Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft passenger seats

  1. Integral aircraft passenger seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Human-engineering approach was used to design integral seat which provides all the safety, comfort, and protective features that can possibly be afforded airline passengers. Results of dynamic impact testing indicated that seat can withstand and attenuate gravity loads of 21-g horizontal and 45-g vertical; by design, seat will withstand lateral g's as well.

  2. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  3. Development of crashworthy passenger seats for general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, M. J.; Tanner, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and floor supported seat concept designs were developed. A restraint system suitable for both concepts was designed. Energy absorbing hardware for both concepts was fabricated and tension and compression tests were conducted to demonstrate the stroking capability and the force deflection characteristics. Crash impact analysis was made and seat loads developed. The basic seat structures were analyzed to determine the adequacy of their strength under impact loading.

  4. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  5. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  6. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  7. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  8. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  9. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  10. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  11. Development of 2 underseat energy absorbers for application to crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrick, J. C.; Desjardins, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a program conducted to develop two underseat energy absorber (E/A) concepts for application to nonadjustable crashworthy passenger seats for general aviation aircraft. One concept utilizes an inflated air bag, and the other, a convoluted sheet metal bellows. Prototypes of both were designed, built, and tested. Both concepts demonstrated the necessary features of an energy absorber (load-limiter); however, the air bag concept is particularly encouraging because of its light weight. Several seat frame concepts also were investigated as a means of resisting longitudinal and lateral loads and of guiding the primary vertical stroke of the underseat energy absorber. Further development of a seat system design using the underseat energy absorbers is recommended because they provide greatly enhanced crash survivability as compared with existing general aviation aircraft seats.

  12. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  13. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion materials. Full scale, test description and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full-scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of sixteen tests. Two different fire sources were used. They consisted of one liter of Jet A fuel for eight tests and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Both fire sources were ignited by a propane flame. During each test, data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and for the type and content of gas within the cabin atmosphere. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  14. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  15. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  16. Human factors in design of passenger seats for commercial aircraft: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaedel, S. F.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Seat comfort and safety research since the early part of the century is reviewed. The approach blends empirical and theoretical human factors and technical knowledge of seated humans under static and dynamic conditions experienced on commercial aircraft.

  17. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  18. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  19. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  20. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  1. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion material, full scale. Data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Burn characteristics of presently used and proposed seat cushion materials and types of constructions were determined. Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of 16 tests. Two different fire sources were used: Jet A-fuel for eight tests, and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and type and content of gas within the cabin. When compared to existing seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance. Flammability comparison tests were conducted upon one fire blocking configuration and one polyimide configuration.

  2. Response of a seat-passenger system to impulsive loading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. A.; Turnbow, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a study of the dynamic response of an aircraft seat-passenger system to impulsive loading typical of aircraft crash situations. A brief description of the computer model SIMULA is presented, and selected data from 305 separate cases which have been studied are discussed. Maximum system forces, displacements, velocities, and accelerations are presented as functions of velocity change, aircraft deceleration, crash pulse shape, passenger weight, and seat belt slack. Data from both single and coupled parameter studies are included. A correlation of SIMULA results with experimentally obtained data is made.

  3. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  8. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  9. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber's insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  10. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  11. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  12. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber s insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  13. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  14. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  15. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  16. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  17. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  18. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  19. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  20. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  1. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  2. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  3. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  4. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  5. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the operator is located at any passenger seat. (b) No operator may move an aircraft on the surface, take off.... (c) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless...

  6. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the operator is located at any passenger seat. (b) No operator may move an aircraft on the surface, take off.... (c) No operator may permit an aircraft to move on the surface, take off, or land unless...

  7. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  8. Optimization of fire blocking layers for aircraft seating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ablative materials are used to provide thermal protection for heat sensitive substrates against large jet fuel fires. The present investigation is concerned with the possibility to increase the available egress time for passengers, from a transport aircraft, in which the flexible polyurethane seating is exposed to the action of a large pool fire. Suitable approaches for providing sufficient ablative protection for polyurethane cushioning are considered. The efficiency of any fire blocking layer is defined as the ratio of the incident radiant heating rate, to the rate of production of combustible gas produced per unit area per second, generated by the pyrolysis of the substrate polyurethane foam. It is found that adequate fire blocking protection can be achieved through replacement of cotton batting slip covers with a wide variety of fire blocking layers. Metallized high temperature resistant char forming ablatives appear to provide optimum protection.

  9. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  10. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  11. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  12. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. PMID:22633252

  13. A rare injury to a rear seat passenger: bilateral fracture dislocation of the shoulders.

    PubMed

    Madi, Sandesh; Pandey, Vivek; Acharya, Kiran; Ramakrishna, Krishna Prasad Peruvaje

    2015-01-01

    Injury prevention measures in automobiles are mainly focused on the front seat passengers and driver. In the event of a head-on collision, rear seat passengers usually escape with minimal injuries. Most commonly observed injuries to rear passengers are to the head, chest wall or lower extremities. We report a case of bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders with asymmetrical fractures of the greater tuberosities in a 42-year-old man who was apparently injured in a head-on collision while travelling in a car as an unstrapped rear seat passenger. This kind of injury pattern in an unrestrained rear seat passenger is very unusual and has not been previously described. PMID:26065552

  14. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  15. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  16. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  17. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  18. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  19. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in

  20. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  1. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  2. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  3. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  4. Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.

  5. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  6. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85 What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by § 382.81...

  7. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85 What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by § 382.81...

  8. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85 What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by § 382.81...

  9. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85 What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by § 382.81...

  10. 14 CFR 382.85 - What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What seating accommodations must carriers... REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.85 What seating accommodations must carriers make to passengers in circumstances not covered by § 382.81...

  11. Passenger comfort response times as a function of aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinalducci, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between a passenger's response time of changes in level of comfort experienced as a function of aircraft motion was examined. The aircraft used in this investigation was capable of providing a wide range of vertical and transverse accelerations by means of direct lift flap control surfaces and side force generator surfaces in addition to normal control surfaces. Response times to changes in comfort were recorded along with the passenger's rating of comfort on a five point scale. In addition, a number of aircraft motion variables including vertical and transverse accelerations were also recorded. Results indicate some relationship between human comfort response times to reaction time data.

  12. 76 FR 68304 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... central and lateral spreaders on an affected seat assembly (modify to ``Amendment B'' standard), in... that seat assembly. Credit for Actions Accomplished in Accordance With Previous Service Information...

  13. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  14. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  15. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. 31.91 Section 31.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration Sales in Multiple Locations §...

  16. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Spieth, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials (foam cushion, decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire-blocking layer, and cushion-reinforcement layer) were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers (decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire blocking, and cushion reinforcement) with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. Top layers exhibiting desirable burning profiles were combined with foam cushion materials. The smoke and heat-release rate of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/sq cm. Choices of contact and silicon adhesives for bonding multilayered assemblies were based on flammability, burn and smoke generation, animal toxicity tests, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  17. Noise effects on passenger communication in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupf, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of noise on conversation between two persons seated in a close, side-by-side position such as in a small aircraft. Twelve pairs of subjects were required to converse while being exposed to noises of various levels and spectra similar to those currently found in general aviation aircraft. After a period of noise exposure, subjects rated the disruptive effect of the noise on conversation and judged the acceptability of the noise. Subjective estimates of the maximum times for pleasant conversation in the noises were also obtained.

  18. Atmospheric mercury measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Bödewadt, Jan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Weber, Stefan; Hermann, Markus; Becker, Julia; Zahn, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt

    2016-05-01

    Goal of the project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric composition (particles and gases) at cruising altitudes of passenger aircraft, i.e. at 9-12 km. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 by a modified Tekran instrument (Tekran Model 2537 A analyser, Tekran Inc., Toronto, Canada) during monthly intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.

  19. Design of a 4-seat, general aviation, electric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Arvindhakshan

    Range and payload of current electric aircraft is limited primarily due to low energy density of batteries. However, recent advances in battery technology promise storage of more than 1 kWh of energy per kilogram of weight in the near future. This kind of energy storage makes possible the design of an electric aircraft comparable to, if not better than existing state-of-the art general aviation aircraft powered by internal combustion engines. This thesis explores through parametric studies the effect of lift-to-drag ratio, flight speed, and cruise altitude on required thrust power and battery energy and presents the conceptual and preliminary design of a four-seat, general aviation electric aircraft with a takeoff weight of 1750 kg, a range of 800 km, and a cruise speed of 200 km/h. An innovative configuration design will take full advantage of the electric propulsion system, while a Lithium-Polymer battery and a DC brush less motor will provide the power. Advanced aerodynamics will explore the greatest possible extend of laminar flow on the fuselage, the wing, and the empennage surfaces to minimize drag, while advanced composite structures will provide the greatest possible savings on empty weight. The proposed design is intended to be certifiable under current FAR 23 requirements.

  20. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the rules in 41 CFR 102-33.215 and 102-33.220 and the regulations in this part. ... Government aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property... Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.900 May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? Yes. You may...

  1. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the rules in 41 CFR 102-33.215 and 102-33.220 and the regulations in this part. ... aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property Management... Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.900 May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? Yes. You may...

  2. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the rules in 41 CFR 102-33.215 and 102-33.220 and the regulations in this part. ... Government aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property... Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.900 May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? Yes. You may...

  3. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the rules in 41 CFR 102-33.215 and 102-33.220 and the regulations in this part. ... Government aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property... Aircraft for Travel § 301-70.900 May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? Yes. You may...

  4. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  5. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  6. [Location of direct injuries in car drivers and passengers on the front seats].

    PubMed

    Iakunin, S A; Kalashnikov, M S

    2007-01-01

    The authors give statistics on most frequent variants of location of primary injuries (LPI) in car drivers (CD) and front seat passengers (FSP) of left-hand wheel cars. There was neither significant intra- and intergroup difference in the incidence of injuries nor LPI both in the groups and between the groups. Prevalence of LPI in CD on the left and in FSP on the right side of the body was not confirmed statistically. Significantly higher frequency of pubic injuries was found in FSP versus CD which is explained by different biomechanical route of the body dislocation in strong primary blow. The authors believe this sign to be distinctive and propose to use it in forensic-medical examinations. They also advocate wider use of section roentgenography and medico-criminalistic methods to raise detectability of characteristic body injuries which is essential because of a great rise in the number of modern cars on the roads decorated with less traumatic materials. PMID:17598439

  7. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  8. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    PubMed

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners. PMID:26660749

  9. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments. PMID:27494786

  10. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  11. NASA general aviation crashworthiness seat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three load limiting seat concepts for general aviation aircraft designed to lower the deceleration of the occupant in the event of a crash were sled tested and evaluated with reference to a standard seat. Dummy pelvis accelerations were reduced up to 50 percent with one of the concepts. Computer program MSOMLA (Modified Seat Occupant Model for Light Aircraft) was used to simulate the behavior of a dummy passenger in a NASA full-scale crash test of a twin engine light aircraft. A computer graphics package MANPLOT was developed to pictorially represent the occupant and seat motion.

  12. The thematic structure of passenger comfort experience and its relationship to the context features in the aircraft cabin.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Lindgaard, Gitte; Robert, Jean-Marc; Pownall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes passenger comfort as an experience generated by the cabin interior features. The findings of previous studies are affirmed regarding a set of 22 context features. Passengers experience a certain level of comfort when these features impact their body and elicit subjective perceptions. New findings characterise these perceptions in the form of eight themes and outline their particular eliciting features. Comfort is depicted as a complex construct derived by passengers' perceptions beyond the psychological (i.e. peace of mind) and physical (i.e. physical well-being) aspects, and includes perceptual (e.g. proxemics) and semantic (e.g. association) aspects. The seat was shown to have a focal role in eliciting seven of those themes and impacting comfort through its diverse characteristics. In a subsequent study, a group of aircraft cabin interior designers highlighted the possibility of employing the eight themes and their eliciting features as a framework for design and evaluation of new aircraft interiors. PMID:24684659

  13. Analyzing atmospheric trace gases and aerosols using passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, , C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Koeppel, C.; Scharffe, D. S.; Pupek, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P.; Zahn, A.; Sprung, D.; Fischer, H.; Hermann, M.; Reichelt, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schlager, H.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U.; Dix, B.; Platt, U.; Ebinghaus, R.; Martinsson, B.; Ciais, P.; Filippi, D.; Leuenberger, M.; Oram, D.; Penkett, S.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) resumed regular measurement flights with an extended scientific payload in December 2004. After an automated measurement container was successfully deployed on intercontinental flights using a Boeing 767 from 1997 to 2002, a far more powerful package now is deployed using a new Airbus A340-600 made available by Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance). The new CARIBIC system will help address a range of current atmospheric science questions during its projected lifetime of 10 years.European and Japanese scientists are developing a variety of atmospheric chemistry research and monitoring projects based on the use of passenger aircraft. This is a logical approach with a main advantage being that near-global coverage is obtained, in contrast to limited coverage through research aircraftbased expeditions. Moreover, highly detailed and consistent data sets can be acquired, as compared to satellite observations in general. In addition, even compared to land-based observatories, operational costs are moderate.

  14. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  15. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  16. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  17. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  18. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  19. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  20. Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Peterson, Brian; Pintar, Frank; Yoganandan, Narayan; Moorcroft, David; Taylor, Amanda; DeWeese, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment. Four PMHS were seated upright with Frankfurt plane horizontal in a custom designed seat configured to simulate potential aircraft environments and candidate restraint geometries. A scaled Part 25.562 Emergency Landing condition for horizontal impact was used as the dynamic test input. High speed video recorded occupant kinematics. Pre and posttest x-rays and CT’s were obtained and autopsies were conducted. Severe injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were observed in three of the four specimens and attributed to torso flail. Pelvis injuries likely caused by the seat belt were found in two tests. Multiple rib fractures were also seen, caused by contact with arm rest or other body regions. The fourth test was run at a lower severity and did not produce injury. This suggests a conservative threshold for human tolerance to this loading environment. Although the study is of a limited sample size, it suggests the need for further testing to develop standards that provide similar levels of safety for obliquely mounted seats as forward/aft facing seats in aircraft. PMID:25996749

  1. [The mechanism of injuring of front-seat passengers in head-on motor vehicle collisions: forensic issues].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Zivković, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Forensic pathologists sometimes need to determine seating positions of automobile occupants after road traffic accidents as accurately as possible. That could be of essential significance particularly in regard to the question of guilt both in the criminal and civil law. So far, medical surveys have implied the specific injury which would undoubtedly point at the allocation of the seating positions of fatally injured car occupant. Some of the injuries could occur by both direct and indirect force action. Same type of injury of the specific body region in both drivers and front seat passengers could occur by different mechanism and in different phases of the accident. Sometimes neither the order of injury occurrence remains unclear, nor whether some of the injuries are post-mortal. What makes it even harder is the fact that same body regions, i.e. head and thorax, are most affected in both drivers and front seat passengers, and that these injuries are often fatal. Even if the victim survives the accident for some time and later dies in hospital, the possibility of accident reconstruction and determination of car occupants seating position at the moment of accident declines with the time length of survival period. Examining the victims' clothes, searching for biological traces, technical expert inspection of the vehicle, traffic expert analysis of the site, enables adequate reconstruction of the traffic accident. All this implies that in such cases the knowledge of underlying mechanism of car occupants' injury is insufficient, and that a close cooperation between forensic pathologists and the team of other forensic technical experts is necessary. PMID:23858818

  2. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  3. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  4. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  5. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  6. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  7. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  8. Ingress and egress motion strategies of elderly and young passengers for the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun-Ming; Tada, Mitsunori; Endo, Yui; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the motion strategies performed by elderly and young passengers while entering and exiting the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors. A minivan mock-up was constructed with four adjustable parameters to represent nine different conditions of vehicle geometry. Ten elderly male participants (66.8 ± 3.8 years old) and ten young male participants (31.5 ± 6.6 years old) were recruited. Each of them entered and exited the minivan mock-up for five times under each condition, and the motion data were acquired by the optical motion capture system. Based on the criteria derived from previous studies, all motions were automatically categorized into seven ingress motion strategies and seven egress motion strategies. Further, the differences among motion strategies are discussed in terms of vehicle factors and passenger factors, which provide clues for future studies. PMID:26515150

  9. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimum height of 520 mm above the seating reference point, as specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of 49 CFR 571.210.... 210 (49 CFR 571.210), and the horizontal plane 100 mm below the seating reference point. S5.1.6.5... seat, shall also meet the requirements of: (i) S4.4.3.3 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208);...

  10. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimum height of 520 mm above the seating reference point, as specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of 49 CFR 571.210.... 210 (49 CFR 571.210), and the horizontal plane 100 mm below the seating reference point. S5.1.6.5... seat, shall also meet the requirements of: (i) S4.4.3.3 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208);...

  11. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimum height of 520 mm above the seating reference point, as specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of 49 CFR 571.210.... 210 (49 CFR 571.210), and the horizontal plane 100 mm below the seating reference point. S5.1.6.5... seat, shall also meet the requirements of: (i) S4.4.3.3 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208);...

  12. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimum height of 520 mm above the seating reference point, as specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of 49 CFR 571.210.... 210 (49 CFR 571.210), and the horizontal plane 100 mm below the seating reference point. S5.1.6.5... seat, shall also meet the requirements of: (i) S4.4.3.3 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208);...

  13. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  14. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  15. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  16. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  17. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  18. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously. PMID:26360222

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR..., if it is equipped with at least one placard that is legible to each person seated in the cabin...

  20. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minimum height of 520 mm above the seating reference point, as specified by S4.1.3.2(a) of 49 CFR 571.210... seat, shall also meet the requirements of: (i) S4.4.3.3 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208); (ii) Standard No. 209 (49 CFR 571.209), as they apply to school buses; and, (iii) Standard No. 210 (49 CFR...

  1. The technology assessment of LTA aircraft systems. [hybrid airships for passenger and cargo transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of conventional small and large airships over heavier than air aircraft are reviewed and the need for developing hybrid aircraft for passenger and heavy charge transport is assessed. Performance requirements and estimated operating costs are discussed for rota-ships to be used for short distance transportation near large cities as well as for airlifting civil engineering machinery and supplies for the construction of power stations, dams, tunnels, and roads in remote areas or on isolated islands.

  2. Formulation and characterization of polyimide resilient foams of various densities for aircraft seating applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Light weight, heat and fire resistant low smoke generating polyimide foams are developed for aircraft seating applications. The material is upgraded and classified into groups for fabrication of cushions possessing acceptable comfort properties. Refinement and selection of foaming processes using a variety of previously developd foaming techniques and definition of property relationships to arrive at the selection and classfication of polyimide foams into five groups in accordance with predetermined ILD values are emphasized.

  3. 41 CFR 301-70.900 - May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May we use our Government aircraft to carry passengers? 301-70.900 Section 301-70.900 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 70-INTERNAL POLICY AND PROCEDURE...

  4. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  5. Transportation in commerical aircraft of passengers having contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Perin, M

    1976-10-01

    Most airlines refuse to board passengers known or believed to have contagious diseases. Such rigor can scarcely be justified by reference to either laws or regulations. It introduces the risk of arbitrary, mistaken, or prejudiced conduct in areas in which international organizations recommend the greatest liberalization, and it can cause serious harm to certain patients. Finally, it does not seem logical, for airlines learn about only a small fraction of the contagious persons who travel, and public health is much more greatly endangered by unknown contagious persons. Normal hygienic conditions aboard planes suppress the risks of contagion concerning most diseases transmitted by insects or through contact with the skin, with mucuous membranes, with the faeces, or with urine. Airlines should continue to refuse to transport only those passengers having diseases which are characterized by vomiting or serious diarrhoea or which are transmitted through the air if it is impossible by simple means to avoid the risk of contaminating other travellers and any members of the flight crew who might be receptive. PMID:985288

  6. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  7. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  8. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  9. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  10. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  11. Assessing total fungal concentrations on commercial passenger aircraft using mixed-effects modeling.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Hein, Misty J; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Burge, Harriet; Herrick, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare airborne fungal concentrations onboard commercial passenger aircraft at various in-flight times with concentrations measured inside and outside airport terminals. A secondary objective was to investigate the use of mixed-effects modeling of repeat measures from multiple sampling intervals and locations. Sequential triplicate culturable and total spore samples were collected on wide-body commercial passenger aircraft (n = 12) in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals: boarding, midclimb, early cruise, midcruise, late cruise, and deplaning. Comparison samples were collected inside and outside airport terminals at the origin and destination cities. The MIXED procedure in SAS was used to model the mean and the covariance matrix of the natural log transformed fungal concentrations. Five covariance structures were tested to determine the appropriate models for analysis. Fixed effects considered included the sampling interval and, for samples obtained onboard the aircraft, location (front/rear of coach section), occupancy rate, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Overall, both total culturable and total spore fungal concentrations were low while the aircraft were in flight. No statistical difference was observed between measurements made in the front and rear sections of the coach cabin for either culturable or total spore concentrations. Both culturable and total spore concentrations were significantly higher outside the airport terminal compared with inside the airport terminal (p-value < 0.0001) and inside the aircraft (p-value < 0.0001). On the aircraft, the majority of total fungal exposure occurred during the boarding and deplaning processes, when the aircraft utilized ancillary ventilation and passenger activity was at its peak. PMID:18041644

  12. Passenger Transmitters as A Possible Cause of Aircraft Fuel Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Hatfield, Michael O.; Richardson, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the potential for radio frequency (RF) power radiated from transmitting Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) to create an arcing/sparking event within the fuel tank of a large transport aircraft. A survey of RF emissions from typical intentional transmitting PEDs was first performed. Aircraft measurements of RF coupling to the fuel tank and its wiring were also performed to determine the PEDs induced power on the wiring, and the re-radiated power within the fuel tank. Laboratory simulations were conducted to determine the required RF power level for an arcing/sparking event. Data analysis shows large positive safety margins, even with simulated faults on the wiring.

  13. Wireless Local Area Network Performance Inside Aircraft Passenger Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetten, Frank L.; Soroker, Andrew; Whetten, Dennis A.; Whetten, Frank L.; Beggs, John H.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of IEEE 802.11 wireless network performance within an aircraft fuselage is performed. This examination measured the propagated RF power along the length of the fuselage, and the associated network performance: the link speed, total throughput, and packet losses and errors. A total of four airplanes: one single-aisle and three twin-aisle airplanes were tested with 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g networks.

  14. Effect of motion frequency spectrum on subjective comfort response. [modeling passenger reactions to commercial aircraft flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Schoultz, M. B.; Blake, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to model passenger reaction to present and future aircraft environments, it is necessary to obtain data in several ways. First, of course, is the gathering of environmental and passenger reaction data on commercial aircraft flights. In addition, detailed analyses of particular aspects of human reaction to the environment are best studied in a controllable experimental situation. Thus the use of simulators, both flight and ground based, is suggested. It is shown that there is a reasonably high probability that the low frequency end of the spectrum will not be necessary for simulation purposes. That is, the fidelity of any simulation which omits the very low frequency content will not yield results which differ significantly from the real environment. In addition, there does not appear to be significant differences between the responses obtained in the airborne simulator environment versus those obtained on commercial flights.

  15. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  16. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  17. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  18. A mathematical simulation model of a 1985-era tilt-rotor passenger aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcveigh, M. A.; Widdison, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for use in real-time piloted simulation of a 1985-era tilt rotor passenger aircraft is presented. The model comprises the basic six degrees-of-freedom equations of motion, and a large angle of attack representation of the airframe and rotor aerodynamics, together with equations and functions used to model turbine engine performance, aircraft control system and stability augmentation system. A complete derivation of the primary equations is given together with a description of the modeling techniques used. Data for the model is included in an appendix.

  19. Aircraft acoustics. I - Exterior noise of subsonic passenger aircraft and helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Problems related to the effect of the exterior noise produced by subsonic aircraft and helicopters on the environment and man are examined. The principal sources of noise produced by aircraft and helicopters are identified, and the physical pattern of noise generation is examined. Various method of reducing the noise of aircraft and helicopters are discussed, and methods are presented for predicting the acoustic environment at airports with allowance for the size of the aircraft park and the dynamics of flight operations.

  20. Energy absorption capability of foam-based composite materials and their applications as seat cushions in aircraft crashworthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kh. Beheshti, Hamid

    This study is focusing on the application of foam materials in aviation. These materials are being used for acoustic purposes, as padding in the finished interior panels of the aircraft, and as seat cushions. Foams are mostly used in seating applications. Since seat cushion is directly interacting with the body of occupant, it has to be ergonomically comfortable beside of absorbing the energy during the impact. All the seats and seat cushions have to pass regulations defined by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In fact, all airplane companies are required to certify the subcomponents of aircrafts before installing them on the main structure, fuselage. Current Federal Aviation Administration Regulations require a dynamic sled test of the entire seat system for certifying the seat cushions. This dynamic testing is required also for replacing the deteriorated cushions with new cushions. This involves a costly and time-consuming certification process. AGATE group has suggested a procedure based on quasi-static testing in order to certify new seat cushions without conducting full-scale dynamic sled testing. AGATE subcomponent methodology involves static tests of the energy-absorbing foam cushions and design validation by conducting a full-scale dynamic seat test. Microscopic and macroscopic studies are necessary to provide a complete understanding about performance of foams during the crash. Much investigation has been done by different sources to obtain the reliable modeling in terms of demonstration of mechanical behavior of foams. However, rate sensitivity of foams needs more attention. A mathematical hybrid dynamic model for the cushion underneath of the human body will be taken into consideration in this research. Analytical and finite element codes such as MADYMO and LS-DYNA codes have the potential to greatly speed up the crashworthy design process, to help certify seats and aircraft to dynamic crash loads, to predict seat and occupant response to impact

  1. An improved comprehensive medical kit for passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    Glazer, I; Cohen, S

    1987-11-01

    For the past 20 years, El Al has been carrying drugs and equipment for use by physicians on board the aircraft for medical emergencies. In addition, first aid equipment including a resuscitator (respirator)--to be used by the trained cabin attendants--and over-the-counter medications in a Hostess Purse are also carried. We have recently adopted a standard medical kit (MK) which contains primarily drugs considered essential to emergency cardiac care. However, its contents were extended, based on our experience in the airline and the recommendations of the Air Transport Medicine Committee of the Aerospace Medical Association. This would enable a competent physician on board to reasonably manage most medical emergencies until landing at the scheduled destination or at the nearest safe airport where better diagnostic means and treatment may be available. Equipment and drugs are designed to handle most acute allergic, cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, nervous, and psychiatric emergencies. Also included in the MK is a table of the drugs, their trade name, generic name, action, indications, contraindications, administration, and dosage. A check-off list of the drugs and equipment used by the physician, as well as space for provisional diagnosis and disposition, is provided. PMID:3689279

  2. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  3. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  4. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  5. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  6. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services must... services within the aircraft cabin as requested by or on behalf of passengers with a disability, or when..., including mobility aids and other assistive devices stowed in the cabin (see also 382.91(c)). To...

  7. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  8. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  9. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  10. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  11. Design & fabrication of two seated aircraft with an advanced rotating leading edge wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmari, Saeed Abdullah Saeed

    The title of this thesis is "Design & Fabrication of two Seated Aircraft with an Advanced Rotating Leading Edge Wing", this gives almost a good description of the work has been done. In this research, the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) concept was investigated and implemented. An experimental model was constructed and tested in wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics using the leading edge moving surface of modified semi-symmetric airfoil NACA1214. The moving surface is provided by a high speed rotating cylinder, which replaces the leading edge of the airfoil. The angle of attack, the cylinder surfaces velocity ratio Uc/U, and the flap deflection angle effects on the lift and drag coefficients and the stall angle of attack were investigated. This new technology was applied to a 2-seat light-sport aircraft that is designed and built in the Aerospace Engineering Department at KFUPM. The project team is led by the aerospace department chairman Dr. Ahmed Z. AL-Garni and Dr. Wael G. Abdelrahman and includes graduate and under graduate student. The wing was modified to include a rotating cylinder along the leading edge of the flap portion. This produced very promising results such as the increase of the maximum lift coefficient at Uc/U=3 by 82% when flaps up and 111% when flaps down at 40° and stall was delayed by 8degrees in both cases. The laboratory results also showed that the effective range of the leading-edge rotating cylinder is at low angles of attack which reduce the need for higher angles of attack for STOL aircraft.

  12. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk. PMID:23405594

  13. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort data from scheduled commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruesbeck, M. G.; Sullivan, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data concerning the ride quality of aircraft taken on board commercial airline flights was presented. Five types of data are included: (1) root mean square (RMS) values of linear acceleration, angular acceleration or angular velocities, along with passenger subjective evaluations, (2) power spectra for the motion in each of six degrees of freedom, (3) scattergrams showing the probability density of the rms accelerations in the vertical and transverse directions, (4) probability distributions of the motion, and (5) on board noise levels during takeoff, climb, cruise, and descent.

  14. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  15. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  16. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  17. Relative mortality of unbelted infant passengers and belted non-infant passengers in air accidents with survivors.

    PubMed Central

    Fife, D; Rosner, B; McKibben, W

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft accidents with survivors were examined to determine the relative risk of mortality for unrestrained infant passengers vs seat-belted adult passengers. The crude relative risk was estimated to be 7.1, based on US data, and 7.4, based on worldwide data. More refined estimates allow for possible effect of seat location and for differences in lethality between crashes. Using such estimates, unbelted infant passengers have relative risk of 5.9 based on US data and 9.6 based on worldwide data. The injury experience of restrained vs unrestrained automobile passengers suggests that observed excess risk to infant air passengers may be related to the absence of a mechanical restraint system. Recommendations for a mechanical restraint system are made and the cost and benefits of implementing these recommendations in the US are discussed. PMID:7294268

  18. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

    1993-01-01

    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  19. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  20. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  1. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  2. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  3. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  4. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  5. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  6. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers. PMID:25516129

  7. Ground Vibration and Flight Flutter Tests of the Single-seat F-16XL Aircraft with a Modified Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA single-seat F-16XL aircraft was modified by the addition of a glove to the left wing. Vibration tests were conducted on the ground to assess the changes to the aircraft caused by the glove. Flight Luther testing was conducted on the aircraft with the glove installed to ensure that the flight envelope was free of aeroelastic or aeroservoelastic instabilities. The ground vibration tests showed that above 20 Hz, several modes that involved the control surfaces were significantly changed. Flight test data showed that modal damping levels and trends were satisfactory where obtainable. The data presented in this report include estimated modal parameters from the ground vibration and flight flutter test.

  8. 75 FR 46840 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc. Model CL-600-2E25 Series Airplane; Passenger Seats With Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...-outs such as end bays and armrest-styled center consoles, food trays, and video monitors and shrouds... preambles to both the Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM), Notice No. 85-10 (50 FR 15038, April 16, 1985), and the Final Rule at Amendment 25-61 (51 FR 26206, July 21, 1986), specifically note that seats...

  9. Evaluating fungal populations by genera/species on wide body commercial passenger aircraft and in airport terminals.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Burge, Harriet; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Herrick, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Given the potential health effects of fungi and the amount of time aircrew and passengers spend inside aircraft, it is important to study fungal populations in the aircraft environment. Research objectives included documenting the genera/species of airborne culturable fungal concentrations and total spore concentrations on a twin-aisle wide body commercial passenger aircraft. Twelve flights between 4.5 and 6.5 h in duration on Boeing 767 (B-767) aircraft were evaluated. Two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate (i.e. 50:50 mix of outside air and filtered inside air) were utilized during flight operations. Passenger occupancy rates varied from 67 to 100%. N-6 impactors and total spore traps were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities resulting in a total of 522 culturable and 517 total spore samples. A total of 45 surface wipe samples were collected using swabs onboard the aircraft and inside the airport terminals. A variety of taxa were observed in the culturable and total spore samples. A frequency analysis of the fungal data indicated that Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were predominant genera in the culturable samples whereas Cladosporium, Basidiospores and Penicillium/Aspergillus were predominant in the total spore samples. Fungal populations observed inside the aircraft were comprised of similar genera, detected significantly less frequently and with lower mean concentrations than those observed in typical office buildings. Although sources internal to the aircraft could not be ruled out, our data demonstrate the importance of passenger activity as the source of the fungi observed on aircraft. Isolated fungal peak events occurred occasionally when

  10. Long-term Airborne Black Carbon Measurements on a Lufthansa Passenger Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; Ditas, J.; Scharffe, D.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; McMeeking, G. R.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Poeschl, U.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles containing black carbon are the most absorbing component of incoming solar radiation and exert a significant positive radiative forcing thus forming next to CO2 the strongest component of current global warming. Nevertheless, the role of black carbon particles and especially their complex interaction with clouds needs further research which is hampered by the limited experimental data, especially observations in the free troposphere, and in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). In August 2014, a single particle soot photometer (SP2) was included in the extensive scientific payload of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. CARIBIC is in operation since 1997 and carries out systematic observations of trace gas and aerosol sampling and on-line analyses, as well as DOAS remote sensing system at 10-12 km altitude. For this a special air freight container combining different instruments is transported on a monthly basis using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 passenger aircraft with destinations from 120°W to 120°E and 10°N to 75°N. The integration of a SP2 offers the possibility for the first long-term measurement of global distribution of black carbon. Up to date the SP2 measurements have been analyzed for 392 flights hours over four continents (Fig. 1). The first measurements show promising results of black carbon including periods when background concentrations in the UTLS were encountered. Beside a general distribution of number and mass of black carbon particles, peak events were detected with up to 20 times higher concentrations compared to the background. Moreover, high concentration plumes have been observed continuously over a range of 10,000 km. Interestingly, our results show also a generally lower amount of black carbon mass in the tropics compared to the mid latitude northern hemisphere.

  11. Transportation container for Li/SO/sub 2/ batteries on passenger aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    A surplus USN 40 mm ammunition can was subjected to a variety of tests. Pressure tests were carried out with nitrogen gas, followed by the venting of actual Li/SO/sub 2/ cells and batteries inside the can. A fire test was also conducted on a can packed with 10 each 10-cell batteries surrounded by vermiculite. Test results indicate the US Navy (USN) 40-mm ammunition can is suitable as a shipping container for Li/SO/sub 2/ batteries on passenger aircraft. To provide a further measure of safety, a sulfur dioxide getter was incorporated into the can. Studies indicated a commercial material, ASC carbon, is suitable for this purpose. The granular material was packaged in porous paper desiccant bags and placed in the can with the batteries and vermiculite. The batteries were vented inside the sealed can and the internal pressure monitored. Pressure returned to normal within several minutes, indicating that this arrangement should prevent sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) gas from leaking into the airplane in the event of multiple battery ventings during flight.

  12. Tests and analyses applicable to passenger ride quality of large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, R. B.; Brumaghin, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was undertaken to determine airline passenger reaction to vibration environments that might be encountered in a supersonic transport or other large commercial jet aircraft. The principal problem addressed was to determine accelerations of vertical and lateral vibration that people find objectionable. Further questions experimentally posed were: (1) what is the relationship between human reactions to vertical and lateral vibration, (2) to single- and combined-frequency vibration, and (3) to single- and combined-axis vibration? Interest was confined to reactions to vibration in the frequency range of 0.20 to 7.0 Hz, a range typical of the vibration environment of a large airplane. Results indicated an increasing sensitivity to vertical vibration as frequency was increased from 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. Subjects were found most sensitive to lateral vibration in the 1.0 to 3.0 Hz range. There was a nearly linear decrease in sensitivity as frequency of lateral vibration was increased from 3.0 to 7.0 Hz.

  13. Seat cushion to provide realistic acceleration cues to aircraft simulator pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Seat cushions, each including an air cell with a non-compressible surface, are disclosed. The apparatus are provided for initially controlling the air pressure in the air cells to allow the two main support areas of the simulator pilot to touch the non-compressible surface and thus begin to compress the flesh near these areas. During a simulated flight the apparatus control the air pressure in the cells to simulate the events that occur in a seat cushion during actual flight.

  14. Long-term airborne black carbon measurements on a Lufthansa passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditas, Jeannine; Su, Hang; Scharffe, Dieter; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles containing black carbon are the most absorbing component of incoming solar radiation and exert a significant positive radiative forcing thus forming next to CO² the strongest component of current global warming (Bond, 2013). Nevertheless, the role of black carbon particles and especially their complex interaction with clouds needs further research which is hampered by the limited experimental data, especially observations in the free and upper troposphere, and in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). Many models underestimate the global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon by a factor of almost 3 (Bond, 2013). In August 2014, a single particle soot photometer was included in the extensive scientific payload of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. CARIBIC is in operation since 1997 (with an interruption for 2002-2005) and carries out systematic observations at 10-12 km altitude. For this a special air freight container combining different instruments is transported on a monthly basis using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 passenger aircraft with destinations from 120°W to 120°E and 10°N to 75°N. The container has equipment for trace gas analyses and sampling and aerosol analyses and sampling and is connected to an inlet system that is part of the aircraft which contains a camera and DOAS remote sensing system. The integration of a single particle soot photometer (SP2) offers the possibility for the first long-term measurement of global distribution of black carbon and so far flights up to November 2015 have been conducted with more than 400 flight hours. So far the SP2 measurements have been analysed for flights over four continents from Munich to San Francisco, Sao Paulo, Tokyo, Beijing, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Hong Kong). The first measurements show promising results of black carbon measurements. Background concentrations in the UTLS

  15. AVION: A detailed report on the preliminary design of a 79-passenger, high-efficiency, commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayfield, William; Perkins, Brett; Rogan, William; Schuessler, Randall; Stockert, Joe

    1990-01-01

    The Avion is the result of an investigation into the preliminary design for a high-efficiency commercial transport aircraft. The Avion is designed to carry 79 passengers and a crew of five through a range of 1,500 nm at 455 kts (M=0.78 at 32,000 ft). It has a gross take-off weight of 77,000 lb and an empty weight of 42,400 lb. Currently there are no American-built aircraft designed to fit the 60 to 90 passenger, short/medium range marketplace. The Avion gathers the premier engineering achievements of flight technology and integrates them into an aircraft which will challenge the current standards of flight efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Avion will increase flight efficiency through reduction of structural weight and the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion systems. Its design departs from conventional aircraft design tradition with the incorporation of a three-lifting-surface (or tri-wing) configuration. Further aerodynamic improvements are obtained through modest main wing forward sweeping, variable incidence canards, aerodynamic coupling between the canard and main wing, leading edge extensions, winglets, an aerodynamic tailcone, and a T-tail empennage. The Avion is propelled by propfans, which are one of the most promising developments for raising propulsive efficiencies at high subsonic Mach numbers. Special attention is placed on overall configuration, fuselage layout, performance estimations, component weight estimations, and planform design. Leading U.S. technology promises highly efficient flight for the 21st century; the Avion will fulfill this promise to passenger transport aviation.

  16. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 2: Data from seat testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft is reviewed. A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is presented. An energy absorbing test seat is designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions is conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats are also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing is conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests are conducted. The vertical drop tests are used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series. Volume 2 presents the data obtained during the seat test series, while Volume 3 presents the data from the crew module test series.

  17. Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, W. B., II

    1977-01-01

    The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

  18. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae. PMID:26856055

  19. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  20. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  1. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  2. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  3. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  4. Passenger demographics and subjective response to commuter aircraft in the northeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noskowitz, D.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are compared for comfort and environmental studies taken in conjunction with a STOL program. Data were taken on flights of four different airlines, each flying different aircraft. Two of the lines are classified as commuter airlines flying between relatively close destinations. The aircraft involved are: the De Havilland Twin Otter, a Canadian aircraft; the French Nord 262; the Beechcraft 99 Airliner and the Sikorsky S-61 helicopter, both American.

  5. 8 CFR 286.2 - Fee for arrival of passengers aboard commercial aircraft or commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.2 Fee for arrival of passengers aboard..., per individual is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection of each... Act, per individual, is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection at...

  6. 8 CFR 286.2 - Fee for arrival of passengers aboard commercial aircraft or commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.2 Fee for arrival of passengers aboard..., per individual is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection of each... Act, per individual, is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection at...

  7. 8 CFR 286.2 - Fee for arrival of passengers aboard commercial aircraft or commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.2 Fee for arrival of passengers aboard..., per individual is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection of each... Act, per individual, is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection at...

  8. 8 CFR 286.2 - Fee for arrival of passengers aboard commercial aircraft or commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.2 Fee for arrival of passengers aboard..., per individual is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection of each... Act, per individual, is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection at...

  9. 8 CFR 286.2 - Fee for arrival of passengers aboard commercial aircraft or commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.2 Fee for arrival of passengers aboard..., per individual is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection of each... Act, per individual, is charged and collected by the Commissioner for the immigration inspection at...

  10. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor transportation of passengers incidental to... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Exemptions § 372.117...

  11. 49 CFR 372.117 - Motor transportation of passengers incidental to transportation by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor transportation of passengers incidental to... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Exemptions § 372.117...

  12. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  13. Seat-belt Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    The drivers and passengers of two cars which collided head-on all wore lap and diagonal seat-belts. Three of the four suffered ruptured viscera and two incurred flexion-compression fractures of the neck. A victim of a traffic accident who was wearing a seat-belt and who has superficial bruising or pain presents a difficult diagnostic problem. Visceral injury should be suspected in such cases. PMID:5697665

  14. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  15. 14 CFR 135.163 - Equipment requirements: Aircraft carrying passengers under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... electrical power generating source, a standby battery or an alternate source of electric power that is... airspeed and vertical speed indicators; (f) For a single-engine aircraft: (1) Two independent electrical... indicator; (d) A power failure warning device or vacuum indicator to show the power available for...

  16. 14 CFR 135.163 - Equipment requirements: Aircraft carrying passengers under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... electrical power generating source, a standby battery or an alternate source of electric power that is... airspeed and vertical speed indicators; (f) For a single-engine aircraft: (1) Two independent electrical... indicator; (d) A power failure warning device or vacuum indicator to show the power available for...

  17. 14 CFR 135.163 - Equipment requirements: Aircraft carrying passengers under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electrical power generating source, a standby battery or an alternate source of electric power that is... airspeed and vertical speed indicators; (f) For a single-engine aircraft: (1) Two independent electrical... indicator; (d) A power failure warning device or vacuum indicator to show the power available for...

  18. 14 CFR 135.163 - Equipment requirements: Aircraft carrying passengers under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... electrical power generating source, a standby battery or an alternate source of electric power that is... airspeed and vertical speed indicators; (f) For a single-engine aircraft: (1) Two independent electrical... indicator; (d) A power failure warning device or vacuum indicator to show the power available for...

  19. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  20. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  1. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  2. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  3. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  4. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  5. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  6. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  7. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  8. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  9. NO and NOy in the upper troposphere: Nine years of CARIBIC measurements onboard a passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.; Stock, P.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Velthoven, P. V.; Schlager, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NO and NOy) measurements were performed onboard an in-service aircraft within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A total of 330 flights were completed from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destination airports in Canada, the USA, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines. Different regions show differing NO and NOy mixing ratios. In the mid-latitudes, observed NOy and NO generally shows clear seasonal cycles in the upper troposphere with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. Mean NOy mixing ratios vary between 1.36 nmol/mol in summer and 0.27 nmol/mol in winter. Mean NO mixing ratios range between 0.05 nmol/mol and 0.22 nmol/mol. Regions south of 40°N show no consistent seasonal dependence. Based on CO observations, low, median and high CO air masses were defined. According to this classification, more data was obtained in high CO air masses in the regions south of 40°N compared to the midlatitudes. This indicates that boundary layer emissions are more important in these regions. In general, NOy mixing ratios are highest when measured in high CO air masses. This dataset is one of the most comprehensive NO and NOy dataset available today for the upper troposphere and is therefore highly suitable for the validation of atmosphere-chemistry-models.

  10. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  11. Physiological response in pilot/back-seat man during aerial combat maneuvers in F-4E aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverett, S. D., Jr.; Davis, H. M., Jr.; Winter, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of objective/subjective physiological data between the pilot and the back-seat man during training within the G maneuvering envelope. It appears that the psychological requirements for the pilot to be mentally alert and physiologically adapted to a continually changing environment places additional responsibility on him to the extent the physiological signs monitored are indicative of a high stress condition and are increased by a significant amount over the back-seat man who is, in most instances, riding passively.

  12. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

  13. Budgets of O3 and CO in the upper troposphere: CARIBIC passenger aircraft results 1997-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Asman, W. A. H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Heinrich, G.; Fischer, H.; Cuijpers, J. W. M.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2002-09-01

    In situ measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted using a passenger aircraft during 47 flights (November 1997 to April 2001) between Germany and the Indian Ocean region at 10-11 km altitude, project Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC). Here, emphasis is on a better understanding of the budgets of O3 and CO in the middle and upper northern hemispheric (NH) troposphere. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of the mean values and the local variability of O3 and CO are assessed. CO is moreover applied as tracer of polluted (surface) air, that is, as a measure of O3 precursors. This enables us to assign positive or negative O3-CO correlations and their slopes α = dO3/dCO to O3 produced by photochemistry or to O3 imported from the stratosphere. In the tropics, photochemical O3 production clearly dominates all year round, with mean O3-CO slopes of 0.45-0.53 in spring/summer and 0.20-0.27 in autumn/winter. Over the Arabian Sea and the Middle East, high annual net O3 production rates in the troposphere of 17.6 × 1010 O3 molecules cm-2 s-1 are estimated. In the extratropics, the well-documented springtime O3 maximum emerged in the CARIBIC data set. Stratospheric O3 influx and photochemical O3 production contribute equally to this spring maximum. In summer, photochemical O3 formation clearly dominates, in winter, per contra, stratospheric O3 influx clearly dominates. In the extratropics, CO shows a sine seasonal variation between ˜81 ppbv in September and ˜111 ppbv in March, being delayed by ˜5 weeks compared to ground-based background monitoring stations. In the tropics, however, no significant seasonal variations of CO were observed, mainly because of occasional high CO periods such as those associated with the 1997 Indonesian forest fires or the outflow of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which pumps in summer immense amounts of pollutants emitted in South Asia (India

  14. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G

    1957-01-01

    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  15. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785; Legal... 121, part 91 did not require that each person have a separate seat and/or seat belt. See 36 FR 12511... possible, each person onboard an aircraft should voluntarily be seated in a separate seat and be...

  16. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  17. Sampling scheme for pyrethroids on multiple surfaces on commercial aircrafts.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Krishnan R; Weisel, Clifford P

    2010-06-01

    A wipe sampler for the collection of permethrin from soft and hard surfaces has been developed for use in aircraft. "Disinsection" or application of pesticides, predominantly pyrethrods, inside commercial aircraft is routinely required by some countries and is done on an as-needed basis by airlines resulting in potential pesticide dermal and inhalation exposures to the crew and passengers. A wipe method using filter paper and water was evaluated for both soft and hard aircraft surfaces. Permethrin was analyzed by GC/MS after its ultrasonication extraction from the sampling medium into hexane and volume reduction. Recoveries, based on spraying known levels of permethrin, were 80-100% from table trays, seat handles and rugs; and 40-50% from seat cushions. The wipe sampler is easy to use, requires minimum training, is compatible with the regulations on what can be brought through security for use on commercial aircraft, and readily adaptable for use in residential and other settings. PMID:19756041

  18. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  19. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  20. An apparatus and procedure for evaluating the toxic hazards of smoldering seating and bedding materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure are described for evaluating the toxicity of the gases evolved from the smoldering combustion of seating and bedding materials. The method combines initiation of smoldering combustion in fabric/cushion combinations by a lighted cigarette and exposure of laboratory animals to the gases evolved. The ratio of the surface available for smoldering to the compartment volume in this apparatus is approximately five times the ratio expected in a California living room, and 100 times the ratio expected in a wide-body aircraft passenger cabin. Based on fabric/cushion combinations tested, the toxicity of gases from smoldering combustion does not appear to be a significant hazard in aircraft passenger cabins, but seems to be a basis for careful selection of materials for residential environments.

  1. An automated system for the measurement of nitrogen oxides and ozone concentrations from a passenger aircraft: Instrumentation and first results of the NOXAR project

    SciTech Connect

    Dias-Lalcaca, P.; Imfeld, W.; Moser, W.; Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J.

    1998-10-15

    A fully automated system for measuring NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a passenger aircraft is described. Detection limits of 23, 45, and 500 pptv were achieved for NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}, respectively, for a 2 min integration time during flights. Continuous measurements were made during a 1 year period ending May 1996 on a total of 540 flights between Zurich and destinations in the United States and the Far East. The measurements represent about a 10-fold increase in the coverage of presently available NO{sub x} measurements in the tropopause region. The measurement hardware, based on commercially available instrumentation and specifically designed to meet the very stringent safety regulations normal in civil aviation, is described, and first results are briefly reported.

  2. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  3. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  4. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  5. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  6. Impact of acetone (photo)oxidation on HOx production in the UT/LMS based on CARIBIC passenger aircraft observations and EMAC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumaier, M.; Ruhnke, R.; Kirner, O.; Ziereis, H.; Stratmann, G.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.

    2014-05-01

    Until a decade ago, acetone was assumed to be a dominant HOx source in the dry extra-tropical upper troposphere (ex-UT). New photodissociation quantum yields of acetone and the lack of representative data from the ex-UT challenged that assumption. Regular mass spectrometric observations onboard the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) passenger aircraft deliver the first representative distribution of acetone in the UT/LMS (UT/lowermost stratosphere). Based on diverse CARIBIC trace gas data and non-observed parameters taken from the model ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry, we quantify the HOx source in the UT/LMS from (photo)oxidation of acetone. The findings are contrasted to HOx production from ozone photolysis, overall the dominant tropospheric HOx source. It is shown that HOx production from acetone (photo)oxidation reaches up to 95% of the HOx source from ozone photolysis in autumn in the UT and on average ~61% in summer. That is, acetone is a significant source of HOx in the UT/LMS.

  7. Structural FEM analysis of the strut-to-fuselage joint of a two-seat composite aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Rojas, Erik Camarena-Arellano, Diego Hernández-Moreno, Hilario

    2014-05-15

    An analysis of a strut-to-fuselage joint is realized in order to evaluate the zones with a high probability of failure by means of a safety factor. The whole section is analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) so as to estimate static resistance behavior, therefore it is necessary a numerical mock-up of the section, the mechanical properties of the Carbon-Epoxy (C-Ep) material, and to evaluate the applied loads. Results of the analysis show that the zones with higher probability of failure are found around the wing strut and the fuselage joint, with a safety factor lower than expected in comparison with the average safety factor used on aircrafts built mostly with metals.

  8. Methyl chloride as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere inferred from IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Oram, D. E.; Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) obtained from air samples collected by the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (IAGOS-CARIBIC) passenger aircraft observatory for the period 2008-2012. To correct for the temporal increase of atmospheric N2O, the CARIBIC N2O data are expressed as deviations from the long-term trend at the northern hemispheric baseline station Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ΔN2O). ΔN2O undergoes a pronounced seasonal variation in the LMS with a minimum in spring. The amplitude increases going deeper in the LMS (up to potential temperature of 40 K above the thermal tropopause), as a result of the seasonally varying subsidence of air from the stratospheric overworld. Seasonal variation of CH3Cl above the tropopause is similar in phase to that of ΔN2O. Significant correlations are found between CH3Cl and ΔN2O in the LMS from winter to early summer, both being affected by mixing between stratospheric air and upper tropospheric air. This correlation, however, disappears in late summer to autumn. The slope of the CH3Cl-ΔN2O correlation observed in the LMS allows us to determine the stratospheric lifetime of CH3Cl to be 35 ± 7 years. Finally, we examine the partitioning of stratospheric air and tropical/extratropical tropospheric air in the LMS based on a mass balance approach using ΔN2O and CH3Cl. This analysis clearly indicates efficient inflow of tropical tropospheric air into the LMS in summer and demonstrates the usefulness of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air.

  9. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  14. 32 CFR 700.842 - Authority over passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations or in orders from competent authority, all passengers in a ship or aircraft of the naval service... and routine of the ship or aircraft. The commanding officer of such ship or aircraft shall take no... aircraft or of any persons embarked, subject a passenger not in the naval service to such restraint as...

  15. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  17. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  18. Methyl chloride in the upper troposphere observed by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observatory: Large-scale distributions and Asian summer monsoon outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Oram, D.; Sauvage, C.; O'Sullivan, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Montzka, S. A.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    We present spatial and temporal variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the upper troposphere (UT) observed mainly by the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) passenger aircraft for the years 2005-2011. The CH3Cl mixing ratio in the UT over Europe was higher than that observed at a European surface baseline station throughout the year, indicative of a persistent positive vertical gradient at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. A series of flights over Africa and South Asia show that CH3Cl mixing ratios increase toward tropical latitudes, and the observed UT CH3Cl level over these two regions and the Atlantic was higher than that measured at remote surface sites. Strong emissions of CH3Cl in the tropics combined with meridional air transport through the UT may explain such vertical and latitudinal gradients. Comparisons with carbon monoxide (CO) data indicate that noncombustion sources in the tropics dominantly contribute to forming the latitudinal gradient of CH3Cl in the UT. We also observed elevated mixing ratios of CH3Cl and CO in air influenced by biomass burning in South America and Africa, and the enhancement ratios derived for CH3Cl to CO in those regions agree with previous observations. In contrast, correlations indicate a high CH3Cl to CO ratio of 2.9 ± 0.5 ppt ppb-1 in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and domestic biofuel emissions in South Asia are inferred to be responsible. We estimated the CH3Cl emission in South Asia to be 134 ± 23 Gg Cl yr-1, which is higher than a previous estimate due to the higher CH3Cl to CO ratio observed in this study.

  19. An economic model for evaluating high-speed aircraft designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelden, Alexander J. M.

    1989-01-01

    A Class 1 method for determining whether further development of a new aircraft design is desirable from all viewpoints is presented. For the manufacturer the model gives an estimate of the total cost of research and development from the preliminary design to the first production aircraft. Using Wright's law of production, one can derive the average cost per aircraft produced for a given break-even number. The model will also provide the airline with a good estimate of the direct and indirect operating costs. From the viewpoint of the passenger, the model proposes a tradeoff between ticket price and cruise speed. Finally all of these viewpoints are combined in a Comparative Aircraft Seat-kilometer Economic Index.

  20. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  1. Full-scale flammability test data for validation of aircraft fire mathematical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Bricker, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five large scale aircraft flammability tests were conducted in a Boeing 737 fuselage at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The objective of this test program was to provide a data base on the propagation of large scale aircraft fires to support the validation of aircraft fire mathematical models. Variables in the test program included cabin volume, amount of fuel, fuel pan area, fire location, airflow rate, and cabin materials. A number of tests were conducted with jet A-1 fuel only, while others were conducted with various Boeing 747 type cabin materials. These included urethane foam seats, passenger service units, stowage bins, and wall and ceiling panels. Two tests were also included using special urethane foam and polyimide foam seats. Tests were conducted with each cabin material individually, with various combinations of these materials, and finally, with all materials in the cabin. The data include information obtained from approximately 160 locations inside the fuselage.

  2. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  3. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  4. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  5. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  6. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  7. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  9. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  10. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  11. A measurement system for continuous observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO onboard passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbig, Christoph; Filges, Annette; Franke, Harald; Klaus, Christoph; Chen, Huilin

    2013-04-01

    Improved quantification and understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by natural as well as anthropogenic processes is of paramount importance in a world of a changing climate and ever increasing emissions. Top-down estimation of GHG fluxes is traditionally done by inverse transport modeling, using GHG observations from a global network of stations. Uncertainties in modeled vertical transport rates (moist convection, turbulent mixing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange) however greatly affect the quality of flux estimates. More recently, remote sensing of vertical column mole fractions of GHGs have become available for inverse modeling, reducing the impact of vertical transport uncertainties to first order. However, those need validation against in-situ observations. A strategy for regular, global in-situ atmospheric profiling of GHGs, covering at least the troposphere, is thus needed to provide validation of remote sensing and of forward transport modeling of GHGs, to serve as input for inverse modeling, and to reduce the impact of transport uncertainties. IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) exploits the synergy between globally operating civil aviation and the need for long-term monitoring of atmospheric composition. Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) based measurement system for greenhouse gases was designed, tested, and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight), performance (long-term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation) and safety issues (fire prevention regulations, airworthiness). The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.) mounted into a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A-340. The first of the IAGOS GHG packages is scheduled for

  12. Protection by Face Masks against Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E.; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0–0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect. PMID:23968983

  13. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  14. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  15. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  16. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane. (b) Cargo may be carried aft of the foremost seated passengers if it is carried in an approved... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed... bin. (3) The bin may not impose any load on the floor or other structure of the airplane that...

  17. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane. (b) Cargo may be carried aft of the foremost seated passengers if it is carried in an approved... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is installed... bin. (3) The bin may not impose any load on the floor or other structure of the airplane that...

  18. Hospital-based rental programs to increase car seat usage.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1983-05-01

    The ability of hospital-based car seat rental programs to provide car seats inexpensively throughout an entire state and the effect of these rental programs on car seat usage by newborns were evaluated. In July 1979 individuals and groups committed to child passenger safety formed a coalition called Vermont SEAT (Seatbelts Eliminate Automobile Tragedies). During the next 3 years SEAT asked the major hospitals in the state to allow volunteers to operate car seat rental programs on their premises. The number of rental programs increased from 0 to 13; the percentage of newborns born in a hospital with a rental program increased from 0% to 99%. The estimated statewide rate of car seat usage by newborns, based on observations at discharge at five hospitals, increased from 15% to 70%. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car seat rental programs operated by volunteers can make car seats readily available throughout a state or region, and can significantly increase car seat usage by newborns. It is recommended that such programs be a part of comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety. PMID:6835761

  19. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters. PMID:22317045

  20. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger briefings. 136.7 Section 136.7... PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a) Before... opening exits and exiting the aircraft. (b) For flight segments over water beyond the shoreline,...

  1. 14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the load limitations of that structure. (4) The bin must be attached to the seat tracks or to the..., multiplied by either the factor 1.15 or the seat attachment factor specified for the airplane, whichever is... position that obscures any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign “no smoking” sign, or any required...

  2. A new approach to detect local correlations of tropospheric acetone and carbon monoxide sampled onboard the IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Neumaier, Marco; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005 a Lufthansa passenger aircraft is regularly used as a platform for in-situ measurements in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLMS). Accommodated in a modified airfreight container 15 instruments are deployed in the cargo bay of the aircraft on four selected intercontinental flights per month measuring ~100 species and aerosol parameters. In contrast to other projects of this scope, using a chemical mass spectrometer also volatile organic compounds like acetone (CH3COCH3) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) are detected enabling an investigation of their relationship with other tracers. On a global scale acetone is predominantly emitted from the biosphere (~37 Tg/a; MEGAN-MACC, Sinderarova et al. 2014) and comparably small amounts are directly emitted from biomass burning (~2 Tg/a; GFED3, Van der Werf et al. 2010) and other anthropogenic sources (~1 Tg/a; MACCity, Granier et al. 2011). However, at local levels the contributions from the different sources can strongly differ. Acetone is also secondarily produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of various precursors, e.g. pinene and propane. The emissions of these precursors and their contribution to the total acetone source are not well known and a topic of ongoing discussions. In this context it is initially surprising that generally a good correlation between acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) has been observed in the lower atmosphere by different authors (e.g. de Reus et al. 2003). As a product of incomplete combustion CO is regularly used as a tracer for anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning. In this study we present an improved method to detect local correlations in IAGOS-CARIBIC flights instead of mixing data from different flights or measured over great distances. Furthermore, a cluster analysis is applied to prevent the consideration of artificial correlations between two well separated clouds of data points. We use the concept of enhancement ratios (EnR) and a simple box model to

  3. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  4. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  5. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew.

    PubMed

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A

    1994-10-01

    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks. PMID:15676978

  6. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  7. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  8. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carried in the passenger-carrying space of any motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire. (d... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor...

  9. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  10. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  11. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  12. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  13. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  14. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  15. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  16. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  17. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  18. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  19. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  20. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  1. Take a Seat, Please.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Offers decision-making tips when choosing auditorium seating for both indoor and outdoor use. Tips for outdoor seating include deciding on weather-resistant options, permanent or temporary bleachers, seating materials, colors, and ease maintenance. Indoor seating selection tips include overall comfort and quietness, their adaptive features to…

  2. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  3. [Medical problems among airline passengers].

    PubMed

    Owe, J O; Christensen, C C

    1998-09-30

    Worldwide, there are more than one billion air travelers each year. Flying in a modern jet airliner is a safe, efficient and relatively comfortable mode of transport, although a few susceptible passengers may be adversely affected by environmental and physiological stresses like pressure change, reduced level of oxygen, dry air, immobility due to cramped seating, noise, vibration and turbulence, in addition to stressful airports. This article describes these factors and their medical implications and includes some practical medical advice to travellers. Reported inflight illness and injuries in two major Scandinavian airlines 1993-97 are presented. PMID:9820008

  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    PubMed Central

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin’s lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides. PMID:25642134

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  6. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  7. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  8. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Ms... NPRM that, among other matters, proposed to require passenger seat belts on motorcoaches (75 FR 50958... shows S4.2 in corrected form. \\13\\ 73 FR 58887, 58888; definition of ``designated seating position.''...

  9. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  10. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  11. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chapter. (e) No certificate holder may take off or land an airplane unless each passenger seat back is in... during take off, landing, and movement on the surface. (2) Except as required in paragraph (c)(1) of this... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held...

  12. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (e) No certificate holder may take off or land an airplane unless each passenger seat back is in... during take off, landing, and movement on the surface. (2) Except as required in paragraph (c)(1) of this... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held...

  13. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  14. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  15. NASA experiments on the B-720 structure and seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments onboard a remotely piloted transport aircraft that was crashed on landing are discussed. The structural experiment deals with the location and distribution of the instrumentation throughout the airplane structure. In the seat experiment, the development and testing of an energy absorbing seat are discussed. The objective of the structural experiment was to obtain a data base of structural crash loads for use in the advancement of crashworthy technology of materials (such as composites) in structural design and for use in the comparison between computer and experimental results. The objective of the seat experiment was to compare the performance of an energy absorbing transport seat and a standard seat when subjected to similar crash pulses. Details are given on the location of instrumentation, on the dynamic seat test pulse and headward acceleration limits.

  16. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  17. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  18. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  19. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  20. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  1. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger emergency exits. 29.807 Section 29.807 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.807 Passenger emergency exits....

  2. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  3. Evaluation of a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Pastò, L; Baker, A G

    2001-07-01

    The authors evaluated a brief intervention for increasing seat belt use among the front seat occupants of cars at a junior college, in a jurisdiction with a mandatory belt use law. The intervention included public posting of performance feedback and distribution of an informational flyer to cars in target parking lot. Feedback was the display of the proportion of drivers observed wearing seat belts on the previous observation day. Seat belt use among drivers increased from 64% during the baseline phase to 71% during the intervention phase. Seat belt use among front passengers increased from 49% during the baseline phase to 67% during the intervention phase. In both cases, seat belt use at follow-up was comparable to seat belt use during the intervention phase, although a trend toward decreasing belt use was noted. Also found was higher seat belt use among females as compared with males irrespective of their front seat occupant status (driver or passenger). Effects of the intervention are discussed in the context of increasing seat belt use in a hardcore nonuser population of predominantly young adults. PMID:11428249

  4. Seated postural hypotension.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  5. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P < 0.001). In terms of clinical outcome, no seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P < 0.001). Compared to seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs. PMID:26713066

  6. 14 CFR 135.211 - VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers...-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations. Subject to any additional limitations in § 135.181, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR over-the-top carrying passengers, unless— (a) Weather reports...

  7. 14 CFR 135.211 - VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers...-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations. Subject to any additional limitations in § 135.181, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR over-the-top carrying passengers, unless— (a) Weather reports...

  8. 14 CFR 135.211 - VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers...-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations. Subject to any additional limitations in § 135.181, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR over-the-top carrying passengers, unless— (a) Weather reports...

  9. 14 CFR 135.211 - VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers...-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations. Subject to any additional limitations in § 135.181, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR over-the-top carrying passengers, unless— (a) Weather reports...

  10. 14 CFR 135.211 - VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false VFR: Over-the-top carrying passengers...-top carrying passengers: Operating limitations. Subject to any additional limitations in § 135.181, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR over-the-top carrying passengers, unless— (a) Weather reports...

  11. NASA seat experiment and occupant responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the crash test of a remotely piloted transport aircraft instrumented to measure a NASA energy-absorbing transport seat are given. Human tolerance limits to acceleration and a dynamic response index model are discussed. It was found that the acceleration levels at the rear of the airplane were quite low and were below the stroking threshold of the NASA EA-seat. Therefore, dummies in the standard and EA-seat responded approximately the same. All longitudinal accelerations were quite low for the primary impact with very low forces measured in the lap belts. The vertical (spineward) acceleration levels measured in the dummies were also relatively low and very survivable from an impact tolerance standpoint. The pilot with an 18 G peak acceleration received by far the highest vertical acceleration and could have possibly received slight spinal injury.

  12. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  13. Narrowing Your Seating Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Offers guidance on selecting appropriate seating furniture for outdoor facilities, arenas, auditoriums, and lecture rooms. Considerations such as beam mounting systems to facilitate laptop computer and campuswide networking use by students and chair durability and ergonomics are discussed as are tips for choosing a seating remanufacturing company.…

  14. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  15. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of a statewide network of hospital programs to improve child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1986-04-01

    As a project begun in 1979 to improve child passenger safety, a statewide network of hospital-based car safety seat rental and education programs was implemented by a coalition of volunteers, nurses, physicians, and state agencies. A car safety seat program was established at every hospital delivering newborns. To evaluate the effectiveness of this network of programs, 1,846 newborns (87% of hospital discharges) were observed at discharge at ten hospitals during 33 observation studies from 1979 to 1984. Mean correct car safety seat usage increased from less than 21% in 1979 to 82% in 1984. Concurrently, use of the dangerous lap or arms position decreased from 70% preprogram to 6% postprogram, and incorrect car safety seat usage decreased from 28% to 3%. In addition 1,597 children from 0 to 3 years of age were observed at an annual county fair from 1982 to 1984. Use of either a vehicle seat belt alone or car safety seat with harness and seat belt increased from 34% in 1982 to 67% in 1984. Car safety seat and seat belt misuse occurred in 42% of infants less than 1 year of age and 20% of children 1 to 3 years of age. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car safety seat rental and education programs is an effective means of improving the passenger safety of newborns, infants, and young children. PMID:3960621

  17. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  18. Aircraft seat cushion materials tests. [flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Five component level flammability tests were conducted in a 400 cubic foot chamber to determine the products of combustion and relative destruction of coated (with fire-retardants) and uncoated polyurethane foams during exposure of the foams to a large flaming ignition source for five minutes. The test results indicate that the improved state-of-the-art polyurethane foams without the added fire retardant and coating treatments were not significantly better than untreated older less fire-resistant polyurethane foams. however, by treating and coating the state-of-the-art foams, the production of toxic gases was delayed and the destruction of the foam limited.

  19. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... the FAA issued an NPRM, Crewmember Requirements When Passengers Are Onboard (74 FR 3469; January 21... Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that would, if adopted... Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that proposes to change the...

  20. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 125.333 Section 125.333...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff,...

  1. Development of an LS-DYNA Model of an ATR42-300 Aircraft for Crash Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an LS-DYNA simulation of a vertical drop test of an ATR42-300 twin-turboprop high-wing commuter-class airplane. A 30-ft/s drop test of this aircraft was performed onto a concrete impact surface at the FAA Technical Center on July 30, 2003. The purpose of the test was to evaluate the structural response of a commuter-class aircraft when subjected to a severe, but survivable, impact. The aircraft was configured with crew and passenger seats, anthropomorphic test dummies, forward and aft luggage, instrumentation, and onboard data acquisition systems. The wings were filled with approximately 8,700 lb. of water to represent the fuel and the aircraft weighed a total of 33,200 lb. The model, which consisted of 57,643 nodes and 62,979 elements, was developed from direct measurements of the airframe geometry, over a period of approximately 8 months. The seats, dummies, luggage, fuel, and other ballast were represented using concentrated masses. Comparisons were made of the structural deformation and failure behavior of the airframe, as well as selected acceleration time history responses.

  2. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... seat's instructions), the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts can be used to keep your child strapped ... up so the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across ...

  3. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  4. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait. PMID:24025146

  5. Complete transection of the trunk of passengers in car accidents.

    PubMed

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D

    1996-06-01

    Traumatic amputation of extremities and complete severance of the trunk have been reported in extra-urban collisions between passenger cars and pedestrians at collision speeds of > 80-100 km/h (50-62 mi/h). In car passengers, such extreme types of injuries are very rare. Two cases are presented in which the cars had a lateral collision with road trees near the right B column (column between front and back door), as a result of which the car was torn into two parts just in front of the rear axle near the back seats. Under these circumstances, the trunk of the back passenger on the side of the collision was completely severed. Both accidents happened in left-hand bends and the speed of collisions amounted to 120 and 180 km/h (74 and 111 mi/h), respectively. All passengers were flung out of the cars. PMID:8727295

  6. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths. PMID:15602998

  7. Aircraft disinsection: exposure assessment and evaluation of a new pre-embarkation method.

    PubMed

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Klasen, Jutta; Hoffmann, Godehard; Appel, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    A new "pre-embarkation" method for aircraft disinsection was investigated using two different 2% d-phenothrin containing aerosols. Five experiments in aircrafts of the type Airbus 310 (4x) and Boeing 747-400 (1x) were performed. In the absence of passengers and crew the d-phenothrin aerosol was sprayed under the seat rows and in a second step at the height of approximately 1.60 m by moving from one end of the cabin to the other. Concentration levels of d-phenothrin were determined at different time periods after application of the aerosol spray. In a B 747-400 with the air conditioning system operating the concentrations ranged between 853 and 1753 microg/m3 during and till 5 min after the beginning of spraying at different locations in the cabin. Within 5-20min after the end of the spraying concentrations of 36-205 microg/m3 and 20-40 min thereafter only ca. 1 microg d-phenothrin/m3 were detectable (average values in relation to each period of measurement). On cabin interior surfaces the median values for mainly horizontal areas ranged from 100 to 1160 ng d-phenothrin/cm2. d-Phenothrin concentrations in the air were sufficient to kill flying insects like house flies and mosquitoes within 20 min. Horizontal surfaces were 100% effective against insects up to 24 h after spraying. Doses inhaled by sprayers determined by personal measurements were calculated to be 30-235 microg d-phenothrin per 100 g spray applied (30% in the respirable fraction for Arrow Aircraft Disinsectant; 10% for Aircraft Disinsectant Denka). If passengers will board, e.g., 20 min after the end of the disinsection operation, inhalation exposure is estimated to be practically negligible. Also possible dermal exposure from residues in seats and headrests is very low for passengers during the flight. Therefore any health effects for passengers and crew members are very unlikely. PMID:16373201

  8. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  9. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  10. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  11. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  12. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  13. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  14. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  15. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  16. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  17. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  18. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  19. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  20. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  1. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  2. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  3. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  4. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  5. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  6. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  7. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on...

  8. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...

  9. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37...

  10. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  11. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  12. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    as a promising technique for future detailed analyses. Results from the profit maximization studies favor a smaller aircraft in terms of passenger capacity due to its higher yield generation capability on shorter routes while results from the cost minimization studies favor a larger aircraft due to its lower direct operating cost per seat mile.

  14. a Study of Optimum Design and Analysis with D.O.E for Automotive Seat Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. J.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, D. S.; Oh, J. C.; Kwon, Y. D.

    In modern times, development trend of automobiles is the tendency to prefer the high fuel efficiency of automobile. Also, the structure of seat that takes 4% of automobile's weight is the target to be secured the stability enough and attain the lightweight, To meet this, the characteristics of load to be applied to seat structure must be analyzed from the initial time, and it must be considered and designed material, thickness, distance to be assembled with recliner and condition of section through the calculation of numerical value. This study performed to reduce stress and moments to be occurred to seat frame through keep the optimum condition with D.O.E for cushion frame of seat due to passenger inertia weight at the rear Collision of automobile, This study looked for optimum values with Minitab and analyzed the cushion frame of seat with LS-DYNA, FEA tool, according to those Factor.

  15. 76 FR 64795 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... April 25, 2011 (76 FR 22830). That supplemental NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the.... ] Support for the Supplemental NPRM (76 FR 22830, April 25, 2011) Boeing concurs with content of the supplemental NPRM (76 FR 22830, April 25, 2011). Request to Remove Airplanes From the Proposed...

  16. 77 FR 24360 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... this AD as of November 21, 2011 (76 FR 68304, November 4, 2011). We must receive comments on this AD by..., Amendment 39-16857 (76 FR 68304, November 4, 2011). That AD required actions intended to address an unsafe... airplanes. Since we issued AD 2011-23-06, Amendment 39-16857 (76 FR 68304, November 4, 2011), we...

  17. Optimization of Car Seats in the Interaction of Sitting Man on the Size of the Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martonka, R.; Fliegel, V.

    The crew vehicle, the driver and passengers are in a car in direct interaction with the car seat while driving, which affects a sitting person in many areas such as safety, comfort, a feeling of comfort and customization to individual requirements, ergonomics and variability. All these effects are caused by one or a group of elements used in the construction of the seat. Objective assessment of the requirements for the construction of car seats, regardless of the characteristics of the occupant is not possible to provide a subjective feeling of comfort for any seated person. Therefore, we include in the design of automotive seat occupant's subjective feelings. It is clear that car seats must "adapt" individual characteristics of a seated man (weight, corpulence, age, gender,…). One of the subjective feelings of a man sitting in the seat is comfortable for any seated person defined differently. Correlation was found between comfort seats and contact pressure distribution depending on the weight of a seated man. It is understandable that every sitting person has a different distribution of contact pressure. This has resulted in the same seat each person differently seems comfortable-hard. The research objective is always to ensure maximum contact area for any seated person. Parameter that must be optimized is the hardness of butt pads sitting person (usually polyurethane pad coated fabric cover).In the conventional design seat cushion hardness is fixed, without the possibility of adaptability by the individuality sitting man. This article deals with the assessment, definition and optimization of hardness of pad in the automobile seat, the contact pressure distribution and determining the regulatory range of hardness depending on the weight of a seated man.

  18. Car Seat Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides information and a product listing concerning the special automobile seating needs of children with disabilities. The products listed meet the needs of children who weigh less than 20 pounds, must be transported lying down, need help with trunk control and/or head control, wear hip spica casts, are ventilator-dependent, and…

  19. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  20. Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraske, Martin; May, Rich

    2003-01-01

    A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft-seat-track mounting clamps. A SAM (see figure) is easily installed by inserting it in a seat track, then actuating a locking lever to clamp the SAM to the track. The SAM includes an over-center locking feature that prevents premature disengagement that could be caused by some inadvertent movements of persons or objects in the vicinity. A SAM can be installed in, or removed from, any position along a seat track, without regard for the locations of the circular access holes. Hence, one or more SAM(s) can be used to mount an object or objects on a track or a pair of tracks in an infinite number of preferred configurations. A SAM can be incorporated into a dual swivel device, so that two of the SAMs can be made to lock onto two side-by-side seat tracks simultaneously, as would be the case in a standard ISS rack bay where two side-by-side racks reside. The main benefit to using two SAMs in a side-by-side arrangement is to provide a coupled load. By picking up load points on two seat tracks, a coupled loading is created, improving the stability and strength since the load is spread to two seat tracks at a short distance.

  1. 78 FR 79074 - Technical Report Evaluating Seat Belt Pretensioners and Load Limiters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . How can I be sure... seats of passenger cars and LTVs. The report's title is: Effectiveness of Pretensioners and Load... vehicles. By model year 2008, all new cars and LTVs sold in the United States were equipped...

  2. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  3. [The safety belt: effects on injury patterns of automobile passengers].

    PubMed

    Teifke, A; Degreif, J; Geist, M; Schild, H; Strunk, H; Schunk, K

    1993-09-01

    Since 1984 the law concerning safety belts has been implemented; this paper deals with the findings in 386 victims of motor accidents who were x-rayed between 1981 and 1989. Minor injuries have been ignored. The number of passengers wearing belts increased by 30% after 1984. The number of passenger injuries did not decrease. Injuries directly caused by the belts included a small number of fractures of clavicles, the sternum and ribs and one pelvic fracture, one serious abdominal injury with tearing of the mesenteric artery and one ruptured spleen. An indirect result of wearing seat belts was a marked increase in cervical whiplash injuries and some increase in thoracic vertebral fractures. None of the belt induced injuries proved fatal. Amongst those using seat belts there was a significantly lower fatality rate and injuries causing prolonged disability. In particular, using seat belts, serious injuries to the skull and brain were reduced by 80%. Similarly injuries to the abdomen, the odontoid, pelvis and hip joint were greatly reduced. The advantages of wearing a seat belt greatly outweigh the disadvantages. PMID:8374116

  4. A statewide hospital-based program to improve child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1984-01-01

    A statewide network of hospital-based low-cost car seat rental and educational programs, operated by volunteers, was begun in Vermont in 1979. In four years the rate of correct car seat usage by newborns at hospital discharge increased from less than 16% to 71%. High usage rates appear to continue in the first two years of life. It is hypothesized that availability of car seats, direct educational intervention in the hospitals, high visibility, and indirect educational processes in the community contributed to these changes. It is concluded that hospital-based programs should be included in comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety. PMID:6520003

  5. Simulations of ozone distributions in an aircraft cabin using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Aakash C.; Chen, Qingyan

    2012-07-01

    Ozone is a major pollutant of indoor air. Many studies have demonstrated the adverse health effect of ozone and the byproducts generated as a result of ozone-initiated reactive chemistry in an indoor environment. This study developed a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to predict the ozone distribution in an aircraft cabin. The model was used to simulate the distribution of ozone in an aircraft cabin mockup for the following cases: (1) empty cabin; (2) cabin with seats; (3) cabin with soiled T-shirts; (4) occupied cabin with simple human geometry; and (5) occupied cabin with detailed human geometry. The agreement was generally good between the CFD results and the available experimental data. The ozone removal rate, deposition velocity, retention ratio, and breathing zone levels were well predicted in those cases. The CFD model predicted breathing zone ozone concentration to be 77-99% of the average cabin ozone concentration depending on the seat location. The ozone concentration at the breathing zone in the cabin environment can better assess the health risk to passengers and can be used to develop strategies for a healthier cabin environment.

  6. 19 CFR 122.49d - Passenger Name Record (PNR) information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passenger Name Record (PNR) information. 122.49d Section 122.49d Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  7. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification at air passenger facilities of... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.25 Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions. Each person who engages in for-hire...

  8. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmahon, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  9. 14 CFR 135.150 - Public address and crewmember interphone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of more than 19 unless it is... seat, has a microphone which is readily accessible to the seated flight attendant, except that one... visible detection from within the airplane....

  10. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  11. 14 CFR 121.285 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prevent the cargo from shifting under emergency landing conditions. (8) The bin may not be installed in a... bin that meets the following requirements: (1) The bin must withstand the load factors and emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  12. Ride quality evaluation 1: Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  13. Design of a turbofan powered regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The majority of the market for small commercial transport aircraft is dominated by high efficiency propeller driven aircraft of non-U.S. manufacture. During the past year, an aircraft was designed with ranges of up to 1500 nautical miles and passenger loads between 50 and 90. Special emphasis was placed upon keeping acquisition cost and direct operating costs at a low level while providing passengers with quality comfort levels. Several designs are presented which place a high premium on design innovation.

  14. Effect of vibration duration on human discomfort. [passenger comfort and random vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The duration effects of random vertical vibration on passenger discomfort were studied in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin configured to seat six persons in tourist-class style. Variables of the study included time of exposure (0.25 min to 60 min) and the rms amplitude of vibration (0.025g to 0.100g). The vibrations had a white noise spectrum with a bandwidth of 10 Hz centered at 5 Hz. Data indicate that the discomfort threshold occurred at an rms vertical acceleration level of 0.027g for all durations of vibration. However, for acceleration levels that exceeded the discomfort threshold, a systematic decrease in discomfort occurred as a function of increasing duration of vibration. For the range of accelerations used, the magnitude of the discomfort decrement was shown to be independent of acceleration level. The results suggest that discomfort from vertical vibration applied in the frequency range at which humans are most sensitive decreases with longer exposure, which is the opposite of the recommendation of the International Standard ISO 2631-1974 (E) Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration.

  15. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  16. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  17. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  18. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  19. Pulmonary fat and bone marrow embolism in aircraft accident victims.

    PubMed

    Bierre, A R; Koelmeyer, T D

    1983-04-01

    On 28 November 1979, an Air New Zealand DC10 aircraft crashed into Mt Erebus, Antarctica with the loss of 257 passengers and crew. Postmortem examinations were carried out on 231 victims in Auckland, 4641 kilometres north of the crash site, and lung tissue was present in 205 cases. Pulmonary fat emboli were present in 134 cases (65%), pulmonary bone marrow emboli in 60 (29%) and pulmonary edema in 76 cases (37%). Clear relationships were demonstrated, firstly between the extent of fat and bone marrow embolism, secondly between the extent of fat and bone marrow embolism and the presence of pulmonary edema, and thirdly between the extent of fat and bone marrow embolism and the extent of cardiovascular damage. It was apparent that death had occurred immediately following impact, and the extent of fat and bone marrow embolism varied inversely with the severity of the injuries found. The most severely injured victims were those seated in the rear cabin of the aircraft suggesting that this was the site of impact with the ground. Our studies show that pulmonary fat embolism occurs very rapidly after severe injury and is followed by increasing numbers of fat and bone marrow emboli depending on the nature of the mortal injuries. PMID:6888959

  20. Buckle Up: Non-Seat Belt Use and Antisocial Behavior in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare persons who report that they never wear a seat belt while driving or as a passenger to those that do in a nationally representative sample in the United States. Our guiding hypothesis is that failure to wear a seat belt is part of an antisocial behavior spectrum. Methods Using public-use data from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), this study employed binary logistic regression with adjustments for complex survey sampling to assess relationships between never wearing a seat belt and sociodemographic variables, antisocial behaviors, substance abuse and co-occurring problems, and criminal justice system contact. Results Individuals who do not wear seat belts are younger, more likely to be male, less likely to be African-American or Hispanic, have incomes less than $75,000, and be a high school or college graduate. After controlling for the effects of age, gender, race, income, education, and population density, individuals reporting that they never wear a seat belt while driving or as a passenger are more likely to report using alcohol and drugs (adjusted odds ranging from 1.61 to 2.56), committing antisocial behaviors including felony offenses (adjusted odds ranging from 2.13 to 3.57), and possess a dual diagnosis (adjusted odds ranging from 1.62 to 1.73). Conclusions Findings indicate that non-seat belt use is convergent with a spectrum of serious antisocial behavior and comorbid psychological distress. Importantly, results suggest that standard seat belt use policies and campaigns may not be effective for non-seat belt using individuals and a targeted approach may be needed. PMID:23103161

  1. Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

  2. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  3. Design of an infrared camera based aircraft detection system for laser guide star installations

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Macintosh, B.

    1996-03-05

    There have been incidents in which the irradiance resulting from laser guide stars have temporarily blinded pilots or passengers of aircraft. An aircraft detection system based on passive near infrared cameras (instead of active radar) is described in this report.

  4. Characteristics of future aircraft impacting aircraft and airport compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of an opinion survey of selected individuals at the decision-making level within the five major manufacturers of transport aircraft in the United States and Europe. Opinions were obtained concerning both possible and probable existence of over 50 compatibility-related characteristics of transport aircraft in use in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. The maximum size of aircraft is expected to increase, at a roughly uniform rate, to the year 2010 by 85 percent in passengers, 55 percent in airfreighter payload, and 35 percent in gross weight weight. Companion to the expected growth in payloads and gross weight was the identification of probable increases in aircraft geometrical dimensions and component capability, and use of fully double-decked passenger compartments. Wing span will increase considerably more than normally expected to provide wings of higher aspect ratio. New aircraft features coming into probable use include large turboprops, synthetic jet-A fuel, winglets, wake-vortex-reducing devices and laminar flow control. New operational concepts considered probable include steep approaches, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiway towing for the aircraft, plus passenger bypass of the terminal building, expedited handling of belly cargo and an intermodal cargo container for the payloads.

  5. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  6. The design of a long-range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are examining the market and feasibility of long-range passenger aircraft carrying more than 600 passengers. These aircraft would carry travelers at reduced cost and, at the same time, reduce congestion around major airports. The design of a large, long-range transport involves broad issues such as: the integration of airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; trade-offs between aircraft size and the cost to reconfigure these existing facilities; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are reviewed.

  7. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  8. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  9. Cabin safety and emergency evacuation: passenger experience of flight CI-120 accident.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Aircraft evacuation effectiveness is a critical but challenging issue in the civil aviation industry. This paper explores the cabin safety perceptions of passengers from their emergency evacuation experiences in an actual aviation accident. A questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews were conducted with China Airlines flight CI-120 passengers. The qualitative and quantitative results provide insights into passengers' views of cabin safety. The in-depth interview results show that passenger safety education requires more instructions about the use of emergency equipment. The data from the passenger perception questionnaire were analyzed using the factor analysis method; the findings indicate that crew assistance and emergency procedures are the most important factors. The results are likely to be of value to the aviation industry when taking into account passenger perceptions in implementing safety programs. PMID:21376900

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors on Child Passenger Safety among Expectant Mothers and Parents of Newborns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregnant women were also interviewed to learn about their views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data collected. Results Of a total of 242 parents of newborns recruited in the quantitative survey, 202 (83.5%) parents had heard of child safety seats and 149 (61.6%) parents reported they would use child safety seats for their babies. Parents’ knowledge, car ownership, occupation, and income were significantly associated with their decision regarding use of child safety seats. Three themes were identified from the qualitative interview of 30 pregnant women: (1) the pregnant women perceived child passenger safety as important; (2) the car ownership and price and quality of child safety seats were major influencing factors of their decisions on use of child safety seats; and (3) lack of awareness and lack of laws requiring use were perceived to contribute to low use of child safety seats in China. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and awareness on child passenger safety were found to be two most important factors associated with low use of child safety seats. Effective interventions are urgently needed to improve parents’ knowledge before laws are enacted and implemented. PMID:26735974

  11. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section 122.41... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  12. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section 122.41... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  13. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section 122.41... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  14. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  15. Rear seating and risk of injury to child occupants by vehicle type.

    PubMed

    Winston, F K; Durbin, D R; Kallan, M J; Elliott, M R

    2001-01-01

    The safety of rear-seated child passengers was evaluated across vehicle types. 113,887 children under age 16 in crashes were enrolled as part of an on-going crash surveillance system which links insurance claims data to telephone survey and crash investigation data. Children in the second row suffered less significant injuries than those in the front in all vehicle types except compact extended cab pickup trucks in which the risk for children in the rear was 13% as compared to 2.8% for front-seated occupants. Further research is needed to identify the child and vehicle characteristics which might explain this increased injury risk. PMID:12214365

  16. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  17. Speech intelligibility and speech quality of modified loudspeaker announcements examined in a simulated aircraft cabin.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Quehl, Julia; Wittkowski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic modifications of loudspeaker announcements were investigated in a simulated aircraft cabin to improve passengers' speech intelligibility and quality of communication in this specific setting. Four experiments with 278 participants in total were conducted in an acoustic laboratory using a standardised speech test and subjective rating scales. In experiments 1 and 2 the sound pressure level (SPL) of the announcements was varied (ranging from 70 to 85 dB(A)). Experiments 3 and 4 focused on frequency modification (octave bands) of the announcements. All studies used a background noise with the same SPL (74 dB(A)), but recorded at different seat positions in the aircraft cabin (front, rear). The results quantify speech intelligibility improvements with increasing signal-to-noise ratio and amplification of particular octave bands, especially the 2 kHz and the 4 kHz band. Thus, loudspeaker power in an aircraft cabin can be reduced by using appropriate filter settings in the loudspeaker system. PMID:25183056

  18. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    PubMed

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided. PMID:26548352

  19. Lateral bias in theatre-seat choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria; Reese, Miriam; Elias, Lorin J

    2014-01-01

    Examples of behavioural asymmetries are common in the range of human behaviour; even when faced with a symmetrical environment people demonstrate reliable asymmetries in behaviours like gesturing, cradling, and even seating. One such asymmetry is the observation that participants tend to choose seats to the right of the screen when asked to select their preferred seating location in a movie theatre. However, these results are based on seat selection using a seating chart rather than examining real seat choice behaviour in the theatre context. This study investigated the real-world seating patterns of theatre patrons during actual film screenings. Analysis of bias scores calculated using photographs of theatre patrons revealed a significant bias to choose seats on the right side of the theatre. These findings are consistent with the prior research in the area and confirm that the seating bias observed when seats are selected from a chart accurately reflects real-world seating behaviour. PMID:23387932

  20. The Minnesota Child Passenger Restraint and Education Account. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature on Activities and Expenditures as Required by the 1994 Session Laws, Chapter 635, Section 15 as Contained in M.S. 169.685, Subdivision 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Public Safety, St. Paul. Office of Traffic Safety.

    Minnesota Statute 169.685 (Seat Belts and Passenger Restraint Systems for Children) requires all drivers to correctly place children under the age of 4 years in child car seats. In response to the requirements of the amended statute, this report presents information to the Minnesota legislature on the commissioner's activities and expenditure of…

  1. Rear Seat Occupant Thorax Protection in Near Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Katarina; Rosén, Erik; Sunnevang, Cecilia; Boström, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Thoracic side-airbags (SAB) have proven to protect front seat occupants in side impacts. This benefit has not been evaluated for rear seat occupants who are typically small statured. The objective was to analyze field data from rear seat occupants in near side impacts, and evaluate the effect of a SAB in the rear seat, through full scale vehicle tests. A field study using the NASS-CDS database was performed to review rear seat crash characteristics, occupant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3+, AIS3+) and injury sources. Full scale tests were performed with the side impact dummy SID-IIs at two different crash severities, with and without SAB in a midsize passenger car. Field data showed that of all AIS3+ injured restrained occupants 13 years and older, 59% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 38% had AIS3+ head injuries. The thoracic injuries were distributed to lungs (60%), skeletal fractures (38%) and injuries to arteries (1,26%) and heart (0,1%). For AIS3+ injured children, age 4–12, 51% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 54% had AIS3+ head injuries. Compared to adults, children sustained less fractures and more lung injuries. The rear side interior was the main injury source regardless of age group. In the full scale tests, the thoracic side-airbag reduced the average rib deflection by 50% and resulted in an AIS3+ injury risk reduction from 36% to 3%. At the higher impact speed, SAB reduced the injury risk from 93% to 24%. The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes. PMID:20184828

  2. Improving the in-flight security by employing seat occupancy sensors based on Fiber Bragg grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Wang, Pengfei

    2012-06-01

    The current schemes of detecting the status of passengers in airplanes cannot satisfy the more strict regulations recently released by the United States Transportation Security Administration. In basis of investigation on the current seat occupancy sensors for vehicles, in this paper we present a novel scheme of seat occupancy sensors based on Fiber Bragg Grating technology to improve the in-flight security of airplanes. This seat occupancy sensor system can be used to detect the status of passengers and to trigger the airbags to control the inflation of air bags, which have been installed in the airplanes of some major airlines under the new law. This scheme utilizes our previous research results of Weight-In- Motion sensor system based on optical fiber Bragg grating. In contrast to the current seat occupancy sensors for vehicles, this new seat occupancy sensor has so many merits that it is very suitable to be applied in aerospace industry or high speed railway system. Moreover, combined with existing Fiber Bragg Grating strain or temperature sensor systems built in airplanes, this proposed method can construct a complete airline passenger management system.

  3. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. PMID:26347639

  4. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  5. 14 CFR 382.117 - Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Must carriers permit passengers with a disability to travel with service animals? 382.117 Section 382.117 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.117 Must carriers permit passengers with...

  6. 14 CFR 382.67 - What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? 382.67 Section 382.67 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.67 What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? (a) As a carrier, you...

  7. Laboratory and community studies of aircraft noise effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Powell, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The program is organized into two major thrusts: community acceptance and passenger acceptance. The community acceptance includes subjective response studies of single and multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term community noise exposure. Emphasis is on the development of units and indices which accurately quantify annoyance. The passenger acceptance program includes studies to determine acceptably levels of interior noise and vibration for speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. Selected results from several recent studies are presented to indicate the nature, scope, and methods of the research program.

  8. Study of materials performance model for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, K.; Skratt, J.

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration version of an aircraft interior materials computer data library was developed and contains information on selected materials applicable to aircraft seats and wall panels, including materials for the following: panel face sheets, bond plies, honeycomb, foam, decorative film systems, seat cushions, adhesives, cushion reinforcements, fire blocking layers, slipcovers, decorative fabrics and thermoplastic parts. The information obtained for each material pertains to the material's performance in a fire scenario, selected material properties and several measures of processability.

  9. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  10. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  11. 19 CFR 122.51 - Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S. After Customs inspection of the aircraft, passengers, baggage and merchandise at the entry airport, commercial aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the...

  12. 19 CFR 122.51 - Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S. After Customs inspection of the aircraft, passengers, baggage and merchandise at the entry airport, commercial aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the...

  13. 19 CFR 122.51 - Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S. After Customs inspection of the aircraft, passengers, baggage and merchandise at the entry airport, commercial aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the...

  14. 19 CFR 122.51 - Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S. After Customs inspection of the aircraft, passengers, baggage and merchandise at the entry airport, commercial aircraft of domestic origin registered in the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft of domestic origin registered in the...

  15. Are Child Passengers Bringing Up the Rear? Evidence For Differential Improvements in Injury Risk Between Drivers and their Child Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Flaura K; Xie, Dawei; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Since nearly half of children fatally injured in automobile crashes were restrained, optimizing occupant protection systems for children is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality. Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study were used to compare the differential injury risk between drivers and their child passengers in the same crash, with a focus on vehicle model year. A matched cohort design and conditional logistic regression model were used in the analyses. Overall, injury risk for drivers was higher than for children, but the risk difference was largest for the oldest model year vehicles, particularly for children aged 4–8 in seat belts. While drivers experienced significant benefits in safety with increasing model years, children restrained by safety belts alone derived less safety benefit from newer vehicles. PMID:18184488

  16. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  17. Ceramic valve guide and seat

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, D.H.; Schmidt, H.

    1987-08-25

    For molded inclusion in a cast metal cylinder head of a internal combustion engine, an integral ceramic valve seat and valve stem guide assembly are described for operative engagement with and support of a conventional poppet-type valve with its enlarged head portion with a sealing surface thereon and an elongated cylindrical stem portion. The guide and seat consist of: valve seat forming means cast in ceramic material having an annular configuration operatively conforming to the configuration of the sealing surface of the valve and defining an annular seating surface for sealing engagement with the enlarged valve head when the valve is in a closed position; valve stem support means cast in ceramic having a generally tubular configuration with an internal bore and defining a support for reciprocation of the cylindrical stem portion of the valve as the valve moves between open and closed operative position; connecting means cast in ceramic and integral with both the valve set forming means and the valve stem supporting guide means for aligning the means so that a plane through the annular seating surface is normal to the axis of the tubular guide means and coaxially supporting the annular valve set forming means and the tubular guide portion whereas the integral valve seat forming means.

  18. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Skalkidou, A; Lescohier, I; Trichopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases are accepted by the two hospitals on alternate days throughout the year, thus generating a random sample of children injured as car passengers. The prevalence of the studied exposures in the study base was estimated from an inspection survey comprising a random sample of 191 children of the same age who travelled in passenger cars. The survey was conducted by medical staff from our centre in collaboration with the road traffic police. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors through the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. The OR for injury was 3.3 among unrestrained children compared with restrained children (comparison essentially limited to children aged 0-4 years) and 5.0 for children seated in the front compared with those seated in the rear (comparison essentially limited among unrestrained children). Protective effect estimates derived from this analytical study suggest that in Greece about two thirds of all childhood injuries from car crashes could have been avoided through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality. PMID:9623396

  19. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  20. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. PMID:24660766

  1. 78 FR 44621 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You may read the comments received....- certified version of the 2004 BMW 760I passenger car) and they are capable of being readily altered to... not already so equipped. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection: Installation of a seat...

  2. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  3. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. PMID:24793821

  4. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  5. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  6. Lumbar load attenuation for rotorcraft occupants using a design methodology for the seat impact energy-absorbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Rasoul; Beheshti, Hamid; Lankarani, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft occupant crash-safety considerations require a minimum cushion thickness to limit the relative vertical motion of the seat-pelvis during high vertical impact loadings in crash landings or accidents. In military aircraft and helicopter seat design, due to the potential for high vertical accelerations in crash scenarios, the seat system must be provided with an energy absorber to attenuate the acceleration level sustained by the occupants. Because of the limited stroke available for the seat structure, the design of the energy absorber becomes a trade-off problem between minimizing the stroke and maximizing the energy absorption. The available stroke must be used to prevent bottoming out of the seat as well as to absorb maximum impact energy to protect the occupant. In this study, the energy-absorbing system in a rotorcraft seat design is investigated using a mathematical model of the occupant/seat system. Impact theories between interconnected bodies in multibody mechanical systems are utilized to study the impact between the seat pan and the occupant. Experimental responses of the seat system and the occupant are utilized to validate the results from this study for civil and military helicopters according to FAR 23 and 25 and MIL-S-58095 requirements. A model for the load limiter is proposed to minimize the lumbar load for the occupant by minimizing the relative velocity between the seat pan and the occupant's pelvis. The modified energy absorber/load limiter is then implemented for the seat structure so that it absorbs the energy of impact in an effective manner and below the tolerable limit for the occupant in a minimum stroke. Results show that for a designed stroke, the level of occupant lumbar spine injury would be significantly attenuated using this modified energy-absorber system.

  7. CID Aircraft post-impact lakebed skid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Moments after hitting and sliding through the wing openers the aircraft burst into flame, with a spectacular fireball seen emanating from the right inboard engine area. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four

  8. Reducing death on the road: the effects of minimum safety standards, publicized crash tests, seat belts, and alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Two phases of attempts to improve passenger car crash worthiness have occurred: minimum safety standards and publicized crash tests. This study evaluated these attempts, as well as changes in seat belt and alcohol use, in terms of their effect on occupant death and fatal crash rates. METHODS. Data on passenger car occupant fatalities and total involvement in fatal crashes, for 1975 through 1991, were obtained from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. Rates per mile were calculated through published sources on vehicle use by vehicle age. Regression estimates of effects of regulation, publicized crash tests, seat belt use and alcohol involvement were obtained. RESULTS. Substantial reductions in fatalities occurred in the vehicle model years from the late 1960s through most of the 1970s, when federal standards were applied. Some additional increments in reduced death rates, attributable to additional improved vehicle crashworthiness, occurred during the period of publicized crash tests. Increased seat belt use and reduced alcohol use also contributed significantly to reduced deaths. CONCLUSIONS. Minimum safety standards, crashworthiness improvements, seat belt use laws, and reduced alcohol use each contributed to a large reduction in passenger car occupant deaths. PMID:8561238

  9. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  10. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  11. Ozone consumption and volatile byproduct formation from surface reactions with aircraft cabin materials and clothing fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We measured ozone consumption and byproduct formation on materials commonly found in aircraft cabins at flight-relevant conditions. Two series of small-chamber experiments were conducted, with most runs at low relative humidity (10%) and high air-exchange rate (˜20 h -1). New and used cabin materials (seat fabric, carpet, and plastic) and laundered and worn clothing fabrics (cotton, polyester, and wool) were studied. We measured ozone deposition to many material samples, and we measured ozone uptake and primary and secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subset of samples. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 cm s -1. Emissions of VOCs were higher with ozone than without ozone in every case. The most commonly detected secondary emissions were C 1 through C 10 saturated aldehydes and the squalene oxidation products 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetone. For the compounds measured, summed VOC emission rates in the presence of 55-128 ppb (residual level) ozone ranged from 1.0 to 8.9 μmol h -1 m -2. Total byproduct yield ranged from 0.07 to 0.24 moles of product volatilized per mole of ozone consumed. Results were used to estimate the relative contribution of different materials to ozone deposition and byproduct emissions in a typical aircraft cabin. The dominant contributor to both was clothing fabrics, followed by seat fabric. Results indicate that ozone reactions with surfaces substantially reduce the ozone concentration in the cabin but also generate volatile byproducts of potential concern for the health and comfort of passengers and crew.

  12. 76 FR 65101 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A.; Model EMB 500; Single-Place Side Facing Seat Dynamic Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...These special conditions are issued for the installation of a single-place side facing seat on Embraer S.A. EMB 500 aircraft. Side- facing seats are considered a novel design, and their installation in a part 23 airplane was not envisaged and is not adequately addressed in 14 CFR part 23. The FAA has determined that the existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety......

  13. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  14. Effect of helicopter noise on passenger annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of helicopter interior noise on passenger annoyance for both reverie and listening situations was investigated. The relative effectiveness of several metrics for quantifying annoyance response for these situations was also studied. The noise stimuli were based upon recordings of the interior noise of civil helicopter research aircraft. These noises were presented at levels ranging from approximately 70 to 86 d with various tonal components selectively attenuated to give a range of spectra. The listening task required the subjects to listen to and record phonetically-balanced words presented within the various noise environments. Results indicate that annoyance during a listening condition is generally higher than annoyance under a reverie condition for corresponding interior noise environments. Attenuation of the tonal components results in increases in listening performance but has only a small effect upon annoyance for a given noise level.

  15. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  16. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  17. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  18. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  19. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  20. CID Aircraft pre-impact lakebed skid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The B-720 is seen viewed moments after impact and just before hitting the wing openers. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and

  1. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.207 Standard No. 207; Seating systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This.... Definitions. Occupant seat means a seat that provides at least one designated seating position. Seat...

  2. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.207 Standard No. 207; Seating systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This.... Definitions. Occupant seat means a seat that provides at least one designated seating position. Seat...

  3. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard No. 207 1 (§ 571.207) (relating to seating systems). (b) Trucks and truck tractors—(1) Trucks and truck tractors manufactured on and after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, after June 30, 1972, every truck and truck tractor manufactured on or...

  4. 49 CFR 27.72 - Boarding assistance for aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boarding assistance for aircraft. 27.72 Section 27... for aircraft. (a) Paragraphs (b)-(e) of this section apply to airports with 10,000 or more annual... require employees to lift or carry passengers up stairs. Paragraph (c) of this section applies to...

  5. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.86 Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must...

  6. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  7. 14 CFR 135.159 - Equipment requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.159 Section 135.159 Aeronautics and Space... requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top, unless it...

  8. 14 CFR 135.159 - Equipment requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.159 Section 135.159 Aeronautics and Space... requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top, unless it...

  9. 14 CFR 135.159 - Equipment requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.159 Section 135.159 Aeronautics and Space... requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top, unless it...

  10. 14 CFR 135.159 - Equipment requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.159 Section 135.159 Aeronautics and Space... requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top, unless it...

  11. 14 CFR 135.159 - Equipment requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. 135.159 Section 135.159 Aeronautics and Space... requirements: Carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top conditions. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers under VFR at night or under VFR over-the-top, unless it...

  12. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passengers permitted. 176.113 Section 176.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.113 Passengers permitted. (a) The maximum number of passengers permitted must be...

  13. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passengers permitted. 115.113 Section 115.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of...

  14. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passengers permitted. 115.113 Section 115.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of...

  15. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passengers permitted. 115.113 Section 115.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of...

  16. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passengers permitted. 115.113 Section 115.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 115.113...

  17. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from...

  18. Use of booster seats by Michigan children 4-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Bingham, C Raymond; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Ragunathan, Trivellore

    2005-11-01

    This study reports the results of a statewide survey of restraint use by 4-8-year-old children in Michigan conducted between July 13 and 29, 2004. In this study, 3420 4-8-year-old children were observed traveling in passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks. Restraint use was estimated for children traveling in all vehicles combined, as well as for each vehicle type separately. Children's restraint use was also calculated by the sex, age, and belt use of the driver. Separate estimates were also made of the restraint use of 4-8-year-old children by the combination of sex and belt use of the driver. Overall, 8.6 +/- 5.9% of 4-8-year-old children were seated in a booster seat, 48.8 +/- 10.3% were wearing a safety belt, 5.1 +/- 3.4% were seated in a child safety seat, and the remaining 37.5 +/- 11.5% were traveling completely unrestrained. When examining the rates by vehicle type, booster seat use was highest among children riding in sport-utility vehicles and lowest for those in pickup trucks. Surprisingly, children riding in passenger cars were more likely to be completely unrestrained than those in any other type of vehicle. While the sex of the driver did not seem to influence the restraint use of target-aged children, the driver's age did seem to have an effect. Booster seat use was quite low (0.6%) for children traveling with a driver over the age of 60, compared to 7.0 and 9.1% for those riding with drivers 16-29 and 30-59 years of age, respectively. The safety belt use of the driver also had a substantial influence on children's restraint use. Irrespective of driver sex, children riding with belted drivers were traveling in booster seats about 10% of the time, while those riding with unbelted drivers were only in booster seats 1-2% of the time. PMID:16054103

  19. Are seat belt restraints as effective in school age children as in adults? A prospective crash study

    PubMed Central

    Halman, Stephen I; Chipman, Mary; Parkin, Patricia C; Wright, James G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study effectiveness of seat belts for protecting school age children in road vehicle crashes. Design Crash examinations by trained investigators. Setting Ten Canadian university based crash investigation centres. Subjects 470 children aged 4-14 years, with 168 selected for detailed analysis, and 1301 adults. Main outcomes measures Use of seat belts by vehicle occupants; severity of injury adjusted for age and crash severity. Results Overall, 40% (189/470) of children were unbelted. Of the 335 children in cars driven by belted adults, 73 (22%) were unbelted. The odds of sustaining fatal or moderately severe injury (injury severity score ⩾4) for children in the front passenger seat was more than nine times higher for unbelted children than for belted ones (odds ratio 9.8 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 39.4)) and for those in the rear left seat was more than two times higher for unbelted than for belted children (2.6 (1.1 to 5.9)). The protection afforded by seat belts compared favourably with the results for adults in the same seat positions (odds ratios for unbelted v belted adults of 2.4 and 2.7 for front and rear seat passengers respectively). Conclusions Seat belts helped to protect school age children from injury in road vehicle crashes. However, 40% of children were unbelted. Despite standard seat belts being designed for adults, school age children were at least as well protected as adults. What is already known on this topicAlthough child restraints protect young children in road vehicle crashes, it is not known whether standard seat belts used by school age children work as wellSchool age children are often unbelted in carsWhat this study addsData from detailed crash assessments indicate that seat belts protected children at least as well as adultsAdults were more likely than children to be belted, and 22% of children travelling with belted drivers were unbelted PMID:12003883

  20. 76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... FR 78064, December 14, 2010), which updated the AAWPP for new and existing inspected passenger... SECURITY Coast Guard Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels... Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels.'' This policy letter provides guidance on how...

  1. 75 FR 3144 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat 90xx and 92xx Series Passenger Seats, Installed on, But...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... April 6, 2007 (72 FR 17045). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have...) 2 54 03 39 39; fax +33 (0) 2 54 03 15 16; e-mail: customerservices@sicma.zodiac.com ; Internet...

  2. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  3. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... PFC approvals and disapprovals under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Capacity Expansion Act...). Construction of snow removal equipment building (geothermal heat system). Hangar taxi lane improvements. Hangar... Required to Collect PFC's: Nonscheduled/ on-demand air carriers using aircraft with a seating capacity...

  4. Energy absorption studied to reduce aircraft crash forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/FAA aircraft safety reseach programs for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Energy absorption of aircraft subflooring and redesign of interior flooring are being studied. The testing of energy absorbing configurations is described. The three NASA advanced concepts performed at neary the maximum possible amount of energy absorption, and one of two minimum modifications concepts performed well. Planned full scale tests are described. Airplane seat concepts are being considered.

  5. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  6. Conical seat shut off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A valve includes a housing defining a bore having an inlet and extending along a longitudinal axis. A head is attached to the housing and defines a head passage having an outlet. A piston is disposed within the bore and includes a piston passage extending through the piston along the longitudinal axis. The piston is moveable between a closed position in which a sealing end of the piston abuts a seat of the head to close fluid communication through the piston passage and an open position in which the sealing end of the piston is axially spaced along the longitudinal axis from the seat of the head to permit fluid communication through the piston passage between the inlet and the outlet. The housing defines an equalizing chamber in fluid communication with the head passage for damping movement of the piston.

  7. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  8. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  9. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  10. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  11. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  12. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  13. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  14. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  15. 75 FR 13337 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals... to maintain a consistent PFC level of $4.50. The FAA examined the public agency's request and found.... New field maintenance facility. Taxiway C and K rehabilitation. Aircraft rescue and...

  16. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  17. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  18. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  19. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  20. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  1. Apparent mass of seated man—First determination with a soft seat and dynamic seat pressure distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Barbara; Rützel, Sebastian; Blüthner, Ralph; Menzel, Gerhard; Wölfel, Horst Peter; Seidel, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Data of the impedance and/or the apparent mass of the sitting human body during the exposure to whole-body vibration in z-direction using rigid seats were standardized in the ISO 5982. These data are available as target functions for model developments. Models developed on this data basis should also apply to driver seats with a soft seat and backrest cushion, although the qualitative different contact conditions were neglected. Due to insufficient technical prerequisites, the determination of forces at the interface between subject and soft seat was impossible until very recently. Results of studies during static conditions showed clear differences in the pressure distributions between the rigid and the soft contact areas. In this experimental study pressure distributions on a seat cushion were measured during whole-body vibration in z-direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 20 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.25, 0.8, and 1.6 m s -2 unweighted root mean square measured at the seat base) with a sampling rate of 32 m s. The apparent masses were calculated by the forces derived from the pressure distributions and accelerations measured at one point of the seat cushion near the buttocks. The moduli of the apparent masses derived for the soft seat were clearly lower than those determined for a rigid seat. These apparent masses showed a similar dependence on the vibration magnitude as the apparent mass functions derived in the usual way for rigid seats. Factors that could explain differences between the apparent mass functions derived for the soft and rigid seat were discussed and evaluated. The data of this study indicate the possibility and necessity to consider the contact conditions at the interface when deriving target functions for the model development. Recommendations for technical improvements and further experimental studies with driver seats were derived.

  2. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is presented of three separate programs that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of a span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel.

  3. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  4. Personal, temporal and spatial characteristics of seriously injured crash-involved seat belt non-users in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungyop; Kim, Karl

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of crash-involved seat belt non-users in a high use state (Hawaii) are examined in order to better design enforcement and education programs. Using police crash report data over a 10-year period (1986-1995), we compare belted and unbelted drivers and front seat occupants, who were seriously injured in crashes, in terms of personal (age, gender, alcohol involvement, etc.) and crash characteristics (time, location, roadway factors, etc.). A logistic regression model combined with the spline method is used to analyze and categorize the salient differences between users and non-users. We find that unbelted occupants are more likely to be male, younger, unlicensed, intoxicated and driving pickup trucks versus other vehicles. Moreover, non-users are more likely than users to be involved in speed-related crashes in rural areas during the nighttime. Passengers are 70 times more likely to be unbelted if the driver is also unbelted than passengers of vehicles with belted drivers. While our general findings are similar to other seat belt studies, the contribution of this paper is in terms of a deeper understanding of the relative importance of various factors associated with non-use among seriously injured occupants as well as demonstrating a powerful methodology for analyzing safety problems entailing the categorization of various groups. While the former has implication for seat belt enforcement and education programs, the latter is relevant to a host of other research questions. PMID:12479903

  5. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  6. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  7. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  8. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  10. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24751). At the request of the state... Employment and Training Administration Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of...

  11. Aircraft System Analysis of Technology Benefits to Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Joseph B.; Smith, Roger L.

    2008-01-01

    sized for a representative civil passenger transport mission, using current technology. Individual advanced technologies are quantified and applied to resize the aircraft, thereby quantifying the net benefit of that technology to the rotorcraft. Estimates of development cost, production cost and operating and support costs are made with a commercial cost estimating program, calibrated to Boeing products with adjustments for future civil production processes. A cost metric of cash direct operating cost per available seat-mile (DOC ASM) is used to compare the cost benefit of the technologies. The same metric is used to compare results with turboprop operating costs. Reduced engine SFC was the most advantageous advanced technology for both rotorcraft concepts. Structural weight reduction was the second most beneficial technology, followed by advanced drive systems and then by technology for rotorcraft performance. Most of the technologies evaluated in this report should apply similarly to conventional helicopters. The implicit assumption is that resources will become available to mature the technologies for fullscale production aircraft. That assumption is certainly the weak link in any forecast of future possibilities. The analysis serves the purpose of identifying which technologies offer the most potential benefit, and thus the ones that should receive the highest priority for continued development. This study directly addressed the following NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) subtopics: SR W.4.8.I.J Establish capability for rotorcraft system analysis and SRW. 4.8.I.4 Conduct limited technology benefit assessment on baseline rotorcraft configurations.

  12. A computer simulation of aircraft evacuation with fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, V. E.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation was developed to assess passenger survival during the post-crash evacuation of a transport category aircraft when fire is a major threat. The computer code, FIREVAC, computes individual passenger exit paths and times to exit, taking into account delays and congestion caused by the interaction among the passengers and changing cabin conditions. Simple models for the physiological effects of the toxic cabin atmosphere are included with provision for including more sophisticated models as they become available. Both wide-body and standard-body aircraft may be simulated. Passenger characteristics are assigned stochastically from experimentally derived distributions. Results of simulations of evacuation trials and hypothetical evacuations under fire conditions are presented.

  13. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Mall, O. D.; Awker, R. W.; Scholl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of selected advanced technologies for 19 and 30 passenger, short-haul aircraft were identified. Advanced technologies were investigated in four areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and ride quality. Configuration sensitivity studies were conducted to show design tradeoffs associated with passenger capacity, cabin comfort level, and design field length.

  14. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  15. Passenger ride quality determined from commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The University of Virginia ride-quality research program is reviewed. Data from two flight programs, involving seven types of aircraft, are considered in detail. An apparatus for measuring physical variations in the flight environment and recording the subjective reactions of test subjects is described. Models are presented for predicting the comfort response of test subjects from the physical data, and predicting the overall comfort reaction of test subjects from their moment by moment responses. The correspondence of mean passenger comfort judgments and test subject response is shown. Finally, the models of comfort response based on data from the 5-point and 7-point comfort scales are shown to correspond.

  16. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

  17. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  18. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  19. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  20. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...