Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft radiation exposure

  1. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  2. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000. PMID:11045531

  3. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  4. Prototype Development of an Operational Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.

    2009-12-01

    A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead mass shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. We also discuss issues encounter thus far as well as anticipated hurdles in the research to operations transition process.

  5. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  6. Monitoring of onboard Aircraft Exposure to Cosmic Radiation: May - December 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.; Jadrinková, I.; Turek, K.; Dachev, T.; Gelev, M.

    Onboard aircraft exposure to cosmic radiation has been monitored in the period May -- December 2005 MDU Si-spectrometer-dosimeter has been used as an active measuring equipment it has been installed onboard of an A310-300 aircraft Together with it also some passive detectors were placed on the body of MDU Three types of thermoluminescent detectors TLD were used as well as track etch detectors TEDs TEDs were treated both as a neutron dosimeter and as a spectrometer of linear energy transfer Available navigation data permitted us also to calculate onboard exposure during more than 400 individual flights MDU established and calculated data for each individual flight are compared and analyzed conclusions following from that for aircraft crew exposure are outlined Integral data on the exposure due to non-neutron and neutron-like component obtained on the base of MDU and calculated data are compared with the data obtained by TLD s and TED s respectively Results obtained are analyzed and discussed

  7. Monitoring of onboard aircraft exposure to cosmic radiation: May December 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, F.; Ploc, O.; Jadrníčková, I.; Turek, K.; Dachev, T.; Gelev, M.

    Onboard aircraft exposure to cosmic radiation has been monitored during the period May December 2005. Mobile Dosimetry Unit (MDU) Si-spectrodosimeter has been used as an active measuring equipment, it has been installed onboard of an A310 300 aircraft. Some passive detectors were placed on the body of MDU. Three types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) were used as well as track etch detectors (TEDs). TEDs were treated both as a neutron dosimeter and as a spectrometer of linear energy transfer. Available navigation data permitted us also to calculate onboard exposure during more than 400 individual flights. MDU established and calculated data for each individual flight are compared and analyzed, from the data conclusions as to aircrew exposure are outlined. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of:geomagnetic characteristics and flight altitude on the calculated and MDU-Liulin measured dosimetry characteristic of onboard radiation field;some solar events (Forbush decreases) registered by MDU-Liulin on the level of aircraft crew exposure during monitoring period. Integral data on the exposure due to non-neutron and neutron-like component obtained on the base of MDU and calculated data are compared with the data obtained by TLDs and TEDs, respectively. Total effective dose during the period mentioned (494 flights and 2940 h between taking offs and landings) was found to be about 11 12 mSv for. Results obtained by means of different approaches are analyzed and discussed, it was found that in general good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  8. A new tool for radiation exposure calculations in aircraft flights during disturbed solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalis, Pavlos; Tezari, Anastasia; Gerontidou, Maria; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and interact with its molecules, which can cause atmospheric showers of secondary particles that are detected by ground based neutron monitor detectors. The cascades are of great importance for the study of the radiation exposure of aircraft crews. A new Geant4 software application is presented based on DYASTIMA (Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application), which calculates the effective dose that aviators may receive in different flight scenarios characterized by different altitudes and different flight routes, during quiet and disturbed solar and cosmic ray activity. The concept is based on Monte Carlo simulations by using phantoms for the aircraft and the aviator and experimenting with different shielding materials.

  9. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  10. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again. PMID:25353240

  11. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  12. Geomagnetic influence on aircraft radiation exposure during a solar energetic particle event in October 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Kress, Brian T.; Wiltberger, Michael; Blattnig, Steve R.; Slaba, Tony S.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Engel, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present initial results from the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model during the Halloween 2003 superstorm. The objective of NAIRAS is to produce global, real-time, data-driven predictions of ionizing radiation for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. We have conducted a case study of radiation exposure during a high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event in October 2003. The purpose of the case study is to quantify the important influences of the storm time and quiet time magnetospheric magnetic field on high-latitude SEP atmospheric radiation exposure. The Halloween 2003 superstorm is an ideal event to study magnetospheric influences on atmospheric radiation exposure since this event was accompanied by a major magnetic storm which was one of the largest of solar cycle 23. We find that neglecting geomagnetic storm effects during SEP events can underestimate the high-latitude radiation exposure from nearly 15% to over a factor of 2, depending on the flight path relative to the magnetosphere open-closed boundary.

  13. Aircraft Crew Radiation Exposure in Aviation Altitudes During Quiet and Solar Storm Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Peter

    The European Commission Directorate General Transport and Energy published in 2004 a summary report of research on aircrew dosimetry carried out by the EURADOS working group WG5 (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/). The aim of the EURADOS working group WG5 was to bring together, in particular from European research groups, the available, preferably published, experimental data and results of calculations, together with detailed descriptions of the methods of measurement and calculation. The purpose is to provide a dataset for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses and/or to assess the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the experts and the European Commission. Furthermore EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/) started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events. Preliminary results related to the European research project CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces are presented. The major aim of this work is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events, using data from neutron ground level monitors, in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results obtained by different methods or groups, and comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H* (10). This paper gives an overview of aircrew radiation exposure measurements during quiet and solar storm conditions and focuses on dose results using the EURADOS In-Flight Radiation Data Base and published data on solar particle events

  14. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  15. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long time, it raises your risk ...

  16. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. PMID:24745557

  17. Aircraft Radiation Shield Experiments--Preflight Laboratory Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, Donald L.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Badavi, Francis F.; Conroy, Thomas; Braby, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    In the past, measurements onboard a research Boeing 57F (RB57-F) aircraft have demonstrated that the neutron environment within the aircraft structure is greater than that in the local external environment. Recent studies onboard Boeing 737 commercial flights have demonstrated cabin variations in radiation exposure up to 30 percent. These prior results were the basis of the present study to quantify the potential effects of aircraft construction materials on the internal exposures of the crew and passengers. The present study constitutes preflight measurements using an unmoderated Cf-252 fission neutron source to quantify the effects of three current and potential aircraft materials (aluminum, titanium, and graphite-epoxy composite) on the fast neutron flux. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the three selected materials for radiation shielding must wait until testing in the atmosphere is complete; however, it is clear that for shielding low-energy neutrons, the composite material is an improved shielding material over aluminum or titanium.

  18. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented. PMID:25333800

  19. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  20. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instruction concerning prenatal radiation exposure. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG 8.13, Revision 3; June 1999. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  1. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... had that might impact the development of their sperm or their eggs (ova) and their risk of ... your concerns with them. Radiation Exposure to the Sperm from Diagnostic X-Ray Studies There are no ...

  2. Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Lawrence S

    2010-01-01

    Research on nighttime sleep disturbance due to community noise sources, particularly from exposure to aircraft noise, has been conducted for over a half decade. However, there are still no national environmental noise policies (i.e., laws and regulations) promulgated which prescribe a specific criterion for an exposure limit which is regulatory in nature. In the U.S., the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Noise Standard, ANSI S12.9-2008/Part 6, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of Environmental Sound - Part 6: Methods for Estimation of Awakenings Associated with Outdoor Noise Events Heard in Homes, does provide the currently recommended exposure-response relationship used in the U.S. In Europe, there has also been significant laboratory and field research on sleep disturbance, although the U.S. and European research publications often use different research methodologies, different noise metrics and different meta-analysis techniques. The current article will provide a brief overview of sleep disturbance research internationally to document the similarities and differences between the various research approaches and research results. PMID:20472954

  3. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  4. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  5. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W

    2000-11-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations. PMID:11045522

  6. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  7. Community sensitivity to changes in aircraft noise exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Teffeteller, S.; Pearsons, K.

    1981-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in the vicinity of Burbank Airport during a four month period during which a counterbalanced series of changes in aircraft noise exposure occurred due to runway repairs. Another interview was undertaken approximately one year after completion of the initial runway repairs. Noise measurements were made in conjunction with administration of a brief questionnaire to a near exhaustive sample of residents in four airport neighborhoods. The magnitude and direction of change of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure corresponded closely to the actual changes in physical exposure. Estimates were made of time constants for the rate of change of attitudes toward aircraft noise.

  8. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  9. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  10. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  11. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Meier, Matthias M.; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis suggests

  12. Comparison of precise ionising Radiation Dose Measurements on board Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindborg, L.; Beck, P.; Bottollier, J. F.; Roos, H.; Spurny, F.; Wissman, F.

    2003-04-01

    The cosmic radiation makes aircrew one of the most exposed occupational groups. The European Council has therefore in its Directive 96/29Euratom on basic safety standards for radiation protection a particular article (42) for the protection of aircrew. One of the measures to be taken is to assess the exposure of the crew. This is, however, not a trivial task. The radiation consists of many different types of radiation with energies that are hardly met on ground. The knowledge on the dose levels on board aircraft has improved gradually during the last decade as several groups around the world have performed measurements on board civil aircraft in cooperation with airlines. Only occasionally has more than one instrument been able to fly at the same time for practical reasons. The statistical uncertainty in a measurement of the dose equivalent rate is typically ±15 % (1 relative standard deviation) if determined during half an hour. Systematic uncertainties add to this. The dose rate depends on flight altitude, geographic coordinates of the flight, the phase of the solar cycle and the prevailing solar wind. For that reason the possibility to fly on the same flight will eliminate some of the systematic uncertainties that limits an evaluation of the measurement techniques. The proposal aims at measurements on board the aircraft on a geographically limited area for a few hours to decrease the statistical uncertainty of the measurements and thereby get an excellent opportunity to look for possible systematic differences between the different measurement systems. As the dose equivalent rate will be quite well established it will also be possible to compare the measured values with calculated ones. The dose rate increases towards the geomagnetic poles and decreases towards the equator. The composition of the radiation components varies also with altitude. For that reason measurements both at southern latitude and at northern latitude are planned.

  13. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  15. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  16. Radiation measurements aboard nasa ER-2 high altitude aircraft with the liulin-4J portable spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihori, Y.; Benton, E.; Moeller, J.; Bendrick, G.

    The risks to aircrew health posed by prolonged exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation at aircraft altitudes have recently received renewed attention. Civil and military aircraft currently on the drawing board are expected to operate at higher altitudes (>12 km) and fly longer ranges than do existing aircraft, thereby exposing their crews to higher levels of ionizing radiation. for longer periods of time. We are currently carrying out dosimetric measurements of the ionizing radiation environment at ˜20 km altitude using portable Si detectors aboard NASA's two ER-2 high altitude research aircraft. The instruments, Liulin-4J, have been extensively calibrated at several particle accelerators. With these instruments, we can measure not only absorbed dose, but also variation of the absorbed dose as a function of time. We report radiation dose measurements as function of time, altitude, and latitude for several ER-2 missions.

  17. Radiation Exposure and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... what we know about these types of high-energy radiation and how they affect cancer risk. Cancer Compensation Programs for People Exposed to Radiation as Part of Nuclear Weapons Testing Between 1945 and 1962, several countries ...

  18. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    This period's activities were highlighted by continued long term and accelerated lab exposure testing, and by completion of all fabrication tasks on the optional material systems, AS1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Initial baseline testing was performed on the two optional material systems. Long term exposure specimens were returned from three of the four ground rack sites and from two of the three aircraft locations. Test data from specimens returned from Dryden after 2 years exposure do not indicate continuing trends of strength reduction from the 1 year data. Test data from specimens returned from the Wellington, new Zealand ground rack and on Air New Zealand aircraft after 1 year exposure show strength changes fairly typical of other locations.

  20. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  1. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  2. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  3. Radiation exposure of trainee anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S; Khan, F A; Sultan, N; Naqvi, M

    2006-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted to determine the level of radiation exposure of trainee anaesthetists working in urology, orthopaedics and radiology environments. Anaesthetists wore lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges over a 6-month period. The position of badges was standardised at the collar site (TLD1) and at waist level (TLD2). Area specific dosimeters were used and exchanged between anaesthetists. Of a total of 723 procedures, anaesthetists were exposed to radiation in 33% of procedures in orthopaedics, 30% in urology and 39% in radiology. The mean (SD) exposure time to radiation per case was significantly greater in orthopaedics than in urology (9.2 (4) min vs. 4.2 (2) min). The radiation exposure per case was highest in radiology (19.2 (22) min). The net combined exposure over a 6-month period was 0.2177 mSv in urology, 0.4265 mSv in orthopaedics and 3.8457 mSv in radiology. The combined exposure was less than the 20 mSv recommended as the maximum exposure per year. Our data does not support the need for routine dosimetric monitoring of anaesthetists working in the above settings. PMID:16409335

  4. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Bielawski, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long term flight and ground exposure on three commercially available graphite-epoxy material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Sets of specimens were exposed on commercial aircraft and ground racks for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years. Inflight specimen sites included both the interior and exterior of aircraft based in Hawaii, Texas, and New Zealand. Ground racks were located at NASA-Dryden and the above mentioned states. Similar specimens were exposed to controlled lab conditions for up to 2 years. After each exposure, specimens were tested for residual strength and a dryout procedure was used to measure moisture content. Both room and high temperature residual strengths were measured and expressed as a pct. of the unexposed strength. Lab exposures included the effects of time alone, moisture, time on moist specimens, weatherometer, and simulated ground-air-ground cycling. Residual strengths of the long term specimens were compared with residual strengths of the lab specimens. Strength retention depended on the exposure condition and the material system. Results showed that composite materials can be successfully used on commercial aircraft if environmental effects are considered.

  5. Modeling flight attendants' exposures to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2013-12-17

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means ± standard devitions) of daily total exposure intakes were 0.24 (3.8 ± 10.0), 1.4 (4.2 ± 5.7), and 0.15 (2.1 ± 3.2) μg day(-1) kg(-1) of body weight for scenarios of residual application, preflight, and top-of-descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than top-of-descent spray and residual application, respectively. PMID:24251734

  6. Turbulence in the air tubes of radiators for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the characteristics of flow in the air passages of aircraft radiators. The work was done by the National Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  7. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    1990-03-01

    Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects. PMID:2203439

  8. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, M. N.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are studied. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209 and T300/934. Specimens were exposed on the exterior and interior of Boeing 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground level exposure at four locations. In addition specimens were exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to two years at three ground level exposure locations and on airplanes from two airlines. Test results are also given for specimens exposed to the laboratory simulated environments. Test results indicate that short beam shear strength is sensitive to environmental exposure and dependent on the level of absorbed moisture.

  9. [Radiation exposure of the dentist].

    PubMed

    Regulla, D F; Wachsmann, F

    1975-08-01

    The radiation dosis per person undergoing dental treatment measured at the trunk is rather considerable, though not alarming. However, the number of people whose hands has been exposed to radiation as well as the individual extent of exposure were unexpectedly high. The radiation dosis measured at the hands was about 100 times bigger than the radiation dosis determined at the trunk for the whole body. Although these results may be very impressive, it should be borne in mind that the data on which the investigation was based date from 1967/68 and may no longer be fully applicable to the present situation. Whether and to what extent this assumption is justified ought to found out by control studies regarding radiation dosis per person and Röpak programs which are presently being started and whose results will be discussed in this journal. PMID:1058098

  10. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Activities reported include completion of the program design tasks, resolution of a high fiber volume problem and resumption of specimen fabrication, fixture fabrication, and progress on the analysis methodology and definition of the typical aircraft environment. Program design activities including test specimens, specimen holding fixtures, flap-track fairing tailcones, and ground exposure racks were completed. The problem experienced in obtaining acceptable fiber volume fraction results on two of the selected graphite epoxy material systems was resolved with an alteration to the bagging procedure called out in BAC 5562. The revised bagging procedure, involving lower numbers of bleeder plies, produces acceptable results. All required laminates for the contract have now been laid up and cured. Progress in the area of analysis methodology has been centered about definition of the environment that a commercial transport aircraft undergoes. The selected methodology is analagous to fatigue life assessment.

  11. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are determined. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Future results will include AS-1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Specimens are exposed on the exterior and interior of 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground-level exposure at four locations. In addition, specimens are exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to five years at five ground-level exposure locations and on airplanes from one airline.

  12. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  13. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  14. Occupational exposure to natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D W

    1985-10-01

    Natural sources of radiation can make an important contribution to the exposures of people at work. Two areas of interest are work with minerals having elevated concentrations of activity and work in buildings where radon daughter concentrations are elevated. The Euratom Directive on ionising radiation requires that the handling of radioactive substances be reported to national authorities. National authorities may waive this requirement where the activity per unit mass is below 100 Bq g-1, or for solid natural radioactive substances, 500 Bq g-1. An investigation was undertaken in five factories to determine whether work with minerals having levels of natural activity below these might lead to significant doses. Models based on the data collected were used to relate the activity in the minerals to the effective dose equivalent arising from gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and intake of long-lived activity. These assessments show that the activity concentration at which exposures to airborne dust could lead to doses equal to one-tenth of the dose limit for workers are 0.3 Bq g-1 for thorium-232 and 1 Bq g-1 for uranium-238. Above these values, radiological supervision may be necessary. In a separate study, measurements of radon daughter concentrations were made in seventy workplaces. Concentrations in some premises approached or exceeded the derived air concentration for occupational exposure. The highest concentrations were found in premises with low ventilation rates. PMID:4081708

  15. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  16. Effect of aircraft on ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, I. C.; Ryan, K. R.

    1998-12-01

    Changes in ozone levels for a range of scenarios, including those for present and projected future aircraft emissions and for present and future halogen loadings, are calculated using the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization two-dimensional chemical transport model. These changes are applied to measured ozone columns and vertical profiles based on measurements to produce vertical profiles of ozone for each scenario considered, which are traceable to measurements. A radiative transfer model is then used to investigate changes in biologically active radiation reaching the surface of the Earth resulting from current and future fleets of aircraft and those resulting from changing levels of halogen compounds in the atmosphere. It is shown that equal changes in ozone column for these scenarios do not produce equal changes in biologically weighted fluxes reaching the ground. This is because aircraft affect ozone mainly in the upper troposphere, whereas the effects of halogens are greatest in the middle and lower stratosphere. The magnitude of the ratio of the biologically weighted flux change to the ozone column change is greater for the case of the aircraft, due to the larger contribution to multiple scattering in the troposphere. For the same reason, projected fleets of supersonic aircraft are shown to have a smaller effect on UV radiation for a given change in ozone column than subsonic aircraft. While aerosols reduce the UV radiation reaching the ground for all scenarios investigated, they have minimal impact on the ratios of UV changes to ozone column changes because the bulk of the aerosol loading is below the altitudes where ozone changes due to aircraft or halogens occur.

  17. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging. PMID:25962784

  18. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  19. A new radiation exposure record system

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Berndt, V.L.; Trevino, G.W.; Oakley, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Radiological Records Program (HRRP) serves all Hanford contractors as the single repository for radiological exposure for all Hanford employees, subcontractors, and visitors. The program administers and preserves all Hanford radiation exposure records. The program also maintains a Radiation Protection Historical File which is a historical file of Hanford radiation protection and dosimetry procedures and practices. Several years ago DOE declared the existing UNIVAC mainframe computer obsolete and the existing Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) system was slated to be redeveloped. The new system named the Radiological Exposure (REX) System is described in this document.

  20. Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D

    2007-01-01

    Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

  1. [Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, M; Chevillard, S; Ory, K; Dupuy, C; Le Guen, B; de Vathaire, F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radioiodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. PMID:21723770

  2. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  3. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  6. Long-term monitoring of the onboard aircraft exposure level with Si-diode based spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, F.; Dachev, T.

    The radiation fields on aircraft board are complex they contain the particles with energies up to few hundreds MeV. There are different methods used to characterise this field for radiation protection purposes. We tried to test for such purposes a spectrometer based on Si-diode. The spectrometer tested, MDU was originally developed and largely tested onboard of cosmic vehicles. The energy deposited in the detector by a particle is analysed, it permits to distinguish the contribution of different types of radiation to integral dosimetry quantities. The spectrometer was exposed in high-energy radiation reference fields, available at CERN. During 2001 year, the spectrometer was exposed during four long-term exposures (about 1400 hours) with about 100 flights during each of them. It was found out that the spectrum of energy deposition events is onboard of aircraft very similar to that registered in CERN high energy reference fields behind the concrete shield. We used this similarity to determine the correction factors to establish radiation protection quantities from the results of onboard measurements. All necessary flight parameters were acquired, it permitted to calculate the effective dose and/or ambient dose equivalent on board by means of CARI 6 and EPCARD codes and compared them with the results of treatment mentioned, based on measured data and CERN calibrations. It was found that the apparent ambient dose equivalent values (in terms of CERN reference fields) are in reasonable agreement with the results of calculation. Quantitative analysis of this agreement as a function of flight parameters (geomagnetic position, solar activity variations, etc.) is presented. During one of flights, an important solar event (GLE 60 at the 15t h April 2001) was registered by means of the spectrometer, in several cases the measurements during forbush decreases were also realized. Also these extremes were well registered by the equipment, the data obtained are analyzed. It was

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  8. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care. PMID:26354615

  9. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363

  10. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  11. Solar Radiation Measurements Onboard the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, I.; Bohn, B.; Werner, F.; Ehrlich, A.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of the separated upward and downward components of solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies and of upward nadir spectral radiance were performed with the HALO Solar Radiation (HALO-SR) instrument package onboard the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The instrumentation of HALO-SR is characterized and first measurement data from the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies (NARVAL) campaigns in 2013 and 2014 are presented. The measured data are analyzed in the context of the retrieved microphysical and optical properties of clouds which were observed underneath the aircraft. Detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical actinic flux receivers were determined in the laboratory. The effects of deviations from the ideal response are investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factors are derived. Example photolysis frequencies are presented, which were sampled in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Atlantic Ocean during the 2013/14 HALO NARVAL campaigns. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated. Calculated actinic flux densities in the presence of clouds benefit from the measured spectral radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective droplet radii are used as model input for the radiative transfer calculations. By comparison with the concurrent measurements of actinic flux densities the retrieval approach is validated. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program HALO (BO 1580/4-1, WE 1900/21-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-10-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. PMID:21139858

  13. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  14. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  15. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  16. Long-term monitoring of the onboard aircraft exposure level with a Si-diode based spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, F.; Dachev, Ts.

    The radiation fields onboard aircraft are complex (EURADOS, 1996), and several methods are used to characterise them for radiation protection. We have tested a spectrometer based on Si-diode at different sources and accelerator facilities. The energy deposited in the diode is analysed to estimate the contribution of different radiations to dosimetry quantities. The spectrum of energy deposition events onboard aircraft is similar to that registered in the CERN high-energy reference field. We used this similarity to determine the correction factors to appreciate radiation protection quantities from the results of onboard measurements. During 2001-2002, the spectrometer was used to acquire measurements onboard commercial aircraft during five long-term exposures. All necessary flight parameters were acquired; thus permitting calculations of the onboard effective dose and/or ambient dose equivalent by means of both the CARI6 and the EPCARD codes and comparison with the results of the measurements. It was found that the apparent ambient dose equivalent values from measured data are in reasonable agreement with the results of calculations. Quantitative analysis of this agreement as a function of flight parameters (geomagnetic position, solar activity variations, etc.) is presented. During one flight, an important solar event GLE 60 on 15 April 2001 was recorded by the spectrometer. In some other cases the measurements during a Forbush decreases were acquired. These extremes were well registered by the equipment and the data obtained are analyzed.

  17. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

  18. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  19. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  20. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine. PMID:27012882

  1. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  2. Radiation exposure to anaesthetists during endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Arii, T; Uchino, S; Kubo, Y; Kiyama, S; Uezono, S

    2015-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure increases the likelihood of cataract formation. A personal dosimeter was attached to the left temple of 77 anaesthetists during 45 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and 32 interventional neuroradiology procedures. Compared with interventional neuroradiology, the median (IQR [range]) total radiation dose emitted by fluoroscopic equipment was significantly lower during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (4175 (3127-5091 [644-9761]) mGy than interventional neuroradiology (1420 (613-2424 [165-10,840]) mGy, p < 0.001). However, radiation exposure to the anaesthetist's temple was significantly greater during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (15 (6-41 [1-109]) μSv) than interventional neuroradiology (4 (2-8 [0-67]) μSv, p < 0.001). These data suggest that anaesthetists at our institution would have to deliver anaesthesia for ~1300 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~5000 interventional neuroradiology cases annually to exceed the general occupational limits, and ~10,000 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~37,500 interventional neuroradiology cases to exceed the ocular exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Nevertheless, anaesthetists should be aware of the risk of ocular radiation exposure, and reduce this by limiting the time of exposure, increasing the distance from the source of radiation, and shielding. PMID:25267714

  3. Tissues may adapt to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    French scientists discovered radioactivity and developed vaccination, so it is perhaps appropriate that a prominent French cancer specialist should be promoting the idea of a radiation vaccination effect - or radiation adaptation, as he prefers to call it. Raymond Latarjet, of the Institut Curie in Paris, maintains that recent studies at the gene level are showing evidence that with low doses of radiation, there is time for a cell repair mechanism to take effect, and that this seems to provide some protection against subsequent exposure to high doses. He cited experiments in his laboratory in which exposure to a dose of 4 Gy (400 rad) had, predictably, produced a large number of gene mutations in a specimen, but the number of mutations was less than half that number in a specimen that had been exposed to a dose of 0.02 Gy some six hours before exposure to the 4 Gy.

  4. Nondestructive monitoring of aircraft composites using terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbekin, Nikolay S.; Novoselov, Evgenii V.; Pavlov, Pavel V.; Bespalov, Victor G.; Petrov, Nikolay V.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we consider using the terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) for non destructive testing and determining the chemical composition of the vanes and rotor-blade spars. A versatile terahertz spectrometer for reflection and transmission has been used for experiments. We consider the features of measured terahertz signal in temporal and spectral domains during propagation through and reflecting from various defects in investigated objects, such as voids and foliation. We discuss requirements are applicable to the setup and are necessary to produce an image of these defects, such as signal-to-noise ratio and a method for registration THz radiation. Obtained results indicated the prospects of the THz TDS method for the inspection of defects and determination of the particularities of chemical composition of aircraft parts.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  6. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  7. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  8. [Radiation exposure and air quality aboard commercial airplanes].

    PubMed

    Bergau, L

    1999-10-01

    The amount of exposure to cosmic radiation during air travel is next to a number of additional factors mainly dependent on the flight level of the aircraft. Flying in an altitude of 41,000 feet equaling 12,800 meters the amount of radiation exposure is of course considerable higher than on the ground. The overall exposure of flying personnel to cosmic radiation flying about 600-700 hours per year can be estimated between 3 and 6 mSv (300-600 mrem). According to the flight hours of passengers, the radiation exposure is much lower and can be neglected for most of the travelers final judgement about the possible risks for flying personnel as far as a higher incident of malignant tumors is concerned has not jet been finally made. Talking of cabin air quality compromises have to be made and thus the well-being of the passengers can be negatively influenced. Air pressure and oxygen partial pressure correspond to an altitude of 2400 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level with possible consequences to the cardiopulmonary system. Increased level of ozone can lead to respiratory problems of the upper airways, increased carbon dioxide may cause hyperventilation. The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract are dried out due to the extremely low humidity of the cabin air. Smoking during flight results in an increase of the nicotine blood levels even in passengers sitting in the non-smoking areas. In modern aircraft the fresh-air flow cannot be regulated individually any more, this may lead to an insufficient circulation of used air in relation to fresh air and could cause the phenomena of hanging smoke. There has always been the idea that there is an increased risk for passengers for acquiring infectious diseases. However this is not the case. Modern HEPA-filter prevent an accumulation even of the smallest particles including bacteria and viruses within the recirculation flow in the cabin air. The overall risk of getting an infectious disease is significantly lower than in other

  9. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The test program concentrates on three major areas: flight exposure; ground based exposure; and accelerated environmental effects and data correlation. Among the parameters investigated were: geographic location, flight profiles, solar heating effects, ultraviolet degradation, retrieval times, and test temperatures. Data from the tests can be used to effectively plan the cost of production and viable alternatives in materials selection.

  10. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  15. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  16. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  19. A Translatable Predictor of Human Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J.; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay. PMID:25255453

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  1. Interim results of long-term environmental exposures of advanced composites for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interim results from a number of ongoing, long-term environmental effects programs for composite materials are reported. The flight service experience is evaluated for 142 composite aircraft components after more than five years and one million successful component flight hours. Ground-based outdoor exposures of composite material coupons after 3 years of exposure at five sites have reached equilibrium levels of moisture pickup which are predictable. Solar ultraviolet-induced material loss is discussed for these same exposures. No significant degradation has been observed in residual strength for either stressed or unstressed specimens, or for exposures to aviation fuels and fluids.

  2. Tidewater and Weather-exposure Tests on Metals Used in Aircraft II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutchler, Willard; Galvin, W G

    1942-01-01

    This report is an addendum to NACA Technical Note No. 736, which dealt with tidewater and weather-exposure tests being conducted by the National Bureau of Standards on various aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, and stainless steels used in aircraft. The exposures were begun in June 1938 and were terminated, for this particular series, in June 1941. The methods of exposure and the materials being investigated are described, and the more important results obtained up to the conclusion of the second year's exposure are reported.

  3. Medical exposure to radiation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, S J; Lee, C; Berrington de González, A

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, the worldwide estimated age-standardised incidence rates for thyroid cancer incidence were 4.7 and 1.5 per 100,000 women and men, respectively. Thyroid cancer's overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. Studies of the atomic bomb survivors and populations treated with radiotherapy have established radiation as a risk factor for thyroid cancer, particularly from early life exposure. About 0.62 mSv (20%) of the global annual per caput effective radiation dose comes from diagnostic medical and dental radiation for the period of 1997-2007, increased from 0.4 mSv for the years 1991-1996. This international trend of increasing population exposure to medical diagnostic sources of radiation, attributed in large part to the growing use of computed tomography scans, but also interventional radiology procedures, has raised concerns about exposure to radiosensitive organs such as the thyroid. Worldwide, medical and dental X-rays constitute the most common type of diagnostic medical exposures, but their contribution to the cumulative effective dose is relatively low, whereas computed tomography scans account for 7.9% of diagnostic radiology examinations but 47% of the collective effective dose from diagnostic radiation procedures in parts of the world. Although the radiation exposure from computed tomography scans is substantially lower than that from radiotherapy, multiple computed tomography scans could result in non-trivial cumulative doses to the thyroid. Studies are currently underway to assess the incidence of cancer in large cohorts of children who received

  4. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates. PMID:27018778

  5. Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-07-01

    Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation by the genetic material in the cell leads to damage to DNA, which in turn leads to cell death, chromosome aberrations and gene mutations. While early or deterministic effects result from organ and tissue damage caused by cell killing, latter two are considered to be involved in the initial events that lead to the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dose-response relationships for cancer induction and quantitative evaluations of cancer risk following exposure to moderate to high doses of low-linear energy transfer radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been applied to assessment of the risks resulting from exposure to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation; however, a statistically significant increase has hardly been described for radiation doses below 100 mSv. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low-dose radiation. PMID:22641644

  6. Impact on Climate due to Changes in Radiative Forcing from Stratospheric Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, M.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Herman, R.; Baughcum, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Aircraft emissions can affect climate both directly and indirectly. The 1999 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Aviation and The Global Atmosphere estimated that emissions from a fleet of one thousand High Speed Civil Transport aircraft (flying at Mach 2.4) could produce a non-negligible impact on the radiative forcing driving changes in climate. In this study we reexamine the radiative forcing from fleets of aircraft flying at stratospheric altitudes and predominantly in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude regions. We use our narrowband radiative transfer model in these studies, along with model calculations of calculated changes in ozone and water vapor from our zonally-averaged model of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. The radiative transfer model has higher resolution in the tropopause and lower stratosphere region than the models used in the 1999 IPCC assessment. Our results suggest that the radiative forcing for the water vapor emissions from aircraft was overestimated previously.

  7. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  9. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  10. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on Experiential Qualities of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. PMID:21139858

  11. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  12. Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2002-06-01

    From the early 1900s, it has been known that ionizing radiation (IR) impairs hematopoiesis through a variety of mechanisms. IR exposure directly damages hematopoietic stem cells and alters the capacity of bone marrow stromal elements to support and/or maintain hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to IR induces dose-dependent declines in circulating hematopoietic cells not only through reduced bone marrow production, but also by redistribution and apoptosis of mature formed elements of the blood. Recently, the importance of using lymphocyte depletion kinetics to provide a "crude" dose estimate has been emphasized, particularly in rapid assessment of large numbers of individuals who may be exposed to IR through acts of terrorism or by accident. A practical strategy to estimate radiation dose and triage victims based upon clinical symptomatology is presented. An explosion of knowledge has occurred regarding molecular and cellular pathways that trigger and mediate hematologic responses to IR. In addition to damaging DNA, IR alters gene expression and transcription, and interferes with intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways. The clinical expression of these disturbances may be the development of leukemia, the most significant hematologic complication of IR exposure among survivors of the atomic bomb detonations over Japan. Those at greatest risk for leukemia are individuals exposed during childhood. The association of leukemia with chronic, low-dose-rate exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and/or nuclear device testing has been more difficult to establish, due in part to lack of precision and sensitivity of methods to assess doses that approach background radiation dose. Nevertheless, multiple myeloma may be associated with chronic exposure, particularly in those exposed at older ages. PMID:12063018

  13. Modeling flight attendants' exposure to secondhand smoke in commercial aircraft: historical trends from 1955 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiling; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Flight attendants were exposed to elevated levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in commercial aircraft when smoking was allowed on planes. During flight attendants' working years, their occupational SHS exposure was influenced by various factors, including the prevalence of active smokers on planes, fliers' smoking behaviors, airplane flight load factors, and ventilation systems. These factors have likely changed over the past six decades and would affect SHS concentrations in commercial aircraft. However, changes in flight attendants' exposure to SHS have not been examined in the literature. This study estimates the magnitude of the changes and the historic trends of flight attendants' SHS exposure in U.S. domestic commercial aircraft by integrating historical changes of contributing factors. Mass balance models were developed and evaluated to estimate flight attendants' exposure to SHS in passenger cabins, as indicated by two commonly used tracers (airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM)). Monte Carlo simulations integrating historical trends and distributions of influence factors were used to simulate 10,000 flight attendants' exposure to SHS on commercial flights from 1955 to 1989. These models indicate that annual mean SHS PM concentrations to which flight attendants were exposed in passenger cabins steadily decreased from approximately 265 μg/m(3) in 1955 and 1960 to 93 μg/m(3) by 1989, and airborne nicotine exposure among flight attendants also decreased from 11.1 μg/m(3) in 1955 to 6.5 μg/m(3) in 1989. Using duration of employment as an indicator of flight attendants' cumulative occupational exposure to SHS in epidemiological studies would inaccurately assess their lifetime exposures and thus bias the relationship between the exposure and health effects. This historical trend should be considered in future epidemiological studies. PMID:25587876

  14. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  15. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  16. Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

  17. Residential exposure to aircraft noise and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases: multi-airport retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Andrew W; Peters, Junenette L; Levy, Jonathan I; Melly, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether exposure to aircraft noise increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in older people (≥65 years) residing near airports. Design Multi-airport retrospective study of approximately 6 million older people residing near airports in the United States. We superimposed contours of aircraft noise levels (in decibels, dB) for 89 airports for 2009 provided by the US Federal Aviation Administration on census block resolution population data to construct two exposure metrics applicable to zip code resolution health insurance data: population weighted noise within each zip code, and 90th centile of noise among populated census blocks within each zip code. Setting 2218 zip codes surrounding 89 airports in the contiguous states. Participants 6 027 363 people eligible to participate in the national medical insurance (Medicare) program (aged ≥65 years) residing near airports in 2009. Main outcome measures Percentage increase in the hospitalization admission rate for cardiovascular disease associated with a 10 dB increase in aircraft noise, for each airport and on average across airports adjusted by individual level characteristics (age, sex, race), zip code level socioeconomic status and demographics, zip code level air pollution (fine particulate matter and ozone), and roadway density. Results Averaged across all airports and using the 90th centile noise exposure metric, a zip code with 10 dB higher noise exposure had a 3.5% higher (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 7.0%) cardiovascular hospital admission rate, after controlling for covariates. Conclusions Despite limitations related to potential misclassification of exposure, we found a statistically significant association between exposure to aircraft noise and risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases among older people living near airports. PMID:24103538

  18. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  19. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  20. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  1. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    the surface energy budget. Knowledge of it is important in any attempt to describe the radiative and mass fluxes which occur at the surface. Use of energy terms in modeling surface energy budgets allows the direct comparison of various land surfaces encountered in a urban landscape, from vegetated (forest and herbaceous) to non-vegetated (bare soil, roads, and buildings). These terms are also easily measured using remote sensing from aircraft or satellite platforms allowing one to examine the spacial variability. The partitioning of energy budget terms depends on the surface type. In natural landscapes, the partitioning is dependent on canopy biomass, leaf area index, aerodynamic roughness, and moisture status, all of which are influenced by the development stage of the ecosystem. In urban landscapes, coverage by man-made materials substantially alters the surface face energy budget. The remotely sensed data obtained from aircraft and satellites, when properly calibrated allows the measurement of important terms in the radiative surface energy budget a urban landscape scale.

  2. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    The data base for composite materials' properties as they are affected by the environments encountered in operating conditions, both in flight and at ground terminals is expanded. Absorbed moisture degrades the mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy laminates at elevated temperatures. Since airplane components are frequently exposed to atmospheric moisture, rain, and accumulated water, quantitative data are required to evaluate the amount of fluids absorbed under various environmental conditions and the subsequent effects on material properties. In addition, accelerated laboratory test techniques are developed are reliably capable of predicting long term behavior. An accelerated environmental exposure testing procedure is developed, and experimental results are correlated and compared with analytical results to establish the level of confidence for predicting composite material properties.

  3. LPGS. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-d) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  4. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  5. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  6. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  7. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  8. Lead exposure and radiator repair work

    SciTech Connect

    Lussenhop, D.H.; Parker, D.L.; Barklind, A.; McJilton, C. )

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  9. Impact of the Near-Earth Space Environment on Human Radiation Exposure at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Kunches, J.; Kress, B. T.; Murray, J. J.; Wilson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. The FAA reports that pregnant crew members may run a risk as high as 1.3 per thousand births of severe illness to their children as a result of background radiation exposure. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. Health concerns for frequent-flyer passengers are similar to the health concerns of the crew. There is a need for a capability to monitor background radiations levels at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. Efforts are currently underway to develop a global, nowcast (real-time) capability for calculating ionizing radiation exposure at commercial airline altitudes. The state-of-the-art in physics-based transport of high energy galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray particles will be presented. Paramount to reliable real-time transport calculations is an accurate and timely specification of the boundary conditions, such as the incident differential energy flux and geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, using a combination of satellite observations and empirical space radiation environment models. However, empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment can only advance with continued observations and development of physics-based models of the heliosphere and the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In this paper we also discuss the state-of-the-art in space

  10. Cosmic radiation and magnetic fields: Exposure assessment and health outcomes among airline flight crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Joyce Shealy

    Airline flight crews are chronically exposed to cosmic radiation and to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Potential disease risks have been identified in health studies among commercial flight crews outside of the United States and among military pilots within the United States. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify exposure to both cosmic radiation and magnetic fields onboard aircraft, (2) to develop a methodology for estimating career cosmic radiation doses to individual crew members, and (3) to compare mortality among United States commercial pilots and navigators with that of all occupational groups. Cosmic radiation equivalent doses to bone marrow and skeletal tissue were calculated on a flight-by-flight basis. Flight-by-flight calculations were used to develop an estimation methodology for cumulative (career) cosmic radiation doses. Magnetic fields were measured directly onboard aircraft during flight. Health outcomes among United States commercial pilots and navigators were investigated using proportional mortality ratios, proportional cancer mortality ratios, and mortality odds ratios. Based on the sample used in this study, the cosmic radiation equivalent dose to bone marrow and skeletal tissue associated with air travel ranges from 30 to 570 microsieverts per 100 flight hours (not including ground time) depending on altitude, latitude, phase of solar cycle, and flight duration. Magnetic field exposure appears to be characterized by frequencies between 100 and 800 hertz and varies in strength depending on stages of flight, location within the aircraft, and aircraft type. Based on limited measurements, maximum field strengths may increase from 0.6 microtesla in economy class to 1.2 microtesla in first class, suggesting that cockpit exposures may be higher. Potential synergistic effects of cosmic radiation and magnetic fields may be associated with certain cancers found in excess among flight crews, in particular

  11. Short-term variation of cosmic radiation measured by aircraft under constant flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejin; Nam, Uk-Won; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Dachev, Tsventan P.

    2015-11-01

    The temporal variations in cosmic radiation on aircraft under constant flight conditions were measured by a Liulin detector. Rather than a commercial long-distance aircraft, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight at a constant altitude over the Korean Peninsula. At 9144 m (30,000 ft), the mean and standard deviation of the radiation dose rate (among 35 measurements) was 2.3 and 0.17 μSv/h, respectively. The experiment yielded two observational results. First, the dose rate changed over a flight time of 5-7 h; second, no strong correlation was revealed between the cosmic rays observed from the ground-based neutron monitor and the radiation doses at aircraft altitude. These observations can provide insight into the short-term variation of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes. When discarding various negligible factors, it is postulated that the changes in the geomagnetic field and the air density still could affect the variation of cosmic radiation at aircraft altitude. However, various factors are less known about the dependence on the cosmic radiation. Therefore, investigations of possible factors are also warranted at the monitoring points of space weather.

  12. Short Term Variation of Cosmic Radiation on Aircraft at Constant Flight Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Nam, U. W.; Pyo, J.; Kim, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variation of cosmic radiation was measured by Liulin detector on aircraft at constant flight condition. In this experiment, instead of using a commercial aircraft that flies over long distances, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight over Korean Peninsula. Measurements indicate that the radiation dose is approximately 2.12 ~ 2.88 Sv/hr at 30,000 ft. We obtained two observational results from this experiment. First, changes in dose rate occurred within a flight time of 5 - 7 hours. Second, no strong correlation was revealed between cosmic rays observed from the ground using the Neutron Monitor and the radiation dose. Our experimental results imply that changes in cosmic radiation at the flight altitude are affected by unknown factors that might be investigated in the point of space weather.

  13. High energy radiation from aircraft-triggered lightning and thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, Alexander P. J.; de Boer, Alte I.; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS http://ildas.nlr.nl/) was developed in an EU FP6 project to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. The system contains one E-field and eight H-field sensors distributed over the fuselage. It has recently been extended to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x-ray photons above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on an A-350 aircraft. When triggered by lightning and digitizes data synchronously with 10 ns intervals. Twelve continuously monitoring photon energy channels were implemented for X-ray detectors operating at slower rate (15 ms, pulse counting). In spring of 2014 and 2015 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells recording the data from the sensors. Total of 93 lightning strikes to the aircraft are recorded. Eighteen of them are also detected by WWLLN network. One strike consists of six individual strokes within 200 ms that were all synchronously identified by WWLLN. The WWLLN inter-stroke distance is much larger than the aircraft movement. Three of these strokes generated X-ray bursts. One exceptionally bright X-ray pulse of more than 8 MeV has been detected in association with another strike; it probably saturated the detector's photomultiplier. Neither long gamma-ray glow, nor positron annihilation have been detected during the campaign. An explanation is sought in the typical altitude profile of these test flights.

  14. RF radiation from lightning correlated with aircraft measurements during storm hazards-82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    During the Storm Hazards Experiment 1982, the Goddard Space Flight Center monitored radiation from lightning from a site at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA. Measurements were made while the NASA F106 penetrated thunderstorms to obtain data on lightning strikes to the aircraft. The objective of the ground-based measurements was to help determine if the events recorded by the F106 were part of lightning discharges. During the experiment, 53 cases were obtained in which events were recorded aboard the aircraft while reliable quality RF radiation was recorded on the ground. These cases came from 12 different storms occurring from June through August 1982. The data confirms that the aircraft was measuring events which were part of lightning and indicates that the events recorded on the aircraft tend to occur early in the flash.

  15. Changes in gene expression associated with radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Current research from our group has demonstrated differences in gene induction patterns for high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations; some genes are induced selectively following neutron exposure, others selectively following {gamma}-ray exposure, and others induced following exposure to either. These genes are associated with a broad array of different functions including apoptosis, cytoskeletal function, and gene regulation (dd-RT-PCR) technology to identify genes induced following exposure to different qualities of radiation and following exposure to radiation in the presence of radioprotectors.

  16. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  17. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  18. Hexavalent chromium and isocyanate exposures during military aircraft painting under crossflow ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Marlow, David A; Nourian, Fariba; Breay, James; Hammond, Duane

    2016-01-01

    Exposure control systems performance was investigated in an aircraft painting hangar. The ability of the ventilation system and respiratory protection program to limit worker exposures was examined through air sampling during painting of F/A-18C/D strike fighter aircraft, in four field surveys. Air velocities were measured across the supply filter, exhaust filter, and hangar midplane under crossflow ventilation. Air sampling conducted during painting process phases (wipe-down, primer spraying, and topcoat spraying) encompassed volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, Cr[VI], metals, nitroethane, and hexamethylene diisocyanate, for two worker groups: sprayers and sprayer helpers ("hosemen"). One of six methyl ethyl ketone and two of six methyl isobutyl ketone samples exceeded the short term exposure limits of 300 and 75 ppm, with means 57 ppm and 63 ppm, respectively. All 12 Cr[VI] 8-hr time-weighted averages exceeded the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m3, 11 out of 12 exceeded the permissible exposure limit of 5 µg/m3, and 7 out of 12 exceeded the threshold limit value of 10 µg/m3, with means 38 µg/m3 for sprayers and 8.3 µg/m3 for hosemen. Hexamethylene diisocyanate means were 5.95 µg/m3 for sprayers and 0.645 µg/m3 for hosemen. Total reactive isocyanate group--the total of monomer and oligomer as NCO group mass--showed 6 of 15 personal samples exceeded the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive workplace exposure limit of 20 µg/m3, with means 50.9 µg/m3 for sprayers and 7.29 µg/m3 for hosemen. Several exposure limits were exceeded, reinforcing continued use of personal protective equipment. The supply rate, 94.4 m3/s (200,000 cfm), produced a velocity of 8.58 m/s (157 fpm) at the supply filter, while the exhaust rate, 68.7 m3/s (146,000 cfm), drew 1.34 m/s (264 fpm) at the exhaust filter. Midway between supply and exhaust locations, the velocity was 0.528 m/s (104 fpm). Supply rate exceeding exhaust rate created re

  19. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  20. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Bol, Martine E. Haan, Michiel W. de Zwam, Willem H. van Wildberger, Joachim E. Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  1. Exposure conditions and Raynaud's phenomenon among riveters in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Engström, K; Dandanell, R

    1986-08-01

    Riveters in the aircraft industry work daily with such vibrating tools as riveting hammers, bucking bars, drills, and rivet shavers. The main contribution of the vibration exposure comes from the riveting tools. Three hundred and forty riveters working at the Aircraft Division of Saab-Scania were investigated in respect to vibration exposure and symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The employment time of this group varied from 1 to 44 years. Within the group, 86 riveters showed symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. The latency until first sign of injury ranged from 0 to 27 years with a median of almost 11 years. Although the exposure time for the riveting hammer was 1 min and the total tool time was 40 min per day, more than 50% of the riveters had symptoms of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) after more than 10 years of work. The guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/DIS 5349) suggest a lesser risk, and they should therefore be complemented with additional criteria to be valid for percussion tools. PMID:3775314

  2. Real and Perceived Risks of Medical Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.

    1983-01-01

    There is almost no subject that elicits greater concern and less objective understanding than that of exposure of patients to radiation accompanying diagnostic radiologic procedures. One or more of the health effects (cancer, developmental abnormalties and genetic changes) attributed to low-level exposure to radiation are frequently misinterpreted as likely consequences rather than statistical risks following radiation exposure. Even less well understood is the small magnitude of the risks accompanying radiation exposure compared with those related to activities encountered during the daily routine. For this reason, the perception of risk associated with exposure to low-level radiation is inconsistent with the reality of the risk as estimated by even the most conservative models of radiation injury. PMID:6858126

  3. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-08-07

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E{sub dep}) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  4. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, C B

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes 99mTc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments. PMID:6559185

  5. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments.

  6. Implications of the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study results for classroom acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    Studies in West London have found associations between aircraft noise exposure and childrens' cognitive performance. This has culminated in the RANCH Study examining exposure-effect associations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and cognitive performance and health. The RANCH project, the largest cross-sectional study of noise and childrens health, examined 2844 children, 9-10 years old, from 89 schools around three major airports: in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Children were selected by external aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school predicted from noise contour maps, modeling and on-site measurements. A substudy indicated high internal levels of noise within classrooms. Schools were matched for socioeconomic position within countries. Cognitive and health outcomes were measured by standardized tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. A parental questionnaire collected information on socioeconomic position, parental education and ethnicity. Linear exposure-effect associations were found between chronic aircraft noise exposure and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, maintained after adjustment for mothers education, socioeconomic factors, longstanding illness and classroom insulation. Road traffic noise exposure was linearly associated with episodic memory. The implications of these results for childrens' learning environments will be discussed. [Work supported by European Community (QLRT-2000-00197) Vth framework program.

  7. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exposure limits. The criteria listed in table 1 shall be used to evaluate the environmental impact of human..., “Evaluating Compliance with FCC-Specified Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.” Note to... Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,”...

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  9. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  10. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine

    2008-08-07

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

  12. Computation of Radiation Dose at Aircraft Altitudes from Analysis of Cosmic Ray Neutron Monitor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    Relativistic solar proton events GLEs those events with protons having sufficient kinetic energy to initiate a nuclear cascade in the atmosphere can make a contribution to radiation dose at aircraft altitudes We show that it is possible to obtain proper estimates of the expected radiation dose at aircraft altitudes from the analysis of ground-level neutron monitor data Assuming a nominal GLE spectrum the radiation dose at 40 000 feet during a 100 increase at polar latitudes will be in the range of 5 to 10 micro Sieverts per hour depending on the spectral slope An analysis of the large GLE s that have occurred during the past two solar cycles shows that there have been no events where the hourly averaged radiation dose at 40 000 feet would have exceeded 20 micro Sieverts per hour In the past improper GLE analysis was used to estimate the radiation dose at aircraft altitudes The old values derived for the early GLE s resulted in the prediction of high dose rates that persist today as urban legends and contribute to the public concept that the radiation dose at aircraft altitudes is dangerous We demonstrate that modern analytical techniques result in computed radiation doses during high-energy solar cosmic ray events that are orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by the old techniques We show that the use of the old technique of using straight line power law spectra to extrapolate the flux derived at 1 GeV results in order of magnitude errors when these flux values are extrapolated to lower energies and used to

  13. Electromagnetic on-aircraft antenna radiation in the presence of composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, S. H-T.; Rojas, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The UTD-based NEWAIR3 code is modified such that it can model modern aircraft by composite plates. One good model of conductor-backed composites is the impedance boundary condition where the composites are replaced by surfaces with complex impedances. This impedance-plate model is then used to model the composite plates in the NEWAIR3 code. In most applications, the aircraft distorts the desired radiation pattern of the antenna. However, test examples conducted in this report have shown that the undesired scattered fields are minimized if the right impedance values are chosen for the surface impedance plates.

  14. Aircraft disinsection: exposure assessment and evaluation of a new pre-embarkation method.

    PubMed

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Klasen, Jutta; Hoffmann, Godehard; Appel, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    A new "pre-embarkation" method for aircraft disinsection was investigated using two different 2% d-phenothrin containing aerosols. Five experiments in aircrafts of the type Airbus 310 (4x) and Boeing 747-400 (1x) were performed. In the absence of passengers and crew the d-phenothrin aerosol was sprayed under the seat rows and in a second step at the height of approximately 1.60 m by moving from one end of the cabin to the other. Concentration levels of d-phenothrin were determined at different time periods after application of the aerosol spray. In a B 747-400 with the air conditioning system operating the concentrations ranged between 853 and 1753 microg/m3 during and till 5 min after the beginning of spraying at different locations in the cabin. Within 5-20min after the end of the spraying concentrations of 36-205 microg/m3 and 20-40 min thereafter only ca. 1 microg d-phenothrin/m3 were detectable (average values in relation to each period of measurement). On cabin interior surfaces the median values for mainly horizontal areas ranged from 100 to 1160 ng d-phenothrin/cm2. d-Phenothrin concentrations in the air were sufficient to kill flying insects like house flies and mosquitoes within 20 min. Horizontal surfaces were 100% effective against insects up to 24 h after spraying. Doses inhaled by sprayers determined by personal measurements were calculated to be 30-235 microg d-phenothrin per 100 g spray applied (30% in the respirable fraction for Arrow Aircraft Disinsectant; 10% for Aircraft Disinsectant Denka). If passengers will board, e.g., 20 min after the end of the disinsection operation, inhalation exposure is estimated to be practically negligible. Also possible dermal exposure from residues in seats and headrests is very low for passengers during the flight. Therefore any health effects for passengers and crew members are very unlikely. PMID:16373201

  15. Natural ionizing radiation exposure of the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Matarranz, J L; Martínez, M; Salas, R; Ramos, L

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 1.6 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (18%), terrestrial gamma radiation (30%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (18%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors were derived from the MARNA (natural gamma radiation map of Spain); indoor exposure was obtained multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by an experimentally calculated conversion factor. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion, data from a detailed study on consumption habits in Spain and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR have been considered. The variability in the exposures among individuals in the population has been explicitly taken into account in the assessment. PMID:17906301

  16. Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Cloudy Atmosphere Interpretations of Collocated Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Minghua; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett; Vitko, John, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE), we have obtained and analyzed measurements made from collocated aircraft of the absorption of solar radiation within the atmospheric column between the two aircraft. The measurements were taken during October 1995 at the ARM site in Oklahoma. Relative to a theoretical radiative transfer model, we find no evidence for excess solar absorption in the clear atmosphere and significant evidence for its existence in the cloudy atmosphere. This excess cloud solar absorption appears to occur in both visible (0.224-0.68 microns) and near-infrared (0.68-3.30 microns) spectral regions, although not at 0.5 microns for the visible contribution, and it is shown to be true absorption rather than an artifact of sampling errors caused by measuring three-dimensional clouds.

  17. A Low LET Radiation Spectrometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Brucker, G. J.; Dachev, T. P.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a miniature nuclear particle dosimeter for monitoring doses in aircraft and satellites. The basic instrument is a Low Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) Radiation Spectrometer (LoLRS) that is designed to measure the energy deposited by particles with low LET values. The heart of the instrument is a Silicon-Lithium Drifted Diode (SLDD). Test results show that the LoLRS can be used to monitor the radiation threat to personnel in flights of space- and aircraft and also to generate a comprehensive data base from aviation and satellite measurements that can contribute to the formulation of more accurate environmental radiation models for dose predictions with reduced uncertainty factors.

  18. Health risk assessment of exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) in aircraft: a commentary.

    PubMed

    de Ree, Hans; van den Berg, Martin; Brand, Teus; Mulder, Gerard J; Simons, Ries; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Brinio; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-12-01

    Possible exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) has led to concerns among airline crew members. One isomer, Tri-ortho-Cresyl Phosphate (ToCP) is known to be neurotoxic and exposure to ToCP via contaminated cabin air has been suggested to be associated with the alleged Aerotoxic syndrome. The symptoms associated with Aerotoxic syndrome are diverse, including headaches, loss of balance, numbness and neurobehavioral abnormalities such as emotional instability, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Other ortho-isomers are toxic as well, but the non-ortho isomers are regarded as less toxic. In a collaborative effort to increase insight into the possible association between exposure to TCPs via contaminated cabin air and Aerotoxic syndrome, we performed an exposure- and toxicological risk assessment. Measurements in KLM 737 aircraft have demonstrated the presence of non-ortho isomers in low concentrations, though ToCP and other ortho-isomers could not be detected. Based on this exposure assessment, we established a toxicological risk model that also takes into account human differences in bioactivation and detoxification to derive a hazard quotient. From this model it appears unlikely that the health effects and alleged Aerotoxic syndrome are due to exposure to ToCP. Alternative explanations for the reported symptoms are discussed, but evaluation of the current findings in light of the criteria for occupational disease leads to the conclusion that the Aerotoxic Syndrome cannot be regarded as such. Additional research is thus required to unravel the underlying causes for the reported health complaints. PMID:25193069

  19. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radioactivity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the decommissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  20. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  1. Gene expression as a biomarker for human radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Omaruddin, Romaica A; Roland, Thomas A; Wallace, H James; Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation can be unforeseen, rapid, and devastating. The detonation of a radiological device leading to such an exposure can be detrimental to the exposed population. The radiation-induced damage may manifest as acute effects that can be detected clinically or may be more subtle effects that can lead to long-term radiation-induced abnormalities. Accurate identification of the individuals exposed to radiation is challenging. The availability of a rapid and effective screening test that could be used as a biomarker of radiation exposure detection is mandatory. We tested the suitability of alterations in gene expression to serve as a biomarker of human radiation exposure. To develop a useful gene expression biomonitor, however, gene expression changes occurring in response to irradiation in vivo must be measured directly. Patients undergoing radiation therapy provide a suitable test population for this purpose. We examined the expression of CC3, MADH7, and SEC PRO in blood samples of these patients before and after radiotherapy to measure the in vivo response. The gene expression after ionizing radiation treatment varied among different patients, suggesting the complexity of the response. The expression of the SEC PRO gene was repressed in most of the patients. The MADH7 gene was found to be upregulated in most of the subjects and could serve as a molecular marker of radiation exposure. PMID:23446844

  2. Transcriptional profile of immediate response to ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Rouchka, Eric C; Flight, Robert M; Fasciotto, Brigitte H; Estrada, Rosendo; Eaton, John W; Patibandla, Phani K; Waigel, Sabine J; Li, Dazhuo; Kirtley, John K; Sethu, Palaniappan; Keynton, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy particles. Previously proposed gene biomarkers for radiation exposure include phosphorylated H2A Histone Family, Member X (γH2AX), Tumor Protein 53 (TP53), and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A). However, transcripts of these genes may not be the most suitable biomarkers for radiation exposure due to a lack of sensitivity or specificity. As part of a larger effort to develop lab-on-a-chip methods for detecting radiation exposure events using blood samples, we designed a dose-course microarray study in order to determine coding and non-coding RNA transcripts undergoing differential expression immediately following radiation exposure. The main goal was to elicit a small set of sensitive and specific radiation exposure biomarkers at low, medium, and high levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Four separate levels of radiation were considered: 0 Gray (Gy) control; 0.3 Gy; 1.5 Gy; and 3.0 Gy with four replicates at each radiation level. This report includes raw gene expression data files from the resulting microarray experiments from all three radiation levels ranging from a lower, typical exposure than an astronaut might see (0.3 Gy) to high, potentially lethal, levels of radiation (3.0 Gy). The data described here is available in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), accession GSE64375. PMID:26981369

  3. Transcriptional profile of immediate response to ionizing radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rouchka, Eric C.; Flight, Robert M.; Fasciotto, Brigitte H.; Estrada, Rosendo; Eaton, John W.; Patibandla, Phani K.; Waigel, Sabine J.; Li, Dazhuo; Kirtley, John K.; Sethu, Palaniappan; Keynton, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy particles. Previously proposed gene biomarkers for radiation exposure include phosphorylated H2A Histone Family, Member X (γH2AX), Tumor Protein 53 (TP53), and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A). However, transcripts of these genes may not be the most suitable biomarkers for radiation exposure due to a lack of sensitivity or specificity. As part of a larger effort to develop lab-on-a-chip methods for detecting radiation exposure events using blood samples, we designed a dose–course microarray study in order to determine coding and non-coding RNA transcripts undergoing differential expression immediately following radiation exposure. The main goal was to elicit a small set of sensitive and specific radiation exposure biomarkers at low, medium, and high levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Four separate levels of radiation were considered: 0 Gray (Gy) control; 0.3 Gy; 1.5 Gy; and 3.0 Gy with four replicates at each radiation level. This report includes raw gene expression data files from the resulting microarray experiments from all three radiation levels ranging from a lower, typical exposure than an astronaut might see (0.3 Gy) to high, potentially lethal, levels of radiation (3.0 Gy). The data described here is available in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), accession GSE64375. PMID:26981369

  4. Influence of clouds on the cosmic radiation dose rate on aircraft.

    PubMed

    Pazianotto, Maurício T; Federico, Claudio A; Cortés-Giraldo, Miguel A; Pinto, Marcos Luiz de A; Gonçalez, Odair L; Quesada, José Manuel M; Carlson, Brett V; Palomo, Francisco R

    2014-10-01

    Flight missions were made in Brazilian territory in 2009 and 2011 with the aim of measuring the cosmic radiation dose rate incident on aircraft in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly and to compare it with Monte Carlo simulations. During one of these flights, small fluctuations were observed in the vicinity of the aircraft with formation of Cumulonimbus clouds. Motivated by these observations, in this work, the authors investigated the relationship between the presence of clouds and the neutron flux and dose rate incident on aircraft using computational simulation. The Monte Carlo simulations were made using the MCNPX and Geant4 codes, considering the incident proton flux at the top of the atmosphere and its propagation and neutron production through several vertically arranged slabs, which were modelled according to the ISO specifications. PMID:24925902

  5. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  6. Radiation profiles through the atmosphere measured by an auto controlled glider aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 radiation measurements through the atmosphere were made with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. These measurements were very promising and therefore new and improved sensors from Kipp&Zonen were used to equip a glider aircraft together with the standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. The glider serves as returning platform for the expensive and well calibrated radiation sensors. Double balloon technique is used to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible. The built-in autopilot allows to return the gliderradiosonde to the launch site or to land it on predefined open space, which makes recovery much easier. The new return gliderradiosonde technique as well as new measurement possibilities will be shown. First measurements show radiation profiles through the atmosphere during different cloud conditions. Radiation profiles during different daytimes show the temporal resolution of vertical radiation profiles trough the atmosphere.

  7. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders. PMID:25774612

  8. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders. PMID:25774612

  9. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-08-01

    Exposure air product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm/sup 2/), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm/sup 2/; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm/sup 2/ (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure.

  10. Exposure of aircraft maintenance technicians to organophosphates from hydraulic fluids and turbine oils: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Koslitz, Stephan; Weiss, Tobias; Broding, Horst Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fluids and turbine oils contain organophosphates like tricresyl phosphate isomers, triphenyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate from very small up to high percentages. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if aircraft maintenance technicians are exposed to relevant amounts of organophosphates. Dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of seven organophosphates were quantified in pre- and post-shift spot urine samples of technicians (N=5) by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction and derivatization. Pre- and post shift values of tributyl phosphate metabolites (dibutyl phosphate (DBP): median pre-shift: 12.5 μg/L, post-shift: 23.5 μg/L) and triphenyl phosphate metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPP): median pre-shift: 2.9 μg/L, post-shift: 3.5 μg/L) were statistically higher than in a control group from the general population (median DBP: <0.25 μg/L, median DPP: 0.5 μg/L). No tricresyl phosphate metabolites were detected. The aircraft maintenance technicians were occupationally exposed to tributyl and triphenyl phosphate but not to tricresyl phosphate, tri-(2-chloroethyl)- and tri-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate. Further studies are necessary to collect information on sources, routes of uptake and varying exposures during different work tasks, evaluate possible health effects and to set up appropriate protective measures. PMID:23597959

  11. Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry measurements utililzed aboard aircraft and in accelerator based space radiation shielding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

    The space radiation environment presents a potential hazard to the humans, electronics and materials that are exposed to it. Particle accelerator facilities such as the NASA Space Ra-diation Laboratory (NSRL) and Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) provide particle radiation of specie and energy within the range of that found in the space radiation environment. Experiments performed at these facilities determine various endpoints for bio-logical, electronic and materials exposures. A critical factor in the performance of rigorous scientific studies of this type is accurate dosimetric measurements of the exposures. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a microdosimeter that may be used to measure absorbed dose, average quality factor (Q) and dose equivalent of the particle beam utilized in these experiments. In this work, results from a variety of space radiation shielding studies where a TEPC was used to perform dosimetry in the particle beam will be presented. These results compare the absorbed dose and dose equivalent measured downstream of equal density thicknesses of stan-dard and multifunctional shielding materials. The standard materials chosen for these shielding studies included High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum alloy, while the multifunc-tional materials included carbon composite infused with single walled carbon nanotubes. High energy particles including proton, silicon and iron nuclei were chosen as the incident radia-tion for these studies. Further, TEPC results from measurements taken during flights aboard ER-2 and KC-135 aircraft will also be discussed. Results from these flight studies include TEPC measurements for shielded and unshielded conditions as well as the effect of vibration and electromagnetic exposures on the TEPC operation. The data selected for presentation will highlight the utility of the TEPC in space radiation studies, and in shielding studies in particular. The lineal energy response function of the

  12. Active Control of Turbulent Boundary Layer Induced Sound Radiation from Multiple Aircraft Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate active structural acoustic control of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) induced sound radiation from multiple panels on an aircraft sidewall. One possible approach for controlling sound radiation from multiple panels is a multi-input/multi-output scheme which considers dynamic coupling between the panels. Unfortunately, this is difficult for more than a few panels, and is impractical for a typical aircraft which contains several hundred such panels. An alternative is to implement a large number of independent control systems. Results from the current work demonstrate the feasibility of reducing broadband radiation from multiple panels utilizing a single-input/single-output (SISO) controller per bay, and is the first known demonstration of active control of TBL induced sound radiation on more than two bays simultaneously. The paper compares sound reduction for fully coupled control of six panels versus independent control on each panel. An online adaptive control scheme for independent control is also demonstrated. This scheme will adjust for slow time varying dynamic systems such as fuselage response changes due to aircraft pressurization, etc.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chi, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ching-Kai; Liu, Ingrid Y.; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders. PMID:25276823

  14. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopy during orthopedic surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, S.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The use of fluoroscopy has enabled orthopedic surgeons to become technically more proficient. In addition, these surgical procedures tend to have less associated patient morbidity by decreasing operative time and minimizing the area of the operative field. The trade-off, however, may be an increased risk of radiation exposure to the surgeon on an annual or lifetime basis. The current study was designed to determine the amount of radiation received by the primary surgeon and the first assistant during selected surgical procedures involving the use of fluoroscopy. Five body sites exposed to radiation were monitored for dosage. The results of this study indicate that with appropriate usage, (1) radiation exposure from fluoroscopy is relatively low; (2) the surgeon's dominant hand receives the most exposure per case; and (3) proper maintenance and calibration of fluoroscopic machines are important factors in reducing exposure risks. Therefore, with proper precautions, the use of fluoroscopy in orthopedic procedures can remain a safe practice.

  15. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  16. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Butler, A; Pierre, M

    2002-01-01

    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H x (10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events. PMID:12430961

  17. Intraoperative Radiation Exposure During Revision Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Iceman, Kelli; Elliott, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative C-arm image intensification is required for primary total ankle replacement implantation. Significant radiation exposure has been linked to these procedures; however, the radiation exposure during revision total ankle replacement remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the radiation exposure encountered during revision total ankle replacement. The data from 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database: 19 Agility(™) to Agility(™); 4 Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™); 9 Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II; 5 Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT; 2 Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT; and 2 INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II revision total ankle replacements were performed. Two broad categories were identified: partial revision (Agility(™) to Agility(™), Agility(™) to Custom Agility(™), INBONE(®) I to INBONE(®) II) and complete conversion (Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, Agility(™) to Salto Talaris(®) XT, Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement Prosthesis to Salto Talaris(®) XT). The mean radiation exposure per case was significant at 3.49 ± 2.21 mGy. Complete conversions, specifically Agility(™) to INBONE(®) II, exhibited the greatest radiation exposure and C-arm time. Revision implant selection and revision type (complete or partial) directly contributed to radiation exposure. Accordingly, revision systems requiring less radiation exposure are preferable. Surgeons should strive to minimize intraoperative complications and limit additional procedures to those necessary, because both lead to additional radiation exposure. PMID:27320191

  18. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  19. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  20. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina Pachnerová; Jakůbek, Jan; Kyselová, Dagmar; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, Július; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. PMID:25979739

  1. Results of Tests on Radiators for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; James, W S; Kleinschmidt, R V

    1920-01-01

    Part 1 is to present the results of tests on 56 types of core in a form convenient for use in the study of the performance of and possible improvements in existing designs. Working rules are given by which the data contained in the report may be used, and the most obvious conclusions as to the behavior of cores are summarized. Part 2 presents the results of tests made to determine the pressure necessary to produce water flows up to 50 gallons per minute through an 8-inch square section of radiator core. These data are of special value in evaluating the hydraulic head against which the circulating pump is required to operate.

  2. An Epidemiological Prospective Study of Children’s Health and Annoyance Reactions to Aircraft Noise Exposure in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8–14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9–15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10–16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children’s self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children’s annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. PMID:23823713

  3. An epidemiological prospective study of children's health and annoyance reactions to aircraft noise exposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8-14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9-15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10-16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children's self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. PMID:23823713

  4. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Hassan, A; Sulaiman, I

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level. PMID:16702237

  5. Charged particle radiation exposure of geocentric satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1989-01-01

    The near-earth radiation environment is characterized, summarizing published data on trapped and transient charged particles and their potential effects on hardware systems and the crews of manned missions. Topics examined include the role of the magnetosphere, the five radiation domains, cyclic and sporadic variations in the radiation environment, the potential effect of a high-altitude nuclear explosion, NASA empirical models for predicting trapped proton and electron fluxes, and the South Atlantic anomaly and the estimation of flux-free periods. Consideration is given to solar cosmic rays and heavy ions, Galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic shielding, secondary radiation, the design of shielding systems, variables affecting dose evaluations, and ionizing-radiation doses. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  6. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  7. Serum Amyloid A as a Biomarker for Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sproull, Mary; Kramp, Tamalee; Tandle, Anita; Shankavaram, Uma; Camphausen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for minimally invasive biomarkers that can accurately and quickly quantify radiation exposure. Radiation-responsive proteins have applications in clinical medicine and for mass population screenings after a nuclear or radiological incident where the level of radiation exposure and exposure pattern complicate medical triage for first responders. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker for radiation exposure using plasma from irradiated mice. Ten-week-old female C57BL6 mice received a 1–8 Gy single whole-body or partial-body dose from a Pantak X-ray source at a dose rate of 2.28 Gy/min. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels were determined using a commercially available ELISA assay. Data was pooled to generate SAA μg/ml threshold values correlating plasma SAA levels with radiation dose. SAA levels were statistically significant over control at all exposures between 2 and 8 Gy at 24 h postirradiation but not at 6, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels at 1 Gy were not significantly elevated over control at all time points. Total-body-irradiated (TBI) SAA levels at 24 h were used to generate a dose prediction model that successfully differentiated TBI mice into dose received cohorts of control/1 Gy and ≥2 Gy groups with a high degree of accuracy in a blind study. Dose prediction of partial-body exposures based on the TBI model correlated increasing predictive accuracy with percentage of body exposure to radiation. Our findings indicate that plasma SAA levels might be a useful biomarker for radiation exposure in a variety of total- and partial-body irradiation settings. PMID:26114330

  8. The relationship between aircraft noise exposure and day-use visitor survey responses in backcountry areas of national parks.

    PubMed

    Rapoza, Amanda; Sudderth, Erika; Lewis, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between aircraft noise exposure and the quality of national park visitor experience, more than 4600 visitor surveys were collected at seven backcountry sites in four U.S. national parks simultaneously with calibrated sound level measurements. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate parameters describing the relationship among visitor responses, aircraft noise dose metrics, and mediator variables. For the regression models, survey responses were converted to three dichotomous variables, representing visitors who did or did not experience slightly or more, moderately or more, or very or more annoyance or interference with natural quiet from aircraft noise. Models with the most predictive power included noise dose metrics of sound exposure level, percent time aircraft were audible, and percentage energy due to helicopters and fixed-wing propeller aircraft. These models also included mediator variables: visitor ratings of the "importance of calmness, peace and tranquility," visitor group composition (adults or both adults and children), first visit to the site, previously taken an air tour, and participation in bird-watching or interpretive talks. The results complement and extend previous research conducted in frontcountry areas and will inform evaluations of air tour noise effects on visitors to national parks and remote wilderness sites. PMID:26520292

  9. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. ); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  10. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level." PMID:21877795

  11. Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, B

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of activity in the field of low-level radiation epidemiology have been reviewed. They concern the questions of cancer risk related to antenatal X-ray exposure, occupational radiation exposure, and residence in areas of real or supposed increased levels of radiation. Despite the a priori unlikelihood of useful information developing from studies in any of these areas, such investigations are being pursued, and the results are proving to be stimulating. Much important information will be forthcoming in the near future. PMID:2667975

  12. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and

  13. Effects of parental radiation exposure on developmental instability in grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    BEASLEY, D. E.; BONISOLI-ALQUATI, A.; WELCH, S. M.; MØLLER, A. P.; MOUSSEAU, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenic and epigenetic effects of environmental stressors and their transgenerational consequences are of interest to evolutionary biologists because they can amplify natural genetic variation. We studied the effect of parental exposure to radioactive contamination on offspring development in lesser marsh grasshopper Chorthippus albomarginatus. We used a geometric morphometric approach to measure fluctuating asymmetry (FA), wing shape and wing size. We measured time to sexual maturity to check whether parental exposure to radiation influenced offspring developmental trajectory and tested effects of radiation on hatching success and parental fecundity. Wings were larger in early maturing individuals born to parents from high radiation sites compared to early maturing individuals from low radiation sites. As time to sexual maturity increased, wing size decreased but more sharply in individuals from high radiation sites. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect FA or shape in wings nor did it significantly affect hatching success and fecundity. Overall, parental radiation exposure can adversely affect offspring development and fitness depending on developmental trajectories although the cause of this effect remains unclear. We suggest more direct measures of fitness and the inclusion of replication in future studies to help further our understanding of the relationship between developmental instability, fitness and environmental stress. PMID:22507690

  14. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  15. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  16. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  17. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  18. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  19. Radiation exposure and adverse health effects of interventional cardiology staff.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Haamann, Frank; Nienhaus, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this chapter constitutes the first systematic review of radiation exposure to eyes, thyroid, and hands for Interventional Cardiology (IC) staff. We have concluded from our review that these anatomical locations are likely to be exposed to radiation as a result of the limited use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among IC staff as shown in Fig. 8. Our review also reveals that, with the exception of three eye exposure cases, the annual radiation dose to eyes, thyroid, and hands among IC staff was within recommended levels and limits. The As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) limit was not achieved in three cases for fingers/hands and four cases for eyes. However, an increased incidence of cataracts were reported for IC staff, and this gives rise to the concern that low-dose or unnoticed exposures may increase the risk of developing cataracts among cardiology staff. Clearly, the formation of cataracts among IC staff may be an issue and should be studied in more depth. Our review also disclosed that the two groups who receive excessive radiation doses (i.e., exceed the recommended limit) are physicians-in-training and junior staff physicians who work in cardiac catheterization laboratories. In particular, more attention should be given to assessing the effects of radiation exposure among IC staff who work in the Asia Pacific countries, because our review indicates that the number of IC procedures performed by IC staff in these countries is higher than for other continents. There is a huge demand for procedures conducted by IC staff in the Asia-Pacific area, for both treating patients and consulting with specialists. Our review also disclosed that recommended limits for per-procedure radiation doses are needed for IC staff. We recommend that such limits be established by the appropriate national and international agencies that are responsible for occupational radiation exposure. Although our review indicates that the current

  20. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  1. Sources of confusion in establishment of radiation exposure guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    There are several factors that induce the many fallacies underlying current radiation protection guidelines, and there is little hope on the horizon that common sense will prevail to override these fallacies. Radiation is looked upon by influential committee members as an absolute hazard to human health. In other words, they believe that all radiation is harmful at any level of exposure! There is no evidence for such a statement. This paper is separated into several major topics, each showing the reasons this philosophy concerning all radiation to be harmful is so misguided.

  2. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Barnes, A.; Glass, M.; Kakar, R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. Direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations.

  3. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.T.C. ); Barnes, A.; Glass, M. ); Kakar, R. ); Wilheit, T.T. )

    1993-06-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The radiation budget of a Cirrus layer deduced from simultaneous aircraft observations and model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Kinne, Stefan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several aircraft were employed during the FIRE Cirrus IFO in order to make nearly simultaneous observations of cloud properties and fluxes. A segment of the flight data collected on 28 October 1988 during which the NASA Ames ER-2 overflew the NCAR King Air was analyzed. The ER-2 flew at high altitude making observations of visible and infrared radiances and infrared flux and cloud height and thickness. During this segment, the King Air flew just above the cloud base making observations of ice crystal size and shape, local meteorological variables, and infrared fluxes. While the two aircraft did not collect data exactly coincident in space and time, they did make observations within a few minutes of each other. For this case study, the infrared radiation balance of the cirrus layer is of primary concern. Observations of the upwelling 10 micron radiance, made from the ER-2, can be used to deduce the 10 micron optical depth of the layer. The upwelling broadband infrared flux is also measured from the ER-2. At the same time, the upwelling and downwelling infrared flux at the cloud base is obtained from the King Air measurements. Information on cloud microphysics is also available from the King Air. Using this data in conjunction with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from local radiosondes, the necessary inputs for an infrared radiative transfer model can be developed. Infrared radiative transfer calculations are performed with a multispectral two-stream model. The model fluxes at the cloud base and at 19 km are then compared with the aircraft observations to determine whether the model is performing well. Cloud layer heating rates can then be computed from the radiation exchange.

  5. Retinal damage from long-term exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, W D; Allen, R G

    1977-06-01

    The maculae of rhesus monkeys were exposed to an argon-ion lazer operated in the TEM00 continuous wave mode at a wavelength of 514.5 nm. Both ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic evaluations of exposure sites were obtained. Threshold (ED50) values were obtained for 0.5, 5, 30, 120, and 1,000 sec. exposure times. Presence of minimum visible lesions was assessed ophthalmoscopically at both 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. With increasing exposure times, a 24 hr. lesion-appearance criterion resulted in ED50 values too low to be consistent with a thermal damage mechanism. In contrast, exposure to neodymium laser radiation at a 1,060 nm. wavelength for 120 sec. produced only ED50 values consistent with those associated with thermal injury. These results suggest that the damage mechanisms for long-duration exposures to visible light may involve photochemical processes initiated by the interaction of visible light with the retinal photopigments. PMID:405344

  6. Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Cloudy Atmosphere: Further Interpretations of Collocated Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, Minghua; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett; Zender, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    We have extended the interpretations made in two prior studies of the aircraft shortwave radiation measurements that were obtained as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiments (ARESE). These extended interpretations use the 500 nm (10 nm bandwidth) measurements to minimize sampling errors in the broadband measurements. It is indicated that the clouds present during this experiment absorb more shortwave radiation than predicted by clear skies and thus by theoretical models, that at least some (less than or equal to 20%) of this enhanced cloud absorption occurs at wavelengths less than 680 nm, and that the observed cloud absorption does not appear to be an artifact of sampling errors nor of instrument calibration errors.

  7. On the role of the radiation directivity in noise reduction for STOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruschka, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation characteristics of distributed randomly fluctuating acoustic sources when shielded by finite surfaces are discussed briefly. A number of model tests using loudspeakers as artificial noise sources with a given broadband power density spectrum are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of reducing the radiated noise intensity in certain directions due to shielding. In the lateral direction of the source array noise reductions of 12 dB are observed with relatively small shields. The same shields reduce the backward radiation by approximately 20 dB. With the results obtained in these acoustic model tests the potentials of jet noise reduction of jet flap propulsion systems applicable in future STOL aircraft are discussed. The jet flap configuration as a complex aerodynamic noise source is described briefly.

  8. The impact of aircraft noise exposure on South African children's reading comprehension: the moderating effect of home language.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Given the limited studies conducted within the African continent, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of chronic aircraft noise exposure and the moderating effect of home language on the learners' reading comprehension. The sample comprised 437 (52%) senior primary learners exposed to high levels of aircraft noise (Experimental group) and 337 (48%) learners residing in a quieter area (Control group). Of these, 151 learners in the Experimental group spoke English as a first language (EFL) and 162 spoke English as a second language (ESL). In the Control group, the numbers were similarly divided (EFL n = 191; ESL n = 156). A univariate General Linear Model was used to investigate the effects of aircraft noise exposure and language on reading comprehension, while observing for the possible impact of intellectual ability, gender, and socioeconomic status on the results. A significant difference was observed between ESL and EFL learners in favor of the latter (F 1,419 = 21.95, P =.000). In addition a substantial and significant interaction effect was found between the experimental and control groups for the two language groups. For the EFL speakers there was a strong reduction in reading comprehension in the aircraft noise group. By contrast this difference was not significant for the ESL speakers. Implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are made in the article. PMID:23117540

  9. Integrated natural radiation exposure studies in stable Yugoslav rural communities.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; McLaughlin, J P; Walsh, C; Birovljev, A; Simopoulos, S E; Jakupi, B; Gordanic, V; Demajo, M; Trotti, F; Falk, R; Vanmarcke, H; Paridaens, J; Fujimoto, K

    2001-05-14

    The results of field investigations of natural radiation exposures of the general population in two stable rural communities in Yugoslavia are presented. The principal emphasis was on exposures to contemporary indoor radon, but measurements of external penetrating radiation absorbed dose rates in air were carried out in the majority of cases. In addition, in a limited number of dwellings, measurements of thoron gas concentrations were made. By means of making a series of sequential 3-month radon measurements, both seasonal variations and annual average radon levels in the dwellings were determined. Using passive alpha track detectors, individual radon and thoron indoor concentrations as high as 9591 Bq m(-3) and 709 Bq m(-3), respectively, were detected while absorbed dose rates in air in the dwellings as high as 430 nGy h(-1) were recorded. On the basis of these different types of measurements, assessments could be made of the integrated natural radiation exposures being received by the populations. In addition to contemporary radon measurements, retrospective radon exposure assessments in most of the dwellings were made on the basis of measurements of 210Po concentrations in both surface (glass) traps and in volume (porous materials) traps. A description is given of the sampling strategies and protocols used in this field work. It is shown that at least one stable rural community receiving high natural radiation exposures, has been clearly identified and plans for future health investigations of the population there are outlined. PMID:11379920

  10. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  11. Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure using Molecular Biodosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Todd F.; George, K.; Hammond, D. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Current cytogenetic biodosimetry methods would be difficult to adapt to spaceflight operations, because they require toxic chemicals and a substantial amount of time to perform. In addition, current biodosimetry techniques are limited to whole body doses over about 10cGy. Development of new techniques that assess radiation exposure response at the molecular level could overcome these limitations and have important implications in the advancement of biodosimetry. Recent technical advances include expression profiling at the transcript and protein level to assess multiple biomarkers of exposure, which may lead to the development of a radiation biomarker panel revealing possible fingerprints of individual radiation sensitivity. So far, many biomarkers of interest have been examined in their response to ionizing radiation, such as cytokines and members of the DNA repair pathway. New technology, such as the Luminex system can analyze many biomarkers simultaneously in one sample.

  12. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, DB; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as ‘low as reasonably practicable’. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. Objectives To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. Methods An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Results Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Conclusion Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient’s exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures. PMID:27158158

  13. Reduced exposure to microwave radiation by rats: frequency specific effects

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; DeWitt, J.R.; Portuguez, L.M.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that SAR hotspots are induced within the laboratory rat and that the resulting thermal hotspots are not entirely dissipated by bloodflow. Two experiments were conducted to determine if hotspot formation in the body and tail of the rat, which is radiation frequency specific, would have behavioral consequences. In the first experiment rats were placed in a plexiglas cage one side of which, when occupied by the rat, commenced microwave radiation exposure; occupancy of the other side terminated exposure. Groups of rats were tested during a baseline period to determine the naturally preferred side of the cage. Subsequent exposure to 360-MHz, 700-MHz or 2450-MHz microwave radiation was made contingent on preferred-side occupancy. A significant reduction in occupancy of the preferred side of the cage, and hence, microwaves subsequently occurred. Reduced exposure to 360-MHz and 2450-MHz microwaves at 1, 2, 6 and 10 W/kg were significantly different from 700-MHz microwaves. In the second experiment semichronic exposures revealed the threshold for reduced exposure of 2450-MHz microwaves to be located between whole-body SAR's of 2.1 and 2.8 W/kg.

  14. Radiation exposure induces inflammasome pathway activation in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Stoecklein, Veit M; Osuka, Akinori; Ishikawa, Shizu; Lederer, Madeline R; Wanke-Jellinek, Lorenz; Lederer, James A

    2015-02-01

    Radiation exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Because the inflammasome pathway is triggered by cell death and danger-associated molecular patterns, we hypothesized that the inflammasome may signal acute and chronic immune responses to radiation. Using a mouse radiation model, we show that radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in inflammasome activation in macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells, and B cells as judged by cleaved caspase-1 detection in cells. Time course analysis showed the appearance of cleaved caspase-1 in cells by day 1 and sustained expression until day 7 after radiation. Also, cells showing inflammasome activation coexpressed the cell surface apoptosis marker annexin V. The role of caspase-1 as a trigger for hematopoietic cell losses after radiation was studied in caspase-1(-/-) mice. We found less radiation-induced cell apoptosis and immune cell loss in caspase-1(-/-) mice than in control mice. Next, we tested whether uric acid might mediate inflammasome activation in cells by treating mice with allopurinol and discovered that allopurinol treatment completely blocked caspase-1 activation in cells. Finally, we demonstrate that radiation-induced caspase-1 activation occurs by a Nod-like receptor family protein 3-independent mechanism because radiation-exposed Nlrp3(-/-) mice showed caspase-1 activation profiles that were indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice. In summary, our data demonstrate that inflammasome activation occurs in many immune cell types following radiation exposure and that allopurinol prevented radiation-induced inflammasome activation. These results suggest that targeting the inflammasome may help control radiation-induced inflammation. PMID:25539818

  15. Radiation exposure to the child during cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    Few data are available regarding radiation exposure to children during cardiac catheterization. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure was measured during precatheterization chest roentgenography, fluoroscopy (hemodynamic assessment phase of catheterization and cineangiography in 30 infants and children, ages 3 days to 21 years. Dosimeters were placed over the eyes, thyroid, anterior chest, posterior chest, anterior abdomen, posterior abdomen and gonads. Average absorbed chest doses were 24.5 mR during chest roentgenography, 5810 mR during catheterization fluoroscopy and 1592 mR during cineangiography. During the complete catheterization, average doses were 26 mR to the eyes, 431 mR to the thyroid area, 150 mR to the abdomen and 11 mR to the gonads. Radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization is low to the eyes and gonads but high to the chest and thyroid area. To decrease radiation dosage we suggest: (1) low pulse-rate fluoroscopy; (2) substitution of contrast echocardiography for cineangiography; (3) large-plate abdominal/gonadal shielding; (4) a selective shield for thyroid area; (5) a very small field during catheter manipulation. Minimum radiation consistent with accurate diagnosis is optimal; however, erroneous or incomplete diagnosis is more dangerous than radiation-related hazards.

  16. Radiation exposure to the child during cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    Few data are available regarding radiation exposure to children during cardiac catheterization. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure was measured during precatheterization chest roentgenography, fluoroscopy (hemodynamic assessment phase of catheterization) and cineangiography in 30 infants and children, ages 3 days to 21 years. Dosimeters were placed over the eyes, thyroid, anterior chest, posterior chest, anterior abdomen, posterior abdomen and gonads. Average absorbed chest doses were 24.5 mR during chest roentgenography, 5810 mR during catheterization fluoroscopy and 1592 mR during cineangiography. During the complete catheterization, average doses were 26 mR to the eyes, 431 mR to the thyroid area, 150 mR to the abdomen and 11 mR to the gonads. Radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization is low to the eyes and gonads but high to the chest and thyroid area. To decrease radiation dosage we suggest (1) low pulse-rate fluoroscopy; (2) substitution of contrast echocardiography for cineangiography; (3) large-plate abdominal/gonadal shielding; (4) a selective shield for thyroid area; (5) a very small field during catheter manipulation. Minimum radiation consistent with accurate diagnosis is optimal; however, erroneous or incomplete diagnosis is more dangerous than radiation-related hazards.

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T G; Allen, S G; Blackwell, R P; Litchfield, I; Mann, S M; Pope, J M; van Tongeren, M J A

    2004-01-01

    The use of personal monitors for the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation in potential future epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations has been investigated. Data loggers have been developed for use with a commercially available personal monitor and these allowed personal exposure records consisting of time-tagged measurements of electric and magnetic field strength to be accrued over extended periods of the working day. The instrumentation was worn by workers carrying out tasks representative of some of their typical daily activities at a variety of radio sites. The results indicated significant differences in the exposures of workers in various RF environments. A number of measures of exposure have been examined with a view to assessing possible exposure metrics for epidemiological studies. There was generally a good correlation between a given measure of electric field strength and the same measure of magnetic field strength. PMID:15266067

  18. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    PubMed

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30). PMID:24378502

  19. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Wildberger, Joachim E. Graaf, Rick de Zwam, Willem H. van Haan, Michiel W. de Kemerink, Gerrit J. Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.

  20. Calculations and observations of solar particle enhancements to the radiation environment at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    Dyer, C S; Lei, F; Clucas, S N; Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    Solar particle events can give greatly enhanced radiation at aircraft altitudes, but are both difficult to predict and to calculate retrospectively. This enhanced radiation can give significant dose to aircrew and greatly increase the rate of single event effects in avionics. Validation of calculations is required but only very few events have been measured in flight. The CREAM detector on Concorde detected the event of 29 September 1989 and also four periods of enhancement during the events of 19-24 October 1989. Instantaneous rates were enhanced by up to a factor ten compared with quiet-time cosmic rays, while flight-averages were enhanced by up to a factor six. Calculations are described for increases in radiation at aircraft altitudes using solar particle spectra in conjunction with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. In order to obtain solar particle spectra with sufficient accuracy over the required energy range it is necessary to combine space data with measurements from a wide range of geomagnetically dispersed, ground-level neutron monitors. Such spectra have been obtained for 29 September 1989 and 24 October 1989 and these are used to calculate enhancements that are compared with the data from CREAM on Concorde. The effect of cut-off rigidity suppression by geomagnetic activity is shown to be significant. For the largest event on record on 23 February 1956, there are no space data but there are data from a number of ground-level cosmic-ray detectors. Predictions for all events show very steep dependencies on both latitude and altitude. At high latitude and altitude (17 km) calculated increases with respect to cosmic rays are a factor 70 and 500 respectively for 29 September 1989 and 23 February 1956. The levels of radiation for high latitude, subsonic routes are calculated, using London to Los Angeles as an example, and can exceed 1 mSv, which is significantly higher than for Concorde routes from Europe to New York. The sensitivity of the calculations

  1. Calculations and observations of solar particle enhancements to the radiation environment at aircraft altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Lei, F.; Clucas, S. N.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    Solar particle events can give greatly enhanced radiation at aircraft altitudes, but are both difficult to predict and to calculate retrospectively. This enhanced radiation can give significant dose to aircrew and greatly increase the rate of single event effects in avionics. Validation of calculations is required but only very few events have been measured in flight. The CREAM detector on Concorde detected the event of 29 September 1989 and also four periods of enhancement during the events of 19-24 October 1989. Instantaneous rates were enhanced by up to a factor ten compared with quiet-time cosmic rays, while flight-averages were enhanced by up to a factor six. Calculations are described for increases in radiation at aircraft altitudes using solar particle spectra in conjunction with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. In order to obtain solar particle spectra with sufficient accuracy over the required energy range it is necessary to combine space data with measurements from a wide range of geomagnetically dispersed, ground-level neutron monitors. Such spectra have been obtained for 29 September 1989 and 24 October 1989 and these are used to calculate enhancements that are compared with the data from CREAM on Concorde. The effect of cut-off rigidity suppression by geomagnetic activity is shown to be significant. For the largest event on record on 23 February 1956, there are no space data but there are data from a number of ground-level cosmic-ray detectors. Predictions for all events show very steep dependencies on both latitude and altitude. At high latitude and altitude (17 km) calculated increases with respect to cosmic rays are a factor 70 and 500 respectively for 29 September 1989 and 23 February 1956. The levels of radiation for high latitude, subsonic routes are calculated, using London to Los Angeles as an example, and can exceed 1 mSv, which is significantly higher than for Concorde routes from Europe to New York. The sensitivity of the calculations

  2. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using Synchrotron Radiation with applications in unmanned aircraft environmental sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberie, Sean Richard Gopal

    In this thesis I present an analytical optimization of the Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) technique for applications in unmanned aircraft aerosol studies. In environmental and atmospheric science, there is a pressing need for aerosol measurements at various altitudes in the atmosphere and spanning large regions. This need is currently either ignored, or met to a limited degree by studies that employ manned aircraft. There is, however, a great deal of opportunity to improve and expand on these studies using the emerging technology of unmanned aircraft systems. A newly developed aerosol sampler makes this opportunity a near-reality by its ability to collect aerosol samples in-situ from unmanned aircraft platforms. The challenge lies in analyzing these samples for elemental composition. In airborne aerosol studies, the ability to resolve where a sample was collected both spatially and temporally is limited by the sensitivity of the analysis technique. In aircraft-based aerosol collection, the length of the aerosol sample spot corresponds to distance. Thus the spatial resolution of an airborne study is limited by the amount of mass that must be collected for analysis. The SR-XRF optimizations outlined in this thesis decrease the amount of sample mass required for detectable elemental concentrations, allowing aerosol samples to be analyzed in smaller areas corresponding to smaller time steps. Since, in a flight path, time steps are directly correlated with distance, analysis of smaller time steps results in the ability to measure aerosols at higher spatial resolution. Four SR-XRF analysis configurations were experimentally tested: monochromatic beam, white beam, filtered white beam, and filtered white beam-filtered detector to determine which configuration gave the highest elemental sensitivity and selectivity. Of these tested methods, the straight polychromatic white beam configuration resulted in the best sensitivity for elements across a large

  3. Comparison of the space radiation environments at aircraft altitudes and on International Space Station for April - August 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, T.; Spurny, F.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Burmeister, S.; Shurshakov, S.; Tomov, B.; Dimitrov, P.; Matviichuk, Y.; Bankov, N.

    The space radiation environments at aircraft altitudes and on the International Space Station (ISS) were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based de- posited energy spectrometers in April-August 2001. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the measurements on the ISS was inside of the "Dosimetric mapping" experiment. Different cases of comparison are presented in the paper and discussed.

  4. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.; Firth, J. D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1998-10-01

    In fission reactor plant,the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical `hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316,OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials.

  5. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  6. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  7. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  8. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  9. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  10. Performance deficit produced by partial body exposures to space radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to types of radiation (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) that are not experienced in low earth orbit, where the space shuttle operates. Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles can affect...

  11. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure. [Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Grimson, R.C.

    1984-08-03

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed.

  12. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  13. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

  14. Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, Edward T; Shonka, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended. PMID:25437523

  15. Monitoring radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, F.C.; Auster, M.; Beck, T.J.; Chang, R.; Marshall, F.F.

    1986-09-01

    To ascertain radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were utilized for the radiographic monitoring of 7 consecutive patients. Average fluoroscopy time per procedure was 27.8 minutes of which 15.1 minutes were for nephrostomy tube insertion and 12.7 minutes were for calculi extraction. The 2 radiologists received 4.5 and 5.1 mrad per procedure, while the 2 urologists received 2.5 and 3.7 mrad. All other ancillary personnel received less than 2.1 mrad per procedure except the anesthesiologists whose mean exposure was 4.7 mrad. By taking appropriate precautions and using the proper equipment, percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be performed with a low level of radiation exposure for all involved physicians and personnel.

  16. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure is one of the unique physiological challenges of human spaceflight that is not encountered on earth. While radiation exposure is known to impart physiological stresses and alter normal function, it is unclear how it specifically affects drug metabolism. A major concern is that the actions of medications used in spaceflight may deviate from the expectations formed from terrestrial use. This concern was investigated at the molecular level by analyzing how gamma radiation exposure affected gene expression in the livers of mice. Three different doses of radiation were administered and after various intervals of recovery time, gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR screening arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair. After examining the results of 192 genes total from each of 72 mice, 65 genes were found to be significantly affected by at least one of the doses of radiation. In general, the genes affected are involved in the metabolism of drugs with lipid or steroid hormone-like structures, as well as the maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage.

  17. Radiation exposure and safety practices during pediatric central line placement

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; Burkhalter, Lorrie S.; Blackburn, Timothy J.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric surgeons routinely use fluoroscopy for central venous line (CVL) placement. We examined radiation safety practices and patient/surgeon exposure during fluoroscopic CVL. Methods Fluoroscopic CVL procedures performed by 11 pediatric surgeons in 2012 were reviewed. Fluoroscopic time (FT), patient exposure (mGy), and procedural data were collected. Anthropomorphic phantom simulations were used to calculate scatter and dose (mSv). Surgeons were surveyed regarding safety practices. Results 386 procedures were reviewed. Median FT was 12.8 seconds. Median patient estimated effective dose was 0.13 mSv. Median annual FT per surgeon was 15.4 minutes. Simulations showed no significant difference (p = 0.14) between reported exposures (median 3.5 mGy/min) and the modeled regression exposures from the C-arm default mode (median 3.4 mGy/min). Median calculated surgeon exposure was 1.5 mGy/year. Eight of 11 surgeons responded to the survey. Only three reported 100% lead protection and frequent dosimeter use. Conclusion We found non-standard radiation training, safety practices, and dose monitoring for the 11 surgeons. Based on simulations, the C-arm default setting was typically used instead of low dose. While most CVL procedures have low patient/surgeon doses, every effort should be used to minimize patient and occupational exposure, suggesting the need for formal hands-on training for non-radiologist providers using fluoroscopy. PMID:25837269

  18. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up.

  19. Radiation exposure to angiographers under different fluoroscopic imaging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, J.M.; Levin, D.C. )

    1991-09-01

    Radiation levels near an imaging chain commonly used in angiography were measured with both a 100- and a 200-mm-thick scatter phantom. The scatter was measured in lines parallel in space to the central ray of the x-ray beam, at lateral distances of 300, 500, and 800 mm. The effects of fluoroscopic kilovoltage and image intensifier magnification mode were also measured. The results indicate that the highest scattered radiation levels occur near the surface of the patient where the x-ray beam enters. Exposure rates were measured in both anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) geometries on a U-arm system. In PA geometry, the highest radiation levels occur below the angiographer's waist, an area well protected by the lead apron. The AP geometry increases the exposure rate to the neck, head, and upper extremities, areas where apron shielding is less effective.

  20. Overview of ICRP Committee 2 'Doses from Radiation Exposure'.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J

    2015-06-01

    Over many years, Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has provided sets of dose coefficients to allow users to evaluate equivalent and effective doses for intakes of radionuclides or exposure to external radiation for comparison with dose limits, constraints, and reference levels as recommended by ICRP. Following the 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 and its task groups are engaged in a substantial programme of work to provide new dose coefficients for various conditions of radiation exposure. The methodology being applied in the calculation of doses can be regarded as state-of-the-art in terms of the biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of inhaled and ingested radionuclides, and the dosimetric models used to model radiation transport for external and internal exposures. The level of sophistication of these models is greater than required for calculation of the protection quantities with their inherent simplifications and approximations, which were introduced necessarily, for example by the use of radiation and tissue weighting factors. However, ICRP is at the forefront of developments in this area, and its models are used for scientific as well as protection purposes. This overview provides an outline of recent work and future plans, including publications on dose coefficients for adults, children, and in-utero exposures, with new dosimetric phantoms in each case. The Committee has also recently finished a report on radiation exposures of astronauts in space, and is working with members of the other ICRP committees on the development of advice on the use of effective dose. PMID:25816256

  1. ROUTEMAP model for predicting noise exposure from aircraft operations on Military Training Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1988-09-01

    Low altitude, high speed training operations are routinely conducted along specially designated Military Training Routes (MTRs). The location of these routes is continually changed for a variety of reasons. Each new route requires an environmental assessment to determine the community noise impact. A computer program, ROUTEMAP, is described which calculates the noise level on the ground along an MTR corridor. Program ROUTEMAP is a menu-driven program that runs on any IBM PC or PC-compatible computer. ROUTEMAP requires MS DOS Version 2.0 or later, with at least one megabyte of available disk space, 640 K of random access memory, and an 8087/80287 math coprocessor. The model requires the Air Force planner to specify the nature of the flight activity for the segment of the route in question. The information needed for each aircraft type are the number of day and night operations during a month, and nominal values for the airspeed, engine power setting, and altitude. In addition, the user must input whether the activity is usually under visual or instrument flying rules and if there are single or multiple flight tracks within the route corridor. With this input data, the program computes the onset rate-adjusted monthly day-night average A-weighted sound level, L sub dnmr in dB for ground positions located within 13 miles of the route centerline. For comparison purposes, the program also computes the monthly average A-weighted noise exposure level without the penalty for high onset rates and without the penalty for operations during the night. The program also computes the probability of being highly annoyed as a function of the L sub dnmr values. This information, along with the noise-compatible land-use guides normally associated with planning around airbases, can be used to interpret the noise resulting from military training route operations.

  2. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation from an Aircraft-Style Panel Using Iterative Loop Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2008-01-01

    A decentralized LQG-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound transmission through periodically stiffened panels. While modern control strategies have been used to reduce sound radiation from relatively simple structural acoustic systems, significant implementation issues have to be addressed before these control strategies can be extended to large systems such as the fuselage of an aircraft. For instance, centralized approaches typically require a high level of connectivity and are computationally intensive, while decentralized strategies face stability problems caused by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since accurate uncertainty bounds are not known a priori, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is validated using real-time control experiments performed on a built-up aluminum test structure representative of the fuselage of an aircraft. Experiments demonstrate that the iterative approach is capable of achieving 12 dB peak reductions and a 3.6 dB integrated reduction in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel.

  3. Astronaut radiation exposure in low-earth orbit. Part 1. Galactic cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Letaw, J.R.

    1988-03-31

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the radiation doses that will be suffered by astronauts on present-day and future space missions. In order to characterize radiation exposure risks on space missions one requires models of space-radiation environments, codes for transporting the components of ionizing radiation, and procedures for assessing radiation risks of a given exposure. To verify their accuracy, predictions based on these transport results must then be compared with existing dosimetry data. Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic radiation and its fragments are presented for four, representative low-earth orbit configurations. The orbits include a high (STS-5IJ) and low (STS-61C) altitude, low-inclination (28.5 degs) flight; a high inclination (49.5 degs) flight (STS-51F); and a polar flight. Results are compared with computations for an exo-magnetospheric flight.

  4. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 grams per square centimeters would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  5. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low-dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 gm/cm(sup 2) would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  6. Radiation Metabolomics: Identification of Minimally Invasive Urine Biomarkers for Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for γ-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and β-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose–response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to γ radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

  7. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  8. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  9. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard C G

    2016-02-21

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn's disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  10. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard CG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  11. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight. While known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. Three different doses of gamma radiation (50 mGy - 6.05 Gy) and a sham were administered to groups of 6 mice each, and after various intervals of recovery time, liver gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair enzymes. Results indicated approx.65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. With 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, Cyp17a1 showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days.

  12. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  13. Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

    1991-04-01

    A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

  14. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results. PMID:16604631

  15. Overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Briscoe, G.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the adequacy of the present system, identify any necessary short-term improvements and propose feasible alternatives for an improved system. The study includes topical reports as follows: current Personnel Dosimetry Practices at DOE Facilities; overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS); and alternatives to Provide Upgraded Occupational Exposure Record System. This study constitutes the second report and was a joint effort between Battelle Northwest and EG and G, Idaho Falls. EG and G has been responsible for the respository since the fall of 1978.

  16. Factors Related to Radiation Exposure during Lumbar Spine Intervention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Choi, Byung Gil; Jung, Seung Eun; Byun, Jae Young

    2016-02-01

    Fluoroscopy guidance is useful to confirm anatomical landmark and needle location for spine intervention; however, it can lead to radiation exposure in patients, physicians, and medical staff. Physicians who used fluoroscopy should be cognizant of radiation exposure and intend to minimize radiation dose. We retrospectively reviewed three lumbar spine intervention procedures (nerve root block, medial branch block, and facet joint block) at our institution between June and December, 2014. We performed 268 procedures on 220 patients and found significant difference in radiation dose between two groups classified by performing physicians. The physician who controlled the fluoroscopy unit directly used significantly shorter fluoroscopy (6 seconds) that resulted in a smaller radiation dose (dose area product [DAP] 0.59 Gy∙cm(2)) than the physician supervising the radiographer controlling the fluoroscopy unit (72 seconds, DAP 5.31 Gy∙cm(2), P < 0.001). The analysis indicates that the difference in fluoroscopy time depends on whether a physician or a radiographer controls the fluoroscopy unit. PMID:26908989

  17. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  18. Factors Related to Radiation Exposure during Lumbar Spine Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroscopy guidance is useful to confirm anatomical landmark and needle location for spine intervention; however, it can lead to radiation exposure in patients, physicians, and medical staff. Physicians who used fluoroscopy should be cognizant of radiation exposure and intend to minimize radiation dose. We retrospectively reviewed three lumbar spine intervention procedures (nerve root block, medial branch block, and facet joint block) at our institution between June and December, 2014. We performed 268 procedures on 220 patients and found significant difference in radiation dose between two groups classified by performing physicians. The physician who controlled the fluoroscopy unit directly used significantly shorter fluoroscopy (6 seconds) that resulted in a smaller radiation dose (dose area product [DAP] 0.59 Gy∙cm2) than the physician supervising the radiographer controlling the fluoroscopy unit (72 seconds, DAP 5.31 Gy∙cm2, P < 0.001). The analysis indicates that the difference in fluoroscopy time depends on whether a physician or a radiographer controls the fluoroscopy unit. PMID:26908989

  19. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-26

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  20. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2015-03-08

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  1. [Radiation exposure to personnel in cardiac catheterization laboratories].

    PubMed

    von Boetticher, Heiner; Meenen, Christiane; Lachmund, Jörn; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Engel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Radiation exposure in personnel of cardiac catheterization units is based on local dosimetry during patient investigations. In the present study, dose rates were measured at various heights in representative locations, with and without fixed radiation protection shields in place. To determine the effective dose values, TLD measurements were performed using on Alderson phantom to generate radiation scatter and a second phantom in the position of the cardiologist performing the catheterization. Various types of personal radiation protection garment and fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Our results indicate on one hand that good protective standards can be achieved with effective doses below 1 mSv/year under optimized conditions. On the other hand, inappropriate radiation protection equipment can cause substantial increase of radiation doses. Alone the lack of a thyroid shield increases the effective dose of the cardiologist by a factor of 3. For the personnel, effective doses were generally higher than personal doses by a factor between 1.5 and 4.8 depending on the radiation protection situation. PMID:14732954

  2. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C. NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX )

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs.

  3. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  4. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  5. Atomic veterans and their families: responses to radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B C; Ellis, P; Greenberg, S

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering. PMID:2382693

  6. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. )

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

  7. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J.; Cooper, David E.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  8. Real-Time Cloud, Radiation, and Aircraft Icing Parameters from GOES over the USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Smith, William, Jr.; Young, David; Khaiyer, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Douglas; Doelling, Dave; Phan, Dung; Nowicki, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary new, physically based method for realtime estimation of the probability of icing conditions has been demonstrated using merged GOES-10 and 12 data over the continental United States and southern Canada. The algorithm produces pixel-level cloud and radiation properties as well as an estimate of icing probability with an associated intensity rating Because icing depends on so many different variables, such as aircraft size or air speed, it is not possible to achieve 100% success with this or any other type of approach. This initial algorithm, however, shows great promise for diagnosing aircraft icing and putting it at the correct altitude within 0.5 km most of the time. Much additional research must be completed before it can serve as a reliable input for the operational CIP. The delineation of the icing layer vertical boundaries will need to be improved using either the RUC or balloon soundings or ceilometer data to adjust the cloud base height, a change that would require adjustment of the cloud-top altitude also.

  9. Infrared radiation and stealth characteristics prediction for supersonic aircraft with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Ruixing; Wang, Lei

    2015-11-01

    The infrared radiation (IR) intensity is generally used to embody the stealth characteristics of a supersonic aircraft, which directly affects its survivability in warfare. Under such circumstances, the research on IR signature as an important branch of stealth technology is significant to overcome this threat for survivability enhancement. Considering the existence of uncertainties in material and environment, the IR intensity is indeed a range rather than a specific value. In this paper, subjected to the properties of the IR, an analytic process containing the uncertainty propagation and the reliability evaluation is investigated when taking into account that the temperature of object, the atmospheric transmittance and the spectral emissivity of materials are all regarded as uncertain parameters. For one thing, the vertex method is used to analyze and estimate the dispersion of IR intensity; for another, the safety assessment of the stealth performance for aircraft is conducted by non-probabilistic reliability analysis. For the purpose of the comparison and verification, the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed as well. The validity, usage, and efficiency of the developed methodology are demonstrated by two application examples eventually.

  10. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  11. Radiation exposure to the orthopaedic surgeon during periacetabular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to directly measure the radiation exposure to the orthopaedic surgeon and to measure dose points to the surgeon’s fingers, thyroid gland, and forehead during intraoperative fluoroscopy in periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). In a series of 23 consecutive periacetabular osteotomy procedures, exposure monitoring was carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters. The effective dose received by the operating surgeon was 0.008 mSv per operation which adds up to a yearly dose of 0.64 mSv from PAO. The median point equivalent dose (mSv) exposure under PAO was 0.009 for the forehead and thyroid gland, 0.045 for the right index finger, and 0.039 for the left index finger. The effective estimated yearly dose received by the operating surgeon was very low. Wearing a lead collar reduces radiation exposure to the thyroid gland while the lead gloves did not protect the surgeon’s fingers. PMID:18958467

  12. Romanian medical exposure to ionising radiation in 2012.

    PubMed

    Girjoaba, O; Cucu, A

    2015-07-01

    Medical exposure, the main source of artificial exposure, shows an increasing trend in the last years, manifested both by increasing the number of examinations with ionising radiation and by increasing the patient dose level. Annual results obtained for medical exposure to ionising radiation based on the data collected from Romanian hospitals are useful for the update of the national database and optimisation of diagnostic procedures in radiology and nuclear medicine. Medical exposure level is expressed in terms of annual collective dose and is evaluated from annual frequencies and the average effective dose per procedure for different types of radiological and nuclear medicine procedures. The Romanian hospitals reported during 2012 a number of 5,505,792 radiological examinations and 17,088 diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. Based on the data reported, the average effective doses and their contributions to the collective dose were evaluated. The main contributions to the collective dose of the radiological procedures are registered for CT abdomen and pelvis region, followed by thorax CT and head CT examinations. The next positions are fluoroscopic examination of the thorax and gastrointestinal disease and radiographic examination of the lumbar spine and thorax, which in spite of their low effective dose have an important contribution to the collective dose due to the large number of examinations. For nuclear medicine procedures, major contributions to collective dose are given by bone scintigraphy, followed by PET-CT and thyroid scintigraphy. PMID:25848102

  13. Radiation exposure case management after incorporation of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Goulko, Guennadi; Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    The release of radioactive material due to accidents or terroristic actions can result in radioactive contamination of the environment and may lead to intake and incorporation of radionuclides with the consequence of prolonged radiation exposure. In this case, a decision about countermeasures must be carried out as soon as possible to reduce the resulting radiation dose. In order to be prepared for such a scenario, an Assessment and Documentation System has been developed to support the rapid assessment of internal exposures and to assist in decision making. Radionuclide distributions, excretion rates, and resulting exposures have been calculated on the basis of a reference scenario. The documentation of the results in the form of tables and graphs allows the easy and quick interpretation of measurements in terms of exposure and intake. The system in its present status gives information about possibilities of countermeasures; it is the intention of the next steps of development to give advice on the basis of estimated avertable doses. PMID:24776897

  14. Loss of lifetime due to radiation exposure-averaging problems.

    PubMed

    Raicević, J J; Merkle, M; Ehrhardt, J; Ninković, M M

    1997-04-01

    A new method is presented for assessing a years of life lost (YLL) due to stochastic effects caused by the exposure to ionizing radiation. The widely accepted method from the literature uses a ratio of means of two quantities, defining in fact the loss of life as a derived quantity. We start from the real stochastic nature of the quantity (YLL), which enables us to obtain its mean values in a consistent way, using the standard averaging procedures, based on the corresponding joint probability density functions needed in this problem. Our method is mathematically different and produces lower values of average YLL. In this paper we also found certain similarities with the concept of loss of life expectancy among exposure induced deaths (LLE-EID), which is accepted in the recently published UNSCEAR report, where the same quantity is defined as years of life lost per radiation induced case (YLC). Using the same data base, the YLL and the LLE-EID are calculated and compared for the simplest exposure case-the discrete exposure at age a. It is found that LLE-EID overestimates the YLL, and that the magnitude of this overestimation reaches more than 15%, which depends on the effect under consideration. PMID:9119679

  15. Handler, bystander and reentry exposure to TCDD from application of Agent Orange by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Using validated models and methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the absorbed dosages of Agent Orange (AO) herbicide contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were estimated for mixer/loaders, applicators, and individuals in the vicinity of applications of AO by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War. Resulting dosages of TCDD were then transformed to estimates of adipose residues, and compared to population biomonitoring of known mixer/loaders and applicators as well as ground troops in Vietnam and civilians in the U.S. Results demonstrate that mixer/loaders and applicators had the greatest exposures and their measured residues of TCDD in adipose were consistent with the estimated exposures. Further, the potentially exposed ground troops, including those who could have been directly sprayed during aerial defoliation, had measured adipose residues that were consistent with those in civilian U.S. populations with no defined source of exposure exposures and both of those cohorts had orders of magnitude less exposure than the mixer/loaders or applicators. Despite the availability of validated exposure modeling methods for decades, the quantitative TCDD dose estimates presented here are the first of their kind for the Vietnam conflict. PMID:25461054

  16. Current status of medical radiation exposure in Korea - recent efforts to develop a radiation exposure control system focussed on justification and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Do, K-H; Jung, S E

    2016-06-01

    Radiation exposure from diagnostic medical imaging has increased in Korea. Radiological societies play a key role in radiation safety issues in Korea, including guidelines, accreditation, advocacy, scientific activity, and education. Any medical radiation exposure must be justified, and examinations using ionising radiation must be optimised. Education of referring physicians and radiologists is also important for justification. Medical physicists and radiographers have an important role to play in quality management and optimisation. Regulations are essential to control medical radiation exposure. Therefore, national organisations have made a significant effort to regulate and monitor medical radiation exposure using guidelines, accreditation, and even the law. Medical radiation exposure must be controlled, and this could be achieved by continuous interest from health professionals and organisations. PMID:27026586

  17. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in...

  18. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  19. Aerosol Effects on Radiation and Climate: Column Closure Experiments with Towers, Aircraft, and Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    Many theoretical studies have shown that anthropogenic aerosol particles can change the radiation balance in an atmospheric column and might thereby exert a significant effect on the Earth's climate. In particular, recent calculations have shown that sulfate particles from anthropogenic combustion may already exert a cooling influence on the Earth that partially offsets the warming caused by the greenhouse gases from the same combustion. Despite the potential climatic importance of anthropogenic aerosols, simultaneous measurements of anthropogenic aerosol properties and their effect on atmospheric radiation have been very rare. Successful comparisons of measured radiation fields with those calculated from aerosol measurements - now referred to as column closure comparisons - are required to improve the accuracy and credibility of climate predictions. This paper reviews the column closure experiment performed at the Mt. Sutro Tower in San Francisco in 1975, in which elevated radiometers measured the change in Earth-plus-atmosphere albedo caused by an aerosol layer, while a lidar, sunphotometer, nephelometer, and other radiometers measured properties of the responsible aerosol. The time-dependent albedo calculated from the measured aerosol properties agreed with that measured by the tower radiometers. Also presented are designs for future column closure studies using radiometers and aerosol instruments on the ground, aircraft, and satellites. These designs draw upon algorithms and experience developed in the Sutro Tower study, as well as more recent experience with current measurement and analysis capabilities.

  20. Medical mitigation strategies for acute radiation exposure during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2006-02-01

    The United States Government has recently refocused their space program on manned missions to the Moon by 2018 and later to Mars. While there are many potential risks associated with exploration-class missions, one of the most serious and unpredictable is the effect of acute space radiation exposure, and the space program must make every reasonable effort to mitigate this risk. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Either can cause acute and chronic medical illness. Numerous researchers are currently examining the ability of GCR exposure to induce the development of genetic changes that lead to malignancies and other delayed effects. However, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE event and the potential impact on the mission and crew. This review paper will provide the readers with medical management options for an acute radiation event based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and evidence-based critical analysis of the scientific literature. It is the goal of this paper to stimulate debate regarding the definition of safety parameters for exploration-class missions to determine the level of medical care necessary to provide for the crew that will undertake such missions. PMID:16491581

  1. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  2. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  3. Reduction of radiation exposure during radiography for scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.E.; Hoffman, A.D.; Peterson, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    To reduce the radiation exposure received by young scoliosis patients during treatment, six changes in technique were instituted: (1) a posteroanterior projection, (2) specially designed leaded acrylic filters, (3) a high-speed screen-film system, (4) a specially designed cassette-holder and grid, (5) a breast-shield, and (6) additional filtration in the x-ray tube the thyroid, breast, and abdominal areas were made on an Alderson phantom. They revealed an eightfold reduction in abdominal exposure for both the posteroanterior and the lateral radiographys. There was a twentyfold reduction in exposure to the thyroid for the posteroanterior radiography from 100 to less than five milliroentgens and for the lateral radiograph there was a 100-fold reduction from 618 to six milliroentgens. For the breasts there was a sixty-ninefold reduction from 344 to less than five milliroentgens for the posteroanterior radiography and a fifty-fivefold reduction from 277 to less than five milliroentgens for the lateral radiograph. These reductions in exposure were obtained without significant loss in the quality of the radiographs and in most instances with an improvement in the over-all quality of the radiograph due to the more uniform exposure.

  4. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  5. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts (1949), leukemia (1952) and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intrauterine exposure (1952). No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements (1956), the F1 mortality (1981), cytogenetic studies (1987) or biochemical genetic studies (1988). Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes (1968), and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes (1992). Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia (1995), a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. Also, obligate heterozygote female relatives can be studied for increased susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer, as suggested by clinical studies. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others (1994). The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased

  6. PERMANENT PRIMER/REPLACEABLE TOPCOAT AIRCRAFT COATING SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM VOC AND CHROMIUM EXPOSURE - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase I, Foster-Miller, Inc., will develop the permanent primer replacement topcoat (PPRT), produce coated test panels, and analyze test panels for key performance properties. Topcoat stripping also will be demonstrated. The team includes coating experts and an aircraft ...

  7. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  8. Identification of Gene Expression Biomarkers for Predicting Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Yao; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chuang, Eric Y.

    2014-01-01

    A need for more accurate and reliable radiation dosimetry has become increasingly important due to the possibility of a large-scale radiation emergency resulting from terrorism or nuclear accidents. Although traditional approaches provide accurate measurements, such methods usually require tedious effort and at least two days to complete. Therefore, we provide a new method for rapid prediction of radiation exposure. Eleven microarray datasets were classified into two groups based on their radiation doses and utilized as the training samples. For the two groups, Student's t-tests and resampling tests were used to identify biomarkers, and their gene expression ratios were used to develop a prediction model. The performance of the model was evaluated in four independent datasets, and Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed to characterize the associated biological functions. Our meta-analysis identified 29 biomarkers, showing approximately 90% and 80% accuracy in the training and validation samples. Furthermore, the 29 genes significantly participated in the regulation of cell cycle, and 19 of them are regulated by three well-known radiation-modulated transcription factors: TP53, FOXM1 and ERBB2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable method for identifying biomarkers across independent studies and high and reproducible prediction accuracy was demonstrated in both internal and external datasets. PMID:25189756

  9. Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies.

    PubMed

    Daniels, R D; Taulbee, T D; Chen, P

    2004-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures of 13,475 civilian nuclear shipyard workers were investigated as part of a retrospective mortality study. Estimates of annual, cumulative and collective doses were tabulated for future dose-response analysis. Record sets were assembled and amended through range checks, examination of distributions and inspection. Methods were developed to adjust for administrative overestimates and dose from previous employment. Uncertainties from doses below the recording threshold were estimated. Low-dose protracted radiation exposures from submarine overhaul and repair predominated. Cumulative doses are best approximated by a hybrid log-normal distribution with arithmetic mean and median values of 20.59 and 3.24 mSv, respectively. The distribution is highly skewed with more than half the workers having cumulative doses <10 mSv and >95% having doses <100 mSv. The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. PMID:15266069

  10. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  11. Tidewater and Weather-exposure Tests on Metals Used in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutchler, Willard; Galvin, W G

    1939-01-01

    Tidewater and weather-exposure tests on various aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, and stainless steels are now being conducted by the National Bureau of Standards. Exposures were begun in June 1938 and, according to present plans, are to continue over a 3-year period. The methods of exposure and the materials being investigated are described and the more important results obtained up to the conclusion of the first year's exposure are reported.

  12. Unusual high exposure to ultraviolet-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Andrea; Piovesan, Stefano; Leonardi, Andrea; Bertocco, Matteo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Angelini, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation is known to cause acute and chronic eye and skin damage. The present case report describes a 90 min accidental exposure to UV-C radiation of 26 medical school students. Germicidal lamps were lit due to a malfunctioning of the timer system. Several hours after irradiation exposure, all subjects reported the onset of ocular symptoms, subsequently diagnosed as photokeratitis, and skin damage to the face, scalp and neck. While the ocular symptoms lasted 2-4 days, the sunburn-like condition produced significant erythema followed by deep skin exfoliation. The irradiation was calculated to be approximately 700 mJ cm(-2) absorbed energy, whereas the actual radiation emitted by the lamps was 0.14 mW cm(-2) (the radiometric measurements confirmed these calculi, because the effective irradiance measured from the height of the autopsy table to about 1 m under the UV-C lamp varied from 0.05 to 0.25 mW cm(-2)) but, more likely, the effective irradiance, according to skin phototype and symptoms, was between 50 and 100 mJ cm(-2). The ocular and skin effects produced by such a high irradiation (largely higher than that accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] threshold limit values [TLVs]) appeared reversible in a relatively short time. PMID:17205632

  13. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, B; Casadesus, G; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I; Rabin, B M; Joseph, J A

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. PMID:12577981

  14. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  15. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Overview of ICRP Committee 2: doses from radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Paquet, F

    2016-06-01

    The focus of the work of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the computation of dose coefficients compliant with Publication 103 A set of reference computational phantoms is being developed, based on medical imaging data, and used for radiation transport calculations. Biokinetic models used to describe the behaviour of radionuclides in body tissues are being updated, also leading to changes in organ doses and effective dose coefficients. Dose coefficients for external radiation exposure of adults calculated using the new reference phantoms were issued as Publication 116, jointly with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Forthcoming reports will provide internal dose coefficients for radionuclide inhalation and ingestion by workers, and associated bioassay data. Work is in progress to revise internal dose coefficients for members of the public, and, for the first time, to provide reference values for external exposures of the public. Committee 2 is also working with Committee 3 on dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals, and leading a cross-Committee initiative to give advice on the use of effective dose. PMID:26984902

  17. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  18. MALE REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF SOLVENT AND FUEL EXPOSURE DURING AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies have addressed the effects of mixed, low level exposures to complex mixtures on a man's reproductive potential. In this prospective study, each subject was evaluated prior to first exposure and at 15 and 30 weeks after exposures had begun. A total of 50 men working ...

  19. Comparison of ScaRaB, GOES 8, Aircraft, and Surface Observations of the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Shelly K.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Collins, William D.; Minnis, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Data obtained by the Scanner for Radiation Budget (ScaRaB) instrument on the Meteor 3 satellite have been analyzed and compared to satellite (GOES 8), aircraft (Radiation Measurement System, RAMS), and surface (Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN), Solar and Infrared Observations System (SIROS), and RAMS) measurements of irradiance obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE). It is found that the ScaRaB data covering the period from March 1994 to February 1995 (the instrument's operational lifetime) indicate excess absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere in agreement with previous aircraft, surface, and GOES 8 results. The full ScaRaB data set combined with BSRN and SIROS surface observations gives an average all-sky absorptance of 0.28. The GOES 8 data set combined with RAMS surface observations gives an average all-sky absorptance of 0.26. The aircraft data set (RAMS) gives a mean all-sky absorptance of 0.24 (for the column between 0.5 and 13 km).

  20. Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Silverstein, C.C.

    1994-03-25

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

  1. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S.; Morton, D.N.

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  2. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT

  3. Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

  4. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-11-01

    Within months of Roentgen`s discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F{sub 1} mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Significance of the Atmosphere and Aircraft Operations on Sonic-Boom Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Hilton, David A.

    1965-01-01

    The information of the paper is in the form of a status report on the state of knowledge of sonic-boom phenomena, dealing first with the pressure buildups in the transonic speed range and with the lateral extent of the pattern in steady flight for quiescent atmospheric conditions. There are also discussions of recent data from flight-test studies relating to atmospheric dynamic effects on the sonic-boom signatures, and finally, brief discussions of the significance of signature shape on the response of people and structures. The acceleration and lateral-spread phenomena appear to be fairly well understood and predictable for current and future aircraft. Variations in the sonic-boom signature as a result of the effects of the atmosphere can be expected during routine operations. From the data evaluated to date, very similar variations in pressure signatures are noted for both fighter and bomber aircraft. The greatest questions still exist in the area of community acceptance of sonic booms. A more definitive answer to the community-acceptance problem will have to await adequate flight experience with larger aircraft.

  7. On the Use of SRIM for Computing Radiation Damage Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Was, Gary S.; Certain, Alicia G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, Frank A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  8. Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1989-05-01

    The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs.

  9. On the use of SRIM for computing radiation damage exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, R. E.; Toloczko, M. B.; Was, G. S.; Certain, A. G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, F. A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  10. Discussion of "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins--a source of human exposure?" by Anna Christiansson et al. [Chemosphere 73(10) (2008) 1654-1660].

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in American airline workers. This pilot study did not find elevated total PBDEs in the blood of nine flight attendants and one aircraft pilot who have worked in airplanes for at least the past 5 years. These findings are not consistent with the findings of elevated blood levels of PBDEs from the 2008 Christiansson et al. publication "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins - A source of human exposure?" We agree that more research needs to be done on larger, more representative samples of airline workers to better characterize exposure of airline workers and other frequent flyers to PBDEs. PMID:19863994

  11. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  12. Cognitive function and prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M

    1999-04-01

    It is clear from the many studies of the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that exposure to ionizing radiation during gestation has harmful effects on the developing human brain, particularly if that exposure occurs at critical stages in the development of the neocortex. Data on a variety of measures of cognitive function, including the occurrence of severe mental retardation as well as variation in the intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance, show significant effects on those survivors exposed 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after ovulation. Studies of seizures, primarily those without known precipitating cause, also exhibit a radiation effect on those individuals exposed in the first 16 weeks after ovulation. The cellular and molecular events that subtend these abnormalities are still largely unknown although some progress toward an understanding has occurred. For example, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of some of the mentally retarded survivors has revealed a large region of abnormally situated gray matter, suggesting an abnormality in neuronal migration, but cell killing could also contribute importantly to the effects on cognitive function that have been seen. The retardation of growth in stature observed in individuals exposed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy suggests that the development of an atypically small head size, without conspicuously impaired cognitive function, may reflect a generalized retardation of growth. PMID:10331523

  13. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K; Yoshimaru, H; Otake, M; Annegers, J F; Schull, W J

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to "seizure," "epilepsy," or "convulsion." Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures. PMID:2293744

  14. Radiation exposures for DOE contractor employees-1988. Twenty-first annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S. E.; Millet, W. H.; Traub, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  15. Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1989. Twenty-second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. H.; Eschbach, P. A.; Harty, R.; Millet, W. H.; Scholes, V. A.

    1992-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  16. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to...

  17. Clinical distinctions of radiation sickness with exposure of different parts of the human body to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaya, G.F.; Abramova, G.M.; Volkova, M.A.; Kavlycheva, Y.V.; Skorik, A.S.; Yurogov, V.V.

    1982-01-12

    The clinical picture of radiation sickness of 139 radiological patients exposed to local irradition of the head, chest, and stomach with efficient doses of 210 rad was examined. It was found that at fractionated local irraditions the clinical symptom-complex of radiation sickness was identifical to that seen as a result of total-body irradiation. During head irradiation the major symptom was headache and during stomach irradiation nausea. The severity level of radiation damage measured with respect to the clinical symptom-complex as a whole with the aid of the bioinformation model was similar during irradiations of the head and stomach, much higher during irradiation of the chest. During head and stomach irradiations the severity level of radiation damage was proportional to the efficient dose. During chest irradiation there was no correlation between the severity level and the exposure to doses of 210 rad.

  18. Average radiation exposure values for three diagnostic radiographic examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Rueter, F.G.; Conway, B.J.; McCrohan, J.L.; Suleiman, O.H. )

    1990-11-01

    National surveys of more than 600 facilities that performed chest, lumbosacral spine, and abdominal examinations were conducted as a part of the Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends program. Radiation exposures were measured with use of a set of standard phantoms developed by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Public Health Service. X-ray equipment parameters, film processing data, and data regarding techniques used were collected. There were no differences in overall posteroanterior chest exposures between hospitals and private practices. Seventy-six percent of hospitals used grids, compared with 33% of private practices. In general, hospitals favored a high tube voltage technique, and private facilities favored a low tube voltage technique. Forty-one percent of private practices and 17% of hospitals underprocessed their film. Underprocessing in hospitals increased from 17% in 1984 to 33% in 1987. Average exposure values for these examinations may be useful as guidelines in meeting some of the new requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

  19. Blue Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from Infant Phototherapy Equipment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Bogi, Andrea; Picciolo, Francesco; Stacchini, Nicola; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Bellieni, Carlo V

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is the use of light for reducing the concentration of bilirubin in the body of infants. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of phototherapy applications seems to be necessary for improved clinical practices and outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to Optical Radiation from different types of phototherapy devices in clinical use in Italy. During infant phototherapy the staff monitors babies periodically for around 10 min every hour, and fixation of the phototherapy beam light frequently occurs: almost all operators work within 30 cm of the phototherapy source during monitoring procedures, with most of them commonly working at ≤25 cm from the direct or reflected radiation beam. The results of this study suggest that there is a great variability in the spectral emission of equipments investigated, depending on the types of lamps used and some phototherapy equipment exposes operators to blue light photochemical retinal hazard. Some of the equipment investigated presents relevant spectral emission also in the UVA region. Taking into account that the exposure to UV in childhood has been established as an important contributing factor for melanoma risk in adults and considering the high susceptibility to UV-induced skin damage of the newborn, related to his pigmentary traits, the UV exposure of the infant during phototherapy should be "as low as reasonably achievable," considering that it is unnecessary to the therapy. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees: in particular, protective eyewear can be necessary during newborn assistance activities carried out in proximity of some sources. The engineering design of phototherapy equipment can be optimized. Specific requirements for photobiological safety of lamps used in the phototherapy equipment should be defined in the safety product standard for such

  20. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  2. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  4. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  5. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  6. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  7. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  8. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain...

  9. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  10. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  11. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

  12. A suggested limit for population exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, D F

    1983-07-01

    Unlike a number of other nations, the U.S. does not currently have guidelines for the exposure of the public to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. In order to determine whether the current data base was sufficient to support an interim determination of a limit for population exposure to RF radiation (0.5 MHz-100 GHz), a critical and comprehensive review of the available literature on the biological effects of RF radiation was recently completed. In the analysis of this data, a number of simplifying assumptions had to be employed; among them was the use of the specific absorption rate (SAR) as the mass-normalized, frequency-independent measure of RF energy input into biological systems. The biological effects reported in acceptable studies were assessed in terms of their associations with (1) core temperature increases, (2) SAR, (3) SAR as a percentage increase over resting metabolic rate, and (4) direct evidence for human effects. Based on information now available and analyzed from these four perspectives, a conservative SAR threshold value of approx. 0.4 W/kg is apparent. Since the unknowns and uncertainties are potentially significant, one might consider, from the standpoint of prudence, the further application of a safety factor of 10. Given the present state of knowledge, the resultant SAR limit of 0.04 W/kg is, in the author's opinion, unlikely to be associated with the adverse health effects in the general population. This SAR translates into a power density of approximately 200 mu W/cm2 in the human resonant frequency range of 30-300 MHz. PMID:6347972

  13. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  14. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening. PMID:24180775

  15. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

  16. Radiation exposure: Hot legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1990-08-03

    The article tells about the routine management of nuclear safety in the U.S.S.R. and, more specifically, about the hazards of long-term exposure to big doses of radiation. Half the workers at the Cheliabinsk site in the Ural Mountains east of Moscow were routinely receiving 100 rem per year in the late 1940s and early 1950s. For comparison, this is about 20 times the maximum annual dose a worker is allowed to get in the United States today. The consequences of the very large doses to workers in the U.S.S.R. are not fully revealed. But the report mentions that 8 to 9% of the staff who began work before 1958 and received high radiation doses (more than 100 rem) die of cancer. In addition, the report says that nearly a quarter of the workers between 1950 and 1952 were suffering from chronic radiation disease. Cancer mortality among severely exposed workers (100 rem and above) was 88% higher than among those who received less than 100 rem.

  17. Theory and Apparatus for Measurement of Emissivity for Radiative Cooling of Hypersonic Aircraft with Data for Inconel and Inconel X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, William J , Jr; Wade, William R

    1957-01-01

    The importance of radiation as a means of cooling high-supersonic- and hypersonic-speed aircraft is discussed to show the need for measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces. The theory underlying the measurement of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces is presented, readily duplicable apparatus for performing the measurements is described, and measurements for stably oxidized Inconel and Inconel X are given for the temperature range from 600 F to 2,000 F.

  18. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela; Marsac, Kara; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  19. Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B; Weng, Connie C Y; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  20. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  1. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1994-11-01

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups.

  2. REAL-TIME AND INTEGRATED MEASUREMENT OF POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) FROM AIRCRAFT EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers were used to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. Three...

  3. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  4. Radiation exposures during space flight and their measurement.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Henke, R P

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews radiation exposures recorded during space flights of the US and USSR. Most of the data are from manned missions and include discussion of absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as altitude, inclination, spacecraft type and shielding. Preliminary data exist on the neutron and HZE-particle component, as well as the LET spectra. For low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence upon inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. Complete shielding from the galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. PMID:11542745

  5. Radiation Exposure and the Risk of Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It has been more than three years since the unprecedentedly massive earthquake and tsunami struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and the large accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To investigate the influence of radiation exposure, thyroid ultrasonography has been provided preliminarily for 360,000 children who lived in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident. As of September 2013, 59 children had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer by fine-needle aspiration cytology, and 34 children had been treated surgically and ultimately diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer. Here, I would like to describe the characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer and typical thyroid images obtained by ultrasonography. PMID:25110391

  6. 21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke; Clowdsley, Martha; Wilson, John; Nealy, John; Luetke, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.

  7. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  8. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  9. Preconception exposure to mutagens: medical and other exposures to radiation and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, John J

    2012-07-01

    Contrary to intuition, no environmental exposure has been proved to cause human germ line mutations that manifest as heritable disease in the offspring, not among the children born to survivors of the American atomic bombs in Japan nor in survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood who receive intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Even the smallest of recent case series had sufficient statistical power to exclude, with the usual assumptions, an increase as small as 20 % over baseline rates. One positive epidemiologic study of a localized epidemic of Down syndrome in Hungary found an association with periconceptual exposure to a pesticide used in fish farming, trichlorfon. Current population and occupational guidelines to protect against genetic effects of ionizing radiation should continue, with the understanding they are based on extrapolations from mouse experiments and mostly on males. Presently, pre-conceptual counseling for possible germ cell mutation due to the environment can be very reassuring, at least based on, in a sense, the worst-case exposures of cancer survivors. Prudence demands further study. Future work will address the issue with total genomic sequencing and epigenomic analysis. PMID:22752838

  10. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  11. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  12. Personalized Cancer Risk Assessments for Space Radiation Exposures.

    PubMed

    Locke, Paul A; Weil, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in their susceptibility to radiogenic cancers, and there is evidence that this inter-individual susceptibility extends to HZE ion-induced carcinogenesis. Three components of individual risk: sex, age at exposure, and prior tobacco use, are already incorporated into the NASA cancer risk model used to determine safe days in space for US astronauts. Here, we examine other risk factors that could potentially be included in risk calculations. These include personal and family medical history, the presence of pre-malignant cells that could undergo malignant transformation as a consequence of radiation exposure, the results from phenotypic assays of radiosensitivity, heritable genetic polymorphisms associated with radiosensitivity, and postflight monitoring. Inclusion of these additional risk or risk reduction factors has the potential to personalize risk estimates for individual astronauts and could influence the determination of safe days in space. We consider how this type of assessment could be used and explore how the provisions of the federal Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act could impact the collection, dissemination and use of this information by NASA. PMID:26942127

  13. Personalized Cancer Risk Assessments for Space Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Paul A.; Weil, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in their susceptibility to radiogenic cancers, and there is evidence that this inter-individual susceptibility extends to HZE ion-induced carcinogenesis. Three components of individual risk: sex, age at exposure, and prior tobacco use, are already incorporated into the NASA cancer risk model used to determine safe days in space for US astronauts. Here, we examine other risk factors that could potentially be included in risk calculations. These include personal and family medical history, the presence of pre-malignant cells that could undergo malignant transformation as a consequence of radiation exposure, the results from phenotypic assays of radiosensitivity, heritable genetic polymorphisms associated with radiosensitivity, and postflight monitoring. Inclusion of these additional risk or risk reduction factors has the potential to personalize risk estimates for individual astronauts and could influence the determination of safe days in space. We consider how this type of assessment could be used and explore how the provisions of the federal Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act could impact the collection, dissemination and use of this information by NASA. PMID:26942127

  14. The radiation exposure compensation act: what is fair?

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Goble, Rob

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 the U.S. Congress passed a law providing compensation to former uranium miners who became ill while the U.S. Government was the sole purchaser of uranium. Ten years later, in 2000, the law was amended to correct widely perceived problems. We reviewed the content of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) laws and regulations, cataloged complaints about the 1990 law, compared the law to the scientific knowledge base in 1990 and in the present, reviewed the 2000 amendments to RECA, and drew lessons about how such compensation programs might be better structured. We concur with popular sentiment that the 1990 law had numerous flaws, the central one being that it failed to compensate many miners who by most other standards would have been deemed deserving. This problem arose through setting exposure criteria very high (at six to 15 times elevated risk), with a disproportionate burden placed on miners who had smoked. The additional burden on smokers was exacerbated by a very stringent definition of smokers (one pack-year in a lifetime). Federal compensation laws should prioritize payment to deserving claimants rather than excluding un-deserving claimants. Thus, a doubling of risk should be an upper limit for setting an eligibility threshold and a lower "significant contributory effect" standard could be considered more appropriate. Uncertainties in exposure and in dose response should be considered and resolved with a bias toward compensation. Beyond setting appropriate criteria, an active effort is needed to inform potentially eligible people and to assist them in qualifying; the eligibility criteria and the requirements for documentation should be appropriate for Native Americans and other cultural groups. Built-in evaluation mechanisms are needed for all compensation programs to assess whether they are meeting their stated objectives. PMID:17208740

  15. An Empirical Approach to the Measurement of the Cosmic Radiation Field at Jet Aircraft Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, B. J.; Kitching, F.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.

    With the publication number 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 and the subsequent recognition that jet aircrew are routinely and occupationally exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation, various research groups (in Canada and in the European Union) have been involved in the survey of aircrew and measurement of cosmic radiation at jet altitudes. The group at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) first surveyed air force pilots and then aircrew of six Canadian airlines, using neutron-sensitive bubble detectors. In addition, equipment was flown in the cargo area on several scientific flights, including one in which a multi-sphere neutron spectrometer was used to measure the neutron spectrum at altitude. Successive flights included a more portable equipment suite consisting of passive and active (battery-operated) equipment, such as bubble detectors and TLDs, and an ion chamber and neutron counters, respectively, along with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The summation of the low and high LET results from the former equipment compared successfully to those from the TEPC on each flight. The data from numerous flights worldwide were then encapsulated into a program that calculates the radiation dose for any flight in the world at any period in the solar cycle. This experimentally-based program, Predictive Code for AIrcrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been designed to be used by the airline industry to meet national dosimetry requirements. In Canada, for example, such a code can be used, supported by periodic measurements. With this latter requirement in mind and a desire to decrease equipment size, the LIULIN instrument has been flown and compared to the TEPC. Our evaluation of the LIULIN will be presented.

  16. Radiation Exposure in X-Ray and CT Examinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures. See the X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety page for more information. top of page ... and Radiation Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Radiation Dose in X- ...

  17. Radiation Exposure in Nonvascular Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kloeckner, Roman; Bersch, Anton; Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael Bernhard

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the radiation exposure in non-vascular fluoroscopy guided interventions and to search strategies for dose reduction. Materials and Methods: Dose area product (DAP) of 638 consecutive non-vascular interventional procedures of one year were analyzed with respect to different types of interventions; gastrointestinal tract, biliary interventions, embolizations of tumors and hemorrhage. Data was analyzed with special focus on the fluoroscopy doses and frame doses. The third quartiles (Q3) of fluoroscopy dose values were defined in order to set a reference value for our in-hospital practice. Results: Mean fluoroscopy times of gastrostomy, jejunostomy, right and left sided percutaneous biliary drainage, chemoembolization of the liver and embolization due to various hemorrhages were 5.9, 8.6, 13.5, 16.6, 17.4 and 25.2 min, respectively. The respective Q3 total DAP were 52.9, 73.3, 155.1, 308.4, 428.6 and 529.3 Gy*cm{sup 2}. Overall, around 66% of the total DAP originated from the radiographic frames with only 34% of the total DAP applied by fluoroscopy (P < 0.001). The investigators experience had no significant impact on the total DAP applied, most likely since there was no stratification to intervention-complexity. Conclusion: To establish Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), there is a need to establish a registry of radiation dose data for the most commonly performed procedures. Documentation of interventional procedures by fluoroscopy 'grabbing' has the potential to considerably reduce radiation dose applied and should be used instead of radiographic frames whenever possible.

  18. Long-Term Differential Changes in Mouse Intestinal Metabolomics after γ and Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Singh, Rajbir; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Tissue consequences of radiation exposure are dependent on radiation quality and high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation, such as heavy ions in space is known to deposit higher energy in tissues and cause greater damage than low-LET γ radiation. While radiation exposure has been linked to intestinal pathologies, there are very few studies on long-term effects of radiation, fewer involved a therapeutically relevant γ radiation dose, and none explored persistent tissue metabolomic alterations after heavy ion space radiation exposure. Using a metabolomics approach, we report long-term metabolomic markers of radiation injury and perturbation of signaling pathways linked to metabolic alterations in mice after heavy ion or γ radiation exposure. Intestinal tissues (C57BL/6J, female, 6 to 8 wks) were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) two months after 2 Gy γ radiation and results were compared to an equitoxic 56Fe (1.6 Gy) radiation dose. The biological relevance of the metabolites was determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profile analysis showed radiation-type-dependent spatial separation of the groups. Decreased adenine and guanosine and increased inosine and uridine suggested perturbed nucleotide metabolism. While both the radiation types affected amino acid metabolism, the 56Fe radiation preferentially altered dipeptide metabolism. Furthermore, 56Fe radiation caused upregulation of ‘prostanoid biosynthesis’ and ‘eicosanoid signaling’, which are interlinked events related to cellular inflammation and have implications for nutrient absorption and inflammatory bowel disease during space missions and after radiotherapy. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that metabolomics can not only be used to distinguish between heavy ion and γ radiation exposures, but also as a radiation

  19. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  20. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  1. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  2. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation...

  3. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  4. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  5. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  6. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  7. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  8. 47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. 2.1091 Section 2.1091 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  10. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section 35.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by Part 20 of this chapter, a licensee...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  13. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record...

  14. Radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid gland during percutaneous wiring of wrist and hand procedures.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Syah; Morris, Seamus; Broe, David; Taylor, Colm; Lenehan, Brian; McElwain, John

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation exposure of the hands and thyroid glands of orthopaedic surgeon and assistant during procedures involving percutaneous wiring of the hand and wrist. The radiation dose to the hand and thyroid glands was prospectively studied from a total of 30 percutaneous hand and wrist procedures. Four thermolucent densitometers were used to measure the radiation exposure. Cases were divided depending on fracture location (ie. wrist, metacarpal, phalangeal) and surgical experience (i.e. Senior House Officer, Registrar, Consultant). Mean radiation exposure in the hand for the surgeon was 0.80 mSv and 0.87 mSv for the assistant. There was a significant difference in the unshielded thyroid group compared to the shielded thyroid group (p < 0.05). The duration and number of exposure decreases with increasing experience. We also found a trend whereas we operate from proximal to distal (wrist to phalangeal), the total direct hand exposure increases. Radiation exposure in the hands and thyroid glands during percutaneous wiring of hand and wrist procedures were within the recommended limit. However, for the junior orthopaedic trainee, the risk of over radiating oneself is higher as the duration and number of exposure increases. We recommended the use of thyroid shield and adherence to the ALARA principle in any fluoroscopic assisted procedures. Routine monitoring of radiation exposure is essential in preventing radiation related disease. PMID:16768265

  15. Fetal Implications of Diagnostic Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy: Evidence-based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Green, Victoria; Lindsay, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fetal and long-term implications of diagnostic radiation exposure during pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for radiologic imaging modalities utilizing exposure of diagnostic radiation during pregnancy, including conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and contrast-enhanced mammography are described. PMID:26982251

  16. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  18. Radiation exposure to human trachea from Xenon-133 procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Metz, C.D.; Atkins, H.L. ||

    1995-08-01

    The general dosimetry of {sup 133}Xe for human studies is well documented, but the resultant radiation exposure to tracheal tissue is poorly known. This organ is of central relevance because the tracer is primarily eliminated through exhalation. We report actual {sup 133}Xe concentrations in respiratory air during measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), when the tracer is administered both by inhalation and intravenous injection. Data were collected from 102 patients, with equal gender representation and an age range of 18-82 yr. Most of the patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage or Alzheimer`s disease or were normal control subjects. Average administered doses were 18 {plus_minus} 4 mCi by inhalation and 15 {plus_minus} 3 intravenously. We found average respiratory concentrations of about 1.80 mCi/liter during a 1-min inhalation and 0.74 mCi/liter following intravenous injection of standard doses. These activities drop rapidly: average respiratory concentrations during the second minute are 0.70 mCi/liter for inhalation and 0.19 mCi/liter for intravenous injection and reach negligible levels thereafter. We calculate that the tracheal absorbed dose from {sup 133}Xe procedures is approximately 28 mrad following inhalation and about 11 mrad following intravenous injection. These values reflect the full 11-min exposure, but most of the activity is only present initially. These values will agree with previous estimates and indicate an excellent safety margin. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  20. A study of ethylene glycol exposure and kidney function of aircraft de-icing workers.

    PubMed

    Gérin, M; Patrice, S; Bégin, D; Goldberg, M S; Vyskocil, A; Adib, G; Drolet, D; Viau, C

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene glycol levels were measured in 154 breathing zone air samples and in 117 urine samples of 33 aviation workers exposed to de-icing fluid (basket operators, de-icing truck drivers, leads and coordinators) studied during 42 worker-days over a winter period of 2 months at a Montreal airport. Ethylene glycol as vapour did not exceed 22 mg/m3 (mean duration of samples 50 min). Mist was quantified at higher levels in 3 samples concerning 1 coordinator and 2 basket operators (76-190 mg/m3, 45-118 min). In 16 cases workers' post-shift or next-morning urine contained quantities of ethylene glycol exceeding 5 mmol/mol creatinine (up to 129 mmol/mol creatinine), with most of these instances occurring in basket operators and coordinators, some of whom did not wear paper masks and/or were accidentally sprayed with de-icing fluid. Diethylene glycol was also found in a few air and urinary samples at levels around one tenth those of ethylene glycol. Urinary concentrations of albumin, beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, beta-2-microglobulin and retinol-binding protein were measured and compared over various periods, according to subgroups based on exposure level and according to the frequency of extreme values. These analyses did not demonstrate acute or chronic kidney damage that could be attributed to working in the presence of ethylene glycol. In conclusion, this study does not suggest important health effects of exposure to de-icing fluid in this group of workers. Potential for overexposure exists, however, in certain work situations, and recommendations on preventive measures are given. In addition, these results suggest that other routes of absorption than inhalation, such as the percutaneous route, may be important and that urinary ethylene glycol may be a useful indicator of exposure to ethylene glycol. PMID:9138000

  1. [Relationship to Carcinogenesis of Repetitive Low-Dose Radiation Exposure].

    PubMed

    Ootsuyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    We studied the carcinogenic effects caused by repetitive irradiation at a low dose, which has received attention in recent years, and examined the experimental methods used to evaluate radiation-induced carcinogenesis. For this experiment, we selected a mouse with as few autochthonous cancers as possible. Skin cancer was selected as the target for analysis, because it is a rare cancer in mice. Beta-rays were selected as the radiation source. The advantage of using beta-rays is weaker penetration power into tissues, thus protecting organs, such as the digestive and hematogenous organs. The benefit of our experimental method is that only skin cancer requires monitoring, and it is possible to perform long-term experiments. The back skin of mice was exposed repetitively to beta-rays three times a week until the occurrence of cancer or death, and the dose per exposure ranged from 0.5 to 11.8 Gy. With the high-dose range (2.5-11.8 Gy), the latency period and carcinogenic rate were almost the same in each experimental group. When the dose was reduced to 1-1.5 Gy, the latency period increased, but the carcinogenic rate remained. When the dose was further reduced to 0.5 Gy, skin cancer never happened, even though we continued irradiation until death of the last mouse in this group. The lifespan of 0.5 Gy group mice was the same as that of the controls. We showed that the 0.5 Gy dose did not cause cancer, even in mice exposed repetitively throughout their life span, and thus refer to 0.5 Gy as the threshold-like dose. PMID:27302731

  2. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  3. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  4. [Estimation of the radiation risk of determined effects of human exposure in space].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Vasina, Iu I; Vlasov, A G; Shurshakov, V A

    2001-01-01

    Subject of the paper is possibility to estimate radiation risk of determined consequences of exposure to solar space rays as a probability of violation of established dose limits. Analysis of specifies of spacecrew exposure to solar space rays in a long-term, particularly interplanetary mission suggests that immediate introduction of the principle in the radiation health policy can result in serious errors, mainly exaggeration, in determination of radiation risk. Proposed are approaches to radiation risk estimation with consideration of the specific of human exposure in space. PMID:11915752

  5. Radiation exposure benefit of a lead cap in invasive cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Kuon, E; Birkel, J; Schmitt, M; Dahm, J B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Occupational head exposure to radiation in cardiologists may cause radiation induced cataracts and an increased risk of brain cancer. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 0.5 mm lead equivalent caps, not previously used in invasive cardiology, in comparison with a 1.0 mm lead equivalent ceiling mounted lead glass screen. Design: An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was used to represent the patient. Scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator position (S-ESAK-O) was measured during fluoroscopy for all standard angulations and the S-ESAK-O per dose–area product (DAP) calculated, as applied to the phantom. Results: Measured mean (SD) left/right anterior oblique angulation ratios of S-ESAK-O without lead devices were 23.1 (10.1), and varied as a function of tube angulation, body height, and angle of incidence. S-ESAK-O/DAP decreased with incremental operator body height by 10 (3)% per 10 cm. A 1.0 mm lead glass shield reduced mean S-ESAK-O/DAP originating from coronary angiography from 1089 (764) to 54 (29) nSv/Gy × cm2. A 0.5 mm lead cap was effective in lowering measured levels to 1.8 (1.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. Both devices together enabled attenuation to 0.5 (0.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. The most advantageous line of vision for protection of the operator’s eyes was ⩾ 60° rightward. Conclusions: Use of 0.5 mm lead caps proved highly effective, attenuating S-ESAK-O to 2.7 (2.0) × 10−3 of baseline, and to 1.2 (1.4) × 10−3 of baseline where there was an additional 1.0 mm lead glass shield. These results could vary according to the x ray systems used, catheterisation protocols, and correct use of radiation protection devices. PMID:12975420

  6. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed.

  7. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  8. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the dermis upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  9. Does iodinated contrast medium amplify DNA damage during exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a recognized increased risk of cancer following exposure of humans to ionizing radiation; this is felt to be most likely due to damage to DNA strands during exposure. Damage to DNA strands can be demonstrated microscopically following exposure to X-rays, and new evidence is emerging that this effect may be compounded by administration of iodinated contrast agents. PMID:26234959

  10. TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN THE UNRESTRAINED RABBIT DURING EXPOSURE TO 600 MHZ RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six male New Zealand white rabbits were individually exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 90 min in a waveguide exposure system at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 20 or 30 C. Immediately after exposure, the rabbit was removed from the exposure chamber and its colon...

  11. A comparison of cloud radiation fields obtained by in-situ aircraft measurements and a numerical simulation of a tropical mesoscale convective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Takmeng; Stackhouse, Paul; Stephens, Graeme; Valero, Francisco

    1990-01-01

    The radiation budget of a tropical mesoscale convective system (MCS) is investigated by comparing in situ aircraft measurements obtained in a tropical MCS during the Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment (EMEX), and coordinated aircraft radiation measurements, with radiation profiles calculated using cloud properties obtained from a cloud model simulation of a tropical MCS. Preliminary results indicate that the stratiform region of the tropical System B simulation represents the gross properties of the observed stratiform system between 4.5 to 15 km. The flux profiles predicted by the model are consistent with observed fluxes.

  12. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  13. Prostatic artery embolization: radiation exposure to patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Garzón, W J; Andrade, G; Dubourcq, F; Abud, D G; Bredow, M; Khoury, H J; Kramer, R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses to patients and staff received from the first cases of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) conducted in a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. Five PAE procedures for 5 men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were investigated. In order to characterize patient exposure, dosimetric quantities, such as the air kerma-area product (P KA), the cumulative air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r), the number of images, etc, were registered. To evaluate the possibility for deterministic effects, the peak skin dose (PSD) was measured using radiochromic films. For evaluation of personal dose equivalent and effective dose to the medical staff, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-100) were used. The effective dose was estimated using the double dosimetry alghoritm of von Boetticher. The results showed that the mean patient's PSD per procedure was 2674.2 mGy. With regard to the medical staff, the mean, minimum and maximum effective doses estimated per procedure were: 18 μSv, 12 μSv and 21 μSv respectively. High personal equivalent doses were found for the feet, hands and lens of the eye, due to the use of multiple left anterior oblique projections and the improper use of the suspended lead screen and the lead curtain during procedures. PMID:27025551

  14. Radiation exposure guidelines for cleanup: Sickness in Mudville

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in retrospective construction of the radiation exposure doses that might possibly be or have been received by workers and members of the Population surrounding a nuclear industrial site continues to gain momentum. The reasons for the increased enthusiasm for decontamination, decommissioning, and environmental restoration (DD&ER) are not so much attributed to realistic cause-effect phenomena but more to a public apprehension based on the current desire to live in a no-risk society. The apprehension is magnified by political and economic interests plus the ever-present litigiousness. Regardless of the reason, it is an exciting field of science, it deals with the environment, which is important to every individual, and it ultimately leads to a more acceptable living condition for the populace involved. Some regulations have caused the cleanup process to essentially stagnate, awaiting the satisfaction of those who are making judgments on how clean is clean. However, there is seemingly little that can be accomplished to circumvent the bureaucratic processes, so a stalemate exists. In addition, the entire DD&ER process has been lucrative, and if one were to balance the weight of documentation that has been produced against the weight of the cleaned up environment to date, the result would be alarming.

  15. Possible future trends of radiation exposure by carbon 14.

    PubMed

    Matthies, M; Paretzke, H G

    1982-01-01

    The possible future trends of the radiation exposure by carbon 14 have been assessed. The individual lifetime doses and the European and global dose commitments were calculated by a specific activity model. A non-linear compartment model was developed so simulate the global cycling of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels and of radiocarbon released from nuclear energy facilities until the year 2200. The energy scenarios considered are: (I) logistic growth functions for energy supply with fossil fuels; (II) a high, low and moderate estimate for the extension of nuclear energy (light water reactors). In addition, the influence of the retention of C-14 in the fuel reprocessing plant effluents was tested. For most of the scenarios considered the increase of the specific activity by C-14 releases is more than compensated by the CO2 releases from fossil fuels. Up to 2200 individual lifetime dose commitments for 70 years were found between 0.85 and 0.45 mSv (pre-industrial value: 0.73 mSv). The anthropogenic contributions to the global collective dose commitments until the year 2100 were estimated (for the moderate scenario without retention) at 1.27 X 10(6) man-Sv (11%) from nuclear weapon tests, 3.5 X 10(5) man-Sv (3%) from nuclear power plants, and 6.5 X 10(5) man-Sv (5.6%) from fuel reprocessing facilities. PMID:7111683

  16. Radiation exposure in body computed tomography examinations of trauma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Kiljunen, T.; Kangasmäki, A.

    2006-06-01

    Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma patients. The CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were determined, and the influence of patient size was applied as a correction factor to calculated doses. The patient size was estimated from the patient weight as the effective radius based on the analysis from the axial images of abdominal and thoracic regions. The calculated mean CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were 15.2 mGy, 431 mGy cm and 6.5 mSv for the thorax scan, and 18.5 mGy, 893 mGy cm and 14.8 mSv for the abdomen scan, respectively. The doses in the thorax and abdomen scans taking the patient size into account were 34% and 9% larger than the standard dose quantities, respectively. The use of patient size in dose estimation is recommended in order to provide realistic data for evaluation of the radiation exposure in CT, especially for paediatric patients and smaller adults.

  17. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Only two of the fecal specimens collected inflight during the Apollo 15 mission were returned for analysis. Difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate radiation dose estimates based on the cosmogenic radionuclide content of the specimens was encountered due to the limited sampling. The concentrations of Na-22, K-40, Cr-51, Fe-59, and Cs-137 are reported. The concentrations of 24 major, minor, and trace elements in these two specimens were determined. Most concentrations are typical of those observed previously. Major exceptions are extremely low values for selenium and extraordinarily high values for rare earth elements. The net Po-210 activities in the Apollo 11 and 12 Solar Wind Composition foils and in the Apollo 8 and 12 spacecraft reflective coatings due to lunar exposure have been determined. Equilibrium concentrations of 0.082 + or - 0.012 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Rn-222 in the lunar atmosphere and 0.0238 + or - 0.0035 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Po-210 on the lunar surface have been calculated for Oceanus Procellarum.

  18. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE)

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Minnis, Patrick; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett C.; Doelling, David R.; Smith, William L. Jr.; Dong, Xiquan

    2000-02-27

    Data sets acquired during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) using simultaneous measurements from five independent platforms (GOES 8 geostationary satellite, ER-2, Egrett and Twin Otter aircraft, and surface) are analyzed and compared. A consistent data set can be built for selected days during ARESE on the basis of the observations from these platforms. The GOES 8 albedos agree with the ER 2, Egrett, and Twin Otter measured instantaneous albedos within 0.013{+-}0.016, 0.018{+-}0.032, and 0.006{+-}0.011, respectively. It is found that for heavy overcast conditions the aircraft measurements yield an absorptance of 0.32{+-}0.03 for the layer between the aircraft (0.5-13 km), while the GOES 8 albedo versus surface transmittance analysis gives an absorptance of 0.33{+-}0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated by model calculations for overcast conditions varies between 0.16 and 0.24, depending on the model used and on cloud and aerosol implementation. These results are in general agreement with recent findings for cloudy skies, but here a data set that brings together independent simultaneous observations (satellite, surface, and aircraft) is used. Previous ARESE results are reexamined in light of the new findings, and it is concluded that the overcast absorptance in the 0.224-0.68 {mu}m spectral region ranges between 0.04{+-}0.06 and 0.08{+-}0.06, depending on the particular case analyzed. No evidence of excess clear-sky absorption beyond model and experimental errors is found. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.21 - Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to radiation in restricted areas. 50-204.21 Section 50-204.21 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.21 Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no employer...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.21 - Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to radiation in restricted areas. 50-204.21 Section 50-204.21 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.21 Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no employer...

  1. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.C.; Olson, A.P.; Steeg, C.N.; Casarella, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20-25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted.

  2. Radiation exposure to the pediatric patient during cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Emphasis on the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.C.; Olson, A.P.; Steeg, C.N.; Casarella, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to measure the radiation exposure to the skin, thyroid and gonads in 50 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and angiocariography using cine photofluorography. Average exposures were 17.1 R to the skin, 2.3 R to the thyroid and 0.1 R to the gonads. Fluoroscopy accounted for approximately 80% of the skin and thyroid exposure and cine photofluorography for 20 to 25%. Occasional primary-beam irradiation was the major contributor to gonad exposure. Internal scatter of the incident x-ray beam was primarily responsible for thyroid exposure, so that infants received relatively high exposures; one receiving 7.3 R. The thyroid was not frequently in the primary beam. The significance of high radiation exposure to the thyroid, and in particular its relationship to thyroid carcinoma, are discussed. The results are compared with other series in the literature and relative exposures of cine photofluorography and serial filming are contrasted.

  3. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  4. An experimental measurement of galactic cosmic radiation dose in conventional aircraft between San Francisco and London compared to theoretical values for conventional and supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R.; Boyer, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    These direct measurements are in fair agreement with computations made using a program which considers both basic cosmic ray atmospheric physics and the focusing effect of the earth's magnetic field. These measurements also agree with those made at supersonic jet aircraft altitudes in Rb-57 aircraft. It is concluded that experiments and theory show that the doses received at conventional jet aircraft altitudes are slightly higher than those encountered in supersonic flights at much higher altitudes.

  5. Computer subroutines for estimation of human exposure to radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer subroutines to calculate human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry by spherical shell shields of varying thickness are presented and detailed. The subroutines calculate the dose to critical body organs and the fraction of exposure limit reached as a function of altitude of orbit, degree of inclination, shield thickness, and days in mission. Exposure rates are compared with current exposure limits.

  6. Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.

  7. Trimming Exposure Data, Putting Radiation Workers at Risk: Improving Disclosure and Consent Through a National Radiation Dose-Registry

    PubMed Central

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, regulatory standards allow workers to be exposed to ionizing radiation that can cause 1 additional cancer fatality per 400 workers per year. Because radiation-dose limits cover only single sources (e.g., a nuclear plant) or exposure classes (workplace, medical, or public) and are defined for average occupational exposure, workers typically do not know their precise cumulative, individual, and relative risks from radiation. Nevertheless, this information is necessary for informed consent, because most scientists say radiation effects are cumulative and linear with no risk threshold. To promote public health, informed consent, and better understanding of the effects of low-dose radiation, I argue for a multistage National Radiation-Dose Registry, beginning with cumulative, individual worker doses. PMID:17761581

  8. Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement on radiation exposure from cardiac imaging and interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Madhu K; Paul, Narinder; Mercuri, Mathew; Waller, Edward J; Leipsic, Jonathon; Traboulsi, Mouhieddin; Banijamali, Hamid S; Benson, Lee; Sheth, Tej N; Simpson, Christopher S; Brydie, Allan; Love, Michael P; Gallo, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a consequence of many diagnostic and interventional cardiac procedures. Radiation exposure can result in detrimental health effects because of deterministic (eg, skin reaction) and stochastic effects (eg, cancer). However, with the levels experienced during cardiac procedures these risks can be difficult to quantify. Healthcare providers and patients might not fully appreciate radiation-related risks. Though in many cases radiation exposure cannot be avoided, a practice of minimizing exposures to levels "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA principle) without compromising the utility of the procedure is encouraged. The purpose of this document is to inform health care providers on the key concepts related to radiation risk from common cardiac procedures and provide specific recommendations on ensuring quality of care. PMID:24035289

  9. Occupational Radiation Exposure from C Arm Fluoroscopy During Common Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures and its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Sumant; Saran, Atul K; Mahajan, M K; Mam, M K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image intensifiers have become popular due to the concept of minimally invasive surgeries leading to decreasing invasiveness, decreased operative time, and less morbidity. The drawback, however, is an increased risk of radiation exposure to surgeon, patient and theatre staff. These exposures have been of concern due to their potential ability to produce biological effects. The present study was embarked upon to analyse the amount of radiation received by orthopedic surgeons in India using standard precautionary measures and also to bring awareness about the use of image intensifier safety in everyday practice. Materials and Methods: Twelve right-handed male orthopedic surgeons (4 senior consultants, 5 junior consultants and 3 residents) were included in a three month prospective study for radiation exposure measurement with adequate protection measures in all procedures requiring C Arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon was provided with 5 Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges which were tagged at the level of neck, chest, gonads and both wrists. Operative time and exposure time of each procedure was recorded. Exposure dose of each badge at the end of the study was obtained and the results were analysed. Results: Mean radiation exposure to all the parts were well within permissible limits. There was a significantly positive correlation between the exposure time and the exposure dose for the left wrist (r=0.735, p<0.01) and right wrist (r=0.58, p<0.05). The dominant hand had the maximum exposure overall. Conclusion: Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers. The mean exposure doses to all parts of the body were well within permissible limits. Nothing conclusive, however, can be said about the stochastic effects (chance effects like cancers). Any amount of radiation taken is bound to pose an additional occupational hazard. It is thus desirable that radiation safety precautions should be taken and exposures regularly monitored with at least one

  10. Radiation exposure of air-carrier crew members. 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, W.; Snyder, L.; Faulkner, D.N.; Darden, E.B.; O Brien, K.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposure from radioactive air cargo is also considered. Methods are provided to assess health risks from exposure to galactic radiation. On the flights studied, the highest dose of galactic radiation received annually by a crewmember who worked as many as 1,000 block hours a year would be less than half the annual limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for a nonpregnant occupationally exposed adult. The radiation exposure of a pregnant crewmember who worked 70 block hours a month for 5 months would exceed the recommended 2-millisievert pregnancy limit on about one-third of the flights.

  11. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  12. Minimizing occupational and patient radiation exposure using an optimized injection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Holly, A.S.; Stumpf, K.D.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hattner, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    In an attempt to lower whole-body and hand radiation exposure to the technologist and decrease the number of infiltrated doses, this laboratory instituted a cold start method for radionuclide injection. The authors then compared the radiation dosimetry readings for a period before and after instituting the method. The finger ring exposures and whole-body exposures were compared. The exposure to the technologist's hands was reduced by 56% and to the technologist's body by 28%. Detectable extravasation of the dose was reduced from 64% to 9%. The recommend the use of this technique for all nuclear medicine departments.

  13. Method for minimizing the radiation exposure from scoliosis radiographs. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Fritz, S.L.; Asher, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposure resulting from standard scoliosis radiographs was determined for eighteen adolescent girls. The risk of inducing breast cancer was estimated from the skin-exposure doses. The average skin exposure to the breasts was 59.6 millirads (0.59 mGy) for the anteroposterior radiograph. Assuming a total of twenty-two anteroposterior radiographs during a course of treatment, the cumulative exposure would result in a 1.35% relative increase in the risk of development of breast cancer. By utilizing collimation of the x-ray beam and proper selection of grids, films, and screens, the radiation risk of scoliosis radiographs is minimized.

  14. An empirical approach to the measurement of the cosmic radiation field at jet aircraft altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. R.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, B. J.; Kitching, F.; McCall, M. J.; Desormeaux, M.; Butler, A.

    Researchers at the Royal Military College of Canada have accumulated extensive dose measurements performed at jet altitudes on over 160 flights and with a wide variety of detectors including a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), a smart wide energy neutron detection instrument (SWENDI), bubble detectors, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and an ion chamber. The summation of the individual low and high LET results from the latter equipment compared successfully to those from the TEPC on each flight. The data from these numerous worldwide flights have been encapsulated into a program that calculates the radiation dose for any flight in the world at any period in the solar cycle. This experimentally based program, Predictive Code for AIRcrew Exposure (PCAIRE) has been designed to be used by the airline industry to meet national dosimetry requirements. In Canada, for example, such a code can be used, supported by periodic measurements. With this latter requirement in mind and a desire to decrease equipment size, the silicon-based LIULIN-4N LET (linear energy transfer) spectrometer has been assessed to determine its suitability as a mixed field instrument and possible code verification tool. Data obtained from the LIULIN and TEPC in ground-based experiments at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) and on 42 jet-altitude flights have been compared. Analysis of these data has resulted in two different mathematical correlations which can be used to determine the ambient dose equivalent, H∗(10), from the LIULIN absorbed dose output. With either calibration factor, the LIULIN instrument could now be used as a simple, compact and portable detector for routine monitoring.

  15. Cumulative Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk Estimation in Children with Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason N.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Li, Jennifer S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Yoshizumi, Terry; Reiman, Robert E.; Frush, Donald P.; Hill, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with heart disease are frequently exposed to imaging examinations using ionizing radiation. Although radiation exposure is potentially carcinogenic, there are limited data on cumulative exposure and the associated cancer risk. We evaluated the cumulative effective dose (ED) of radiation from all radiation examinations to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer in children with heart disease. Methods and Results Children ≤6 years of age who had previously undergone 1 of 7 primary surgical procedures for heart disease at a single institution between 2005 and 2010 were eligible. Exposure to radiation-producing examinations was tabulated, and cumulative ED was calculated in millisievert (mSv). These data were used to estimate LAR of cancer above baseline using the approach of the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII. The cohort included 337 children exposed to 13,932 radiation examinations. Conventional radiographs represented 92% of examinations, while cardiac catheterization and computed tomography accounted for 81% of cumulative exposure. Overall median cumulative ED was 2.7 mSv (range 0.1–76.9 mSv), and the associated LAR of cancer was 0.07% (range 0.001–6.5%). Median LAR of cancer ranged widely depending on surgical complexity (0.006–1.6% for the 7 surgical cohorts) and was twice as high in females per unit exposure (0.04% versus 0.02% per 1 mSv ED for females versus males, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions Overall radiation exposures in children with heart disease are relatively low, however select cohorts receive significant exposure. Cancer risk estimation highlights the need for limiting radiation dose, particularly for high-exposure modalities. PMID:24914037

  16. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  17. Surveillance for Radiation-Related Exposures Reported to the National Poison Data System

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Martin, Colleen; Bronstein, Alvin; Chang, Arthur; Schier, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe radiation-related exposures of potential public health significance reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS). Introduction For radiological incidents, collecting surveillance data can identify radiation-related public health significant incidents quickly and enable public health officials to describe the characteristics of the affected population and the magnitude of the health impact which in turn can inform public health decision-making. A survey administered by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to state health departments in 2010 assessed the extent of state-level planning for surveillance of radiation-related exposures and incidents: 70%–84% of states reported minimal or no planning completed. One data source for surveillance of radiological exposures and illnesses is regional poison centers (PCs), who receive information requests and reported exposures from healthcare providers and the public. Since 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) have conducted ongoing surveillance for exposures to radiation and radioactive materials reported from all 57 United States (US) PCs to NPDS, a web-based, national PC reporting database and surveillance system. Methods We collaborated with the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), Poisindex® and Thomson Reuters Healthcare to develop an improved coding system for tracking radiation-related exposures reported to US PCs during 2011 and trained PC staff on its usage. We reviewed NPDS data from 1 September 2010 – 30 June 2012 for reported exposures to pharmaceutical or nonpharmaceutical radionuclides; ionizing radiation; radiological or nuclear weapons; or X-ray, alpha, beta, gamma, or neutron radiation. CDC medical toxicology and epidemiology staff reviewed each reported exposure to determine whether it was of potential public health concern (e.g. exposures associated

  18. Direct modification of bioactive phenothiazines by exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Nastasa, Viorel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Martins, Ana; Viveiros, Miguel; Boni, Mihai; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Pascu, Alexandru; Staicu, Angela; Molnar, Joseph; Fanning, Seamus; Amaral, Leonard

    2011-05-01

    Whereas exposure of combinations of a phenothiazine and bacterium to incoherent UV increases the activity of the phenothiazine, exposure of the phenothiazine alone does not yield an increase of its activity. Because the laser beam energy is greater than that produced by the incoherent UV sources, exposure of phenothiazines to specific lasers may yield molecules with altered activities over that of the unexposed parent. Chlorpromazine, thioridazine and promethazine active against bacteria were exposed to two distinct lasers for varying periods of time. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were conducted prior to and post-exposure and the products of laser exposure evaluated for activity against a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strain via a disk susceptibility assay. Exposure to lasers alters the absorption/fluorescence spectra of the phenothiazines; reduces the activity of thioridazine against the test bacterium; produces a highly active chlorpromazine compound against the test organism. Exposure of phenothiazines to lasers alters their structure that results in altered activity against a bacterium. This is the first report that lasers can alter the physico-chemico characteristics to the extent that altered bioactivity results. Exposure to lasers is expected to yield compounds that are difficult to make via chemical manipulation methods. A survey of selected patents of interest, even co-lateral for the subject of this article is shortly made. PMID:21517738

  19. Low-dose radiation exposure induces a HIF-1-mediated adaptive and protective metabolic response

    PubMed Central

    Lall, R; Ganapathy, S; Yang, M; Xiao, S; Xu, T; Su, H; Shadfan, M; Asara, J M; Ha, C S; Ben-Sahra, I; Manning, B D; Little, J B; Yuan, Z-M

    2014-01-01

    Because of insufficient understanding of the molecular effects of low levels of radiation exposure, there is a great uncertainty regarding its health risks. We report here that treatment of normal human cells with low-dose radiation induces a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis resulting in increased radiation resistance. This metabolic change is highlighted by upregulation of genes encoding glucose transporters and enzymes of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial genes, with corresponding changes in metabolic flux through these pathways. Mechanistically, the metabolic reprogramming depends on HIF1α, which is induced specifically by low-dose irradiation linking the metabolic pathway with cellular radiation dose response. Increased glucose flux and radiation resistance from low-dose irradiation are also observed systemically in mice. This highly sensitive metabolic response to low-dose radiation has important implications in understanding and assessing the health risks of radiation exposure. PMID:24583639

  20. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  1. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  2. Radiation exposure as a possible etiologic factor in hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis).

    PubMed

    Stewart, D J; Keating, M J

    1980-10-01

    The frequency of prior occupational, accidental, or therapeutic radiation exposure was significantly higher for hairy cell leukemia patients than for a control group of solid tumor patients (8/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). Hairy cell leukemia patients were also more frequently involved in occupations at high risk of radiation exposure such as chemist, engineer, physicist, and health care facility worker (7/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). The observation that the incidence of thyroid disorders among hairy cell leukemia patients was also unusually high (5/23 vs. 2/56, P < 0.05) was interpreted as further indirect evidence of excessive radiation exposure. It appears that radiation exposure may be an important contribution factor in the development of some case of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:7417955

  3. Factors modifying the response of large animals to low-intensity radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, N. P.; Still, E. T.

    1972-01-01

    In assessing the biological response to space radiation, two of the most important modifying factors are dose protraction and dose distribution to the body. Studies are reported in which sheep and swine were used to compare the hematology and lethality response resulting from radiation exposure encountered in a variety of forms, including acute (high dose-rate), chronic (low dose-rate), combinations of acute and chronic, and whether received as a continuous or as fractionated exposure. While sheep and swine are basically similar in response to acute radiation, their sensitivity to chronic irradiation is markedly different. Sheep remain relatively sensitive as the radiation exposure is protracted while swine are more resistant and capable of surviving extremely large doses of chronic irradiation. This response to chronic irradiation correlated well with changes in radiosensitivity and recovery following an acute, sublethal exposure.

  4. IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates information published by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in 1987. NCRP reports are considered the authoritative reference for the sources and magnitude of average background exposure to the U.S. population.

  5. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  6. Effect of Radiation Exposure on the Retention of Commercial NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Chen, D.; Friendlich, M.; Carts, M. A.; Seidleck, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We have compared the data retention of irradiated commercial NAND flash memories with that of unirradiated controls. Under some circumstanc es, radiation exposure has a significant effect on the retention of f lash memories.

  7. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J.

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects.

  8. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of each survey required by § 35.70 for 3...

  9. Quantifying lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.; Selvin, S. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Buffler, P.A. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences); Scotto, J. . Biostatistics Branch); Berwick, M. (Cancer Pre

    1992-10-01

    This pilot study uses a unique method to calculate cumulative lifetime exposure to, ultraviolet radiation-b to determine if this refined method would indicate differences in lifetime cumulative UVB exposure between age and sex matched controls. Forty-four age and sex matched cases and controls demonstrated no significant difference in mean cumulative lifetime UVB exposure based on the duration and location of residence. This pilot study suggests that further analysis of the dataset should be conducted to determine if the cumulative lifetime exposure hypothesis is of primary importance regarding the association between UVB exposure and development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  10. A prospective follow-up study of the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on learners' reading comprehension in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this epidemiological study was to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to aircraft noise on reading comprehension on a sample of South African children. Given the impairment of reading comprehension found within the noised-exposed group before the relocation of the airport, it was the intention of this study to determine whether the effects of aircraft noise on reading comprehension remained after the relocation of the airport or whether they disappeared. A cohort of 732 learners with a mean age of 11.1 years participated at baseline measurements in 2009 and 650 (mean age=12.3) and 178 (mean age=13.1) learners were reassessed after the relocation of the airport in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The results revealed no significant effect of the groups on reading comprehension across the testing periods, but significant effects of home language were demonstrated on reading comprehension. These findings suggest that exposure to chronic aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's reading comprehension functioning. PMID:24169877

  11. Radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Suhail S.; Jha, Ashish; Konar, Nambiraj; Ranganathan, Priya; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: With the expanding use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological modalities in critically ill patients, doctors working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are increasingly exposed to ionizing radiation. This risk of radiation exposure occurs not only during bedside radiologic procedures, but also when ICU physicians accompany patients to radiology suites. The aim of this study was to quantify levels of radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the ICU. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out prospectively over 6 months in the ICU of a tertiary-referral cancer hospital. Two teams consisting of 4 ICU resident doctors each were instructed to wear thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during their duty shifts. Standard radiation protection precautions were used throughout the study period. TLDs were also placed in selected areas of the ICU to measure the amount of scattered radiation. TLDs were analyzed at the end of every 3 months. Results: The readings recorded on TLDs placed in the ICU were almost immeasurable. The mean value of residents' radiation exposure was 0.059 mSv, though the highest individual reading approached 0.1 mSv. The projected maximum yearly radiation exposure was 0.4 mSv. Conclusions: If standard radiation safety precautions are followed, the cumulative radiation exposure to ICU resident doctors is well within permissible limits and is not a cause of concern. However, with the increasing use of radiological procedures in the management of critically ill patients, there is a need to repeat such audits periodically to monitor radiation exposure. PMID:25249743

  12. Evaluation of radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology examinations: technique/exposure guides for the craniocaudal projection in mammography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The publication presents Center for Devices and Radiological Health suggestions for appropriate technique/exposure guides for use with the mammographic craniocaudal projection. This type of projection is the most-commonly used mammographic view and much exposure data is available for it. Even if a facility commonly uses another projection in mammography, problems affecting radiation exposure and image quality with one projection often are problems affecting all projections conducted with a particular x-ray imaging systems. The use of T/E guides to detect and correct the problems with the craniocaudal projection will have a beneficial effect as well on exposure levels and image quality of other projections conducted on the same system.

  13. 38 CFR 3.311 - Claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radiation and shall include the following: (i) All forms of leukemia except chronic lymphatic (lymphocytic) leukemia; (ii) Thyroid cancer; (iii) Breast cancer; (iv) Lung cancer; (v) Bone cancer; (vi) Liver cancer... years after exposure; (ii) Leukemia may become manifest at any time after exposure; (iii)...

  14. SCALING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: CONSEQUENCES OF BODY SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating...

  15. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  16. New physical model calculates airline crews' radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Airline pilots and crews, who spend hundreds of hours each year flying at high altitude, are exposed to increased doses of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar energy particles, enough that airline crew members are actually considered radiation workers by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  17. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  18. Patient radiation exposure during transforaminal lumbar endoscopic spine surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Iprenburg, Menno; Wagner, Ralf; Godschalx, Alexander; Telfeian, Albert E

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe patient radiation exposure during single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures at levels L2-5 and L5-S1. METHODS Radiation exposure was monitored in 151 consecutive patients undergoing single-level transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy procedures. Two groups were studied: patients undergoing procedures at the L4-5 level or above and those undergoing an L5-S1 procedure. RESULTS For the discectomy procedures at L4-5 and above, the average duration of fluoroscopy was 38.4 seconds and the mean calculated patient radiation exposure dose was 1.5 mSv. For the L5-S1 procedures, average fluoroscopy time was 54.6 seconds and the mean calculated radiation exposure dose was 2.1 mSv. The average patient radiation exposure dose among these cases represents a 3.5-fold decrease compared with the senior surgeon's first 100 cases. CONCLUSIONS Transforaminal lumbar endoscopic discectomy can be used as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of a herniated lumbar disc without the significant concern of exposing the patient to harmful doses of radiation. One caveat is that both the surgeon and the patient are likely to be exposed to higher doses of radiation during a surgeon's early experience in minimally invasive endoscopic spine surgery. PMID:26828888

  19. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Hong, Mi-Na; Park, Myung-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H2O2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H2O2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H2O2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. PMID:24105709

  20. Minimization of Radiation Exposure due to Computed Tomography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick D.; O'Connor, Owen J.; O'Neill, Siobhán B.; Shanahan, Fergus; Maher, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient awareness and concern regarding the potential health risks from ionizing radiation have peaked recently (Coakley et al., 2011) following widespread press and media coverage of the projected cancer risks from the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) (Berrington et al., 2007). The typical young and educated patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may in particular be conscious of his/her exposure to ionising radiation as a result of diagnostic imaging. Cumulative effective doses (CEDs) in patients with IBD have been reported as being high and are rising, primarily due to the more widespread and repeated use of CT (Desmond et al., 2008). Radiologists, technologists, and referring physicians have a responsibility to firstly counsel their patients accurately regarding the actual risks of ionizing radiation exposure; secondly to limit the use of those imaging modalities which involve ionising radiation to clinical situations where they are likely to change management; thirdly to ensure that a diagnostic quality imaging examination is acquired with lowest possible radiation exposure. In this paper, we synopsize available evidence related to radiation exposure and risk and we report advances in low-dose CT technology and examine the role for alternative imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging which avoid radiation exposure. PMID:22577571

  1. Radiation exposure of civilian airline crew members and associated biological effects due to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Caldora, M; Santaquilani, M; Scipione, R; Verdecchia, A

    2001-01-01

    A study, currently in progress, on the radiation exposure and the associated biomedical effects due to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment for the Italian civilian aviation flight personnel is sketched. After a presentation of the considered data sources, a description of the cohort is given, in terms of criteria for eligibility, and cohort construction, size and composition. Then the protocol for the Italian study is presented: the various ways of investigating the exposure and the health status of past and currently employed aircrew members and follow-up procedures are shown. An overview is given of the data management and processing philosophy with regards to flight routes, radiation dose evaluation along the flight path and exposure matrix building, as adopted in the Italian study. Potential side studies of interest are also shown. PMID:11780613

  2. Overview of the Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).

    PubMed

    Church, B W; Wheeler, D L; Campbell, C M; Nutley, R V; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    The Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to (1) collect, preserve, and disseminate historical data related to radioactive fallout and health effects from nuclear testing, and (2) reconstrut, insofar as possible, the exposures to the off-site public from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site and doses to individuals resulting from these exposures. The goals, methods, and example results of the ORERP are presented. PMID:2211109

  3. Overview of the Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Church, B.W.; Wheeler, D.L.; Campbell, C.M.; Nutley, R.V.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to (1) collect, preserve, and disseminate historical data related to radioactive fallout and health effects from nuclear testing, and (2) reconstruct, insofar as possible, the exposures to the off-site public from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site and doses to individuals resulting from these exposures. The goals, methods, and example results of the ORERP are presented.

  4. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study), study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants), exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid), language (German and English). The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive), work experience (junior and senior surgeons),distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs). The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies

  5. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  6. Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Kligman, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Repeated exposures to subliminal doses of UVR, given at 24-hr intervals, resulted in a lowering of the erythema threshold dose. At erythemogenically equivalent doses, UV-A was the most effective and UV-C the least. A similar and more pronounced effect was observed following repeated exposures to subthreshold doses of UV-A and topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen. These findings provide quantitative evidence for the cumulative nature of acute UVR damage in human skin.

  7. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker

  8. REDUCTION IN METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION DURING EXPOSURE TO RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 10 C and exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation while metabolic rate (MR) was measured by indirect calorimetry. RF radiation exposures were made in a waveguide-type system which permitted the con...

  9. Effective Patient Education in Medical Imaging: Public Perceptions of Radiation Exposure Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Rebecca L.; Turner, Lori W.

    2002-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 200 adults, less than half agreed with experts on the risks of radiation exposure; 75-90% thought that medical imaging providers should be highly regulated; and less than one-quarter knew that most radiation damage is not permanent. (SK)

  10. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology f...

  11. The effect of exposure duration on the biological activity of mobile telephony radiation.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2010-06-17

    In the present experiments we studied the effects of different durations of a single (continuous), daily exposure, ranging from 1 min up to 21 min, to the two established systems of digital mobile telephony radiation that are commonly used in Europe, viz. GSM 900 MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) and DCS 1800 MHz (Digital Cellular System-referred to also as GSM 1800 MHz), on a well-tested biological model, the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The insects were exposed to each type of radiation at an intensity of about 10 microW/cm(2), corresponding to a distance of 20 or 30 cm from the antenna of a DCS 1800 or a GSM 900 mobile phone handset, respectively. At these distances the bioactivity of mobile telephony radiation was found to be at a maximum due to the existence of a "window" of increased bioactivity around this value, as we have shown recently [1-4]. The results show that the reproductive capacity decreases almost linearly with increasing exposure duration to both GSM 900 and DCS 1800 radiation, suggesting that short-term exposures to these radiations have cumulative effects on living organisms. Additionally, our results show again that GSM 900 MHz radiation is slightly more bioactive than DCS 1800 MHz radiation, at the same exposure durations and under equal radiation intensities, as shown in our previous experiments [5]. PMID:20399887

  12. Is Ionizing Radiation Harmful at any Exposure? An Echo That Continues to Vibrate.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Edouard I; Colangelo, Nicholas W; Domogauer, Jason D; Sharma, Neha; de Toledo, Sonia M

    2016-03-01

    The health risks to humans and non-human biota exposed to low dose ionizing radiation remain ambiguous and are the subject of intense debate. The need to establish risk assessment standards based on the mechanisms underlying low-level radiation exposure has been recognized by regulatory agencies as critical to adequately protect people and to make the most effective use of national resources. Here, the authors briefly review evidence showing that the molecular and biochemical changes induced by low doses of radiation differ from those induced by high doses. In particular, an array of redundant and inter-related mechanisms act in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to restore DNA integrity following exposures to relatively low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. Furthermore, the radiation-induced protective mechanisms often overcompensate and minimize the mutagenic potential of the byproducts of normal oxidative metabolism. In contrast to adaptive protection observed at low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation, there is evidence that even a single nuclear traversal by a densely ionizing particle track can trigger harmful effects that spread beyond the traversed cell and induce damaging effects in the nearby bystander cells. In vivo studies examining whether exposure to low dose radiation at younger age modulates the latency of expression of age-related diseases such as cancer, together with studies on the role of genetic susceptibility, will further illuminate the magnitude of risk of exposure to low dose radiation. PMID:26808874

  13. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

    SciTech Connect

    Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Vernez, David; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent

    2013-05-10

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  14. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent; Vernez, David

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  15. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  16. Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparision. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modeled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  17. Modelled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, A.; Kondo, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Moteki, N.; Koike, M.; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Penner, J. E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, and exacerbates global warming through exerting positive radiative forcing (RF). However, the contribution of BC to ongoing changes in global climate is under debate. Anthropogenic BC emissions, and the resulting distribution of BC concentration, are highly uncertain. In particular, long-range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood. Here we discuss whether recent assessments may have overestimated present-day BC radiative forcing in remote regions. We compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns to simulations by 13 aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase II intercomparison. An atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in remote ocean regions, in line with other recent studies. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in AeroCom Phase II median direct BC forcing, from fossil fuel and biofuel burning, over the industrial era. The sensitivity of modelled forcing to BC vertical profile and lifetime highlights an urgent need for further flight campaigns, close to sources and in remote regions, to provide improved quantification of BC effects for use in climate policy.

  18. Impact of the chosen turbulent flow empirical model on the prediction of sound radiation and vibration by aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Joana

    2016-07-01

    A precise definition of the turbulent boundary layer excitation is required to accurately predict the sound radiation and surface vibration levels, produced by an aircraft panel excited turbulent flow during flight. Hence, any existing inaccuracy on turbulent boundary layer excitation models leads to an inaccurate prediction of the panel response. A number of empirical models have been developed over the years to provide the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectral density. However, different empirical models provide dissimilar predictions for the wall pressure spectral density. The objective of the present study is to investigate and quantify the impact of the chosen empirical model on the predicted radiated sound power, and on the predicted panel surface acceleration levels. This study provides a novel approach and a detailed analysis on the use of different turbulent boundary layer wall pressure empirical models, and impact on mathematical predictions. Closed-form mathematical relationships are developed, and recommendations are provided for the level of deviation and uncertainty associated to different models, in relation to a baseline model, both for panel surface acceleration and radiated sound power.

  19. Twinning in the offspring of parents with chronic radiation exposure from nuclear testing in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mudie, Nadejda Y; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Gusev, Boris I; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Pivina, Ludmila M; Chsherbakova, Svetlana; Mansarina, Almagul; Bauer, Susanne; Jakovlev, Yuri; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2010-06-01

    The population of the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan was chronically exposed to radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear tests conducted during 1949-1956 by the Soviet Union. We investigated the effect of radiation exposure and other factors on risks of twinning overall and of same- and different-sex twinning and hence estimated dizygotic and monozygotic twinning rates in 11,605 deliveries around Semipalatinsk, 141 of which were twin, to 3992 mothers exposed to fallout during 1949-1956. Overall, the same-sex twinning rate was 7.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.24, 9.47] per 1000 and the opposite-sex twinning rate was 4.45 (95% CI: 3.23, 5.67). Twinning rates did not differ significantly between radiation exposure categories, parental age at main radiation exposure, or year of birth. Different-sex, but not same-sex, twinning increased with maternal age (P(trend) = 0.04) but not with other demographic factors and was increased soon after radiation exposure [OR = 4.08 (95% CI: 1.11, 15.07)] for births occurring within 5 years compared with more than 20 years after exposure; this effect was similar in villages with low and high radiation exposure, however, so interpretation is uncertain. PMID:20518662

  20. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations.

  1. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1995-08-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations. PMID:7480628

  2. Visual Risk Assessment of Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Hesham F.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure during an interplanetary mission is an important challenge for mission design and operations. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Polyethylene shielded "storm shelters" inside spacecraft have been shown to limit total exposure from a large SPE to a permissible level, preventing acute risks and providing a potential approach to fulfill the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) requirement. For accurate predictions of radiation dose to astronauts involved in future space exploration missions, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. Radiation fluences and doses vary considerably across both the spacecraft geometry and the body-shielding distribution. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE(TradeMark), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. Visual assessment of radiation distribution at different points inside a spacecraft module and in the human body for a given radiation environment are described. Results will ultimately guide in developing requirements for maximal protection for astronauts from space radiation.

  3. Open-source radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) for dose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenthal, Samuel; Folio, Les; Derderian, Vana; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of an open-source, PACS-integrated, DICOM header-based tool that automatically provides granular data for monitoring of CT radiation exposure. To do so, we constructed a radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) that is seamlessly connected to the PACS using the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) toolkit (DCMTK) and runs on the fly within the workflow. We evaluated RE3's ability to determine the number of acquisitions and calculate the exposure metric dose length product (DLP) by comparing its output to the vendor dose pages. RE3 output closely correlated to the dose pages for both contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9987) and non-contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9994). RE3 is an open-source, automated radiation monitoring program to provide study-, series-, and slice-level radiation data.

  4. Behavioral-performance effects from a high-neutron, low-gamma radiation pulse exposure. Final report June-December 81

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.C.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Hardy, K.A.; Hughes, D.; Yarbrough, B.

    1982-12-01

    A self-paced, 3-light, 3-lever discrete avoidance behavioral task was initiated to study the behavioral performance effects of a high-neutron, low-gamma radiation pulse exposure (550-650 rads, 5.5:1 n/g ratio). Eight rhesus monkey subjects performed the task for 4 hours (3 1/2 hours postexposure). The subjects were monitored daily for 3 days postexposure. For the exposure day only, five subjects had a decrease in correct responses, seven had increased reaction times, and six experienced productive emesis within 3 1/2 hours, although the performance degradations were not severe. An extrapolation to human performance indicates that time-critical tasks (e.g., aircraft landing on a carrier) could be significantly impaired.

  5. Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

  6. A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, M K

    2010-01-01

    Context More than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for additional occupational and environmental studies published between 2005 and 2009. Study selection We selected 23 studies that: (1) examined the association between protracted exposures to ionising radiation and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic subtype; (2) were a cohort or nested case–control design without major bias; (3) reported quantitative estimates of exposure; and (4) conducted exposure–response analyses using relative or excess RR per unit exposure. Methods Studies were further screened to reduce information overlap. Random effects models were developed to summarise between-study variance and obtain an aggregate estimate of the excess RR at 100 mGy. Publication bias was assessed by trim and fill and Rosenthal's file drawer methods. Results We found an ERR at 100 mGy of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.32) by modelling results from 10 studies and adjusting for publication bias. Between-study variance was not evident (p=0.99). Conclusions Protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation is significantly associated with leukaemia. Our estimate agreed well with the leukaemia risk observed among exposed adults in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors, providing increased confidence in the current understanding of leukaemia risk from ionising radiation. However, unlike the estimates obtained from the LSS, our model provides a precise, quantitative summary of the direct estimates of excess risk from studies of

  7. Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxidative Stress in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a dose relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Mice (C57BL/6J; 6 to 8 weeks; female) were irradiated with 2 Gy of γ-rays, a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, and intestinal tissues and IEC were collected 1 year after radiation exposure. Intracellular ROS, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant activity in IEC were studied by flow cytometry and biochemical assays. Oxidative DNA damage, cell death, and mitogenic activity in IEC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effects of γ radiation were compared to 56Fe radiation (iso-toxic dose: 1.6 Gy; energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon; LET: 148 keV/µm), we used as representative of high-LET radiation, since it's one of the important sources of high Z and high energy (HZE) radiation in cosmic rays. Radiation quality affected the level of persistent oxidative stress with higher elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide in high-LET 56Fe radiation compared to unirradiated controls and γ radiation. NADPH oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane damage, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were greater in 56Fe-irradiated mice. Compared to γ radiation oxidative DNA damage was higher, cell death ratio was unchanged, and mitotic activity was increased after 56Fe radiation. Taken together our results indicate that long-term functional dysregulation of mitochondria and increased NADPH oxidase activity are major contributing factors towards heavy ion radiation-induced persistent oxidative stress in IEC with potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID

  8. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Dokgo, Kyunghwan; Choi, Enjin; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Hang-Pyo

    2014-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km) recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA). In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE) prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) prediction model such as Badhwar-O¡¯Neill 2010.

  9. Measures of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography: Beyond fluoroscopy time

    PubMed Central

    Kachaamy, Toufic; Harrison, Edwyn; Pannala, Rahul; Pavlicek, William; Crowell, Michael D; Faigel, Douglas O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluoroscope time is a good predictor of patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in a tertiary care setting. Data related to radiation exposure were collected. The following measures were obtained: Fluoroscopy time (FT), dose area product (DAP) and dose at reference point (DOSERP). Coefficients of determination were calculated to analyze the correlation between FT, DAP and DOSRP. Agreement between FT and DAP/DOSRP was assessed using Bland Altman plots. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-three data sets were obtained. Fluoroscopy time average was 7.3 min. Fluoroscopy related radiation accounted for 86% of the total DAP while acquisition films related radiation accounted for 14% of the DAP. For any given FT there are wide ranges of DAP and DOSERP and the variability in both increases as fluoroscopy time increases. The coefficient of determination (R2) on the non transformed data for DAP and DOSERP versus FT were respectively 0.416 and 0.554. While fluoroscopy use was the largest contributor to patient radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), there is a wide variability in DAP and DOSERP that is not accounted for by FT. DAP and DOSERP increase in variability as FT increases. This translates into poor accuracy of FT in predicting DAP and DOSERP at higher radiation doses. CONCLUSION: DAP and DOSERP in addition to FT should be adopted as new ERCP quality measures to estimate patient radiation exposure. PMID:25684958

  10. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  11. [Human behavior in the solar radiation field with reference to ultraviolet exposure].

    PubMed

    Schauberger, G; Keck, G; Cabaj, A

    1992-09-01

    There is a causal relation between solar ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer. For epidemiological investigations, quantification of the UV exposure is essential. To set up a risk assessment for the whole population, a representative survey was performed in Austria. The questionnaire refers to three sectors of everyday life: work, recreation and holidays; in addition the use of solaria is asked about for a further investigation. The UV exposure caused by humans' behaviour in the field of solar radiation was analysed from various demographic aspects. For some subpopulations the UV exposure sustained during work, recreation and holidays was compared. Groups with high occupational UV exposure show a weaker tendency to stay outdoors during leisure time and holidays than groups characterized by high UV exposure in their leisure time, who also prefer sun-intensive activities during holidays. PMID:1399598

  12. Does exposure to aircraft noise increase the mortality from cardiovascular disease in the population living in the vicinity of airports? Results of an ecological study in France.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Bouaoun, Liacine; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The impact of aircraft noise on health is of growing concern. We investigated the relationship between this exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We performed an ecological study on 161 communes (commune being the smallest administrative unit in France) close to the following three major French airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon Saint-Exupéry, and Toulouse-Blagnac. The mortality data were provided by the French Center on Medical Causes of Death for the period 2007-2010. Based on the data provided by the French Civil Aviation Authority, a weighted average exposure to aircraft noise (L den AEI) was computed at the commune level. A Poisson regression model with commune-specific random intercepts, adjusted for potential confounding factors including air pollution, was used to investigate the association between mortality rates and L den AEI. Positive associations were observed between L den AEI and mortality from cardiovascular disease [adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) per 10 dB(A) increase in L den AEI = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.25], coronary heart disease [MRR = 1.24 (1.12-1.36)], and myocardial infarction [MRR = 1.28 (1.11-1.46]. Stroke mortality was more weakly associated with L den AEI [MRR = 1.08 (0.97-1.21]. These significant associations were not attenuated after the adjustment for air pollution. The present ecological study supports the hypothesis of an association between aircraft noise exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. However, the potential for ecological bias and the possibility that this association could be due to residual confounding cannot be excluded. PMID:26356375

  13. Does exposure to aircraft noise increase the mortality from cardiovascular disease in the population living in the vicinity of airports? Results of an ecological study in France

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Bouaoun, Liacine; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The impact of aircraft noise on health is of growing concern. We investigated the relationship between this exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We performed an ecological study on 161 communes (commune being the smallest administrative unit in France) close to the following three major French airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon Saint-Exupéry, and Toulouse-Blagnac. The mortality data were provided by the French Center on Medical Causes of Death for the period 2007-2010. Based on the data provided by the French Civil Aviation Authority, a weighted average exposure to aircraft noise (Lden AEI) was computed at the commune level. A Poisson regression model with commune-specific random intercepts, adjusted for potential confounding factors including air pollution, was used to investigate the association between mortality rates and Lden AEI. Positive associations were observed between Lden AEI and mortality from cardiovascular disease [adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) per 10 dB(A) increase in Lden AEI = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.25], coronary heart disease [MRR = 1.24 (1.12-1.36)], and myocardial infarction [MRR = 1.28 (1.11-1.46]. Stroke mortality was more weakly associated with Lden AEI [MRR = 1.08 (0.97-1.21]. These significant associations were not attenuated after the adjustment for air pollution. The present ecological study supports the hypothesis of an association between aircraft noise exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. However, the potential for ecological bias and the possibility that this association could be due to residual confounding cannot be excluded. PMID:26356375

  14. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  15. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  16. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... frequency range from 100 MHz to 1500 MHz, exposure limits for field strength and power density are also...) Frequency range(MHz) Electric field strength(V/m) Magnetic field strength(A/m) Power density(mW/cm2... equivalent power density Note 1 to Table 1: Occupational/controlled limits apply in situations in...

  17. Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

    2006-06-01

    This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

  18. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 16 crew of 180 + or - 100 mR was calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in pre and postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of Cr-51 and Co-60 are higher in postflight specimens than in preflight specimens, presumably due to a postflight injection of radiochromium. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 specific activities are also reported and appear to be normal. The radiation doses received by a pilot and a navigator flying a high altitude mission during the solar flare of August 4 to 9, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated form the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum. They demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities A Appendix A to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. A Appendix A to Part 835—Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at...

  20. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations...

  1. A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure and the Teaching of Radioecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjos, R. M.; Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Estellita, L.; Zanuto, P.; Queiroz, E.; Macario, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an experimental activity that introduces concepts of the natural ionizing radiation and its interaction with our contemporary environment that can be used with students from secondary to college level. The experiment is based on the use of traditional and cheap portable Geiger-Muller detectors as survey meters for "in situ"…

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  4. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Lene H S; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94-4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  5. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  6. Spatial correlations of daily and weekly maximum day exposure of solar UV radiation in the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Richard H.; Slusser, James R.

    2003-06-01

    Impacts of UV radiation on humans, plants and animals involve both acute exposures to high levels of UV radiation and chronic exposures to moderate to high levels of UV radiation. However exposure estimates are often limited by the relatively low density of ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet irradiance. This study relates the spacing of measurements to the accuracy of estimating daily exposure (chronic exposure) and maximum daily exposure over a 7-day interval (acute exposure) to solar UV. 300 nm, 368 nm, and UVB broadband measurements using multi-filter rotating shadow band radiometers and a broadband radiometer were paired by day for locations within a climate region. The variability in exposures in the various wavebands was evaluated using spatial statistics and interpolations made using kriging methods. The spatial correlation of the 300 nm and UVB acute exposures were greater than the correlation for the chronic daily exposures for distances up to 500 km. Conversely, the spatial correlation of the 368 nm acute exposure was greater than that for the chronic daily exposures for distances up to 500 km. A decrease in the variability in the acute over chronic exposure resulted in an improved ability to estimate the acute exposure across the full 1100 km domain. Limitations to the interpolation of 368 nm acute exposure were assumed to be due to local cloud effects on the radiation. Improvements in the ability to interpolate chronic 300 nm, 368 nm, and UVB exposures from the present USDA UVB Climate Network will require longer exposure periods.

  7. Research on the radiation exposure “memory effects” in AlGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Sednev, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Radiation exposure and long running time cause degradation of semiconductors' structures as well as semiconductors based on these structures. Besides, long running time can be the reason of partial radiation defects annealing. The purpose of the research work is to study the “memory effect” that happens during fast neuron radiation in AlGaAs heterostructures. Objects of the research are Infrared Light Emitting Electrodes (IRED) based on doubled AlGaAs heterostructures. During the experimental research LEDs were preliminarily radiated with fast neutrons, and radiation defects were annealed within the condition of current training with high temperatures, then emission power was measured. The research proved the existence of the “memory effect” that results in radiation stability enhancement with subsequent radiation. Possible mechanisms of the “memory effect” occurrence are under review.

  8. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

  9. Effectiveness of fluorography versus cineangiography at reducing radiation exposure during diagnostic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Mai, Xingchen; Tummala, Lakshmi; Kliger, Chad; Bangalore, Sripal; Miller, Louis H; Sedlis, Steven P; Feit, Frederick; Liou, Michael; Attubato, Michael; Coppola, John; Slater, James

    2014-04-01

    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for defining obstructive coronary disease. However, radiation exposure remains an unwanted hazard. Patients referred for coronary angiography with abdominal circumference<45 inches and glomerular filtration rate>60 ml/min were randomized to the fluorography (n=25) or cineangiography (n=25) group. Patients in the fluorography group underwent coronary angiography using retrospectively stored fluorography with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed for better resolution per operator's discretion. Patients in the cineangiography group underwent coronary angiography using routine cineangiography. The primary end point was patient radiation exposure measured by radiochromic film. Secondary end points included the radiation output measurement of kerma-area product and air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r) and operator radiation exposure measured by a dosimeter. Patient radiation exposure (158.2 mGy [76.5 to 210.2] vs 272.5 mGy [163.3 to 314.0], p=0.001), kerma-area product (1,323 μGy·m2 [826 to 1,765] vs 3,451 μGy·m2 [2,464 to 4,818], p<0.001), and Ka,r (175 mGy [112 to 252] vs 558 mGy [313 to 621], p<0.001) were significantly lower in the fluorography compared with cineangiography group (42%, 62%, and 69% relative reduction, respectively). Operator radiation exposure trended in the same direction, although statistically nonsignificant (fluorography 2.35 μGy [1.24 to 6.30] vs cineangiography 5.03 μGy [2.48 to 7.80], p=0.059). In conclusion, the use of fluorography in a select group of patients during coronary angiography, with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed, was efficacious at reducing patient radiation exposure. PMID:24513469

  10. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for localized SAR in § 4.2 of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE... density are also generally based on criteria recommended by the ANSI in § 4.1 of “IEEE Standard for...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for localized SAR in § 4.2 of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE... density are also generally based on criteria recommended by the ANSI in § 4.1 of “IEEE Standard for...

  12. The CAM/IMPACT/CoCiP Coupled Climate Model: Radiative forcing by aircraft in large-scale clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, J. E.; Schumann, U.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, C.; Graf, K.

    2013-12-01

    Radiative forcing by aircraft soot in large-scale clouds has been estimated to be both positive and negative, while forcing by contrails and contrail cirrus (i.e. spreading contrails) is positive. Here we use an improved model to estimate the forcing in large-scale clouds and evaluate the effects of coupling the hydrological cycle within CAM with the CoCiP contrail model. The large-scale cloud effects assume that the fraction of soot particles that have been processed through contrails are good heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), in agreement with laboratory data. We explore the effect of sulfate deposition on soot in decreasing the ability of contrail-processed soot to act as IN. The calculated total all-sky radiative climate forcing with and without coupling of CoCiP to the hydrological cycle within CAM and its range is reported. We compare results with observations and discuss what is needed to narrow the range of forcing.

  13. How Galactic Cosmic Ray models affect the estimation of radiation exposure in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2013-03-01

    The radiation environment in space is a major concern for human spaceflight because of the adverse effects of high levels of radiation on astronauts' health. Therefore, it is essential to perform radiation risk assessments already during the concept studies of a manned mission. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) have been identified to be one of the primary sources of radiation exposure in space.This work presents an evaluation of the radiation exposure caused by GCR between 1970 and 2011 in near-Earth interplanetary space and at the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) by making numerical simulations with the Monte-Carlo framework GEANT4. Commonly used GCR models - CREME96, CREME2009 and Badhwar-O'Neill2010 are used to describe the GCR spectra and the differences arising from the application of these different models in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates are investigated. Additionally, the depth distribution of the dose quantities and the relative contribution of particles with different energies to the total exposure during solar maximum and minimum conditions are studied.The differences in the spectra, described by the models, result in considerable differences in the estimation of the radiation exposure.

  14. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  15. Body radiation exposure in breast cancer radiotherapy: Impact of breast IMRT and virtual wedge compensation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Tony; Pignol, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Pignol@sw.ca; Rakovitch, Eileen; Vu, Toni; Hicks, Deanna; O'Brien, Peter; Pritchard, Kathleen

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Recent reports demonstrate a dramatically increased rate of secondary leukemia for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant high-dose anthracycline and radiotherapy, and that radiation is an independent factor for the development of leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation body exposure during breast radiotherapy and to characterize the factors associated with an increased exposure. Patients and Methods: In a prospective cohort of 120 women, radiation measurements were taken from four sites on the body at the time of adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze patient and treatment factors associated with the amount of scattered radiation. Results: For standard 50 Gy breast radiotherapy, the minimal dose received by abdominal organs is on average 0.45 Gy, ranging from 0.06 to 1.55 Gy. The use of physical wedges as a compensation technique was the most significant factor associated with increased scattered dose (p < 0.001), resulting in approximately three times more exposure compared with breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dynamic wedge. Conclusions: The amount of radiation that is scattered to a patient's body is consistent with exposure reported to be associated with excess of leukemia. In accordance with the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle, we recommend using breast IMRT or virtual wedging for the radiotherapy of breast cancer receiving high-dose anthracycline chemotherapy.

  16. Radiation Exposure to Staff in Intensive Care Unit with Portable CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhichao; Liao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jiangqian; Jia, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bedside radiological procedures pose a risk of radiation exposure to ICU staff. The perception of risk may increase the degree of caution among the health care staff and raise new barriers preventing patients from obtaining prompt care. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose to individual ICU staff. Methods. In this prospective study, forty subjects were required to wear thermoluminescent dosimeter badges during their working hours. The badges were analyzed to determine the exposure after 3 months. Results. A total of 802 radiological procedures were completed at bedside during the study period. The estimated annual dosage to doctors and nurses on average was 0.99 mSv and 0.88 mSv (p < 0.001), respectively. Residents were subjected to the highest radiation exposure (1.04 mSv per year, p = 0.002). The radiation dose was correlated with day shift working hours (r = 0.426; p = 0.006) and length of service (r = −0.403; p < 0.01). Conclusions. With standard precautions, bedside radiological procedures—including portable CT scans—do not expose ICU staff to high dose of ionizing radiation. The level of radiation exposure is related to the daytime working hours and length of service. PMID:27556036

  17. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5–18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. PMID:25359903

  18. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  19. Radiation Exposure Effects and Shielding Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard; Armendariz, Lupita (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotube materials promise to be the basis for a variety of emerging technologies with aerospace applications. Potential applications to human space flight include spacecraft shielding, hydrogen storage, structures and fixtures and nano-electronics. Appropriate risk analysis on the properties of nanotube materials is essential for future mission safety. Along with other environmental hazards, materials used in space flight encounter a hostile radiation environment for all mission profiles, from low earth orbit to interplanetary space.

  20. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study. PMID:27115230