardew, Paul; Smith, Bradley; Clack, Llewellyn; McWhirter, Kym; Johnson, Stacey; Wessel, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) have the highest effective doses of radiation among medical workers. With increase in the use of lightweight materials in diagnostic radiography, the aim was to compare the effectiveness of lead and lightweight aprons in shielding from 99m-Technetium ((99m)Tc) gamma rays. The doses received from a scattering phantom to the entrance, 9cm depth and exit of a phantom were measured with LiF:Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Doses and spectra were assessed without no shielding, with 0.5-mm lead and lightweight aprons. The lead and lightweight aprons decreased entrance surface doses by 76 and 59%, respectively. The spectral analysis showed that the lightweight apron provided better dose reduction at energies <95 keV, though lead was 35% more efficient at higher energies. While lead apron demonstrated better shielding, the additional savings should be considered with the weight differential. It is concluded that the lightweight apron is suitable to be worn by NMTs interacting with patients injected with a (99m)Tc labelled radiopharmaceutical.

  9. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the owners of a downed aircraft shall remove the aircraft...

  10. 76 FR 65319 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... issues relating to aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also state what expertise you... accepted quiet aircraft technology for use in commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal... the NPOAG ARC are: Heidi Williams, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Alan Stephen,...

  11. Sedimentary, tectonic, and sea-level controls on submarine fan and slope-apron turbidite systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, D.A.V.; Howell, D.G.; Nelson, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    To help understand factors that influence submarine fan deposition, we outline some of the principal sedimentary, tectonic, and sea-level controls involved in deep-water sedimentation, give some data on the rates at which they operate, and evaluate their probable effects. Three depositional end-member systems, two submarine fan types (elongate and radial), and a third nonfan, slope-apron system result primarily from variations in sediment type and supply. Tectonic setting and local and global sea-level changes further modify the nature of fan growth, the distribution of facies, and the resulting vertical stratigraphic sequences. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Oligocene sea-level falls recorded in mid-Pacific atoll and archipelagic apron settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlanger, S. O.; Premoli Silva, I.

    1986-05-01

    Drilling results from mid-Pacific atoll and archipelagic apron sites in the Line Islands and Marshall Islands provinces lead to the conclusion that Oligocene sea-level falls detected in Atlantic passive margin sequences are also recorded in a mid-plate-tectonic setting in the Pacific Basin. The mid-Pacific sea-level falls are recorded by (a) the presence of distinct, coarse-grained, graded beds of turbidite origin, rich in reef-derived skeletal debris of Oligocene, Eocene, and Cretaceous age, that were redeposited in deep-water archipelagic apron carbonate sequences of middle and late Oligocene age now flanking the atolls and (b) a marked stratigraphic hiatus and solution unconformity in the subsurface of Enewetak atoll which dates an Oligocene period of atoll emergence correlative with both the deposition of the turbidites and the coastal offlap events discerned in Atlantic passive margins. Correlation of the subsidence path of Enewetak atoll with the development of the Oligocene solution unconformity shows that ca. 30 Ma sea level was as much as 100 m lower than at present.

  13. Oil reservoirs in grainstone aprons around Bryozoan Mounds, Upper Harrodsburg Limestone, Mississippian, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, H.; Saller, A.

    1995-06-01

    Several oil pools have been discovered recently in the upper Harrodsburg Limestone (middle Mississippian) of the Illinois basin. A depositional model for bryozoan mound complexes has allowed more successful exploration and development in this play. In the Johnsonville area of Wayne County, Illinois, three lithofacies are dominant in the upper Harrodsburg: (1) bryozoan boundstones, (2) bryozoan grainstones, and (3) fossiliferous wackestones. Bryozoan boundstones occur as discontinuous mounds and have low porosity. Although bryozoan boundstones are not the main reservoir lithofacies, they are important because they influenced the distribution of bryozoan grainstones and existing structure. Bryozoan grainstones have intergranular porosity and are the main reservoir rock. Bryozoan fragments derived from bryozoan boundstone mounds were concentrated in grainstones around the mounds. Fossiliferous wackestones are not porous and form vertical and lateral seals for upper Harrodsburg grainstones. Fossiliferous wackestones were deposited in deeper water adjacent to bryozoan grainstone aprons, and above grainstones and boundstones after the mounds were drowned. Upper Harrodsburg oil reservoirs occur where grainstone aprons are structurally high. The Harrodsburg is a good example of a carbonate mound system where boundstone cores are not porous, but adjacent grainstones are porous. Primary recovery in these upper Harrodsburg reservoirs is improved by strong pressure support from an aquifer in the lower Harrodsburg. Unfortunately, oil production is commonly decreased by water encroaching from that underlying aquifer.

  14. 78 FR 42997 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... another affiliation with issues relating to aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also... by this title; (2) On commonly accepted quiet aircraft technology for use in commercial air...

  15. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  16. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Channels and Aprons in East Gorgonum Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Warning!This link leads to a very large image that may be too long for some web browsers (in these cases, you must save the link to your desktop and view with other software) [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This suite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) pictures provides a vista of martian gullies on the northern wall of a 12 kilometer-(7.4 mile)-wide meteor impact crater east of the Gorgonum Chaos region on the red planet.

    The first picture (above left) is a composite of three different high resolution MOC views obtained in 1999 and 2000. The second picture (above right)shows the location of the high resolution views relative to the whole crater as it appeared in the highest resolution image previously acquired of the area, taken by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1978. The release image (top) shows a close-up of one of the channels and debris aprons found in the northwestern quarter of the impact crater.

    Some of the channels in this crater are deeply-entrenched and cut into lighter-toned deposits. The numerous channels and apron deposits indicate that many tens to hundreds of individual events involving the flow of water and debris have occurred here. The channels and aprons have very crisp, sharp relief and there are no small meteor impact craters on them, suggesting that these features are extremely young relative to the 4.5 billion year history of Mars. It is possible that these landforms are still being created by water seeping from the layered rock in the crater wall today.

    The crater has no name and it is located near 37.4oS, 168.0oW. The composite view in (above left) includes a picture taken by MOC on September 10, 1999, a picture obtained April 26, 2000, and another on May 22, 2000. The scene from left to right (including the dark gap between photos) covers an area approximately 7.6 kilometers (4.7 miles) wide by 18 km (11.1 mi) long. Sunlight illuminates the scene

  17. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  18. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  19. The distribution of lobate debris aprons and similar flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    Planet-wide mapping of lobate debris aprons and other similar flows on Mars shows a strong concentration in two latitudinal bands roughly 25 deg wide and centered at 40 deg N and 45 deg S. This distribution supports the idea that these flows form when erosional debris is transported downslope and becomes mixed with ice deposited from the atmosphere, as these latitudes should receive high seasonal H2O frost deposition relative to the rest of the planet. Flows are found in the northern hemisphere band wherever old highland surfaces occur but are found in the southern hemisphere only near the two major impact basins, Argyre and Hellas. These areas are apparently characterized by mass wasting that is rapid relative to most of the southern hemisphere highlands. The rate of mass wasting may be related to the degree of consolidation of highland material.

  20. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations.

  1. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations. PMID:27461510

  2. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations.

  3. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  4. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  5. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  6. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  7. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  8. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.

    2007-04-01

    The northern end of the 650-km-long Nemaha Uplift (Nebraska and Kansas, USA) is an important example of basin-margin sedimentation in the North American Midcontinent. An apron of coarse, basal Pennsylvanian arkosic clastic sediments (BPC) was deposited on the flanks of the uplift while marine cyclothems were encroaching from the east. Small-scale fining-upward intervals, many with demonstrably erosional bases, dominate the BPC and are interpreted as overridingly fluvial in origin. Weak paleosols, desiccation cracks, and reddened intervals in the BPC record episodic subaerial exposure. Multiple, burrowed horizons and heterolithic strata of probable tidal origin and rare marine fossils also indicate episodic marine influence. The BPC appear to have been deposited as a thin apron of coalesced, alluvial fans and fan deltas. Deposition of the BPC occurred during the waning of uplift and subsequent quiescence. The comparative thinness and large-scale packaging of the BPC are compatible with the controlling effects of relict relief, regional subsidence, and eustasy, rather than ongoing, major vertical displacements along active faults. A strong autocyclic influence on sedimentation is evidenced by stacked fining-upward intervals of poorly-sorted conglomerates, sandstones, and sandy mudstones. Correlations demonstrate that the accumulation of the BPC took place over more than seven major sea-level cycles, beginning in Cherokee Group times (middle Moscovian/middle Pennsylvanian) and ending only when the eroded uplift was inundated and buried by marine cyclothems. On the basis of local correlations with marine cyclothems, and using black phosphatic shales (so-called "core shales" of Heckel, P.H., 1986. Sea-level surve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along Midcontinent outcrop belt, North America: Geology 14, 330-334., Heckel, P.H., 1994. Evaluation of evidence for glacio-eustatic control over marine Pennsylvanian cyclothems in

  9. Interfingering sand-rich aprons and Var Fan lobe deposits off Corsica: Analog for thick and laterally extensive turbidite petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Escutia, C. ); Savoye, B. ); Rehault, J.P. )

    1996-01-01

    The sand-rich Var submarine fan initiates off Nice, France, extends 230 km to the southeast, and then deposits a distal lobe (80 x 40 km) that parallels the northwestern base of the Corsican continental slope. Interfingering with the lobe deposits are base-of-slope, sand-rich aprons derived from Corsica. Both the fan lobe and aprons onlap the outcropping steep (6-110) slopes of Corsica. The fan lobe is characterized by generally flat-bedded layers with the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranging from 60-94% of the Holocene deposits. The aprons are characterized by feeder canyons exhibiting common sediment failures and proximal regions with numerous chaotic layers. With increasing distance from the apron apexes, high amplitude wedging reflectors grade laterally to flatter ones, reflector continuity increases, chaotic layers thin, and some incipient channels form. Chaotic layers are the dominant deposit shown on seismic profiles of the aprons. The layers extend as much as 15 km laterally onto the fan lobe and maximum thicknesses of single layers reach 35-70 m, The prolonged echo character with poor penetration, together with irregular surfaces and possible large blocks seen in sidescan sonar records, suggest that apron deposits are coarse grained. Gravel is found in apron layers that extend 21 km onto the fan lobe and the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranges from 37-79% of the Holocene deposits. Because the estimated sand : shale ratio averages 8.6:1 in the Holocene highstand deposits of the interfingering Corsican aprons and Var Fan lobe, this combined environment is an intriguing setting that could provide large continuous reservoirs if it occurred in a suitable ancient petroleum province.

  10. Interfingering sand-rich aprons and Var Fan lobe deposits off Corsica: Analog for thick and laterally extensive turbidite petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Escutia, C.; Savoye, B.; Rehault, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The sand-rich Var submarine fan initiates off Nice, France, extends 230 km to the southeast, and then deposits a distal lobe (80 x 40 km) that parallels the northwestern base of the Corsican continental slope. Interfingering with the lobe deposits are base-of-slope, sand-rich aprons derived from Corsica. Both the fan lobe and aprons onlap the outcropping steep (6-110) slopes of Corsica. The fan lobe is characterized by generally flat-bedded layers with the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranging from 60-94% of the Holocene deposits. The aprons are characterized by feeder canyons exhibiting common sediment failures and proximal regions with numerous chaotic layers. With increasing distance from the apron apexes, high amplitude wedging reflectors grade laterally to flatter ones, reflector continuity increases, chaotic layers thin, and some incipient channels form. Chaotic layers are the dominant deposit shown on seismic profiles of the aprons. The layers extend as much as 15 km laterally onto the fan lobe and maximum thicknesses of single layers reach 35-70 m, The prolonged echo character with poor penetration, together with irregular surfaces and possible large blocks seen in sidescan sonar records, suggest that apron deposits are coarse grained. Gravel is found in apron layers that extend 21 km onto the fan lobe and the total percentage of sand beds in cores ranges from 37-79% of the Holocene deposits. Because the estimated sand : shale ratio averages 8.6:1 in the Holocene highstand deposits of the interfingering Corsican aprons and Var Fan lobe, this combined environment is an intriguing setting that could provide large continuous reservoirs if it occurred in a suitable ancient petroleum province.

  11. Lightning effects on aircraft: A cockpit perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1980-05-01

    Typical conditions in which strikes have been experienced by large and small aircraft are described, together with effects as experienced by flight crews. Most strikes have occurred when the aircraft is flying at between 3000 and 5000 meters altitude, where the outside air temperature is within 5 deg of 0 C and there exists a light to moderate amount of precipitation. Strikes to aircraft have, however, occurred at altitudes as high as 12,000 m and also when the aircraft are parked on the ground. If an aircraft approaches a highly electrified region it may actually trigger a strike, especially if the aircraft is large and causes a significant perturbation in the nearby electric field. Aircraft lightning strike mechanisms, effects to avionics and electric power systems, engine effects, and effects to personnel are addressed.

  12. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  13. Evidence for Late Pleistocene uplift at the Somma-Vesuvius apron near Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marturano, Aldo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana

    2011-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and micropalaeontological analyses of samples from boreholes at the Somma-Vesuvius apron, between Pompeii and the sea, allowed reconstruction of Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sarno coastal plain. In all, 116 samples were recovered from seven boreholes drilled from 2-10 m a.s.l. to 16.5-26 m b.s.l. Microfossil assemblages, with special regard to benthic foraminifers and ostracods, were used to reconstruct the depositional palaeoenvironment. Fossil remains show that all the pre-79 AD fossiliferous sediments from 2 to - 24 m a.s.l. were deposited in shallow marine waters for a long time despite an appreciable sea level rise. The data indicate alternation of both shallow marine and subaerial conditions during the last ~ 15 kyr, evidencing ground uplift of the area of about 75 m at a rate of ~ 5 mm/year. Marine sediment accumulation (~ 6 m/kyr) and tectonic uplift long offset the sea level rise, and as a consequence, submerged areas remained the same as well.

  14. 75 FR 41774 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...; Deer Park, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... airspace at Deer Park Airport, Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using the existing Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Deer...

  15. 75 FR 68023 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also state what expertise you would bring to the...; (2) On commonly accepted quiet aircraft technology for use in commercial air tour operations over a... NPOAG ARC are: Heidi Williams, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Alan Stephen, fixed-winged...

  16. 75 FR 1834 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation; Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... issues relating to aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also state what expertise you... implementation of this title and the amendments made by this title; (2) On commonly accepted quiet aircraft... Native American tribal concerns. Current members of the NPOAG ARC are: Robert Hackman, Aircraft...

  17. 32 CFR 766.11 - Fees for landing, parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and storage fees. Fixed and rotary wing aircraft parking and storage fees are based upon the gross... RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.11 Fees for landing... the following: (1) Government aircraft (see definition § 766.2(g)) except that foreign...

  18. ACE Parking Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    This manual is designed for use in a four-session workshop to help new parking garage employees enhance their skills in the following areas: understanding the functions of parking employees, computing parking rates and filling out parking lot reconciliation forms, preparing miscellaneous parking lot forms and developing effective communication and…

  19. Formation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris-cover armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) are lobate-shaped aprons surrounding scarps and isolated massifs that are concentrated in the vicinity of the northern Dichotomy Boundary on Mars. LDAs have been interpreted as (1) ice-cemented talus aprons undergoing viscous flow, (2) local debris-covered alpine-like glaciers, or (3) remnants of the collapse of a regional retreating ice sheet. We investigate the plausibility that LDAs are remnants of a more extensive regional ice sheet by modeling this process. We find that as a regional ice sheet collapses, the surface drops below cliff and massif bedrock margins, exposing bedrock and regolith, and initiating debris deposition on the surface of a cold-based glacier. Reduced sublimation due to debris-cover armoring of the proto-LDA surface produces a surface slope and consequent ice flow that carries the armoring debris away from the rock outcrops. As collapse and ice retreat continue the debris train eventually reaches the substrate surface at the front of the glacier, leaving the entire LDA armored by debris cover. Using a simplified ice flow model we are able to characterize the temperature and sublimation rate that would be necessary to produce LDAs with a wide range of specified lateral extents and thicknesses. We then apply this method to a database of documented LDA parameters (height, lateral extent) from the Dichotomy Boundary region, and assess the implications for predicted climate conditions during their formation and the range of formation times implied by the model. We find that for the population examined here, typical temperatures are in the range of -85 to -40 °C and typical sublimation rates lie in the range of 6-14 mm/a. Lobate debris apron formation times (from the point of bedrock exposure to complete debris cover) cluster near 400-500 ka. These results show that LDA length and thickness characteristics are consistent with climate conditions and a formation scenario typical of the collapse of a regional retreating

  20. Organ-specific external dose coefficients and protective apron transmission factors for historical dose reconstruction for medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    ICRP/ICRU mono-energetic DCCs and the functions integrated over the air-kerma weighted photon fluence of the 12 defined x-ray spectra. The air kerma-weighted DCCs in this work were developed specifically for an irradiation geometry of anterior to posterior (AP) and for the following tissues: thyroid, breast, ovary, lens of eye, lung, colon, testes, heart, skin (anterior side only), red bone marrow (RBM), and brain. In addition, a series of functional relationships to predict DT Ka-1 values for RBM dependent on body mass index [BMI (kg m-2) ≡ weight per height] and average photon energy were derived from a published analysis. Factors to account for attenuation of radiation by protective lead aprons were also developed. Because lead protective aprons often worn by radiology personnel not only reduce the intensity of x-ray exposure but also appreciably harden the transmitted fluence of bremsstrahlung x-rays, DCCs were separately calculated for organs possibly protected by lead aprons by considering three cases: no apron, 0.25 mm Pb apron, and 0.5 mm Pb apron. For estimation of organ doses from conducting procedures with radioisotopes, continuous functions of the reported mono-energetic values were developed, and DCCs were derived by estimation of the function at relevant energies. By considering the temporal changes in primary exposure-related parameters (e.g., energy distribution), the derived DCCs and transmission factors presented here allow for more realistic historical dose reconstructions for medical personnel when monitoring badge readings are the primary data on which estimation of an individual's organ doses are based.

  1. Extensive Middle Amazonian mantling of debris aprons and plains in Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars: Implications for the record of mid-latitude glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-11-01

    The mid-latitudes of Mars are host to a record of recent episodes of accumulations of ice-rich materials. The record includes debris aprons, interpreted to be debris-covered glaciers, that may represent the preserved remnants of a much more extensive ice sheet. We assessed the possibility of former glacial extents by examining debris aprons and the surrounding plains in Deuteronilus Mensae. Geomorphic units and stratigraphic relationships were mapped and documented from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera images, and crater retention ages were estimated from crater size-frequency distributions. Three major units are observed within the study area: debris aprons, lower plains, and upper plains. Debris aprons exhibit characteristics typical for these features documented elsewhere and in previous studies, including integrated flow lineations and patterns, convex-upward profiles, and knobby and brain terrain surface textures. A lower bound on the age for debris aprons is estimated to be 0.9 Ga. Debris aprons are superposed on a lower plains unit having a lower bound age of 3.3-3.5 Ga. A 50-100 m thick upper plains unit superposes both debris apron landforms and lower plains units and has a best-fit minimum age of 0.6 Ga. The upper plains unit exhibits characteristics of atmospherically-emplaced mantle material, including fine-grained nature, sublimation textures, cyclic layering, draping character, and widespread spatial distribution. Fracturing and subsequent sublimation/erosion of upper plains on debris aprons has contributed to many of the surface textures on debris aprons. The upper plains unit has also been eroded from the lower plains and plateaus, evidenced by isolated blocks of upper plains in the interiors of craters and on the walls and tops of plateaus. While no conclusive evidence diagnostic of former cold-based ice sheets are observed in the plains within the study region, such

  2. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  3. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. Methods This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Results Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding

  4. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Channeled Aprons in a Small Crater within Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Newton Crater is a large basin formed by an asteroid impact that probably occurred more than 3 billion years ago. It is approximately 287 kilometers (178 miles) across. The picture shown here (top) highlights the north wall of a specific, smaller crater located in the southwestern quarter of Newton Crater (above). The crater of interest was also formed by an impact; it is about 7 km (4.4 mi) across, which is about 7 times bigger than the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona in North America.

    The north wall of the small crater has many narrow gullies eroded into it. These are hypothesized to have been formed by flowing water and debris flows. Debris transported with the water created lobed and finger-like deposits at the base of the crater wall where it intersects the floor (bottom center top image). Many of the finger-like deposits have small channels indicating that a liquid--most likely water--flowed in these areas. Hundreds of individual water and debris flow events might have occurred to create the scene shown here. Each outburst of water from higher upon the crater slopes would have constituted a competition between evaporation, freezing, and gravity.

    The individual deposits at the ends of channels in this MOC image mosaic were used to get a rough estimate of the minimum amount of water that might be involved in each flow event. This is done first by assuming that the deposits are like debris flows on Earth. In a debris flow, no less than about 10% (and no more than 30%) of their volume is water. Second, the volume of an apron deposit is estimated by measuring the area covered in the MOC image and multiplying it by a conservative estimate of thickness, 2 meters (6.5 feet). For a flow containing only 10% water, these estimates conservatively suggest that about 2.5 million liters (660,000 gallons) of water are involved in each event; this is enough to fill about 7 community-sized swimming pools or

  5. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  9. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  10. 36 CFR 222.64 - Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. 222.64 Section 222.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 222.64 Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to use helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and motor vehicles in a manner that will ensure...

  11. 36 CFR 222.64 - Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. 222.64 Section 222.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 222.64 Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to use helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and motor vehicles in a manner that will ensure...

  12. 36 CFR 222.24 - Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. 222.24 Section 222.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 222.24 Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to use helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and motor vehicles in a manner that will ensure...

  13. 36 CFR 222.24 - Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. 222.24 Section 222.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 222.24 Use of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and motor vehicles. The Chief, Forest Service, is authorized to use helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and motor vehicles in a manner that will ensure...

  14. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  15. National Park Service Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers information on the employment needs of and career opportunities in the National Park Service. General information on the Service and employment is followed by specific information on these career opportunities: park ranger, park aide and technician, park police, administrative careers, and maintenance, trade, and craft…

  16. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park, Tulare County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Moore, James G.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the geology of 675 km2 (260 mi2) on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, mainly in Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest. It was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the request of the National Park Service to complete the geologic map coverage of Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. The area includes the Mineral King 15’ topographic quadrangle (sheet 1) and strips along the east and northeast edges of the Kaweah 15’ topographic quadrangle (sheet 2), both in Tulare County. Mapping was performed mainly on the 1:24,000-scale Mineral King, Silver City, Quinn Peak, Moses Mountain, Case Mountain, and Dennison Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle bases. Rocks within the study area are chiefly Cretaceous granites and granodiorites of the Sierra Nevada batholith that intruded coherent masses of Mesozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Quaternary till and talus are the principal surficial deposits, with the exception of a large bouldery alluvial apron near the southwest corner of the map area. The study area includes the headwaters of the Kaweah River (East and South Forks), Tule River (North Fork and North Fork of the Middle Fork), and the Little Kern River. Relief is considerable, with elevations spanning from 1,500 feet along the Middle Fork Kaweah River to 12,432 feet at the summit of Florence Peak along the crest of the Great Western Divide.

  17. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  18. Sedimentation in a Submarine Seamount Apron at Site U1431, International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadd, K. A.; Clift, P. D.; Hyun, S.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 Site U1431 is located near the relict spreading ridge in the East Subbasin of the South China Sea. Holes at this site were drilled close to seamounts and intersected the volcaniclastic apron. Volcaniclastic breccia and sandstone at Site U1431 are dated as late middle Miocene to early late Miocene (~8-13 Ma), suggesting a 5 m.y. duration of seamount volcanism. The apron is approximately 200 m thick and is sandwiched between non-volcaniclastic units that represent the background sedimentation. These comprise dark greenish gray clay, silt, and nannofossil ooze interpreted as turbidite and hemipelagic deposits that accumulated at abyssal water depths. At its base, the seamount sequence begins with dark greenish gray sandstone, siltstone, and claystone in upward fining sequences interpreted as turbidites intercalated with minor intervals of volcaniclastic breccia. Upsection the number and thickness of breccia layers increases with some beds up to 4.8 m and possibly 14.5 m thick. The breccia is typically massive, ungraded, and poorly sorted with angular to subangular basaltic clasts, as well as minor reworked subrounded calcareous mudstone, mudstone, and sandstone clasts. Basaltic clasts include nonvesicular aphyric basalt, sparsely vesicular aphyric basalt, highly vesicular aphyric basalt, and nonvesicular glassy basalt. Mudstone clasts are clay rich and contain foraminifer fossils. The matrix comprises up to 40% of the breccia beds and is a mix of clay, finer grained altered basalt clasts, and mafic vitroclasts with rare foraminifer fossils. Some layers have calcite cement between clasts. Volcaniclastic sandstone and claystone cycles interbedded with the breccia layers have current ripples and parallel laminations indicative of high-energy flow conditions during sedimentation. The breccia beds were most likely deposited as a series of debris flows or grain flows. This interpretation is supported by their

  19. Interglacial Extension of the Boreal Forest Limit in the Noatak Valley, Northwest Alaska: Evidence from an Exhumed River-Cut Bluff and Debris Apron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, M.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Elias, S.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Krumhardt, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous exposures of Pleistocene sediments occur in the Noatak basin, which extends for 130 km along the Noatak River in northwestern Alaska. Nk-37, an extensive bluff exposure near the west end of the basin, contains a record of at least three glacial advances separated by interglacial and interstadial deposits. An ancient river-cut bluff and associated debris apron is exposed in profile through the central part of Nk-37. The debris apron contains a rich biotic record and represents part of an interglaciation that is probably assignable to marine-isotope stage 5. Pollen spectra from the lower part of the debris apron closely resemble modern samples taken from the Noatak floodplain in spruce gallery forest, and macrofossils of spruce are also present at this level. Fossil bark beetles and carpenter ants occur higher in the debris apron. Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) estimates from the fossil beetles suggest temperatures similar to or warmer than today. Together, these fossils indicate the presence of an interglacial spruce forest in the western part of the Noatak Basin, which lies about 80 km upstream of the modern limit of spruce forest.

  20. An evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of lead aprons used in clinics for protection against ionising radiation from novel radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Deb, Pradip; Jamison, Robert; Mong, Lisa; U, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of personal radiation shields currently worn in hospital and other diagnostic environments. This study was performed with four different radioisotopes; (18)F, (99m)Tc, (124)I and (131)I. (18)F results showed a decrease in dose with 0.5-mm Pb shielding but the reduction provided does not warrant its use clinically. (124)I testing demonstrated that dose enhancement can occur in greater shield thicknesses. PET isotope (124)I can be adequately shielded using 0.25-mm Pb equivalent aprons but any higher thickness increase the wearer's dose. As a result more shielding does not always equal more protection. The (131)I test showed that no dose reduction occurred, even when tested with up to 1.25-mm Pb equivalent shielding. Novel radioisotopes being used in the laboratory and clinic should be individually tested as each requires specific shielding testing.

  1. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  2. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  3. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  4. 75 FR 61609 - Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer... will establish and amend existing Class E airspace at Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using the... (SIAPs) at Deer Park, WA. This will improve the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules...

  5. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  6. 77 FR 48201 - Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... title and the amendments made by this title; (2) On commonly accepted quiet aircraft technology for use... related to environmental issues or concerns or have another affiliation with issues relating to aircraft flights over national parks. The request should also state what expertise you would bring to the NPOAG...

  7. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  8. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  9. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    and basins in the Park exhibit an east-west physiographic grain controlled by left-lateral fault zones that form a sinistral domain within the broad zone of dextral shear along the transform boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Geologic and geophysical evidence reveal that movement on the sinistral faults zones has resulted in left steps along the zones, resulting in the development of sub-basins beneath Pinto Basin and Shavers and Chuckwalla Valleys. The sinistral fault zones connect the Mojave Desert dextral faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone to the north and east with the Coachella Valley strands of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone to the west.Quaternary surficial deposits accumulated in alluvial washes and playas and lakes along the valley floors; in alluvial fans, washes, and sheet wash aprons along piedmonts flanking the mountain ranges; and in eolian dunes and sand sheets that span the transition from valley floor to piedmont slope. Sequences of Quaternary pediments are planed into piedmonts flanking valley-floor and upland basins, each pediment in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial surficial deposits.

  10. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  11. Velocity-porosity relationships for slope apron and accreted sediments in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 315 Site C0001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tobin, H. J.; Knuth, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we focused on the porosity and compressional wave velocity of marine sediments to examine the physical properties of the slope apron and the accreted sediments. This approach allows us to identify characteristic variations between sediments being deposited onto the active prism and those deposited on the oceanic plate and then carried into the prism during subduction. For this purpose we conducted ultrasonic compressional wave velocity measurements on the obtained core samples with pore pressure control. Site C0001 in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment transect of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program is located in the hanging wall of the midslope megasplay thrust fault in the Nankai subduction zone offshore of the Kii peninsula (SW Japan), penetrating an unconformity at ˜200 m depth between slope apron sediments and the underlying accreted sediments. We used samples from Site C0001. Compressional wave velocity from laboratory measurements ranges from ˜1.6 to ˜2.0 km/s at hydrostatic pore pressure conditions estimated from sample depth. The compressional wave velocity-porosity relationship for the slope apron sediments shows a slope almost parallel to the slope for global empirical relationships. In contrast, the velocity-porosity relationship for the accreted sediments shows a slightly steeper slope than that of the slope apron sediments at 0.55 of porosity. This higher slope in the velocity-porosity relationship is found to be characteristic of the accreted sediments. Textural analysis was also conducted to examine the relationship between microstructural texture and acoustic properties. Images from micro-X-ray CT indicated a homogeneous and well-sorted distribution of small pores both in shallow and in deeper sections. Other mechanisms such as lithology, clay fraction, and abnormal fluid pressure were found to be insufficient to explain the higher velocity for accreted sediments. The higher slope in velocity-porosity relationship for

  12. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont...IATA member airlines at $100 million based on 1976 operations. Thus the numbers are large, but detailed analyses on specific aircraft types, in known...demonstrate this in any quantitative way with accurate figures. Better information is required on the cost of corrosion, together with analyses of the

  13. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  14. Attempts to control clothes-borne infection in a burn unit, 3. An open-roofed plastic isolator or plastic aprons to prevent contact transfer of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.

    1979-01-01

    An open-roofed plastic isolator was built in a single patient isolation room in a burn unit. It was designed to prevent contact contamination only, as this had been shown to be the important route of cross-colonization in the unit. To exclude any possible effect on airborne transfer of bacteria, the isolator was first examined by means of an airborne particle tracer of the same size as bacteria-carrying particles. Such experiments indicated that the isolator might prevent some transfer out of but not into the isolator. This was not confirmed in simulated nursing experiments nor in a patient study, where the air counts of bacteria were practically the same inside and outside the isolator wall. Two patients only were nursed in the isolator. Both patients acquired exogenous colonizations from other patients, one with Ps. aeruginosa and the other with S. aureus. Nursing in the isolator was difficult and staff-demanding. In simulated nursing experiments, plastic aprons and gauntlets as the only protective measures against contact contamination gave as much protection to a mock patient as did the isolator. S. aureus were released from nurses' clothes more easily during work with the isolator than in open nursing with aprons and gauntlets. In conclusion, the isolator did not seem to be a realistic alternative to impermeable clothes such as plastic aprons as a means of preventing clothes-borne cross-contamination between burn patients. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:109499

  15. National parks: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Allen, Craig D.; Fleishman, Erica; Gunderson, Lance; McKenzie, Don; Meyerson, Laura A.; Oropeza, Jill; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km² of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation’s biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 “to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”1 Approximately 270 national park system areas contain significant natural resources. Current National Park Service policy for natural resource parks calls for management to preserve fundamental physical and biological processes, as well as individual species, features, and plant and animal communities. Parks with managed natural resources range from large intact (or nearly intact) ecosystems with a full complement of native species— including top predators—to those diminished by disturbances such as within-park or surrounding-area legacies of land use, invasive species, pollution, or regional manipulation of resources. The significance of national parks as representatives of naturally functioning ecosystems and as refugia for natural processes and biodiversity increases as surrounding landscapes become increasingly altered by human activities.

  16. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  17. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  18. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  19. Modified Convair-240 aircraft at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Convair-240 aircraft modified to fill role of a Space Shuttle is parked outside aircraft hangar at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Space shuttle side hatch mockup is incorporated in fuselage (visible toward the aft section of the aircraft). Convair-240 aircraft is part of November crew escape system (CES) testing of a candidate concept developed to provide crew egress capability during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight. Tractor rocket testing using the Convair-240 will begin 11-20-87. Life-like dummies will be pulled by the rockets from the modified aircraft's side hatch mockup.

  20. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  1. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  2. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  3. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  4. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... above and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR ...

  5. Getting People to Parks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    local communities to the park at a minimum of time and cost. Some indication of the importance of transportation can be found in study ing patterns of...Field, while park— ) ing lots are much more expensive to build at locations in Jamaica Bay. The Park Service should consider the cost—effectiveness...to Gateway does not not coincide with peak—hour work commuting. Third, the operat ing costs per passenger—mile for a bus are lower than for the subway

  6. A Comparison and Analog-Based Analysis of Sinuous Channels on the Rift Aprons of Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons Volcanoes, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, A.; de Wet, A.; Bleacher, J.; Schierl, Z.; Schwans, B.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sinuous channels on the flanks of the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars is debated among planetary scientists. Some argue a volcanic genesis [1] while others have suggested a fluvial basis [2-4]. The majority of the studies thus far have focused on channels on the rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. Here, however, we broadly examine the channels on the rift apron of Pavonis Mons and compare them with those studied channels around Ascraeus. We compare the morphologies of features from both of these volcanoes with similar features of known volcanic origin on the island of Hawai i. We show that the morphologies between these two volcanoes in the Tharsis province are very similar and were likely formed by comparable processes, as previous authors have suggested [5]. We show that, although the morphologies of many of the channels around these volcanoes show some parallels to terrestrial fluvial systems, these morphologies can also be formed by volcanic processes. The context of these features suggests that volcanic processes were the more likely cause of these channels.

  7. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  8. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  9. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  11. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  12. Parking Structures and the Space Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)

  13. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  14. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  15. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  17. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  18. Astronomy in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordgren, Tyler E.

    2009-01-01

    American national parks are fertile grounds for astronomy and planetary science outreach. They are some of the last remaining dark-sky sites the typical visitor (both U.S. and international) can still experience easily. An internal National Park Service (NPS) study shows a dark starry sky is an integral part of what visitors consider their park experience. As a result, the NPS Night Sky Team (a coordinated group of park rangers and astronomers) is measuring and monitoring the sky brightness over the parks in an attempt to promote within the park service protection of the night sky as a natural resource. A number of parks (e.g. Grand Canyon National Park) are currently expanding their night sky related visitor programs in order to take advantage of this resource and visitor interest. The national parks and their visitors are therefore an ideal audience fully "primed” to learn about aspects of astronomy or planetary science that can be, in any way, associated with the night sky. As one of the astronomers on the NPS Night Sky Team, I have been working with park service personnel on ways to target park visitors for astronomical outreach. The purpose of this outreach is twofold: 1) Strengthen popular investment in preserving dark skies, 2) Strengthen popular investment in current astronomical research. A number of avenues already being used to introduce astronomy outreach into the parks (beyond the simple "star party") will be presented.

  19. Boulder aprons indicate long-term gradual and non-catastrophic evolution of cliffed escarpments, Stołowe Mts, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duszyński, Filip; Migoń, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Caprock-crowned escarpments are characteristic geomorphic features of the sandstone tableland of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland). Their mid- and lower slopes truncate weaker sedimentary formations but are littered with sandstone boulders of various size, often more than 5 m long, which form nearly continuous aprons. A model of escarpment retreat by rock fall has been widely accepted in literature but in the Stołowe Mountains it has never been tested against field evidence; in addition no rock fall events except one minor fall in 1921 have been recorded in historical times. In this paper we erected five hypotheses of how escarpments may have evolved through time to result in widespread boulder presence on the slopes. Mapping boulder extent and slope morphology, run-out distance simulations using Conefall software, and rock strength determinations using the Schmidt hammer carried out on boulders along eight representative slope profiles provide data about characteristics of the boulder covers. Systematic decrease in intact rock strength with an increasing distance from the sandstone cliffs suggests that the boulder aprons are diachronic and record long-term retreat of escarpments. There exists no conclusive evidence of widespread boulder downslope movement, although in a few localities shallow landslides have rafted boulders far away from the cliff lines. Modelling exercise shows that the actual extent of boulders is 2-3 times bigger than suggested by Conefall predictions. These findings, coupled with observations along the cliff lines themselves, lead us to propose a model of free face in situ disintegration as the most likely hypothesis to explain block detachment and release from rock faces. As cliff lines recede and the slope surface below is lowered, remnant boulders occupy a position increasingly further away from escarpment rims, but experience little actual movement. This model complements the existing models of tableland evolution which tend to emphasize

  20. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... left are the Drakensberg Mountains; to the east of this range a large burn scar with thin smoke plumes from still-smoldering fires is ... counterpart, AirMISR, aboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. AirMISR contains a single camera that rotates to different view ...

  1. 32 CFR 766.11 - Fees for landing, parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fees for landing, parking and storage. 766.11 Section 766.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.11 Fees for...

  2. 32 CFR 766.11 - Fees for landing, parking and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fees for landing, parking and storage. 766.11 Section 766.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.11 Fees for...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and Property... to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... service areas must display a parking permit. This requirement may be waived in parking facilities...

  8. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  9. Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  10. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  11. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  12. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  13. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  14. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  15. Alternative Fuels Tests on a C-17 Aircraft: Emissions Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) December...Emissions were collected from engine 3 of the parked aircraft operated on conventional JP-8 and 50/50 blends of JP-8 and a beef tallow-derived HRJ, and a... 3 2.1.2 Gaseous Emissions.............................................................................. 5

  16. Microbial survival in strongly lithifying hotspring environments, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. J.; Borrelli, C.; Chen, X. H.; Srain, B. M.; Hanselmann, K.; Berelson, W.; Caporaso, J. G.; Coleman, M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Dawson, S.; Johnson, H.; Petryshyn, V.; Sessions, A. L.; Shapiro, R. S.; Spear, J. R.; Stevenson, B. S.; Williamson, C. H.; 2011 International Geobiology Course

    2011-12-01

    A new hotspring near the Narrow Gauge thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park is ~10 month old, rapidly-precipitates carbonate and hosts a diversity of microbial communities across a range of temperature and pH. The organisms that began to colonize different sites along the apron facies must avoid lithification for survival, and it is hypothesized that they achieve this by employing acid producing metabolic reactions. Oxidation of sulfur, for example, will yield protons, locally delaying CaCO3 precipitation by decreasing the acid neutralizing capacity of the water (ANC = [HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] + [OH-] - [H+]). Genomic and geochemical approaches were utilized to explore the microbial communities and some metabolic processes. Samples were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, microscopy, membrane lipids analyses and both aqueous and rock geochemistry. Temperature and pH were determined in the field. The water chemistry indicates a source similar to other Mammoth Hot Springs and ∂13C analyses of aqueous and solid phases indicate localized changes due to CO2 fixation and respiration, as well as CO2 degassing from the source vent. Limited genomic diversity and differences in the membrane fatty acid patterns indicate highly selective conditions for communities with CO2 fixing and S-oxidizing metabolisms. Genes for key enzymes involved in these processes have been identified. Fatty acid composition corresponds with genomic data, indicating a difference in community structure between sites. CO2 fixation at two sites increases ANC, but S-oxidation and respiration decrease ANC, preventing the lithification of these communities. These analyses collectively indicate that microorganisms are able to stave off lithification long enough to form healthy microbial communities which then affect the rate of carbonate precipitation and likely affect facies development.

  17. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  18. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  19. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  20. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  1. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  2. Canyonlands National Park, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Desert and mountain scenery along the Utah/Colorado border are displayed in this scene of the Canyonlands National Park, UT (39.0N, 110.0W). The Park occuppies the near center of the image, displaying spectacular incised meanders and the bulls-eye structure of Upheaval Dome (a salt dome). The Green River and the Colorado River flow southward to join off scene before flowing through the Grand Canyon National Park.

  3. Canyonlands National Park, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Desert and mountain scenery along the Utah/Colorado border are displayed in this scene of the Canyonlands National Park, UT (39.0N, 110.0W). The park occupies the near center of the image, displaying spectacular incised meanders and the bulls-eye structure of Upheaval Dome (a salt dome). The Green River and the Colorado River flow southward to join (off scene) before flowing through the Grand Canyon National Park.

  4. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.

  5. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  6. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  7. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  8. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  9. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role of... waived during National Park Week. All Americans can visit www.NPS.gov to find nearby parks where...

  10. Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh

  11. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, BUILDING 8200 (OBSERVATION TOWER) AT LEFT, AND B-52 AIRCRAFT PARKED ALONG APRON IN BACKGROUND, DATED OCTOBER 1967, PHOTOGRAPH FROM BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  13. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  14. New Challenges in Campus Parking Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the challenges campus parking professionals face from the increased demands of organizations to improve parking service levels with diminishing resources. Campus parking operations are explored with an awareness of the needs, attitudes, and demands of customers in mind. (GR)

  15. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  16. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  17. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  18. Aerial view of Endeavour, OV-105, parked on Ellington Field runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This aerial view looks down on Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 911, a modified Boeing 747, parked on an Ellington Field runway. The tail cone added to OV-105 to enhance the aerodynamics of the spacecraft/aircraft transport system is clearly visible. Ground transportation vehicles (cars, trucks) and a crowd surround OV-105 and NASA 911. Ceremonies were held during OV-105's brief stopover at Ellington Field, near JSC. The new space vehicle, sans SCA, was rolled out of Rockwell's Palmdale facility on 04-25-91. This again brings the total of NASA Shuttles available for flight assignment to four. The spacecraft and aircraft-tandem left Houston later on this day headed for a stop in Mississippi before landing in Florida on 05-07-91. This photograph was taken from a NASA T-38 aircraft by Sheri J. Dunnette of JSC's Image Sciences Division (ISD).

  19. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  20. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  1. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  2. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  3. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  4. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  5. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  6. A VHF Intruder Detection System: Tests on a C-5A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    This change, processed by appropriate electronic circuitry, then activates the alarm 6. Rochefort, J. S., Sukys , R. , and Poirier, N. C. (1918) An Area...A Technique for Parked Aircraft, RADC-TR-77-384. 6. Rochefort, J. S. . Sukys , R. , and Poirier, N. C. (1918) An Area Intrusion Detec- tion and Alarm

  7. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., structures, and cutting of trees. 293.6 Section 293.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... trees. Except as provided in the Wilderness Act, subsequent legislation establishing a particular... from aircraft; no structures or installations; and no cutting of trees for nonwilderness purposes....

  8. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., structures, and cutting of trees. 293.6 Section 293.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... trees. Except as provided in the Wilderness Act, subsequent legislation establishing a particular... from aircraft; no structures or installations; and no cutting of trees for nonwilderness purposes....

  9. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., structures, and cutting of trees. 293.6 Section 293.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... trees. Except as provided in the Wilderness Act, subsequent legislation establishing a particular... from aircraft; no structures or installations; and no cutting of trees for nonwilderness purposes....

  10. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., structures, and cutting of trees. 293.6 Section 293.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... trees. Except as provided in the Wilderness Act, subsequent legislation establishing a particular... from aircraft; no structures or installations; and no cutting of trees for nonwilderness purposes....

  11. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  12. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  14. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  15. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R. M.

    1985-05-28

    Aircraft engine exhaust is mixed with air and fuel and recombusted. Air is drawn into the secondary combustion chamber from suction surfaces on wings. Exhaust of the secondary combustion chamber is blown over wing and fuselage surfaces.

  16. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  17. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  18. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  19. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  20. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  1. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  2. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  3. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    advancing and applying technology to predict, evaluate , and improve combat survivability of US flight vehicles. John graduated from the University of...support for most of the aircraft and anti-aircraft programs conducted to date under LFT&E statutory requirements. A number of these test and evaluation ...initiatives to improve the state-of-the-art of LFT&E, to place greater emphasis on the evaluation of human casualties, to integrate Battle Damage

  4. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  5. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  6. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  7. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  8. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  9. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  10. Amazonian Mid-Latitude Regional Glaciation on Mars: Lineated Valley Fill, Lobate Debris Aprons and Plateau Deposits at the Dichotomy Boundary and Implications for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    The dichotomy boundary on Mars represents a distinct geologic, topographic, morphologic and crustal thickness boundary that is characterized by a wide range of modificational processes. The Deuteronilus-Protonilus region represents the area where the boundary reaches its highest latitude. The fretted terrain, located in the vicinity of the dichotomy boundary at these mid-northern latitudes on Mars, displays two enigmatic terrain types: lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF). The prevailing hypotheses for their origin has been mass wasting from mesa margins and valley walls, with movement periodically assisted by groundwater seepage or atmospheric vapor diffusion into the debris aprons, causing ice-assisted creep. Creep from opposite valley walls and convergence in valley centers has been called on to explain the parallel, along-valley lineations, and little evidence has been found for down-valley movement. New higher-resolution THEMIS and MOC data, however, show compelling evidence for a more integrated picture of LVF formation, suggesting a significant role for regional glaciation. We find evidence for: 1) localized alcoves, sources of hundreds of narrow, lobate concentric-ridged debris flows; 2) bulbous-headed tributary valley systems, which contain converging LVF that feeds into larger valley systems; 3) rounded-sharp-paired intersections of the corners of tributary entrances into main valleys, with sharp corners pointing down-flow; 4) narrow arete-like linear plateau ridge remnants, commonly parallel to LVF; 5) horseshoe-shaped ridges up-valley of topographic obstacles, with deformed and folded upslope LVF; 6) convergence and merging of LVF in the down-valley directions; 7) deformation, distortion and folding of LVF in the vicinity of convergence; 8) distinctive lobe-shaped termini where LVF emerges into the northern lowlands. We interpret these LVF features to have formed as parts of integrated valley glacial systems extending hundreds of km

  11. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmol·L(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  12. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29, 2012... as our National Parks.'' This week, we honor the uniquely American idea behind them: that each of...

  13. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  14. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  15. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AD92 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... winter visitation and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the...

  16. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  17. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  18. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  19. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  2. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  3. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  4. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  5. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  6. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  7. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  8. Aircraft Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The helicopter pictured is the twin-turbine S-76, produced by Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Technologies, Stratford, Connecticut. It is the first transport helicopter ever dey n e d purely as a commercial vehicle rather than an adaptation of a military design. Being built in large numbers for customers in 16 countries, the S-76 is intended for offshore oil rig support, executive transportation and general utility service. The craft carries 12 passengers plus a crew of two and has a range of more than 450 miles-yet it weighs less than 10,000 pounds. Significant weight reduction was achieved by use of composite materials, which are generally lighter but stronger than conventional aircraft materials. NASA composite technology played a part in development of the S-76. Under contract with NASA's Langley Research Center, Sikorsky Aircraft designed and flight-tested a helicopter airframe of advanced composite materials.

  9. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  11. Atmospheric Electricity - Aircraft Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    flux may leak inside the aircraft through apertures such as windows , radomes. canopies, seams, and joints. Other fields may arise inside the aircraft...fields of other origins are considered. The third type of c-"pling involves electric fields passing directly through aper- tures, such as windows or...Transistors Microwave Diodes Low Power Transistors 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Damage Constant. K Damage Constant. K Figure 29 - Ranges

  12. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  13. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  14. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  15. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  16. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  17. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  19. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  20. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  1. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  2. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    number MC2A Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft MC2A-X Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft Experiment MIDS Multifunctional Information and...reconnaissance (ISR) fleet. The MMA is alternately designated as the Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft (MC2A) as indicated in this text. Figure

  3. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  4. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  5. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  6. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  7. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  8. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  9. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  10. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  11. Aircraft Wheel Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    responsible for a significant amount of aircraft dam - age. Many such wheel failures have been catastrophic, resulting in a sudden loss of tire inflation...Fatigue Crack Growth," Fatigue and Fracture in Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 10, 419-428, 1987. Cox, B. N., Pardee , W., and Morris, W. L

  12. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  13. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  14. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  15. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  16. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  17. Parking Assistance Systems using Human Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Massaki; Yoon, Kang Sup; Hashimoto, Hideki

    This paper dicusses the problem of parking assistance system development. Firstly, we propose the driver assistance systems general architecture based on path planning and human interface modules. A path generation method based on parking possibility area is developed for the parking assistance systems. The human interface designed for the parking assistance systems is then described. A prototype of the parking assistance systems based on the proposed architecture and approaches have been constructed. Proposed algorithms and implementation solutions in the prototype construction are described. The lane and row parking experimental results obtained with the prototype systems are also shown.

  18. Artificial Intelligence/Robotics Applications to Navy Aircraft Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    AD-A143 219 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE/ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS TO NAVV T7T AIRCRAFT HAINTENANCE(U) SRI INTERNATIONAL HENLO PARK CA D R BROWN ET AL...34^! * -.’.-. v.’: ;- • ’_*-••.-. - - m i i • i >«••»......» i 0> CO < Final Report ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE/ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS TO NAVY...8217• . . i * • ’ * ’ ** ’.- *_» "-_ _* _- _• -J> . „• „ (ss3 QB e 25 f//w/ Report ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE/ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS TO NAVY

  19. Concept for a large multi-mission amphibian aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. C., III; Earl, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    A very large aircraft has been proposed for meeting both civil cargo and military transport needs for 1995 and beyond. The concept includes a wide noncircular fuselage cross section with a low wing, thick inner wing section, fuselage-mounted engines, and an air cushion landing gear. The civil freighter operates independently of congested passenger airports, using sheltered water as a runway and a waterfront land site for parking and ground operations. The military transport can operate from a wide variety of surfaces and temporary bases. The air cushion landing gear weighs substantially less than conventional gear and permits the use of extended takeoff distance resulting in improved payload/gross weight ratio.

  20. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  1. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  3. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  4. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  5. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  6. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  7. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  8. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  9. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  10. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  11. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  12. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  13. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  14. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  15. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  16. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  17. Aircraft Survivability. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) Short Course was held 17-20 May at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. 52 students attended the...Postgraduate School where he earned his MBA in Financial Management. Jimmy earned his BS in General Science from the United States Naval Academy...Answering these questions requires credible threat models supported by high -fidelity test characterizations of the MANPADS missile threat. Based on

  18. X-29: Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary look at the Ames Dryden Flight Research Center in the context of the X-29 aircraft is provided. The uses of the X-29's 30 deg forward swept wing are examined. The video highlights the historical development of the forward swept wing, and its unique blend of speed, agility, and slow flight potential. The central optimization of the wing, the forward canard, and the rear flaps by an onboard flight computer is also described.

  19. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Survivability Program Office SUMMER 2011 craShworthineSS & personnel casualties Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint...and stroking seats. The knowledge gained from studying Vietnam crash data was consolidated into the Crash Survival Design Guide (CSDG), which

  20. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  1. Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    also influence the formation of streamers. If electrons are swept away from the electrode surface , additional electrons must leave the surface , if...presented. The dielectric materials to be used in the proposed solutions are discussed. In order to simulate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a nuclear...structure. Therefore, the flashover to ground of the aircraft structure (at the point of the sharp projection) depends on the amplitude and pulse shape of the

  2. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  3. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  4. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  7. Parking garage threats and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Preventing and dealing with crime in hospital parking facilities poses a serious challenge to administration and security. Multiple methods to effectively combat the threats are described by the author, but their implementation depends on how seriously a healthcare organization views its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment for its staff, patients and visitors.

  8. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  9. Designing an Amusement Park Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Robles, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    To improve access to STEM curriculum, an activity was planned that presents the opportunity to design and build using gears and other tools. In this challenge, preservice elementary school teachers were asked to mathematically analyze gears and create an amusement park ride that uses gears to spin. Although this lesson was implemented with…

  10. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our forebears..., and they summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

  11. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  12. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and.... Cordell, Executive Director, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National......

  13. Theme Parks: Program Variety and Employment Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes a number of privately operated theme parks, explains why the parks have been successful, and looks at career opportunities for leisure professionals in this expanding area. Implications for recreation education are pointed out, and names and addresses of major companies in the theme park business are provided. (PP)

  14. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS…

  15. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense... VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise... parking space marked as not intended for his or her use. (9) Where directed not to do so by a...

  16. The Paradox of Parks in Low-Income Areas: Park Use and Perceived Threats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn P.; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Raaen, Laura; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about safety and perceived threats have been considered responsible for lower use of parks in high poverty neighborhoods. To quantify the role of perceived threats on park use we systematically observed 48 parks and surveyed park users and household residents in low-income neighborhoods in the City of Los Angeles. Across all parks, the majority of both park users and local residents perceive parks as safe or very safe. We noted apparently homeless individuals during nearly half of all observations, but very few instances of fighting, intimidating groups, smoking and intoxication. The presence of homeless individuals was associated with higher numbers of park users, while the presence of intoxicated persons was associated with lower numbers. Overall the strongest predictors of increased park use were the presence of organized and supervised activities. Therefore, to increase park use, focusing resources on programming may be more fruitful than targeting perceived threats. PMID:27065480

  17. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  18. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  10. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  12. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  13. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  1. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  4. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  7. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  10. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  11. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  12. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  14. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry Tortugas National Park. 7.27 Section 7.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.27 Dry Tortugas National Park. (a) What...

  18. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  4. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  6. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  11. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  14. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  15. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  16. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  17. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  18. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  19. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  20. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  1. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  3. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  9. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  10. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  14. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  16. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  17. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  18. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  19. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  20. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  2. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  5. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  10. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  12. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A person fishing within the park must have in possession the...

  15. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  17. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

  20. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  1. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  3. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  4. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  6. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  9. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  13. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  14. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  15. D-558-2 Aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Viewed in this 1955 photograph is the NACA High Speed Flight Station D-558-2 #2 (144) Skyrocket, an all-rocket powered vehicle. The Skyrocket is parked on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base. This aircraft, NACA 144/Navy 37974, was the first to reach Mach 2 (see project description). The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds during take-off and landing and in tight turns. The three aircraft gathered a great deal of data about pitch-up and the coupling of lateral (yaw) and

  16. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  17. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    the aircraft is mounted on a structure that enables the viewing angle (aspect) presented to the radar to be varied. For each aircraft type, the RCS...environment; there are no spurious reflections from the ground or from the supporting structure ; and the effects of propeller rotation, small aircraft...motions due to c-ntrol action or atmospheric turbulence, and structural deflections due to inertial and aerodynamic loading, are properly represented

  18. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  19. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  20. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  1. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  2. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  3. Energetics and Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel Anne

    While there has been a long tradition for the integration of architecture and landscape to improve the urban environment, little is known about the effect of urban parks on local climate. In this study the park effect is determined through an integrated research approach incorporating field measurements of the thermal regime and energetics of urban parks, together with scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks. The research is limited to consideration of the park effect in two cities with different summer climates: Sacramento, California (hot summer Mediterranean) and Vancoucer, British Columbia (cool summer Mediterranean). In both these cities, surveys of summer-time air temperature patterns associated with urban parks confirm and extend previous findings. In temperate Vancouver, the park effect is typically 1-2^circC, rarely more than 3^circC, although it can be higher under ideal conditions. However, in a hot, dry city, the effect is considerably enhanced with parks as much as 5-7^circC cooler than their urban surrounds. A comparison of the surface energy balance of small open, grassed parks in these two cities demonstrated the importance of evapotranspiration in park energetics. In hot, dry Sacramento, evaporation in the park was advectively -assisted and exceeded that at an irrigated rural site. Strong advective edge effects on evaporation were observed in this wet park. These decayed approximately exponentially with distance into the park. The urban park in Vancouver was moist, but unirrigated. While evaporation dominated the surface energy balance, the sensible heat flux was positive through most of the day, and evaporation was not strongly influenced by advection. The evaporation trend in the park probably reflected the turbulence and soil moisture regimes. However, an irrigated lawn in Vancouver did exhibit edge-type advection. This suggests the soil moisture regime may be critical in determining whether evaporation exceeds the potential rate

  4. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  5. Aircraft Electromagnetic Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    subsystems (fig ire 1. 1-4). If uncontrolled, it appears as radio tones, static, or 400-Hz hum on the passenger entertainment systems. It can show up as...lavatories; galleys; and video entertainment : These are the well-known hallmarks of a commercial transport aircraft (figure 2.1-1). The necessary control of...19 ligh nt o Maagm ete CRuotrotl Reore rv Engines ComputeSystemo IRU EICAS -9 ~Contro R~ Airplane Fiur 2.t 1-1 ElcroiiEgne C nto Om~uLOW _W IndRANGEn

  6. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  7. Aircraft propeller control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  8. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, David A.

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  9. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  10. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  11. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Phase/Quadrature Versus Time Display 52 55 Alarm Region on an Impedance-Plane Display 53 56 Video Subsystem 55 57 Video-Processing Computer 56 58...The robot was demonstrated on a DC-9 nose section during the 1994 Air Transport Association (ATA) NDT Forum hosted by the FAA’s Aging Aircraft NDI...The stabilizer bridge can travel a maximum distance of 15 inches (38 cm) along the spine assembly, and the stroke of the bridge’s lead screw assembly

  12. Optics in aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  13. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  14. Parks and golf course workers.

    PubMed

    Duvall, K

    2001-01-01

    Most of the work done by parks and golf course workers is performed outside, and they are subject to risks similar to those of other outdoor workers, such as temperature and weather-related problems, infectious diseases, and poisonous plants, snakes, and spiders. They are also exposed to physical hazards related to noise and operation of heavy equipment. Chemical hazards result from use of pesticides and solvents. This chapter reviews pertinent OSHA regulations, pre-placement strategies, and medical surveillance exams, and recommends preventive programs. More research is needed to determine specific hazards and work-related injury and illness rates for parks and golf course workers, so that effective preventive programs can be designed.

  15. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  16. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  17. Remote sensing: a tool for park planning and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing may be defined as the science of imaging or measuring objects from a distance. More commonly, however, the term is used in reference to the acquisition and use of photographs, photo-like images, and other data acquired from aircraft and satellites. Thus, remote sensing includes the use of such diverse materials as photographs taken by hand from a light aircraft, conventional aerial photographs obtained with a precision mapping camera, satellite images acquired with sophisticated scanning devices, radar images, and magnetic and gravimetric data that may not even be in image form. Remotely sensed images may be color or black and white, can vary in scale from those that cover only a few hectares of the earth's surface to those that cover tens of thousands of square kilometers, and they may be interpreted visually or with the assistance of computer systems. This article attempts to describe several of the commonly available types of remotely sensed data, to discuss approaches to data analysis, and to demonstrate (with image examples) typical applications that might interest managers of parks and natural areas.

  18. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  19. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  20. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.