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Sample records for aircraft research scar

  1. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  2. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  3. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  4. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician William Ferguson adjusts coupling on typical NACA D4 automatic control research missile with double Deacon booster, August 18, 1950. Joseph Shortal noted that a new research authorization (RA 1525) was issued on September 29, 1948 'to study various automatic stabilization systems for pilotless aircraft.' Earlier research had revealed aerodynamic control problems at speeds beyond Mach 1. The first two development missiles in this research program were launched in April 1949; the first stabilized missile on May 24, 1949. That flight was successful and 'verified the wing-tip aileron control system, the adaptation of the gyro-actuated control to supersonic flight, and a method for calculating rolling response.' 'A typical D4 missile is shown on the launcher.... This particular missile was launched August 1950, by which time the booster had been changed to a double-Deacon System to obtain higher speeds. The D4 missile configuration was also found to be a desirable one from pitch and yaw considerations in later flights. Its general configuration was followed later in the design of the Navy-Martin Bullpup air-to-ground guided missile.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  5. The SCAR Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica Scientific Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, John W. V.; Abe, Lyu; Andersen, Michael; Anderson, Philip; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Ichikawa, Takashi; Karle, Albrecht; Lloyd, James; Masi, Silvia; Steinbring, Eric; Travouillon, Tony; Tuthill, Peter; Zhou, HongYang

    2013-01-01

    SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.

  6. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician D.A. Dereng examines power plug in 1/10-scale model of Northrop Snark missile with Deacon booster at Wallops, November 1950. Joseph Shortal described the missile as follows: 'The Snark was to be the Nation's first intercontinental strategic missile and it was to serve as an interim weapon while ballistic missiles were under development. The Snark first attained its design range of 5,000 miles on October 31, 1957, and became operational in April 1959.' The NACA research program based on Northrup's 'need for rocket-model tests of the Snark....' 'Although the Snark was essentially a subsonic missile, one flight plan called for the missile to attain transonic speeds in a final dive on its target from high altitude. The Air Force requested a free-flight program by the rocket-model technique on March 23, 1950 and the NACA issued RA 1564 on April 17, 1950, to cover the investigation.' 'The purpose of the investigation was 'to determine the drag, roll, and pitch characteristics at transonic and low supersonic velocities.' From four to six 1/12-scale models, to be built by Northrop Aircraft Inc., were authorized. Actually the models were 1/10-scale and eight models were tested....' 'The first model was launched on November 15, 1950 and the last on June 4, 1954. All flights were successful and were reported.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  7. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  8. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  9. Dropping aircraft-deployable GPS stations on Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Jones, David

    2013-04-01

    There remains areas of scientific interest that heavy crevassing makes difficult or impossible to reach by ground via overland treks or an aircraft landing. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor probe that can be dropped from an aircraft, partially bury itself in the snow whilst keeping its antennas protruding high above the surface to ensure a long operating life. Our probe has a 2.5m, 10kg missile-shaped design and can be deployed through a standard sonar-buoy launch tube. In order to achieve a consistent impact depth in different snow densities the case is fitted with fold-out fins one metre from the nose cone. This ensures a large step-change in impact surface area when the device is embedded to the correct depth. A small disk-gap-band parachute improves the angle of impact while damping any probe oscillations. We are now able to achieve near-vertical impact angles and a consistent snow penetration depth of one metre. The sensor is cheap to make (approximately £1000) and has a minimal environmental impact. This year we have used a large network of these sensors to instrument previously inaccessible parts of Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

  10. The Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model: A Novel Human Model for Scar Research and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Liu, Jing; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Mustoe, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings. As a better alternative, we have developed the Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model—a novel human clinical model that permits analysis of up to 20 cutaneous scars in a single subject and allows for not only visual scar comparison, but also histologic and molecular analyses of factors involved in scarring and wound healing. We have utilized this model in 5 early phase clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of a variety of scar therapeutics without any complications to date. The model not only is applicable to scar therapeutics, but also can be utilized for other applications, such as the testing of implantable biomaterials, injectable products, therapies such as lasers, or even for in vivo study of wound healing processes in humans. PMID:27757332

  11. Certification of a Modified Research Public Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, T. J.; Reynolds, R. S.; Mountz, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has several aircraft that have been modified to conduct aeronautical and scientific research. NASA's purpose is to provide research to improve safety of flight and support scientific research for Mission to Planet Earth. Our research and platform aircraft have been modified to fit the needs of the scientific and research programs. Because NASA's aircraft have been modified and operated as public aircraft, certification of airworthiness on many are not current. Some of our aircraft are military aircraft and were never certificated. This paper discusses the process of bringing a modified B200 King Air aircraft certification current to meet Federal Aviation Regulations.

  12. Proceedings of the SCAR Conference, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.

  13. Hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scars are common complications of burn injury and other soft tissue injuries. Excessive extracellular matrix combined with inadequate remodeling of scar tissue results in an aesthetically and functionally unsatisfactory, painful, pruritic scar that can impair function. Treatment options are available to rehabilitation practitioners, but none are entirely satisfactory. An interdisciplinary clinical program is necessary for best outcomes. Challenges to be met by the rehabilitation community include research into the quantification of burn scar measurement, the effects of mechanical forces on wound healing and scar management, and the best combination of surgical, pharmacologic, and therapy interventions to maximize outcome from reconstructive procedures. PMID:21624722

  14. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  15. Some highlights of aircraft passenger behavior research.

    PubMed

    Altman, H B

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is offered of the field of aircraft passenger safety research. Probelms associated with passenger behavior, e.g. panic, and passenger safety education studies and requirements are discussed. In addition, a comparison is drawn between commerical and corporate aircraft passenger safty requirements and current research and development programs. It is concluded there is a need for increased funding and more emphasis to be placed on education in the areas of aircraft passenger safty research.

  16. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  17. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  18. Transforming medical imaging: the first SCAR TRIP conference a position paper from the SCAR TRIP subcommittee of the SCAR research and development committee.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Katherine P; Morin, Richard L

    2006-03-01

    The First Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Conference and Workshop, "Transforming Medical Imaging" was held on January 31-February 1, 2005 in Bethesda, MD. Representatives from all areas of medical and scientific imaging-academia, research, industry, and government agencies-joined together to discuss the future of medical imaging and potential new ways to manage the explosion in numbers, size, and complexity of images generated by today's continually advancing imaging technologies. The two-day conference included plenary, scientific poster, and breakout sessions covering six major research areas related to TRIP. These topic areas included human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection, data visualization, image set navigation and usability, databases and systems integration, and methodology evaluation and performance validation. The plenary presentations provided a general status review of each broad research field to use as a starting point for discussion in the breakout sessions, with emphasis on specific topics requiring further study. The goals for the breakout sessions were to define specific research questions in each topic area, to list the impediments to carrying out research in these fields, to suggest possible solutions and near- and distant-future directions for each general topic, and to report back to the general session. The scientific poster session provided another mechanism for presenting and discussing TRIP-related research. This report summarizes each plenary and breakout session, and describes the group recommendations as to the issues facing the field, major impediments to progress, and the outlook for radiology in the short and long term. The conference helped refine the definition of the SCAR TRIP Initiative and the problems facing radiology with respect to the dramatic growth in medical imaging data, and it underscored a present and future need

  19. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  20. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  1. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  2. Advanced Satellite Research Project: SCAR Research Database. Bibliographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature search was provided to locate and analyze the most recent literature that was relevant to the research. This was done by cross-relating books, articles, monographs, and journals that relate to the following topics: (1) Experimental Systems - Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and (2) Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) and Advance Communication Techniques (ISDN and satellites, ISDN standards, broadband ISDN, flame relay and switching, computer networks and satellites, satellite orbits and technology, satellite transmission quality, and network configuration). Bibliographic essay on literature citations and articles reviewed during the literature search task is provided.

  3. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  4. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  5. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  6. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  7. Aircraft structures research at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E

    1955-01-01

    A review is made of the test techniques that have been developed and used by the NACA for experimental research in aircraft structures at elevated temperatures. Some experimental results are presented. Remarks are included on the problem of model scaling for testing of structures at high temperatures. (author)

  8. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  9. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  10. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  11. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  12. YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

  13. Flight dynamics research for highly agile aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights recent results of research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of a broad flight dynamics program aimed at developing technology that will enable future combat aircraft to achieve greatly enhanced agility capability at subsonic combat conditions. Studies of advanced control concepts encompassing both propulsive and aerodynamic approaches are reviewed. Dynamic stall phenomena and their potential impact on maneuvering performance and stability are summarized. Finally, issues of mathematical modeling of complex aerodynamics occurring during rapid, large amplitude maneuvers are discussed.

  14. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  15. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  16. Solar irradiance measurements from a research aircraft.

    PubMed

    Thekaekara, M P; Kruger, R; Duncan, C H

    1969-08-01

    Measurements of the solar constant and solar spectrum were made from a research aircraft flying at 11.58 km, above almost all of the highly variable and absorbing constituents of the atmosphere. A wide range of solar zenith angles was covered during six flights for over 14 h of observation. Results are presented from nine different instruments which complemented each other in measuring techniques and wavelength range and were calibrated and operated by different experimenters. A new value of the solar constant, 135.1 mW cm(-2), has been derived, as well as a revised solar spectral irradiance curve for zero air mass.

  17. Acne Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... scars. Cryosurgery : This treatment freezes the scar tissue. Freezing the tissue causes it to die and gradually ... et al . “Which Type of Atrophic Acne Scar (Ice-pick, Boxcar, or Rolling) Responds to Nonablative Fractional ...

  18. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  19. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  20. X-1 research aircraft landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA). The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier'. The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Air Force Base, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after being air-launched from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 ft. The 6,000-lbthrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed him up to a speed of 700 mph in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed of 957 mph. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 ft. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 31 ft long, 10 ft high, and had a wingspan of 29 ft. It weighed 4,900 lb and carried 8,200 lb of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat. This roughly 30-second video clip shows the X-1 landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed followed by the safety chase aircraft.

  1. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) has been undergoing ground and flight tests by Ames Research Center since late 1979, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope established by the Sikorsky Aircraft Company. This paper reviews the preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wing, configuration and discusses the results of that test.

  3. The quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design concepts, performance capabilities, and projected applications of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) are discussed. The propulsive lift system of the QSRA provides the lift required for short field operations at low community noise levels. This system consists of four high bipass ratio, geared turbofan engines mounted so that the engine exhaust flows across the upper surface of the wing (upper surface blowing). Large specially shaped flaps behind each engine control the direction of the flow for each phase of flight. A 95 passenger short haul transport based on this technology could operate out of a 2500 foot runway with a combined takeoff and landing 90 EPNdB footprint area of 2.7 sq mi.

  4. X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had

  5. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

  6. The Buffalo/Spey jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittley, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The program to design and build a Buffalo/Spey Augmentor-Wing research aircraft is presented. The development of an internally blown flap system for the generation of powered lift is discussed. Modification, development, and testing of the Rolls-Royce Spey engine are reported. The ground tests and first flights of the aircraft are described and the application of the internally blown flap concept for short takeoff military transport aircraft is proposed.

  7. The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management - new directions in access to Antarctic research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, T.

    2009-04-01

    The SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Data Management (SC-ADM) was established by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), to assist in the fulfillment of the data management obligations imposed by the Antarctic Treaty (section III.1.c): "Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available." SC-ADM comprises representatives of the National Antarctic Data Centres or national points of contact. Currently 31 nations around the world are represented in SC-ADM. So far, SC-ADM has been focussing on the coordination of the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD), the internationally accessible, web-based, searchable record of Antarctic and Southern Ocean data set descriptions. The AMD is directly integrated into the international Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) to help further merge Antarctic science into global science. The AMD is a resource for scientists to advertise the data they have collected and to search for data they may need. Currently, SC-ADM is in a transition phase, moving forward to provide data access. Existing systems and web services technology will be used as much as possible, to increase efficiency and prevent 're-inventing the wheel' This poster will give an overview of this process, the current status and the expected results.

  8. Research needs in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress needed in understanding the mechanisms of aircraft noise generation and propagation is outlined using the focus provided by the need to predict accurately the noise produced and received at the ground by an aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport. The components of internal engine noise generation, jet exhaust, airframe noise and shielding and configuration effects, and the roles of atmospheric propagation and ground noise attenuation are presented and related to the prediction problem. The role of NASA in providing the focus and direction for needed advances is discussed, and possible contributions of the academic community in helping to fulfill the needs for accurate aircraft noise prediction methods are suggested.

  9. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  10. Scarring alopecia.

    PubMed

    Newton, R C; Hebert, A A; Freese, T W; Solomon, A R

    1987-07-01

    The scarring alopecias are a diverse group of diseases characterized by the combination of follicular destruction and dermal scarring. In this article we divide scarring alopecias into three broad categories, pediatric diseases, perifollicular lymphocytic diseases, and folliculopustular diseases, and discuss selected entities from each category. PMID:3301117

  11. Remote sensing of smoke, clouds, and radiation using AVIRIS during SCAR experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yorman J.

    1995-01-01

    During the past two years, researchers from several institutes joined together to take part in two SCAR experiments. The SCAR-A (Sulfates, Clouds And Radiation - Atlantic) took place in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States in July, 1993. remote sensing data were acquired with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), and a RC-10 mapping camera from an ER-2 aircraft at 20 km. In situ measurements of aerosol and cloud microphysical properties were made with a variety of instruments equipped on the University of Washington's C-131A research aircraft. Ground based measurements of aerosol optical depths and particle size distributions were made using a network of sunphotometers. The main purpose of SCAR-A experiment was to study the optical, physical and chemical properties of sulfate aerosols and their interaction with clouds and radiation. Sulfate particles are believed to affect the energy balance of the earth by directly reflecting solar radiation back to space and by increasing the cloud albedo. The SCAR-C (Smoke, Clouds And Radiation - California) took place on the west coast areas during September - October of 1994. Sets of aircraft and ground-based instruments, similar to those used during SCAR-A, were used during SCAR-C. Remote sensing of fires and smoke from AVIRIS and MAS imagers on the ER-2 aircraft was combined with a complete in situ characterization of the aerosol and trace gases from the C-131A aircraft of the University of Washington and the Cesna aircraft from the U.S. Forest Service. The comprehensive data base acquired during SCAR-A and SCAR-C will contribute to a better understanding of the role of clouds and aerosols in global change studies. The data will also be used to develop satellite remote sensing algorithms from MODIS on the Earth Observing System.

  12. The rotor systems research aircraft - A flying wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Hellyar, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Aircraft Corporation is constructing two uniquely designed Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). These aircraft will be used through the 1980's to comparatively test many different types of rotors - articulated, hingeless, teetering, and gimballed, as well as advanced rotor concepts, such as reverse velocity and variable diameter rotors. The RSRA combines a new airframe with existing Sikorsky H-3 (S-61) dynamic components. A force measurement system is incorporated to permit accurate evaluation of significant rotor characteristics. Both rotor and fixed-wing control systems are provided, appropriately integrated for operation in the pure helicopter mode, compound helicopter mode, and fixed-wing mode. The RSRA is the first rotary wing aircraft designed with a crew escape system, including a pyrotechnic system to sever the main rotor blades.

  13. Aircraft research and development trends in the US and USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development related to aircraft has shown significant progress in both the U.S. and the USSR. In some cases, the indications are that technological advances have resulted in new aircraft concepts and, in other cases, there are indications of particular national needs or objectives that have driven the required research and development to meet the need. The progression of aircraft development tends to reflect factors other than technology such as the political atmosphere, the world environment, and other contending national objectives. The trends in aircraft research and development in the U.S. and USSR will be traced from the early 1900's and, in a time-frame manner, will be related to other influencing factors.

  14. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, M. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Summerhayes, C.

    2005-05-01

    The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) initiates, develops, and coordinates international scientific research in the Antarctic region. SCAR is assuming a leadership position in the IPY primarily through its five major Scientific Research Programs; ACE, SALE, EBA, AGCS, and ICESTAR; which will be briefly described.Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) promotes the exchange of data and ideas between research groups focusing on the evolution of Antarctica's climate system and ice sheet. The program will: (1) quantitatively assess the climate and glacial history of Antarctica; (2) identify the processes which govern Antarctic change and feed back around the globe; (3) improve our ability to model past changes in Antarctica; and (4)document past change to predict future change in Antarctica. Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments (SALE) promotes, facilitates, and champions cooperation and collaboration in the exploration and study of subglacial environments in Antarctica. SALE intends to understand the complex interplay of biological, geological, chemical, glaciological, and physical processes within subglacial lake environments through coordinated international research teams. Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic (EBA) will use a suite of modern techniques and interdisciplinary approaches, to explore the evolutionary history of selected modern Antarctic biota, examine how modern biological diversity in the Antarctic influences the way present-day ecosystems function, and thereby predict how the biota may respond to future environmental change. Antarctica and the Global Climate System (AGCS) will investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. A combination of modern instrumented records of atmospheric and oceanic conditions, and the climate signals held within ice cores will be used to understand past and future climate

  15. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  16. X-38 research aircraft deorbit - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  17. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  18. Design and physical characteristics of the Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Caw, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research program provided data necessary to verify aerodynamic concepts, such as the supercritical wing, and to gain the confidence required for the application of such technology to advanced high performance aircraft. An F-111A aircraft was employed as the flight test bed to provide full scale data. The data were correlated extensively with predictions based on data obtained from wind tunnel tests. An assessment of the improvement afforded at transonic speeds in drag divergence, maneuvering performance, and airplane handling qualities by the use of the supercritical wing was included in the program. Transonic flight and wind tunnel testing techniques were investigated, and specific research technologies evaluated were also summarized.

  19. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  20. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  1. AD-1 oblique wing research aircraft pilot evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    A flight test program of a low cost, low speed, manned, oblique wing research airplane was conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center between 1979 and 1982. When the principal purpose of the test program was completed, which was to demonstrate the flight and handling characteristics of the configuration, particularly in wing-sweep-angle ranges from 45 to 60 deg, a pilot evaluation program was conducted to obtain a qualification evaluation of the flying qualities of an oblique wing aircraft. These results were documented for use in future studies of such aircraft.

  2. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  3. Flight Testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Merrill, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    In the late 1960s, efforts to advance the state-of-the-art in rotor systems technology indicated a significant gap existed between our ability to accurately predict the characteristics of a complex rotor system and the results obtained through flight verification. Even full scale wind tunnel efforts proved inaccurate because of the complex nature of a rotating, maneuvering rotor system. The key element missing, which prevented significant advances, was our inability to precisely measure the exact rotor state as a function of time and flight condition. Two Rotor Research Aircraft (RSRA) were designed as pure research aircraft and dedicated rotor test vehicles whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel testing, and flight verification. The two aircraft, the development of the piloting techniques required to safely fly the compound helicopter, the government flight testing accomplished to date, and proposed future research programs.

  4. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  5. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  6. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  7. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  8. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  9. Atmospheric analysis for airdata calibration on research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Lockhart, Mary G.; Teets, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight airdata calibrations are used to determine the aerodynamic influence of an airplane on pitot-static pressure measurements of altitude and speed. Conventional flight-test calibration techniques are briefly reviewed and meteorological analysis methods for estimating calibration reference values of atmospheric conditions are described. There are cases where some conventional in-flight techniques are not entirely satisfactory for research aircraft because of added equipment requirements or flight envelope and location limitations. In these cases, atmospheric wind and pressure information can be used to complement conventional techniques. Accuracy of the atmospheric measurements and the variability of upper-air winds and pressure values are discussed. Results from several flight research aircraft show that wind reference calibration is generally less accurate than calibration accuracy standards for civil and research aircraft. Examples of pressure reference altimetry derived from meteorological analyses are also presented for a variety of flight research programs. These flight data show that the reference pressure accuracy provided by meteorological analyses is usually within civil aircraft and flight research airdata calibration accuracy standards. Meteorological analyses altimetry is particularly useful when it is not feasible to restrict the test airplane altitude, location, or maneuver envelope.

  10. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  11. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  12. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  13. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  14. F-15B transonic flight research testbed aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying a modified McDonnell-Douglas F-15B aircraft as a testbed for a variety of transonic flight experiments. The two-seat aircraft, bearing NASA tail number 836, is shown during a recent flight over the high desert carrying a Drdyen-designed Flight Test Fixture (FTF) upon which aerodynamic experiments are mounted. The FTF is a heavily instrumented fin-like structure which is mounted on the F-15B's underbelly in place of the standard external fuel tank. Since being aquired by NASA in 1993, the aircraft has been modified to include video recording, telemetry and data recording capabilities. The twin-engine aircraft flew several flights recently in support of an experiment to determine the precise location of sonic shockwave development as air passes over an airfoil. The F-15B is currently being prepared for the Boundary Layer Heat Experiment, which will explore the potential drag reduction from heating the turbulent portion of the air that passes over the fuselage of a large aircraft.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Oblique Wing Remotely Piloted Research Aircraft. Volume 1: Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Ames/DSI oblique wing remotely piloted research aircraft is a highly unusual, variable remotely piloted vehicle whose configuration and capabilities are the result of certain initial design guidelines that, in terms of conventional aircraft structures and configurations, would be considered to be contradictory and unachievable. Accordingly, the novel design of the yawed wing RPV is at odds in many respects with conventional aircraft practice. Novelty, then, forms the first, unwritten, design guideline. This design is intended to move away from convention in geometry, structure, and materials. The specific guidelines followed in the design of the yawed wing RPV and a short discussion of the impact of each on the configuration of the vehicle are presented.

  19. NASA/Ames Research Center's science and applications aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. Warren

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center operates a fleet of seven Science and Applications Aircraft, namely the C-141/Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), DC-8, C-130, Lear Jet, and three ER-2s. These aircraft are used to satisfy two major objectives, each of equal importance. The first is to acquire remote and in-situ scientific data in astronomy, astrophysics, earth sciences, ocean processes, atmospheric physics, meteorology, materials processing and life sciences. The second major objective is to expedite the development of sensors and their attendant algorithms for ultimate use in space and to simulate from an aircraft, the data to be acquired from spaceborne sensors. NASA-Ames Science and Applications Aircraft are recognized as national and international facilities. They have performed and will continue to perform, operational missions from bases in the United States and worldwide. Historically, twice as many investigators have requested flight time than could be accommodated. This situation remains true today and is expected to increase in the years ahead. A major advantage of the existing fleet of aircraft is their ability to cover a large expanse of the earth's ecosystem from the surface to the lower stratosphere over large distances and time aloft. Their large payload capability allows a number of scientists to use multi-investigator sensor suites to permit simultaneous and complementary data gathering. In-flight changes to the sensors or data systems have greatly reduced the time required to optimize the development of new instruments. It is doubtful that spaceborne systems will ever totally replace the need for airborne science aircraft. The operations philosophy and capabilities exist at NASA-Ames Research Center.

  20. Flight research capabilities of the NASA/Army rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S., Jr.; Condon, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the capabilities and limitations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) that was demonstrated during the development contract, and assesses the expected research capabilities of the RSRA on delivery to the government.

  1. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  2. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  3. A clinimetric overview of scar assessment scales.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, M B A; Verhaegen, P D H M; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2012-01-01

    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant scar features and critically discuss the currently available scar scales in terms of basic clinimetric requirements. Many current scales can produce reliable measurements but seem to require multiple observers to obtain these results reliably, which limits their feasibility in clinical practice. The validation process of scar scales is hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" in subjective scar assessment or other reliable objective instruments which are necessary for a good comparison. The authors conclude that there are scar scales available that can reliably measure scar quality. However, further research may lead to improvement of their clinimetric properties and enhance the level of evidence in scar research worldwide.

  4. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  5. Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The research during the second reporting period has focused on robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. An already existing design for the Hypersonic Winged-Cone Configuration has been enhanced. Uncertainty models for the effects of propulsion system perturbations due to angle of attack variations, structural vibrations, and uncertainty in control effectiveness were developed. Using H(sub infinity) and mu-synthesis techniques, various control designs were performed in order to investigate the impact of these effects on achievable robust performance.

  6. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  7. An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

  8. Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The research during the third reporting period focused on fixed order robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. A new technique was developed to synthesize fixed order H(sub infinity) controllers. A controller canonical form is imposed on the compensator structure and a homotopy algorithm is employed to perform the controller design. Various reduced order controllers are designed for a simplified version of the hypersonic vehicle model used in our previous studies to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. However, further work is needed to investigate the issue of numerical ill-conditioning for large order systems and to make the numerical approach more reliable.

  9. Flight testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. K.; Hall, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a dedicated rotor test vehicle whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel tests and flight verification data. Its flight test envelope has been designed to encompass the expected envelopes of future rotor systems under all flight conditions. The test configurations of the RSRA include pure helicopter and compound (winged helicopter) modes. In addition, should it become necessary to jettison an unstable rotor system in flight, the RSRA may be flown as a fixed wing aircraft. The heart of the RSRA's electronic flight control system is the TDY-43 computer, which can be programmed in numerous ways to change stability and control or force feel system gains. Computer programming changes allow the RSRA to be used as a five-degree-of-freedom inflight simulator for studying the handling qualities of research rotors.

  10. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... natural skin folds. Skin grafting involves taking a thin layer of skin from another part of the body and placing it over the injured area. Skin flap surgery involves moving ... injury, when a thin scar will not heal, and when the main ...

  11. The oblique wing-research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The AD-1 airplane was designed as a low cost, low speed manned research tool to evaluate the flying qualities of the oblique wing concept. The airplane is constructed primarily of foam and fiberglass and incorporates simplicity in terms of the onboard systems. There are no hydraulics, the control system is cable and torque tube, and the electrical systems consist of engine driven generators which power the battery for engine start, cockpit gages, trim motors, and the onboard data system. The propulsion systems consist of two Microturbo TRS-18 engines sea level trust rated at 220 pounds. The airplane weighs approximately 2100 pounds and has a performance potential in the range of 200 knots and an altitude of 15,000 feet.

  12. Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

  13. Supersonic cruise research aircraft structural studies: Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Gross, D.; Kurtze, W.; Newsom, J.; Wrenn, G.; Greene, W.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center SCAR in-house structural studies are reviewed. In methods development, advances include a new system of integrated computer programs called ISSYS, progress in determining aerodynamic loads and aerodynamically induced structural loads (including those due to gusts), flutter optimization for composite and metal airframe configurations using refined and simplified mathematical models, and synthesis of active controls. Results given address several aspects of various SCR configurations. These results include flutter penalties on composite wing, flutter suppression using active controls, roll control effectiveness, wing tip ground clearance, tail size effect on flutter, engine weight and mass distribution influence on flutter, and strength and flutter optimization of new configurations. The ISSYS system of integrated programs performed well in all the applications illustrated by the results, the diversity of which attests to ISSYS' versatility.

  14. A candidate V/STOL research aircraft design concept using an S-3A aircraft and 2 Pegasus 11 engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    A candidate V/STOL research aircraft concept which uses an S-3A airframe and two Pegasus 11 engines was studied to identify a feasible V/STOL national flight facility that could be obtained at the lowest possible cost for the demonstration of V/STOL technology, inflight simulation, and flight research. The rationale for choosing the configuration, a description of the configuration, and the capability of a fully developed aircraft are discussed.

  15. Predesign report for the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual predesign of a compound helicopter for conducting rotor research is presented. The aircraft was selected by the Government as the better of two concepts submitted. The helicopter is a three place vehicle in the 24,000 pound gross weight class. It has been determined that the helicopter satisfies the requirements for the rotor research mission. The model has been predesigned sufficiently to allow an assessment of its performance and stability and control characteristics. A brief treatment of these subjects is included.

  16. Airframe self-noise: Four years of research. [aircraft noise reduction for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A critical assessment of the state of the art in airframe self-noise is presented. Full-scale data on the intensity, spectra and directivity of this noise source are evaluated in the light of the comprehensive theory developed by Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkins. Vibration of panels on commercial aircraft is identified as a possible additional source of airframe noise. The present understanding and methods for prediction of other component sources - airfoils, struts, and cavities - are discussed, and areas for further research as well as potential methods for airframe noise reduction are identified. Finally, the various experimental methods which have been developed for airframe noise research are discussed and sample results are presented.

  17. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  18. A structural design for a hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Taylor, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    A research aircraft is being studied that has potential for large-scale demonstration of advanced propulsive, structural, and aerodynamic technologies for hypersonic application. Versatility is achieved through a large removable payload bay with removable thermal protection, by removable wings, and by the configuration, which considers engine-airframe integration. Design criteria have been applied to an effective heat-sink structure of Lockalloy (Be-38Al), wherein thermal stress alleviation is a prime consideration in the design. Structural analyses are being performed with the SPAR computer program. Results indicate that no critical problems exist and the resulting structural weight is within initial estimates.

  19. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  20. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  1. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  2. Rating the resolving hypertrophic scar: comparison of the Vancouver Scar Scale and scar volume.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, B; Shankowsky, H A; Tredget, E E

    2000-01-01

    The increased focus of research interests and clinical documentation on outcomes demands that evaluation tools provide reliable and valid data. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was developed to provide a more objective measurement of burn scars; however, the validity (a test's ability to measure the phenomenon for which it was designed) of the VSS has not been tested. To examine the construct validity of the VSS, we compared it with scar volume, which has established face validity. Burn scars were evaluated monthly for a minimum of 7 months. Three scar volume measurements were performed on each scar. In addition, 3 independent examiners completed the VSS for the same scar. The data generated by these 2 measurements were used to establish the following: (1) the interrater agreement estimated by interclass correlation coefficient, (2) convergence validity, (3) the sensitivity of the assessments to discriminate changes in the scar over time, and (4) the prevalence of related parameters that are not currently being captured by the VSS. In an attempt to address some of the deficiencies of the VSS, we propose several modifications. We anticipate that these changes will increase the reliability and validity of the VSS through an increase in the awareness that training in the use of this scale is required, through improvement in the quality of the subscales, and through the documentation of additional pertinent information.

  3. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) “Pilatus” unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature

  4. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  5. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Palo, S.; Argrow, B.; LoDolce, G.; Mack, J.; Gao, R.-S.; Telg, H.; Trussel, C.; Fromm, J.; Long, C. N.; Bland, G.; Maslanik, J.; Schmid, B.; Hock, T.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be

  6. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    DOE PAGES

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru -Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; et al

    2016-04-28

    This study presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) “Pilatus” unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. Inmore » order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  7. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  8. Solar Radiation Measurements Onboard the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, I.; Bohn, B.; Werner, F.; Ehrlich, A.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of the separated upward and downward components of solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies and of upward nadir spectral radiance were performed with the HALO Solar Radiation (HALO-SR) instrument package onboard the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The instrumentation of HALO-SR is characterized and first measurement data from the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies (NARVAL) campaigns in 2013 and 2014 are presented. The measured data are analyzed in the context of the retrieved microphysical and optical properties of clouds which were observed underneath the aircraft. Detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical actinic flux receivers were determined in the laboratory. The effects of deviations from the ideal response are investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factors are derived. Example photolysis frequencies are presented, which were sampled in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Atlantic Ocean during the 2013/14 HALO NARVAL campaigns. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated. Calculated actinic flux densities in the presence of clouds benefit from the measured spectral radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective droplet radii are used as model input for the radiative transfer calculations. By comparison with the concurrent measurements of actinic flux densities the retrieval approach is validated. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program HALO (BO 1580/4-1, WE 1900/21-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  10. HAI: A new TDLAS hygrometer for the HALO research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klostermann, Tim; Afchine, Armin; Barthel, Jochen; Höh, Matthias; Wagner, Steven; Witzel, Oliver; Saathoff, Harald; Schiller, Cornelius; Ebert, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and a key component for several physical and chemical processes. Therefore it is a key parameter to be measured during most research campaigns. The Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations (HAI) is especially designed for operations on the research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft). HAI permits both, the in-situ measurement of water vapor with an open-path cell and the measurement of total water with an extractive close-path absorption cell. We are using TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) in two water absorption bands with different line strength to increase the dynamical range. With this concept it is possible to measure from the middle troposphere up to the stratosphere. The open-path cell outside of the fuselage consists of a robust, aerodynamically designed aluminum structure with a single integrated White-cell for both laser beams. Although the mirror separation is only 15cm the cell allows an open absorption path of 4.8m. The detection of higher H2O concentrations is realized with a fiber coupled 1.4µm DFB diode laser. Inside the UTLS layer were small concentrations in the low ppm range are common, we employ up to 20 times stronger fundamental ro-vibration lines of the water molecule near 2.6µm. To supply this, the fiber coupled 2.6µm laser setup was developed and is a part of the HAI. Both detection wavelengths are introduced in the same open path cell via glass fibers which provide water measurements with a minimum of parasitic absorption. We will present the spectrometer design for high-quality airborne water measurements. Furthermore, first laboratory measurements will be shown.

  11. A conceptual study of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical comparison of the two candidate Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) configurations selected by the Government at the completion of Part 1 of the RSRA Conceptual Predesign Study is presented. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the relative suitability of both vehicles for the RSRA missions described in the Government Statement of Work, and to assess their versatility in the testing of new rotor concepts. The analytical comparison was performed primarily with regard to performance and stability and control. A weights, center-of-gravity, and inertia computation was performed for each iteration in the analysis process. The dynamics investigation was not concerned so much with a comparison of the two vehicles, but explored the dynamic problems attending operation of any RSRA operating with large rotor RPM and diameter ranges over large forward speed ranges. Several means of isolating in- and out-of-plane rotor vibrations were analyzed. An optimum isolation scheme was selected.

  12. Determination of extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance from a research aircraft.

    PubMed

    Arvesen, J C; Griffin, R N; Pearson, B D

    1969-11-01

    Results are presented of an experiment to determine extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance at the earth's mean solar distance within the 300-2500 nm wavelength region. Spectroradiometric measurements were performed during eleven research flights on board a NASA CV-990 aircraft at altitudes between 11.6 km and 12.5 km. Precision of the measurements was better than +/-1%. Absolute accuracy of the resultant extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance is approximately +/-3% over most of the measurement range. A listing of results is presented at intervals varying from 0.1 nm throughout most of the uv-visible Fraunhofer region to 5 nm in the continuum region of the ir. Additionally, a listing of solar spectral irradiance, smoothed over the detailed Fraunhofer structure, is presented for engineering use.

  13. Status of research into lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Developments in aircraft lightning protection since 1938 are reviewed. Potential lightning problems resulting from present trends toward the use of electronic controls and composite structures are discussed, along with presently available lightning test procedures for problem assessment. The validity of some procedures is being questioned because of pessimistic results and design implications. An in-flight measurement program is needed to provide statistics on lightning severity at flight altitudes and to enable more realistic tests, and operators are urged to supply researchers with more details on electronic components damaged by lightning strikes. A need for review of certain aspects of fuel system vulnerability is indicated by several recent accidents, and specific areas for examination are identified. New educational materials and standardization activities are also noted.

  14. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  15. An Overview of NASA's SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft’s mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft’s flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT’s research systems and capabilities

  16. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  17. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  18. NASA Now: Phase Change and Forces of Flight: Aircraft Icing Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tour the Icing Research Tunnel with Judith VanZante, aeromechanical engineer and icing specialist. VanZante explains the hazards of ice on aircraft, how it is formed, and why the research on ice pl...

  19. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  20. Recent Developments in Aircraft Flyover Noise Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of a new generation of synthesis and simulation tools for creation of virtual environments used in the study of aircraft community noise. The original emphasis was on simulation of flyover noise associated with subsonic fixed wing aircraft. Recently, the focus has shifted to rotary wing aircraft. Many aspects of the simulation are applicable to both vehicle classes. Other aspects, particularly those associated with synthesis, are more vehicle specific. This paper discusses the capabilities of the current suite of tools, their application to fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and some directions for the future.

  1. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  2. An overview of the quiet short-haul research aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Cochrane, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Program is presented, with special emphasis on its propulsion and acoustic aspects. A description of the NASA technical participation in the program including wind tunnel testing, engine ground tests, and advanced aircraft simulation is given. The aircraft and its systems are described and, measured performance, where available, is compared to program goals. Preliminary data indicate that additional research and development are needed in some areas of which acoustics is an example. Some of these additional research areas and potential experiments using the QSRA to develop the technology are discussed. The concept of the QSRA as a national flight research facility is explained.

  3. RSRA vertical drag test report. [rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), because of its ability to measure rotor loads, was used to conduct an experiment to determine vertical drag, tail rotor blockage, and thrust augmentation as affected by ground clearance and flight velocity. The RSRA was flown in the helicopter configuration at speeds from 0 to 15 knots for wheel heights from 5 to 150 feet, and to 60 knots out of ground effect. The vertical drag trends in hover, predicted by theory and shown in model tests, were generally confirmed. The OGE hover vertical drag is 4.0 percent, 1.1 percent greater than predicted. The vertical drag decreases rapidly as wheel height is reduced, and is zero at a wheel height of 6 feet. The vertical drag also decreases with forward speed, approaching zero at sixty knots. The test data show the effect of wheel height and forward speed on thrust, gross weight capability, and power, and provide the relationships for power and collective pitch at constant gross weight required for the simulation of helicopter takeoffs and landings.

  4. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  5. X-38 research aircraft - First drop flight and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. Those tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  6. X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  7. Evaluation of XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft for flying qualities research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, R. C.; Schelhorn, A. E.; Siracuse, R. J.; Till, R. D.; Wasserman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a design review study and evaluation of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft for flying qualities research application are presented. The objectives of the program were to determine the capability of the XV-15 aircraft and the V/STOLAND system as a safe, inflight facility to provide meaningful research data on flying qualities, flight control systems, and information display systems.

  8. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 2: Conceptual study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the technical requirements and concepts for a rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was determined. The designs of two aircraft were then compared against the RSRA requirements. One of these is an all new aircraft specifically designed as an RSRA vehicle. A new main rotor, transmission, wings, and fuselage are included in this design. The second aircraft uses an existing Sikorsky S-61 main rotor, an S-61 roller gearbox, and a highly modified Sikorsky S-67 airframe. The wing for this aircraft is a new design. Both aircraft employ a fan-in-fin anti-torque/yaw control system, T58-GE-16 engines for rotor power, and TF34-GE-2 turbofans for auxiliary thrust. Each aircraft meets the basic requirements and goals of the program. The all new aircraft has inflight variable main rotor shaft tilt, a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement, and is slightly faster in the compound mode. It is also somewhat lighter since it uses new dynamic components specifically designed for the RSRA. Preliminary development plans, including schedules and costs, were prepared for both of these aircraft.

  9. Global stratospheric change: Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research, sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center, was held July 15 to 16, 1989, at Truckee, CA. The workshop had two purposes: to assess the scientific justification for a new aircraft that will support stratospheric research beyond the altitudes accessible to the NASA ER-2; and to determine the aircraft characteristics (e.g., ceiling altitude, payload accommodations, range, flight duration, operational capabilities) required to perform the stratospheric research referred to in the justification. To accomplish these purposes, the workshop brought together a cross-section of stratospheric scientists with several aircraft design and operations experts. The stratospheric scientists included theoreticians as well as experimenters with experience in remote and in situ measurements from satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and the ground. Discussions of required aircraft characteristics focused on the needs of stratospheric research. It was recognized that an aircraft optimal for stratospheric science would also be useful for other applications, including remote measurements of Earth's surface. A brief description of these other applications was given at the workshop.

  10. Relativistic Quantum Scars

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Akis, Richard

    2009-07-31

    The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.

  11. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  12. NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft familiarization document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are described. This aircraft was conceived as a proof-of-concept vehicle and a V/STOL research tool for integrated wind tunnel, flight-simulation, and flight-test investigations. Discussions of special design provisions and safety considerations necessary to perform these missions are included in this report. In addition to predictions of aircraft and engine performance for the hover, helicopter, and airplane flight modes, analytical estimates of the structural and dynamic limitations of the XV-15 are provided.

  13. Development of the XV-15 tiltrotor research aircraft - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroers, Laurel G.

    1989-01-01

    The initial ground rules that guided the decision process during the initial stages of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft development are reviewed and reevaluated. A full flight-envelope nonlinear simulation mathematical model is outlined, along with the advantages of a multiaircraft program. Direct involvement of government engineers in all aspects of the program is considered to be beneficial, while the ejection-seat test requirement is not. Utilization of existing components - a rotor, transmissions, and engines - is analyzed, and emphasis is placed on integrated system test plans responsible for producing two reliable aircraft through a complete checkout of the aircraft subsystems before the start of the fligth program. Wind-tunnel and fatigue test requirements are presented, and the decision to go with an all mechanical control system design is addressed.

  14. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

    2010-01-01

    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  15. Some flight data extraction techniques used on a general aviation spin research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    Some methods for obtaining flight data from a highly instrumented general aviation spin research aircraft are developed and illustrated. The required correction terms for the measurement of body accelerations, body velocities, and aircraft orientation are presented. In addition, the equations of motion are utilized to derive total aerodynamic coefficients for comparison with model tests and for analysis. Flight test experience is used to evaluate the utility of various instruments and calculation techniques for spin research.

  16. Shipboard trials of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft /QSRA/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.; Strickland, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of advanced state-of-the-art high lift STOL aircraft in the aircraft carrier environment was evaluated using the NASA Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA). The QSRA made repeated unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs from the USS Kitty Hawk while being flown by three pilots of significant different backgrounds. The exercise demonstrated that the USB propulsive lift technology presents no unusual problems in the aircraft carrier environment. Optimum parameters for landing the QSRA were determined from the shore-based program; these proved satisfactory during operations aboard ship. Correlation of shipboard experience with shore-based data indicates that both free deck takeoffs and unarrested landings could be conducted with zero to 35 knots of wind across the deck of an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk.

  17. A study for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Daughaday, H.; Andrisani, D., II; Till, R. D.; Weingarten, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study and preliminary design for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft are documented. Active control functions which can be demonstrated on the TIFS aircraft and the cost of preparing, equipping, and operating the TIFS aircraft for active control technology development are determined. It is shown that the TIFS aircraft is as a suitable test bed for inflight research and validation of many ACT concepts.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  19. X-38 research aircraft atmospheric reentry - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  20. X-38 research aircraft deorbit burn - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998 plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  1. Scar revision via resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D T; Park, S S

    2001-11-01

    Numerous techniques exist to treat noticeable facial scars. Techniques range from surgical excision to resurfacing. In this review of dermabrasion and laser resurfacing, we address the clinical considerations, techniques, adjuncts, and peri-operative management of scar resurfacing. Dermabrasion offers the advantage of being a tried-and-true technique familiar to surgeons. Recent advances in laser technology have resulted in the increased use of pulsed-dye lasers (PDLs), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) lasers, and CO(2) lasers. PDLs are effective for hypertrophic scars and show lower rates of recurrence compared with erbium:YAG and CO2 lasers. In contrast, erbium:YAG and CO(2) lasers are well suited to treating atrophic and acne scars. Chemical peels play a minor role in scar resurfacing and function primarily as an adjunct. Scar resurfacing is an integral part of scar camouflage and is often used in conjunction with excision and irregularization techniques.

  2. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  3. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  4. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  5. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  6. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  7. In flight direct strike lightning research. [Using an F-106B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The lightning generated electromagnetic environment effecting aircraft is studied. The program uses F-106B aircraft which operates in a thunderstorm environment and is specially instrumented for the lightning electromagnetic measurements. The instrumentation system is reviewed and typical results recorded by the research instrumentation during simulated lightning ground tests performed for a safety survey are presented along with several examples of direct strike data obtained during the summer of 1980.

  8. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  9. The cost of post-burn scarring.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, U; Sander, J T; Zier, U; Rennekampff, H O; Weyand, B; Vogt, P M

    2015-09-30

    Deep burns lead to scarring and contractures for which there is little or no published data on treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by analysing treatment costs for burn sequelae. To do this, German-DRG for in-patient treatment was collected from the Burn Centre Lower Saxony. DRG-related T95.-coding served as a tool for burn-associated sequelae. Data on scar occurrence, plastic-reconstructive surgery and sick leave were collected by a questionnaire. The findings showed that 44.6% patients reported post-burn scarring and 31% needed surgical intervention. The expected risk for readmission was significantly higher (p=0.0002) with scars compared to without. Significantly higher costs for pressure garments were noted for scarred patients (p=0.04). No differences were found for ointments, silicone dressings or pain medication. Treatment costs for patients with scars were 5.6 times higher compared with no scar assessed by G-DRG. No differences were stated subsuming multiple readmissions for post-burn treatment per individual. Significantly higher costs (p=0.03) were noted for patients with burn sequelae other than scars with regard to individual readmissions. It has been revealed that treatment of scars causes higher costs than for other burn sequelae because of multiple surgical interventions. To reduce post-burn scarring and costs, specialized burn centres provide optimal and state-of-the-art treatment. As well as this, more emphasis should be laid on promoting research for the development of novel anti-scarring therapies. PMID:27279810

  10. A Look at HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, K.; Friesen, R.; Carlson, D.

    2002-12-01

    The High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This overview presentation on HIAPER will begin with a brief discussion of the project history and an overview of the capabilities of the aircraft and the modifications to be made to the basic airframe. Next, a summary of the NSF-led HIAPER Community Instrumentation Workshop will be given. This workshop, which was held at NCAR from 4-6 November 2002, provided participants with a forum in which to discuss the types of environmental measurements that should be made with this new airborne platform and to exchange ideas regarding technologies and instrumentation design approaches that are available and should be applied to the development of instrumentation for the aircraft. The workshop findings will be summarized, and specific recommendations regarding the major research areas in which measurements from HIAPER are most needed will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion of possible instrumentation to be considered for deployment on the aircraft will be given.

  11. Rotor systems research aircraft of predesign study. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to develop a versatile research aircraft for flight testing a wide variety of advanced helicopter and compound rotor systems. The aircraft is required to accept these rotors with minimal changes in the basic vehicle. Rotors envisioned for testing include conventional rotors plus variable geometry, variable twist, variable diameter, coaxial, jet flap, circulation control, and slowed rotors. Various disc loadings would be accommodated. The aircraft must be configured to measure performance more accurately than past test vehicles. In addition, the aircraft would have a wing to off load the rotor while measuring performance during lightly loaded conditions. It would have variable drag and propulsive force so that the rotor can be tested while producing different values of horizontal force.

  12. Conceptual design study of a Harrier V/STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, W. E.; Berger, R. L.; Elmore, G. A.; Lacey, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    MCAIR recently completed a conceptual design study to define modification approaches to, and derive planning prices for the conversion of a two place Harrier to a V/STOL control, display and guidance research aircraft. Control concepts such as rate damping, attitude stabilization, velocity command, and cockpit controllers are to be demonstrated. Display formats will also be investigated, and landing, navigation and guidance systems flight tested. The rear cockpit is modified such that it can be quickly adapted to faithfully simulate the controls, displays and handling qualities of a Type A or Type B V/STOL. The safety pilot always has take command capability. The modifications studied fall into two categories: basic modifications and optional modifications. Technical descriptions of the basic modifications and of the optional modifications are presented. The modification plan and schedule as well as the test plan and schedule are presented. The failure mode and effects analysis, aircraft performance, aircraft weight, and aircraft support are discussed.

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Sub-Scale Aircraft for Flight Research: The FASER Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Cox, David E.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive unmanned sub-scale aircraft was developed to conduct frequent flight test experiments for research and demonstration of advanced dynamic modeling and control design concepts. This paper describes the aircraft, flight systems, flight operations, and data compatibility including details of some practical problems encountered and the solutions found. The aircraft, named Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, or FASER, was outfitted with high-quality instrumentation to measure aircraft inputs and states, as well as vehicle health parameters. Flight data are stored onboard, but can also be telemetered to a ground station in real time for analysis. Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software were used as often as possible. The flight computer is based on the PC104 platform, and runs xPC-Target software. Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted with the same aircraft used for flight testing, and a six degree-of-freedom simulation with nonlinear aerodynamics was developed to support flight tests. Flight tests to date have been conducted to mature the flight operations, validate the instrumentation, and check the flight data for kinematic consistency. Data compatibility analysis showed that the flight data are accurate and consistent after corrections are made for estimated systematic instrumentation errors.

  14. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

  15. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  16. Laser Scar Management Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio; Sasaki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Scars are common and cause functional problems and psychological morbidity. Recent advances in optical technologies have produced various laser systems capable of revising the appearance of scars from various etiologies to optimize their appearance. Methods: Laser treatment can commence as early as the time of the initial injury and as late as several years after the injury. Several optical technologies are currently available and combined laser/light treatments are required for treatment of scars. Since 2006, we have set up a scar management department in our clinic and more than 2000 patients have been treated by our combined laser irradiation techniques. Herein, we review several available light technologies for treatment of surgical, traumatic, and inflammatory scars, and discuss our combined laser treatment of scars, based upon our clinical experience. Results and Conclusions: Because scars have a variety of potential aetiologies and take a number of forms, no single approach can consistenty provide good scar treatment and management. The combination of laser and devices is essential, the choice of wavelength and approach being dictated by each patient as an individual. PMID:24511202

  17. Aeroacoustic research in the Netherlands related to aircraft development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wolf, W. B.; Sarin, S. L.

    Noise reduction efforts undertaken with the RB 183-555-15H turbofan on the new F28 aircraft are described. Experiments were performed with jet noise suppressors and acoustic liner designs. Vibration absorbers were installed in the cabin walls. The suppressors were examined with a H2O2-fuelled model in a test facility, leading to selection of an 8-lobed exhaust nozzle. A new acoustic liner was devised which reduced nonlinearities by a factor of five when compared with wire mesh on perforated plate liners. The tests yielded designs for a system of dynamic vibration absorbers which were subsequently installed in the cabin walls of the F27 and produced a 7 dB noise reduction.

  18. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  19. Atrophic Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

  20. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  1. Soviet aerospace industry - Propulsion research center focuses on developing fuel-efficient aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The USSR's research and design resources for aircraft propulsion development are concentrated in Moscow's Central Institute for Aviation Motors; design bureaus concerned with specific design tasks have limited research staffs, and are accordingly dependent on this institute for fundamental studies and test support. Full-scale test rigs are located at a facility outside Moscow; aircraft engines of all sizes can be run there at simulated flight speeds. The state-of-the-art turbofan engine that has been developed by this system is the Soloviev D-90, a 35,000-lb thrust class engine powering the Tu-204 and Il-96-300 transport aircraft currently undergoing testing; a specific fuel consumption level of 0.58 at Mach 0.8/36,000 ft altitude has been achieved.

  2. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  3. Subminiaturization for ERAST instrumentation (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madou, Marc; Lowenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1995-01-01

    We are focusing on the Argus as an example to demonstrate our philosophy on miniaturization of airborne analytical instruments for the study of atmospheric chemistry. Argus is a two channel, tunable-diode laser absorption spectrometer developed at NASA for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (N2O) (4.5 micrometers) and ammonia (CH3) (3.3 micrometers) at the 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) level from the Perseus aircraft platform at altitudes up to 30 km. Although Argus' mass is down to 23 kg from the 197 kg Atlas, its predecessor, our goal is to design a next-generation subminiaturized instrument weighing less than 1 kg, measuring a few cm(exp 3) and able to eliminate dewars for cooling. Current designs enable use to make a small,inexpensive, monolithic spectrometer without the required sensitivity range. Further work is on its way to increase sensitivity. We are continuing to zero-base the technical approach in terms of the specifications for the given instrument. We are establishing a check list of questions to hone into the best micromachining approach and to superpose on the answers insights in scaling laws and flexible engineering designs to enable more relaxed tolerances for the smallest of the components.

  4. Low-speed airspeed calibration data for a single-engine research-support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A standard service airspeed system on a single engine research support airplane was calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. The effects of flaps, power, sideslip, and lag were evaluated. The factory supplied airspeed calibrations were not sufficiently accurate for high accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer airspeed calibration was conducted to provide the capability to use the research support airplane to perform pace aircraft airspeed calibrations.

  5. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  6. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  7. A unique facility for V/STOL aircraft hover testing. [Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, R. G.; Murphy, R. D.; Gillespie, E. A.; Lane, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) was modified to obtain static force and moment data and to allow assessment of aircraft handling qualities during dynamic tethered hover flight. Test probe procedures were also established. Static lift and control measurements obtained are presented along with results of limited dynamic tethered hover flight.

  8. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  9. Unveiling of sign for Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In a brief ceremony following a memorial service for the late Walter C. Williams on November 17, 1995, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, was formally renamed the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility. Shown is the family of Walt Williams: Helen, his widow, sons Charles and Howard, daughter Elizabeth Williams Powell, their spouses and children unveiling the new sign redesignating the Facility. The test facility provides state-of-the-art capabilities for thorough ground testing of advanced research aircraft. It allows researchers and technicians to integrate and test aircraft systems before each research flight, which greatly enhances the safety of each mission. In September 1946 Williams became engineer-in-charge of a team of five engineers who arrived at Muroc Army Air Base (now Edwards AFB) from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia (now NASA's Langley Research Center), to prepare for supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-Army Air Forces program involving the rocket-powered X-1. This established the first permanent NACA presence at the Mojave Desert site although initially the five engineers and others who followed them were on temporary assignment. Over time, Walt continued to be in charge during the many name changes for the NACA-NASA organization, with Williams ending his stay as Chief of the NASA Flight Research Center in September 1959 (today NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center).

  10. The all-electric aircraft - A systems view and proposed NASA research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is expected that all-electric aircraft, whether military or commercial, will exhibit reduced weight, acquisition cost and fuel consumption, an expanded flight envelope and improved survivability and reliability, simpler maintenance, and reduced support equipment. Also noteworthy are dramatic improvements in mission adaptability, based on the degree to which control system performance relies on easily exchanged software. Flight-critical secondary power and control systems whose malfunction would mean loss of an aircraft pose failure detection and design methodology problems, however, that have only begun to be addressed. NASA-sponsored research activities concerned with these problems and prospective benefits are presently discussed.

  11. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft during take off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 709, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  12. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

  13. Keloid scar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are an overgrowth of scar tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. They often create a thick, puckered effect simulating a tumor. Keloids may be reduced in size by freezing (cryotherapy), ...

  14. Scar revision - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery to revise scars is done while the patient is awake, sleeping (sedated), or deep asleep and pain-free (local anesthesia or general anesthesia). Massive injuries (such as burns) can cause loss of a large area of ...

  15. Primary scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Stamatios, Gregoriou; Ioannides, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Scarring alopecia or cicatricial alopecia results from follicular damage that is sufficient to cause the destruction and replacement of pilosebaceous structures by scar tissue. Primary scarring alopecias represent a group of disorders that primarily affect the hair follicles, as opposed to secondary scarring alopecias, which affect the dermis and secondarily cause follicular destruction. Inflammation may predominantly involve lymphocytes or neutrophils. Cicatricial alopecias that mainly involve lymphocytic inflammation include discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, central centrifugal alopecia, and pseudopelade (Brocq). Cicatricial alopecias that are due to predominantly neutrophilic inflammation include folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. Folliculitis keloidalis is a cicatricial alopecia with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:26370646

  16. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  17. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  18. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  19. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  20. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  1. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  2. Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise (FICAN) Position on Research into Effects of Aircraft Noise on Classroom Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This symposium report presents a summary of research on the affect of aircraft noise on the classroom environment revealing that aircraft noise can interfere with learning in the following areas: reading, motivation, language and speech acquisition, and memory. The strongest findings are in the area of reading, where more than 20 studies have…

  3. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  4. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  5. Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  6. An updated history of NACA/NASA rotary-wing aircraft research 1915-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J.

    1984-01-01

    Highlights are drawn from 'A History of NACA/NASA Rotating-Wing Aircraft Research, 1915-1970' by F. Gustafson to build an historical base upon which to build an extension from 1970-1984. Fundamental changes in how NASA conducted rotary-wing research in the early 1970s included an increasing level of contract research and closer ties with research conducted by the U.S. Army. The work done at the Army Research Laboratories at Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers during 1970-1976 is briefly reviewed. In 1976 the Ames Research Center was assigned the Lead Center responsibility for helicopter research, though Langley retained research roles in structures, noise, dynamics, and aeroelasticity in support of rotorcraft. By 1984, NASA Rotorcraft Program Funding reached $35 million per year.

  7. Polar Research with Unmanned Aircraft and Tethered Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, M; Petty, R; Desilets, D; Verlinde, J; Ellingson, R

    2014-01-24

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change, with nearly double the rate of surface warming observed elsewhere on the planet. While various positive feedback mechanisms have been suggested, the reasons for Arctic amplification are not well understood, nor are the impacts to the global carbon cycle well quantified. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the complex interactions between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Elucidating the causes and consequences of Arctic warming is one of the many goals of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, and is part of the larger CESD initiative to develop a robust predictive understanding of Earth’s climate system.

  8. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  9. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  10. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00. Additional photos can be found at: www- pao.ksc.nasa.gov/captions/subjects/co2study.htm

  11. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  12. Follow on Researches for X-56A Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2012-01-01

    A lot of composite materials are used for the modern aircraft to reduce its weight. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of X-56A aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes is based on the flutter analysis of X-56A aircraft. It should be noted that for all three Mach number cases rigid body modes and mode numbers seven and nine are participated 89.1 92.4 % of the first flutter mode. Modal participation of the rigid body mode and mode numbers seven and nine for the second flutter mode are 94.6 96.4%. Rigid body mode and the first two anti-symmetric modes, eighth and tenth modes, are participated 93.2 94.6% of the third flutter mode. Therefore, rigid body modes and the first four flexible modes of X-56A aircraft are the primary modes during the model tuning procedure. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is to obtain in this study. The structural dynamics finite element model of X-56A aircraft is improved using the parallelized big-bang big-crunch algorithm together with a hybrid optimization technique.

  13. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  14. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  15. Diaphanous regulates SCAR complex localization during Drosophila myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary

    2016-10-01

    From Drosophila to man, multinucleated muscle cells form through cell-cell fusion. Using Drosophila as a model system, researchers first identified, and then demonstrated, the importance of actin cytoskeletal rearrangements at the site of fusion. These actin rearrangements at the fusion site are regulated by SCAR and WASp mediated Arp2/3 activation, which nucleates branched actin networks. Loss of SCAR, WASp or both leads to defects in myoblast fusion. Recently, we have found that the actin regulator Diaphanous (Dia) also plays a role both in organizing actin and in regulating Arp2/3 activity at the fusion site. In this Extra View article, we provide additional data showing that the Abi-SCAR complex accumulates at the fusion site and that excessive SCAR activity impairs myoblast fusion. Using constitutively active Dia constructs, we provide additional evidence that Dia functions upstream of SCAR activity to regulate actin dynamics at the fusion site and to localize the Abi-SCAR complex.

  16. Atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft - A status report from NASA's High-Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, Howard L.; Prather, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, future high-speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long-haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern which is being addressed in the planned six-year High-Speed Research Program begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science and emissions reduction, current analytical predictions indicate that an operating range may exist at altitudes below 20 km (i.e., corresponding to a cruise Mach number of approximately 2.4) where the goal level of 5 gm equivalent NO2 emissions/kg fuel will deplete less than one percent of column ozone. Because it will not be possible to directly measure the impact of an aircraft fleet on the atmosphere, the only means of assessment will be prediction. The process of establishing credibility for the predicted effects will likely be complex and involve continued model development and testing against climatological patterns. In particular, laboratory simulation of heterogeneous chemistry and other effects, and direct measurements of well understood tracers in the troposphere and stratosphere are being used to improve the current models.

  17. Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  18. Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  19. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminarse las marcas de acne? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  20. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  1. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  2. Experimental performance of an ablative material as an external insulator for a hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.; Chapman, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An ablative material composed of silica-filled elastomeric silicone was tested to evaluate its thermal and structural performance as an external insulator, or heat shield, for a hypersonic research aircraft. The material was also tested to determine whether it would form a durable char layer when initially heated and thereafter function primarily as an insulator with little further pyrolysis or char removal. Aerothermal tests were representative of nominal Mach 6 cruise conditions of the aircraft, and additional tests were representative of Mach 8 cruise and interference heating conditions. Radiant heating tests were used to simulate the complete nominal Mach 6 surface-temperature history. The silica char that formed during aerothermal tests was not durable. The char experienced a general and preferential surface recession, with the primary mechanism for char removal being erosion. Tests revealed that radiant heating is not a valid technique for simulating aerodynamic heating of the material.

  3. Small unmanned aircraft systems for remote sensing and Earth science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Moorman, Brian J.; Riddell, Kevin; Whitehead, Ken

    2012-06-01

    To understand and predict Earth-surface dynamics, scientists often rely on access to the latest remote sensing data. Over the past several decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of specialized Earth observation sensors for measuring a wide range of processes and features. Comparatively little progress has been made, however, in the development of new platforms upon which these sensors can be deployed. Conventional platforms are still almost exclusively restricted to piloted aircraft and satellites. For many Earth science research questions and applications these platforms do not yet have the resolution or operational flexibility to provide answers affordably. The most effective remote sensing data match the spatiotemporal scale of the process or feature of interest. An emerging technology comprising unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), is poised to offer a viable alternative to conventional platforms for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data with increased operational flexibility, lower cost, and greater versatility (Figure 1).

  4. Dynamic structural aeroelastic stability testing of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroers, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 20 years, a significant effort has been made to understand and predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the tilt rotor concept. Beginning with the rotor-pylon oscillation of the XV-3 aircraft, the problem was identified and then subjected to a series of theoretical studies, plus model and full-scale wind tunnel tests. From this data base, methods were developed to predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. The predicted aeroelastic characteristics are examined in light of the major parameters effecting rotor-pylon-wing stability. Flight test techniques used to obtain XV-15 aeroelastic stability are described. Flight test results are summarized and compared to the predicted values. Wind tunnel results are compared to flight test results and correlated with predicted values.

  5. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  6. The oblique-wing research aircraft: A test bed for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of oblique wings have been the subject of numerous theoretical studies, wind tunnel tests, low speed flight models, and finally a low speed manned demonstrator, the AD-1. The specific objectives of the OWRA program are: (1) to establish the necessary technology base required to translate theoretical and experimental results into practical mission oriented designs; (2) to design, fabricate and flight test an oblique wing aircraft throughout a realistic flight envelope, and (3) to develop and validate design and analysis tools for asymmetric aircraft configurations. The preliminary design phase of the project is complete and has resulted in a wing configuration for which construction is ready to be initiated.

  7. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  8. A real-time, dual processor simulation of the rotor system research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackie, D. B.; Alderete, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time, man-in-the loop, simulation of the rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was conducted. The unique feature of this simulation was that two digital computers were used in parallel to solve the equations of the RSRA mathematical model. The design, development, and implementation of the simulation are documented. Program validation was discussed, and examples of data recordings are given. This simulation provided an important research tool for the RSRA project in terms of safe and cost-effective design analysis. In addition, valuable knowledge concerning parallel processing and a powerful simulation hardware and software system was gained.

  9. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  10. Soil respiration from a boreal forest fire scar chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Kaduk, J.; Balzter, H.; Wooster, M.; Mottram, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change predictions suggest that warming is to be most pronounced at high latitudes, with a possibility of boreal forest warming of 4-6°C in the next 50-100 years. This has lead to the suggestion that changes in boreal forest soil carbon (C) storage could significantly alter the global soil C balance. Fire is the most significant factor controlling succession in the boreal forest biome and it is possible that climate change will lead to an increase in fire regime e.g. size, frequency, intensity, or any combination of these. Our research is investigating C flux dynamics in a Canadian boreal forest jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) dominated fire scar chronosequence. Fieldwork is carried out at Sharpsand Creek experimental burn site, near Thessalon, Ontario, Canada, where there are numerous fire scars of different ages. In June 2006 soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (Ms) were measured on three replicate scars selected from plot last burnt in 1948 and 1991. Rs values were later adjusted for Ts using a Q10 value of 2. There was no significant difference in mean adjusted Rs between the two scar age categories. It is likely that sample sizes were not large enough here to detect significant differences. In May 2007, large areas of the field site burnt as a result of wildfire; this provided an opportunity to take a large number of Rs measurements from recently burnt fire scars, as well as from those areas unaffected by the burn. Rs, Ts and Ms measurements were taken from 1948, 1975 and 1991 scar age categories (three replicate scars each) that were burnt in 2007, as well as a 1948 and 1991 fire scar that was unaffected by the wildfire. Soil samples were taken from three locations per fire scar surveyed and analysed in the laboratory for total C content. There was a significant difference in mean Rs adjusted for Ts and Ms (Rsadj) between the three pre-2007 fire scar age categories 1948, 1975 and 1991, that were all burnt in 2007. Mean

  11. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  12. The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

  13. Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Crash Test of Three Cessna 172 Aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, three Cessna 172 aircraft were crash tested at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The three tests simulated three different crash scenarios. The first simulated a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface such as a road or runway, the second simulated a controlled flight into terrain with a nose down pitch on the aircraft, and the third simulated a controlled flight into terrain with an attempt to unsuccessfully recover the aircraft immediately prior to impact, resulting in a tail strike condition. An on-board data acquisition system captured 64 channels of airframe acceleration, along with acceleration and load in two onboard Hybrid II 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices, representing the pilot and co-pilot. Each test contained different airframe loading conditions and results show large differences in airframe performance. This paper presents test methods used to conduct the crash tests and will summarize the airframe results from the test series.

  15. Interactive visualization for scar transmurality in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiml, Sabrina; Toth, Daniel; Panayiotou, Maria; Fahn, Bernhard; Karim, Rashed; Behar, Jonathan M.; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.; Brost, Alexander; Mountney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure is a serious disease affecting about 23 million people worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is used to treat patients suffering from symptomatic heart failure. However, 30% to 50% of patients have limited clinical benefit. One of the main causes is suboptimal placement of the left ventricular lead. Pacing in areas of myocardial scar correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore precise knowledge of the individual patient's scar characteristics is critical for delivering tailored treatments capable of improving response rates. Current research methods for scar assessment either map information to an alternative non-anatomical coordinate system or they use the image coordinate system but lose critical information about scar extent and scar distribution. This paper proposes two interactive methods for visualizing relevant scar information. A 2-D slice based approach with a scar mask overlaid on a 16 segment heart model and a 3-D layered mesh visualization which allows physicians to scroll through layers of scar from endocardium to epicardium. These complementary methods enable physicians to evaluate scar location and transmurality during planning and guidance. Six physicians evaluated the proposed system by identifying target regions for lead placement. With the proposed method more target regions could be identified.

  16. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  17. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  18. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  19. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Farina Júnior, Jayme Adriano

    2014-08-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  20. V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  1. V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft: A Tool for Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.; Tiffany, Geary (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion System. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift+Lift /Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to decouple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flight path and flight path acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision. has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flight path command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results will be used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  2. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  3. MASC - a small Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) for wind energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Hofsäß, M.; Weimer, F.; Joos, A.; Bange, J.

    2014-05-01

    Originally designed for atmospheric boundary layer research, the MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft, also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV) is capable of making in-situ measurements of temperature, humidity and wind in high resolution and precision. The autopilot system ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) enables the aircraft to fly pre-defined routes between waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. The system manages to operate in wind speeds up to 15 m s-1 safely. It is shown that a MASC can fly as close as one rotor diameter upstream and downstream of running wind turbines at these wind speeds and take valuable data of incoming flow and wake. The flexible operation of an RPA at the size of a MASC can be a major advantage of the system compared to tower measurements and remote sensing in wind energy research. In the project "Lidar Complex" comparisons of RPA measurements with lidar systems and tower measurements are carried out at two different test sites. First results, including turbulence and wake measurements, from a campaign in autumn 2013 are presented.

  4. An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2000-01-01

    A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

  5. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  6. Dryden Research Aircraft Fleet on Ramp - 1993, X-15, F-18, SR-71, X-31, X-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A group photo of research aircraft at NASA's Ames/Dryden Flight Research Facility in 1993 (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994). Left to right: mock-up of X-15, F-18B, SR-71A, X-31, and X-29. The X-15 mock-up is painted as the #3 aircraft, which was lost on November 15, 1967, in an accident that resulted in the death of Air Force Major Mike Adams. The mock-up is now (2001) atop a pole in front of Dryden's main gate. The two-seat F-18B was in use around the turn of the 20th into the 21st century as a chase aircraft for a variety of projects. The SR-71 was one of several transferred to NASA after the aircraft was retired by the Air Force. The X-31 was designed to test flight at high angles of attack using thrust vectoring. The X-29 served as a testbed for forward swept wings. These aircraft and mock-up suggest the great variety of flight research that Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations have conducted over more than 50 years since 1946.

  7. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  8. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  9. Update on Postsurgical Scar Management.

    PubMed

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M; Lee, Edward I

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management.

  10. Lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Jeske, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of flight experiments to determine the lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft designed to furnish information on various aerodynamic characteristics of a transport type of airplane that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) flap technology to achieve short takeoff and landing (STOL) performance. The flight program designed to acquire the data consisted of maneuvers produced by rudder and control-wheel inputs with the airplane in several configurations that had been proposed for landing approach and takeoff operation. The normal stability augmentation system was not engaged during these maneuvers. Time-history records from the maneuvers were analyzed with a parameter estimation procedure to extract lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. For one aircraft configuration in which the USB flaps were deflected 50 deg, several maneuvers were performed to determine the effects of varying the average angle of attack, varying the thrust coefficient, and setting the airplane's upper surface spoilers at a 13 deg symmetrical bias angle . The effects on the lateral characteristics of deflecting the spoilers were rather small and generally favorable. The data indicate that for one test, conducted at low thrust (a thrust coefficient of 0.38), compared with results from tests at thrust coefficients of 0.77 and larger, there was a significant decrease in the lateral control effectiveness, in the yaw damping and in the directional derivative. The directional derivative was also decreased (by about 30 percent) when the average angle of attack of the test was increased from 3 to 16 deg.

  11. Antecedents and analogues - Experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of experimental aircraft from 1953 to the present. Consideration is given to the X-series experimental aircraft, to X-15 (the first aerospace plane), to the transition of experimental aircraft to high-speed flight, to XB-70 research, to lifting body research aircraft, and to current high-speed flight research.

  12. Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

  13. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

  14. Dune Avalanche Scars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  15. A case of scar sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yang Deok; Cho, Yong Seon; Han, Min Soo

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of sarcoid granuloma in old cutaneous scars is one of the uncommon cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis. Here, we report the case of a 47-year-old female who presented with swelling and irritation in 5 old scars. She had acquired these scars 9 years ago in a traffic accident. An incisional scar biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) revealed right paratracheal, both hilar, paraaortic, and subcarinal lymphadenopathy without any nodular densities in both lung fields. Successful regression of cutaneous inflammation was achieved using a short course of oral steroids. PMID:19119259

  16. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  17. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  18. Determination of inter-rater reliability in pediatric burn scar assessment using a modified version of the Vancouver Scar Scale.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Marshall, Sheryle; Strock, Anne; Cooper, Juliette E

    2007-01-01

    The Vancouver Scar Scale is too subjective for our needs and is not culturally sensitive to our Aboriginal clients. The VSS was modified by developing a color scale to aid with vascularity rating. This study was designed to measure the inter-rater reliability of the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (MVSS). Three raters assessed 14 pediatric patients, resulting in a total of 32 scars. Data were analyzed using a Spearman Rank Order Correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and the kappa statistic. All subtests were shown to have significant (P < .05) correlations except for the pigmentation subtest. Because the pigmentation subtest has poor reliability, its inclusion in scar assessment should be questioned. Results indicate that only total scores of the MVSS should be used when determining burn scar outcomes because individual subtest scores appear to have little reliability. Further modifications to the MVSS followed by additional research with greater numbers of subjects are warranted.

  19. NOAA Utilization of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft for Atmospheric Research and Forecast Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Black, M. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Hock, T. F.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    High altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft provide a tremendous new capability for monitoring the atmosphere in support of weather research and forecast improvement. The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program is collaborating with NASA on the use of their Global Hawk (GH) aircraft for research into better understanding and forecasting high-impact weather events. NOAA has participated in multiple field campaigns either in partnership with NASA including the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP, 2010) and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3, 2011-2014) experiments, or under NOAA leadership during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR, 2011) experiment. This past year, NOAA began a 3-year project, Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT), to quantify the influence of UAS data on high-impact weather prediction and assess the operational effectiveness of UAS to help mitigate the risk of potential satellite observing gaps. The NOAA UAS system partnered with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the development of a dropsonde system for the GH which has been flown along with other remote sensing instrumentation. This presentation summarizes our key results to date and describes our planned activities over the next two years. Flights during WISPAR provided measurements of water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers for evaluation of numerical weather prediction forecasts and analyses. A flight sampling the Arctic atmosphere north of Alaska included the first dropsondes released in the Arctic since the 1950's and extensive measurements of boundary-layer variability over an ocean-ice lead feature. Assimilation of GH dropsonde data collected in the environment around tropical storms during HS3 has demonstrated significant positive forecast improvements. Data are also being employed in the validation of multiple satellite-derived products. In SHOUT, campaigns are planned targeting Atlantic

  20. Interior and exterior fuselage noise measured on NASA's C-8a augmentor wing jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise field was mapped by 11 microphones located internally and externally in three areas: mid-fuselage, aft fuselage, and on the flight deck. Noise levels were recorded at four power settings varying from takeoff to flight idle and were plotted in one-third octave band spectra. The overall sound pressure levels of the external noise field were compared to previous tests and found to correlate well with engine primary thrust levels. Fuselage values were 145 + or - 3 dB over the aircraft's normal STOL operating range.

  1. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  2. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  3. Upper surface blowing noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, A. J.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study of the propulsive-lift noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft (QSRA) is described. Comparisons are made of measured QSRA flyover noise and model propulsive-lift noise data available in references. Developmental tests of trailing-edge treatments were conducted using sawtooth-shaped and porous USB flap trailing-edge extensions. Small scale parametric tests were conducted to determine noise reduction/design relationships. Full-scale static tests were conducted with the QSRA preparatory to the selection of edge treatment designs for flight testing. QSRA flight and published model propulsive-lift noise data have similar characteristics. Noise reductions of 2 to 3 dB were achieved over a wide range of frequency and directivity angles in static tests of the QSRA. These noise reductions are expected to be achieved or surpassed in flight tests planned by NASA in 1980.

  4. Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

  5. The flight test program for the hydrogen powered NASP/X-30 research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Armstrong, Johnny G.

    1991-01-01

    The NASP/X-30 will be the first U.S. manned aircraft to be powered with hydrogen. Flight testing the X-30 powered with liquid and/or slush hydrogen along with its high speed capability will present unique challenges to the flight test community. The paper describes the overall X-30 flight research program along with some of the key technology challenges. A flight test envelope expansion concept is described along with typical mission profiles. Flight test problems unique to this class of vehicle will be outlined as well as some preliminary thoughts as to solutions to those problems. The X-30 ground operations with hydrogen must be compatible with the normal operations at the flight test site. A concept for the ground support system will be introduced.

  6. The flight test program for the hydrogen powered NASP/X-30 research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Armstrong, Johnny G.

    The NASP/X-30 will be the first U.S. manned aircraft to be powered with hydrogen. Flight testing the X-30 powered with liquid and/or slush hydrogen along with its high speed capability will present unique challenges to the flight test community. The paper describes the overall X-30 flight research program along with some of the key technology challenges. A flight test envelope expansion concept is described along with typical mission profiles. Flight test problems unique to this class of vehicle will be outlined as well as some preliminary thoughts as to solutions to those problems. The X-30 ground operations with hydrogen must be compatible with the normal operations at the flight test site. A concept for the ground support system will be introduced.

  7. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  8. New innovations in scar management.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, A D; Chait, L A; Stals, R; Stals, P J

    2000-01-01

    As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published over the past 25 years. Tension on a scar in one axis will result in a stretched scar, probably initiated by neutrophils and their neutral proteases [18,26]. Tension on a scar from many directions or intermittently will result in a hypertrophic scar, possibly initiated by lymphocytes but definitely related to a prolongation of the inflammatory process, with increased fibroblast activity and overabundant extracellular matrix secretion [24,26]. The common initiating factor is the tension on the scar, and the critical element needed to counteract this tension is scar support. Clinical experience has shown us that the most reliable way to support a scar is by using microporous tape. Hydration is a second beneficial influence on scar control and is the basis of the use of silicone sheeting and gel [7,29,36]. Alpha Centella cream has two main components. The first is an extract from the plant Bulbine frutescens. This increases hydration under the tape by leaving a layer of fatty vesicles of glycoprotein on the skin surface. This also has antibacterial properties. The second component is the principal terpenoids extracted from the Centella asiatica plant. These include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica has been documented to aid wound healing in a large number of scientific reports [5,12,21,22,33,34,40]. The most beneficial effect appears to be the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type I collagen [4,19] and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. Thus these components have been incorporated into

  9. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  10. NASA/USRA high altitude research aircraft. Gryphon: Soar like an eagle with the roar of a lion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose; Nunes, Anne; Mcray, Mike; Wong, Walter; Ong, Audrey; Coble, Scott

    1991-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet. This is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, which is NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozoned layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  11. A corneal scarring model.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel J; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Corneal opacification (i.e., haze) following a non-denaturing acute injury to the cornea is a process which takes about 5 days to manifest itself, indicating that it is the consequence of cellular and molecular biological processes. In order to obtain a better understanding of the haze development process, and to test candidate anti-haze therapies, we use a corneal scarring model whereby we create an excimer laser wound in the center of rabbit corneas. The primary data generated by this model are (1) changes in corneal thickness with time; (2) wound closure rates, or re-epithelialization; (3) changes in the location and density of corneal sub-epithelial haze; and (4) molecular and histological changes leading up to, during, and following the formation of haze. While the use of excimer lasers to generate consistent wounds in rabbit corneas is not a novel protocol for the study of corneal haze, the photographic technique presented here for the more objective recording and quantification of corneal haze is. At present, a qualitative, semiquantitative, grading system is employed whereby the amount of iris detail discernible through the scar is assigned a value between 0 and 4. Such a system makes direct comparisons amongst reported anti-haze trials nearly impossible. Furthermore, the additional "geographic" detail provided by the image provides a new layer of information about the formation of haze and the ability to troubleshoot dosing regimens. Altogether, with the information present herein, we believe that the study of corneal haze formation and the ability to compare and contrast candidate therapies are both greatly improved.

  12. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1976-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihooa estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5deg to 15.7deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and a transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  13. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  14. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  15. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  16. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William; Miller, Eric; Hudson, Larry; Holguin, Andrew; Neufeld, David; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and its results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three air bags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 pounds.

  17. Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

  18. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future

  19. A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes 2-1/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft in the early 1970 s. Since the first full-scale crash test was preformed in February 1974, the IDRF has been used to conduct: 41 full-scale crash tests of General Aviation (GA) aircraft including landmark studies to establish baseline crash performance data for metallic and composite GA aircraft; 11 full-scale crash tests of helicopters including crash qualification tests of the Bell and Sikorsky Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) prototypes; 48 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) qualification tests of Army helicopters; 3 vertical drop tests of Boeing 707 transport aircraft fuselage sections; and, 60+ crash tests of the F-111 crew escape module. For some of these tests, nonlinear transient dynamic codes were utilized to simulate the impact response of the airframe. These simulations were performed to evaluate the capabilities of the analytical tools, as well as to validate the models through test-analysis correlation. In September 2003, NASA Langley closed the IDRF facility and plans are underway to demolish it in 2007. Consequently, it is important to document the contributions made to improve the crashworthiness of light aircraft and rotorcraft achieved through full-scale crash testing and simulation at the IDRF.

  20. Anatomopathological findings in scars: comparative study between different specimens.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Andrada Despina; Bedereag, Ştefan Iulian; NiŢescu, Cristian; Florescu, Ioan Petre

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable progress science and medicine have experienced, many facts concerning healing processes and pathological scars are still unknown or incompletely explained. This paper is part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis) concerning new approaches in the prevention and treatment of pathological post-burn scars. We present and analyze the cases of some patients who developed abnormal scars in order to understand and point out the characteristics, that different types of pathological scars have in common and how we can differentiate them. Knowing what issue to address is the key to any successful therapy. Thus, the information we obtained will help us in applying more appropriate and efficient methods of treatment and in our further research: comparing the efficiency of newer therapies to that of older ones. PMID:25826518

  1. The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hanga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The elongated 247-foot span lightweight aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, stretched almost the full length of the 300-foot long hangar while on display during a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on Jan. 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on Aug. 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  2. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  3. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  4. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  5. Flux measurements by the NRC Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft: 1987-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; MacPherson, J. Ian; Bastian, Matthew; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Canadian Twin Otter research group has operated an aircraft platform for the study of atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes (carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane) and energy exchange (latent and sensible heat) over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in North America. Some of the acquired data from these projects have now been archived at the Flight Research Laboratory and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The dataset, which contains the measurements obtained in eight projects from 1987 to 2011 are now publicly available. All these projects were carried out in order to improve our understanding of the biophysical controls acting on land-surface atmosphere fluxes. Some of the projects also attempted to quantify the impacts of agroecosystems on the environment. To provide information on the data available, we briefly describe each project and some of the key findings by referring to previously published relevant work. As new flux analysis techniques are being developed, we are confident that much additional information can be extracted from this unique data set.

  6. [The scars of Andy Warhol].

    PubMed

    Scholz, A

    1996-02-01

    The biographical and artistic documents describing to the attempted assassination of the artist Andy Warhol are reviewed. The visible scars are interpreted as symbols of the damaged integrity of the skin. PMID:8868460

  7. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  8. [Dermatological laser- and light treatments of scars].

    PubMed

    Karmisholt, Katrine; Borch, Jakob E; Omland, Silje Haukali; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-08-01

    Many patients struggle with tender, rigid and erythematous scars. Various modalities are used to treat cutaneous scars and in recent years, laser treatments are emerging as promising procedures. This article describes laser systems used for scar treatment according to scar type, evaluates the highest available level of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and introduces a guideline for laser treatment of scars. Twelve RCTs documented effect on acne, burn and surgical scars. It is recommended that laser- and light-based treatments are considered according to the scar type. PMID:27507028

  9. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  10. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  11. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  12. Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

    2010-12-01

    Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem

  13. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single-engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-08-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom-mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium-size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high-accuracy inertial reference system (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  14. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high accuracy Inertial Reference System (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the 3-D wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  15. Preliminary design of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft (RTA)propulsion system design effort is limited to components of the lift/cruise engines, turboshaft engine modifications, lift fan assembly, and propulsion system performance generation. The uninstalled total net thrust with all engines and fans operating at intermediate power was 37,114 pounds. Uninstalled system total net thrust was 27,102 pounds when one lift/cruise is inoperative. Components have lives above the 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle. The L/C engine used in a fixed nacelle has the cross shaft forward of the reduction gear whereas the cross shaft is aft of the reduction gear in a tilt nacelle L/C engine. The lift/cruise gearbox contains components and technologies from other DDA engines. The rotor has a 62-inch diameter and contains 22 composite blades that have a hub/tip ratio of 0.454. The blade pitch change mechanism contains hydraulic and mechanical redundancy. The lift fan assembly is completely self-contained including oil cooling in 10 exit vanes.

  16. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  17. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  18. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  19. X-38 research aircraft removal from Shuttle cargo bay - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  20. X-38 research aircraft - second drop flight from NB-52B mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999, including one on February 6, 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March

  1. X-38 research aircraft mounted in Shuttle docked at Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  2. Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaniec, John S.

    1995-01-01

    The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same, to ensure a commonality between the DC-9 and KC-135 programs.

  3. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  4. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier-transform-spectrometer-based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  5. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb-sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-02-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier transform spectrometer based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  6. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  7. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, James J.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Approach. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. Main results. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Significance. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  8. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no

  9. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Prevention or Treatment of Excessive Scars.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bommie Florence; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Excessive scars, including keloids and hypertrophic scars, result from aberrations in the process of physiologic wound healing. An exaggerated inflammatory process is one of the main pathophysiological contributors. Scars may cause pain, and pruritis, limit joint mobility, and cause a range of cosmetic deformities that affect the patient's quality of life. Extensive research has been done on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation that has resulted in the plethora of treatment and prevention methods practiced today. Mesenchymal stem cells, among their multifunctional roles, are known regulators of inflammation and have been receiving attention as a major candidate for cell therapy to treat or prevent excessive scars. This paper extensively reviews the body of research examining the mechanism and potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of excessive scars. PMID:26839566

  10. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Prevention or Treatment of Excessive Scars

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Excessive scars, including keloids and hypertrophic scars, result from aberrations in the process of physiologic wound healing. An exaggerated inflammatory process is one of the main pathophysiological contributors. Scars may cause pain, and pruritis, limit joint mobility, and cause a range of cosmetic deformities that affect the patient's quality of life. Extensive research has been done on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation that has resulted in the plethora of treatment and prevention methods practiced today. Mesenchymal stem cells, among their multifunctional roles, are known regulators of inflammation and have been receiving attention as a major candidate for cell therapy to treat or prevent excessive scars. This paper extensively reviews the body of research examining the mechanism and potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of excessive scars. PMID:26839566

  11. Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  12. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  13. A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

  14. Remote sensing as a research tool. [sea ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to sea ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-sea-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of sea ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to sea ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and sea ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice type; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.

  15. A Preliminary Study of V/STOL Transport Aircraft and Bibliography of NASA Research in the VTOL-STOL Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    This group of papers was prepared by the staff of the Langley Research Center to assist in planning for future commercial air-transport facilities in the New York metropolitan area. Areas of particular interest were predictions regarding the types of V/STOL aircraft that are likely to be developed for various commercial transport applications, estimates of the performance and probable operating procedures for such aircraft, and the approximate dates these aircraft could be available for use. Although the NASA has made no comprehensive studies of this type, the extensive research program in the VTOL-STOL field during the last 10 years appeared to provide a source for some of the desired information . The five papers included herein were therefore prepared to summarize pertinent available material in a form suitable for the intended use. In several instances, new studies and analysis were required to provide the necessary information, but because of a time deadline, many of the significant points received only a cursory examination. For example, much of the quantitative data used in the papers for making generalized comparisons was obtained by approximate methods and is not considered appropriate for use in applications where precise estimates are required. It should be recognized, then, that the treatment of the V/STOL transport provided by this group of papers is necessarily of a preliminary nature.

  16. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  17. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  18. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  19. Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kirchoff, V. W. J. H.; Artaxo, P.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; King, M. D.; Ward, D. E.; Prins, E. M.; Longo, K. M.; Mattos, L. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ji, Q.; Thompson, A. M.; Gleason, J. F.; Christopher, S. A.; Tsay, S.-C.

    1998-01-01

    The Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) field project took place in the Brazilian Amazon and cerrado regions in August-September 1995 as a collaboration between Brazilian and American scientists. SCAR-B, a comprehensive experiment to study biomass burning, emphasized measurements of surface biomass, fires, smoke aerosol and trace gases, clouds, and radiation. their climatic effects, and remote sensing from aircraft and satellites. It included aircraft and ground-based in situ measurements of smoke emission factors and the compositions, sizes, and optical properties of the smoke particles; studies of the formation of ozone; the transport and evolution of smoke; and smoke interactions with water vapor and clouds. This overview paper introduces SCAR-B and summarizes some of the main results obtained so far. (1) Fires: measurements of the size distribution of fires, using the 50 m resolution MODIS Airborne Simulator, show that most of the fires are small (e.g. 0.005 square km), but the satellite sensors (e.g., AVHRR and MODIS with I km resolution) can detect fires in Brazil which are responsible for 60-85% of the burned biomass: (2) Aerosol: smoke particles emitted from fires increase their radius by as much as 60%, during their first three days in the atmosphere due to condensation and coagulation, reaching a mass median radius of 0.13-0.17 microns: (3) Radiative forcing: estimates of the globally averaged direct radiative forcing due to smoke worldwide, based on the properties of smoke measured in SCAR-B (-O.l to -0.3 W m(exp -2)), are smaller than previously modeled due to a lower single-scattering albedo (0.8 to 0.9), smaller scattering efficiency (3 square meters g(exp -2) at 550 nm), and low humidification factor; and (4) Effect on clouds: a good relationship was found between cloud condensation nuclei and smoke volume concentrations, thus an increase in the smoke emission is expected to affect cloud properties. In SCAR-B, new techniques were developed

  20. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 4: Preliminary draft detail specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. N.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The RSRA requirements are presented in a detail specification format. Coverage of the requirements includes the following headings: (1) aircraft characteristics, (2) general features of design and construction, (3) aerodynamics, (4) structural design criteria, (5) flight control system, (6) propulsion subsystem, and (7) secondary power and distribution subsystem.

  1. CID-720 aircraft Langley Research Center preflight hardware tests: Development, flight acceptance and qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The testing conducted on LaRC-developed hardware for the controlled impact demonstration transport aircraft is discussed. To properly develop flight qualified crash systems, two environments were considered: the aircraft flight environment with the focus on vibration and temperature effects, and the crash environment with the long pulse shock effects. Also with the large quantity of fuel in the wing tanks the possibility of fire was considered to be a threat to data retrieval and thus fire tests were included in the development test process. The aircraft test successfully demonstrated the performance of the LaRC developed heat shields. Good telemetered data (S-band) was received during the impact and slide-out phase, and even after the aircraft came to rest. The two onboard DAS tape recorders were protected from the intense fire and high quality tape data was recovered. The complete photographic system performed as planned throughout the 40.0 sec of film supply. The four photo power distribution pallets remained in good condition and all ten onboard 16 mm high speed (400 frames/sec) cameras produced good film data.

  2. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  3. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  4. Hypertrophic scars and keloids in surgery: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids remain a challenge in surgery. We appreciate that our understanding of the process at cellular and molecular level, profound as it is, when it comes to the clinical evidence much is left to be desired. Although the bench to bedside conundrum remains, the science of translational research calls for an even higher level of cooperation between the scientist and the clinician for the impetus to succeed.The clinicians alerted us to the possible theories in the pathogenesis of keloid formation, inter alia, the ischemia theory, mast cell theory, immune theory, transforming growth factor β interaction, mechanical theory, and the melanocyte stimulating hormone theory. All of the above presupposed a stimulus that would result in an uncontrolled upregulation of collagen and extracellular matrix expression in the pathogenesis of the keloid. This bedside to bench initiative, as in true science, realized more ponderables than possibilities.By the same token, research into the epidermal-mesenchymal signaling, molecular biology, genomics, and stem cell research holds much promise in the bench top arena. To assess efficacy, many scar assessment scores exist in the literature. The clinical measurement of scar maturity can aid in determining end points for therapeutics. Tissue oxygen tension and color assessment of scars by standardized photography proved to be useful.In surgery, the use of dermal substitutes holds some promise as we surmise that quality scars that arise from dermal elements, molecular and enzyme behavior, and balance. Although a systematic review shows some benefit for earlier closure and healing of wounds, no such review exists at this point in time for the use of dermal substitutes in scars.Adipose-derived stem cell, as it pertains to scars, will hopefully realize the potential of skin regeneration rather than by repair in which we are familiar with as well as the undesirable scarring as a result of healing through the inflammatory

  5. Exploring reliability of scar rating scales using photographs of burns from children aged up to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Simons, Megan; Ziviani, Jenny; Thorley, Michelle; McNee, Jessamine; Tyack, Zephanie

    2013-01-01

    Assessing burn scars from photographs is a common practice given the growing trend to support health service delivery via electronic media (eg, email, videoconferencing). Scar rating scales, originally designed for in-person assessment, have been used to rate scars from photographic images. Evidence for the reliability of this practice is lacking. Five raters completed three scar rating scales (Patient and Observer Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, modified Vancouver Scar Scale), both in-person and using photographs on 12 participants (seven male, five female) with 18 scar areas (3 × 3 cm). Interrater reliability for the scar parameters of vascularity, color, contour, pliability, and overall opinion achieved intraclass correlation coefficient values of between 0.71 and 0.87 (in-person) and 0.72 and 0.77 (using photographs) for multiple raters. The level of agreement between in-person and photographic assessment was below acceptable levels, which brings into question construct validity when scar rating scales are used in a way for which they were not designed. Reliability estimates in this study were likely reduced by the underrepresentation of scars in the more severe range. This limitation needs to be addressed in future research. Advances are required in the development and refinement of burn scar rating scales, specifically for photographic use, given their routine use in clinical care.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  7. A Second Trimester Caesarean Scar Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pooja; Suri, Vanita; Chopra, Seema; Aggarwal, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Caesarean scar pregnancy, where conceptus is implanted on previous scar, is a rare entity. We present one such case of scar pregnancy presenting to us in the second trimester and was managed with methotrexate and uterine artery embolization, followed by hysterotomy. Uterus could be conserved and hysterectomy could be avoided. PMID:24782936

  8. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  9. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  10. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  11. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  12. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 5: A mathematical model for real time flight simulation of the Bell model 301 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.

  13. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  14. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  15. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  16. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement item codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  17. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  18. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement data codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  19. Research of hail impact on aircraft wheel door with lattice hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengze; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Xuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Aimed at a long lasting issue of hail impact on aircraft structures and aviation safety due to its high speed, the resistance performance of hail impact on the wheel door of aircraft with lattice hybrid structure is investigated. The proper anti-hail structure can be designed both efficiency and precision based on this work. The dynamic responses of 8 different sandwich plates in diverse impact speed are measured. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method is introduced to mimic the speciality of solid-liquid mixture trait of hailstone during the impact process. The deformation and damage degree of upper and lower panel of sandwich plate are analysed. The application range and failure mode for the relevant structure, as well as the energy absorbing ratio between lattice structure and aluminium foam are summarized. Results show that the tetrahedral sandwich plate with aluminium foam core is confirmed the best for absorbing energy. Furthermore, the high absorption characteristics of foam material enhance the capability of the impact resistance for the composition with lattice structure without increasing the structure surface density. The results of study are of worth to provide a reliable basis for reduced weight aircraft wheel door.

  20. Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Harris, B.; Hashmonay, R.; Holdren, M.; Kaganan, R.; Spicer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

  1. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  2. NACA research on combustors for aircraft gas turbines I : effects of operating variables on steady-state performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Walter T; Childs, J Howard

    1950-01-01

    Some of the systematic research conducted by the NACA on aircraft gas-turbine combustors is reviewed. Trends depicting the effect of inlet-air pressure, temperature, and velocity and fuel-air ratio on performance characteristics, such as combustion efficiency, maximum temperature rise attainable, pressure loss, and combustor-outlet temperature distribution are described for a variety of turbojet combustors of the liquid-fuel type. These trends are further discussed as effects significant to the turbojet engine, such as altitude operational limits, specific fuel consumption, thrust, acceleration, and turbine life.

  3. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William J; Clarke, Samantha A; Quinn, T Alexander; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following a myocardial infarction, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  4. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, WJ; Clarke, SA; Quinn, TA; Holmes, JW

    2016-01-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following an MI, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to scars: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Emiliano; Bordoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a narrative review regarding the approach to scars through complementary and alternative medicine focusing on osteopathy, naturopathy, and other minor methods and traditional rehabilitative medicines, such as physiotherapy and manual therapies. We analyzed the existing literature regarding the possible influences of techniques relaxing the diaphragm – both manual and psychophysical relaxing techniques – and the consequent local response to events leading to scar tissue healing. The objective of the study is to become a useful instrument of knowledge for those manual therapists and professionals who deal with patients affected by discontinuity of the skin surface due to trauma or surgery. This article also intends to stimulate research in order to find and propose new methods of scar treatment, taking into consideration the information gained so far from other complementary and alternative disciplines. PMID:26316774

  6. A multidisciplinary approach to scars: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Zanier, Emiliano; Bordoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a narrative review regarding the approach to scars through complementary and alternative medicine focusing on osteopathy, naturopathy, and other minor methods and traditional rehabilitative medicines, such as physiotherapy and manual therapies. We analyzed the existing literature regarding the possible influences of techniques relaxing the diaphragm - both manual and psychophysical relaxing techniques - and the consequent local response to events leading to scar tissue healing. The objective of the study is to become a useful instrument of knowledge for those manual therapists and professionals who deal with patients affected by discontinuity of the skin surface due to trauma or surgery. This article also intends to stimulate research in order to find and propose new methods of scar treatment, taking into consideration the information gained so far from other complementary and alternative disciplines.

  7. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  8. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  9. An inverse modelling approach for frequency response correction of capacitive humidity sensors in ABL research with small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Kaufmann, F.; Bange, J.

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of water-vapour concentration in the atmosphere is an ongoing challenge in environmental research. Satisfactory solutions are present for ground-based meteorological stations and measurements of mean values. However, advanced research of thermodynamic processes also aloft, above the surface layer and especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), requires the resolution of small-scale turbulence. Sophisticated optical instruments are used in airborne meteorology with manned aircraft to achieve the necessary fast response measurements in the order of 1 Hz (e.g. LiCor 7500). Since these instruments are too large and heavy for the application on the promising platforms of small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), a method is presented in this study, that enhances small capacitive humidity sensors to be able to resolve turbulent eddies in the order of 10 m. For this purpose a physical and dynamical model of such a sensor is described and inverted in order to restore original water vapour fluctuations from sensor measurements. Examples of flight measurements show how the method can be used to correct vertical profiles and resolve turbulence spectra up to about 3 Hz.

  10. Progress in Protective Coatings for Aircraft Gas Turbines: A Review of NASA Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merutka, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Problems associated with protective coatings for advanced aircraft gas turbines are reviewed. Metallic coatings for preventing titanium fires in compressors are identified. Coatings for turbine section are also considered, Ductile aluminide coatings for protecting internal turbine-blade cooling passage surface are also identified. Composite modified external overlay MCrAlY coatings deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying are found to be better in surface protection capability than vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings. Thermal barrier coating (TBC), studies are presented. The design of a turbine airfoil is integrated with a TBC, and computer-aided manufacturing technology is applied.

  11. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  12. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB) focused on (1) improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A) revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5-10 pptv) in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B) indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  13. Soil analyses and evaluations at the impact dynamics research facility for two full-scale aircraft crash tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft structural crash behavior and occupant survivability for aircraft crashes on a soil surface was studied. The results of placement, compaction, and maintenance of two soil test beds are presented. The crators formed by the aircraft after each test are described.

  14. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  15. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.

    2010-01-01

    Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options. PMID:20981308

  16. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    PubMed Central

    Jfri, Abdulhadi; Rajeh, Nawal; Karkashan, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body. PMID:26351423

  17. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  18. Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

  19. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Methods Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Results Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Conclusions Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision. PMID:26618120

  20. Recent developments in rotary-balance testing of fighter aircraft configurations at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two rotary balance apparatuses were developed for testing airplane models in a coning motion. A large scale apparatus, developed for use in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind tunnel primarily to permit testing at high Reynolds numbers, was recently used to investigate the aerodynamics of 0.05-scale model of the F-15 fighter aircraft. Effects of Reynolds number, spin rate parameter, model attitude, presence of a nose boom, and model/sting mounting angle were investigated. A smaller apparatus, which investigates the aerodynamics of bodies of revolution in a coning motion, was used in the 6-by-6 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic behavior of a simple representation of a modern fighter, the Standard Dynamic Model (SDM). Effects of spin rate parameter and model attitude were investigated. A description of the two rigs and a discussion of some of the results obtained in the respective test are presented.

  1. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  2. Definition of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel test support, aircraft contractor support, a propulsion system computer card deck, preliminary design studies, and propulsion system development plan are reported. The Propulsion system consists of two lift/cruise turbofan engines, one turboshaft engine and one lift fan connected together with shafting into a combiner gearbox. Distortion parameter levels from 40 x 80 test data were within the established XT701-AD-700 limits. The three engine-three fan system card deck calculates either vertical or conventional flight performance, installed or uninstalled. Design study results for XT701 engine modifications, bevel gear cross shaft location, fixed and tilt fan frames and propulsion system controls are described. Optional water-alcohol injection increased total net thrust 10.3% on a 90 F day. Engines have sufficient turbine life for 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle.

  3. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  4. A Mathematical Model of Regenerative Axon Growing along Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuning; Zhu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A major factor in the failure of central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration is the formation of glial scar after the injury of CNS. Glial scar generates a dense barrier which the regenerative axons cannot easily pass through or by. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to explore how the regenerative axons grow along the surface of glial scar or bypass the glial scar. This mathematical model was constructed based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) repair experiments by transplanting Schwann cells as bridge over the glial scar. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was used in this model for three-dimensional numerical simulation. The advantage of this model is that it provides a parallel and easily implemented algorithm and has the capability of handling complicated boundaries. Using the simulated data, two significant conclusions were made in this study: (1) the levels of inhibitory factors on the surface of the glial scar are the main factors affecting axon elongation and (2) when the inhibitory factor levels on the surface of the glial scar remain constant, the longitudinal size of the glial scar has greater influence on the average rate of axon growth than the transverse size. These results will provide theoretical guidance and reference for researchers to design efficient experiments. PMID:27274762

  5. A Mathematical Model of Regenerative Axon Growing along Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuning; Zhu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A major factor in the failure of central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration is the formation of glial scar after the injury of CNS. Glial scar generates a dense barrier which the regenerative axons cannot easily pass through or by. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to explore how the regenerative axons grow along the surface of glial scar or bypass the glial scar. This mathematical model was constructed based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) repair experiments by transplanting Schwann cells as bridge over the glial scar. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was used in this model for three-dimensional numerical simulation. The advantage of this model is that it provides a parallel and easily implemented algorithm and has the capability of handling complicated boundaries. Using the simulated data, two significant conclusions were made in this study: (1) the levels of inhibitory factors on the surface of the glial scar are the main factors affecting axon elongation and (2) when the inhibitory factor levels on the surface of the glial scar remain constant, the longitudinal size of the glial scar has greater influence on the average rate of axon growth than the transverse size. These results will provide theoretical guidance and reference for researchers to design efficient experiments. PMID:27274762

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  7. Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  8. [Surgical controversy. Limiting postoperative scarring].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2005-06-01

    Postoperative follow-up of glaucoma surgery must be rigorous and carried out over the long term. Data acquired on the make-up of the filtering bleb justifies using postoperative anti-inflammatory drugs, even if the eye is clinically quiet. When using antimetabolites, the risk factors for failure must be well known and either 5-fluorouracile or mitomycin should be chosen depending on the level of risk of scarring. Their use in needle revision must be adapted case by case. anti-TGF-beta-2 antibody, currently being investigated, may prove advantageous in the very near future. PMID:16208245

  9. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingrong

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333

  10. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  11. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  12. Methods for comparative evaluation of propulsion system designs for supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, R. M.; Mairs, R. Y.; Halferty, F. D., Jr.; Moore, B. E.; Chaloff, D.; Knudsen, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    The propulsion system comparative evaluation study was conducted to define a rapid, approximate method for evaluating the effects of propulsion system changes for an advanced supersonic cruise airplane, and to verify the approximate method by comparing its mission performance results with those from a more detailed analysis. A table look up computer program was developed to determine nacelle drag increments for a range of parametric nacelle shapes and sizes. Aircraft sensitivities to propulsion parameters were defined. Nacelle shapes, installed weights, and installed performance was determined for four study engines selected from the NASA supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) engine studies program. Both rapid evaluation method (using sensitivities) and traditional preliminary design methods were then used to assess the four engines. The method was found to compare well with the more detailed analyses.

  13. A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

  14. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  15. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  16. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  17. Research aircraft observations of the mesoscale and microscale structure of a cold front over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of an oceanic cold front is described on the basis of research aircraft observations taken during the Ocean Storms field experiment. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses compare the structure of an upper-level jet-front system observed slightly downstream from the wind speed maximum to its structure in the upstream entrance region. Stratospheric potential vorticity and ozone were found within the frontal zone down to about 800 mb. Microscale analyses of the front near the sea surface were carried out for a portion of the front having the signature of a 'rope' cloud in satellite imagery. A narrow (less than 1 km) zone of upward motion (about 4 m/s) and of horizontal shear (about 0.01/s) characterized the front near the surface. Significant alongfront variability was found, including lateral displacements in the frontal zone where there were weaker updrafts.

  18. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  19. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the

  20. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from

  1. Clustered parrotfish feeding scars trigger partial coral mortality of massive Porites colonies on the inshore Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, J. Q.; Bonaldo, R. M.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Coral predation by parrotfishes can cause damage to coral colonies, but research into the dynamics of their feeding scars on Indo-Pacific corals is limited. We monitored feeding scars of the parrotfish Chlorurus microrhinos on massive Porites colonies at Orpheus Island (inshore Great Barrier Reef) over 4 months. Of the 30 marks monitored, 11 were single feeding scars, which all healed completely. The remaining 19 feeding marks consisted of clusters of scars. Eight began to recover, while 11 increased in size by 1,576 ± 252 % (mean ± SE). A logistic regression predicted that a single feeding scar on a Porites colony had a 97 % probability of healing; however, where more than three feeding scars were present, this dropped below 50 %. As excavating parrotfishes in the Indo-Pacific often take multiple focused bites, they may have a significant impact on the growth and mortality of massive Porites colonies at Orpheus Island.

  2. SCAR/WAVE: A complex issue.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; Insall, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives the actin polymerisation that underlies protrusion of the front of the cell and thus drives migration. However, it is not understood how the activity of SCAR/WAVE is regulated to generate the infinite range of cellular shape changes observed during cell motility. What are the relative roles of the subunits of the SCAR/WAVE complex? What signaling molecules do they interact with? And how does the complex integrate all this information in order to control the temporal and spatial polymerisation of actin during protrusion formation? Unfortunately, the interdependence of SCAR complex members has made genetic dissection hard. In our recent paper,(1) we describe stabilization of the Dictyostelium SCAR complex by a small fragment of Abi. Here we summarize the main findings and discuss how this approach can help reveal the inner workings of this impenetrable complex.

  3. Histology of the thick scar on the female, red Duroc pig: final similarities to human hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Harunari, Nobuyuki; Zhu, Kathy Q; Armendariz, Rebecca T; Deubner, Heike; Muangman, Pornprom; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Engrav, Loren H

    2006-09-01

    The etiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar remain puzzles even after decades of research. A significant reason is the lack of an accepted animal model of the process. The female, red Duroc pig model was described long ago. Since the skin of the pig is similar to that of humans, we are attempting to validate this model and found it to be encouraging. In this project we quantified myofibroblasts, mast cells and collagen nodules in the thick scar of the Duroc pig and compared these to the values for human hypertrophic scar. We found the results to be quite similar and so further validated the model. In addition, we observed that soon after wounding an inflammatory cell layer forms. The thickness of the inflammatory layer approaches the thickness of the skin removed as if the remaining dermis "knows" how much dermis is gone. In deep wounds this inflammatory layer thickens and this thickness is predictive of the thickness of the ultimate scar. PMID:16905264

  4. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  5. Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

  6. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  7. Initial Results from Observations Made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) During the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Butler, C. F.; Powell, K. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Gilerson, A.; Cetinic, I.

    2014-12-01

    The SABOR experiment was composed of the ocean going research vessel (R/V) Endeavor with a wide range of ocean optics, chemistry, ecology and polarimetric observations and the NASA Langley Research Center UC-12 aircraft operating a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL1) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The HSRL1 resolves vertical variations in scattering by phytoplankton in the water column and profiles of extinction by aerosols in the atmosphere, in addition to measuring intensive aerosol properties that can be used to identify the types of aerosols that are present. The RSP measures the intensity and linear polarization of reflected sunlight in nine spectral bands from 410 to 2264 nm at multiple viewing angles. These measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol and cloud properties and also the near surface chlorophyll concentration [Chl]. While the aircraft observations during SABOR provided the capability for rapidly surveying variations in ocean particulate scattering and near surface [Chl], they can not match the detail or system context provided by measurements made on the R/V Endeavor. Ship based measurements quantified not only the standing stocks of ocean particles, but rates of phytoplankton productivity, speciation of the phytoplankton community, and characteristics of other in-water absorbing materials. The two measurement platforms therefore complement one another, with the R/V Endeavor measurements providing evaluation and validation of the remote sensing products in addition to their own unique scientific value. In this paper we will present a survey of the ocean, aerosol and cloud products retrieved from the RSP observations and some initial inter-comparisons with the observations made by the HSRL1 and on the R/V Endeavor.

  8. Phase and Texture Characterizations of Scar Collagen Second-Harmonic Generation Images Varied with Scar Duration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guannan; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    This work developed a phase congruency algorithm combined with texture analysis to quantitatively characterize collagen morphology in second-harmonic generation (SHG) images from human scars. The extracted phase and texture parameters of the SHG images quantified collagen directionality, homogeneity, and coarseness in scars and varied with scar duration. Phase parameters showed an increasing tendency of the mean of phase congruency with scar duration, indicating that collagen fibers are better oriented over time. Texture parameters calculated from local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) and Haar wavelet transform, demonstrated that the LD-LBP variance decreased and the energy of all subimages increased with scar duration. It implied that collagen has a more regular pattern and becomes coarser with scar duration. In addition, the random forest regression was used to predict scar duration, demonstrating reliable performance of the extracted phase and texture parameters in characterizing collagen morphology in scar SHG images. Results indicate that the extracted parameters using the proposed method can be used as quantitative indicators to monitor scar progression with time and can help understand the mechanism of scar progression.

  9. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  10. Microneedling Therapy for Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time. PMID:26203319

  11. Probing emissions of military cargo aircraft: description of a joint field measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Corporan, Edwin; DeWitt, Matthew J; Spicer, Chester W; Holdren, Michael W; Cowen, Kenneth A; Laskin, Alex; Harris, David B; Shores, Richard C; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    2008-06-01

    To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air National Guard base in Louisville, KY. Conventional and research-grade instrumentation and methodology were used in the field campaign during the first week of October 2005. Particulate emissions were sampled at the engine exit plane and at 15 m downstream. In addition, remote sensing of the gaseous species was performed via spectroscopic techniques at 5 and 15 m downstream of the engine exit. It was found that PM mass and number concentrations measured at 15-m downstream locations, after dilution-correction generally agreed well with those measured at the engine exhaust plane; however, higher variations were observed in the far-field after natural dilution of the downstream measurements was accounted for. Using carbon dioxide-normalized data we demonstrated that gas species measurements by extractive and remote sensing techniques agreed reasonably well.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy Device to Reduce Incisional Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Longaker, Michael T.; Rohrich, Rod J.; Greenberg, Lauren; Furnas, Heather; Wald, Robert; Bansal, Vivek; Seify, Hisham; Tran, Anthony; Weston, Jane; Korman, Joshua M.; Chan, Rodney; Kaufman, David; Dev, Vipul R.; Mele, Joseph A.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarring represents a significant biomedical burden in clinical medicine. Mechanomodulation has been linked to scarring through inflammation, but until now a systematic approach to attenuate mechanical force and reduce scarring has not been possible. Methods The authors conducted a 12-month, prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial to evaluate abdominoplasty scar appearance following postoperative treatment with the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy device to reduce mechanical forces on healing surgical incisions. Incisions from 65 healthy adult subjects were randomized to receive embrace treatment on one half of an abdominoplasty incision and control treatment (surgeon's optimal care methods) on the other half. The primary endpoint for this study was the difference between assessments of scar appearance for the treated and control sides using the visual analogue scale scar score. Results Final 12-month study photographs were obtained from 36 subjects who completed at least 5 weeks of dressing application. The mean visual analogue scale score for embrace-treated scars (2.90) was significantly improved compared with control-treated scars (3.29) at 12 months (difference, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.66; p = 0.027). Both subjects and investigators found that embrace-treated scars demonstrated significant improvements in overall appearance at 12 months using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale evaluation (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the embrace device significantly reduces scarring following abdominoplasty surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first level I evidence for postoperative scar reduction. PMID:24804638

  13. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 1: General information, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimbell, M.; Whitener, A.

    1980-01-01

    The configuration, operation and maintenance requirements for the contractor-furnished portion of the XV-15 research instrumentation and data acquisition system are defined. Descriptions of systems operation, maintenance and checkout procedures, and cable designations are given.

  14. Overview of research on aircraft crew dosimetry during the last solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Beck, P

    2009-10-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered successfully in the beginning of the twentieth century by the Austrian Nobel Price winner Victor Hess. Radiation effects to humans are of major concern during human space missions and also due to the increasing aviation altitudes and flight time. ICRP recommendations lead to adaptations of the Basic Safety Standards by the European Council. Beginning in the 1990 s up to now, significant improvements and findings in aviation dosimetry and epidemiology were done word-wide. Five research projects on measurements and modelling cosmic radiation exposure were supported by European Research Framework Programmes. In-flight measurements with remarkable agreement (+/-25%) were carried out to validate calculation codes for routine dose assessment within +/-30% for galactic cosmic radiation. Measurements and improvements of modelling radiation exposure due to solar particle events (SPE) is still an objective for future research projects. PMID:19706723

  15. Overview of research on aircraft crew dosimetry during the last solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Beck, P

    2009-10-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered successfully in the beginning of the twentieth century by the Austrian Nobel Price winner Victor Hess. Radiation effects to humans are of major concern during human space missions and also due to the increasing aviation altitudes and flight time. ICRP recommendations lead to adaptations of the Basic Safety Standards by the European Council. Beginning in the 1990 s up to now, significant improvements and findings in aviation dosimetry and epidemiology were done word-wide. Five research projects on measurements and modelling cosmic radiation exposure were supported by European Research Framework Programmes. In-flight measurements with remarkable agreement (+/-25%) were carried out to validate calculation codes for routine dose assessment within +/-30% for galactic cosmic radiation. Measurements and improvements of modelling radiation exposure due to solar particle events (SPE) is still an objective for future research projects.

  16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  17. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  18. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  19. The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

  20. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair. PMID:27574685

  1. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.

  2. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  3. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine.

  4. Stromal corneal scar following YAG capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L; Donzis, P B; Kastl, P R

    1988-05-01

    The case of a 70-year-old patient who suffered inadvertant YAG laser burns to the central corneal stroma is presented. Although focal stromal scarring resulted, no endothelial damage or corneal decompensation was noted, and the patient was asymptomatic.

  5. SCAR-A Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-19

    ... (SCAR-A) data include physical and chemical components of the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and the radiation field collected in the eastern part of the United States with an emphasis in air pollution. Discipline:  ...

  6. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars.

    PubMed

    Petro, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars.

  7. Hyperpigmented scar due to minocycline therapy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James W; Wilson, Barbara; Wick, Mark R; Heath, Candrice

    2004-11-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with a heavily pigmented scar on the left lower abdomen following excision of a benign compound nevus. Reexcision showed an organizing scar with pronounced hemosiderinlike pigment deposition and no residual melanocytic lesion. Results of further histopathologic workup showed positive staining with both Perls stain for iron and Fontana-Masson stain. These findings led to further questioning of the patient, which revealed a history of minocycline therapy--information that had not been provided during her initial evaluation. Hyperpigmented scars may result from minocycline ingestion. We present a review of the literature, with particular regard to the possible mechanisms of minocycline hyperpigmentation and the differential diagnosis of hyperpigmented scars.

  8. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight flutter-test results of the first aeroelastic research wing (ARW-1) of NASA's drones for aerodynamic and structural testing program are presented. The flight-test operation and the implementation of the active flutter-suppression system are described as well as the software techniques used to obtain real-time damping estimates and the actual flutter testing procedure. Real-time analysis of fast-frequency aileron excitation sweeps provided reliable damping estimates. The open-loop flutter boundary was well defined at two altitudes; a maximum Mach number of 0.91 was obtained. Both open-loop and closed-loop data were of exceptionally high quality. Although the flutter-suppression system provided augmented damping at speeds below the flutter boundary, an error in the implementation of the system resulted in the system being less stable than predicted. The vehicle encountered system-on flutter shortly after crossing the open-loop flutter boundary on the third flight and was lost. The aircraft was rebuilt. Changes made in real-time test techniques are included.

  9. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  10. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Morton, S.D.; Thomas, T.M.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  11. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  12. The "Sea" should not be operated on in scar revision for "Island-Like" scars.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Tamai, Motoki; Kudo, Hiroo; Ensako, Toshiya; Kogure, Tetsukuni; Takano, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Scars developing on body surfaces not only restrict body movement, but are also problematic from a cosmetic standpoint. Hence, revision is conducted by removing the scar and re-suturing the resultant defects. In performing scar revision, care should be taken to prevent the re-sutured wounds from developing hypertrophy again. Scars often present a pattern where hard, red parts are separated by soft parts in between. As the hard and soft parts may be analogized as islands and seas respectively, we call this the "Island-Like" scar. Two strategies can be taken to treat scars of this type. The first is to remove the entire scar-including both hard and soft parts; the second is to remove only the hard parts and leave the soft parts untouched. The authors conducted a biomechanical study using finite element analyses and found that as a body moves, greater stresses occur in the peri-wound regions with the first strategy than with the second strategy. A wound's likelihood to develop hypertrophy increases as the stresses working on it increase. Hence, it is hypothesized that the second strategy carries less risk of the operated wounds developing re-hypertrophy than the first strategy. Based on this logic, in performing scar revision for scars consisting of hard and soft parts, it is recommended only to remove only hard parts and not to operate on soft parts in between.

  13. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  14. Coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and space shuttle heat shields: A review of Lewis Research Center programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Merutka, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The status of several coating programs is reviewed. These include efforts on protecting aircraft gas turbine engine materials from oxidation/corrosion and on protecting refractory metal reentry heat shields from oxidation.

  15. Do postsurgical interventions optimize ultimate scar cosmesis.

    PubMed

    Viera, M H; Amini, S; Konda, S; Berman, B

    2009-06-01

    Keloids and other scars are different manifestations of the normal wound healing process. If located in visible areas, scars may have a psychological impact that could affect the quality of life of the scar-bearing population. Good preoperatory planning including hiding incisions in natural anatomical landmarks or placing them parallel to relaxed skin tension lines are among the techniques used to improve the cosmesis of scars. Once a prominent or noticeable scar has developed, multiple therapeutic modalities can be applied including surgical excision, although high recurrence rates precludes its use as monotherapy. Several advanced surgical correction techniques including Z-plasty and W-plasty may be useful in repositioning scars. Other modalities that have been reported to improve scar cosmesis include cryosurgery, radiotherapy, lasers, and skin substitute grafts. Adjuvant postsurgical treatment modalities have reduced dramatically the recurrence rates associated with the removal of the scar. In this review of the literature the authors discuss evidence based data related to the abovementioned modalities and other topical and intralesional therapies including occlusion, compression, silicone, corticosteroids, interferons, imiquimod, resiquimod, tacrolimus, 5-fluorouracil, retinoids, as well as the role of several over-the-counter agents such as onion extract, vitamin E and the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin E and silicone. Finally, they address newer modalities including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, transforming growth factor-3, interleukin-10, mannose-6-phosphate, UVA-1, narrowband UVB, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy. Ultimately, the decision of choosing the most appropriate postexcisional management treatment should be taken by physicians on a case-by-case basis in order to obtain the best cosmetically acceptable results. PMID:19528906

  16. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 overexpression reduces corneal scarring.

    PubMed

    Galiacy, S D; Fournié, P; Massoudi, D; Ancèle, E; Quintyn, J-C; Erraud, A; Raymond-Letron, I; Rolling, F; Malecaze, F

    2011-05-01

    Once a corneal scar develops, surgical management remains the only option for visual rehabilitation. Corneal transplantation is the definitive treatment for a corneal scar. In addition to the challenges posed by graft rejections and other postoperative complications, the lack of high-quality donor corneas can limit the benefits possible with keratoplasty. The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new therapeutic strategy for treating corneal scarring by targeting collagen deposition. We overexpressed a fibril collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14)) to prevent collagen deposition in the scar tissue. We demonstrated that a single and simple direct injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus-based vector expressing murine MMP14 can modulate gene expression of murine stromal keratocytes. This tool opens new possibilities with regard to treatment. In a mouse model of corneal full-thickness incision, we observed that MMP14 overexpression reduced corneal opacity and expression of the major genes involved in corneal scarring, especially type III collagen and α-smooth muscle actin. These results represent proof of concept that gene transfer of MMP14 can reduce scar formation, which could have therapeutic applications after corneal trauma.

  18. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  19. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  20. Characterization of vocal fold scar formation, prophylaxis and treatment using animal models

    PubMed Central

    Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recent literature on animal models used to study the pathogenesis, detection, prevention and treatment of vocal fold scarring. Animal work is critical to studying vocal fold scarring because it is the only way to conduct systematic research on the biomechanical properties of the layered structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, and therefore develop reliable prevention and treatment strategies for this complex clinical problem. Recent findings During the period of review, critical anatomic, physiologic and wound healing characteristics, which may serve as the bases for selection of a certain species to help answer a specific question, have been described in mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret and canine models. A number of different strategies for prophylaxis and chronic scar treatment in animals show promise for clinical application. The pathways of scar formation and methods for quantifying treatment-induced change have become better defined. Summary Recent animal vocal fold scarring studies have enriched and confirmed earlier work indicating that restoring pliability to the scarred vocal fold mucosa is challenging but achievable. Differences between animal models and differences in outcome measurements across studies necessitate considering each study individually to obtain guidance for future research. With increased standardization of measurement techniques it may be possible to make more inter-study comparisons. PMID:20962643

  1. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  2. An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

  3. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  4. NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

  5. The embrace Device Significantly Decreases Scarring following Scar Revision Surgery in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Angeline F.; Weintraub, Jennifer; Kaplan, Ernest N.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanically offloading or shielding an incision significantly reduces scarring in both animal and first-in-human studies. Whether or not this strategy would be effective following scar revision surgery was previously unknown. In this article, the authors report that the embrace device, which uses principles of mechanomodulation, significantly improves aesthetic outcomes following scar revision surgery. Methods A prospective, open-label, randomized, single-center study was conducted to evaluate the appearance of scars following revision and embrace treatment. Revision surgery was performed on 12 patients, each acting as his or her own control, and outcomes were assessed at 6 months. A visual analogue scale was used to evaluate each scar, rated by four independent surgeons who were not involved in the study. Results Evaluation of 6-month scar images by four independent surgeons using the visual analogue scale demonstrated a highly significant improvement in scar appearance following embrace treatment (p < 0.005). Conclusion The embrace device represents a powerful new technology for significantly improving scar appearance following revision surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, II. PMID:24105084

  6. Reflectance confocal microscopy for scarring and non-scarring alopecia real-time assessment.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, Marco; Agozzino, Marina; Franceschini, Chiara; Donadio, Carlo; Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Barbieri, Luca; Sperduti, Isabella; Berardesca, Enzo; González, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of alopecia represents one of the major issues in dermatology. Scalp biopsies are not easily accepted because of the high bleeding and sensitive anatomical area. Trichoscopy is routinely used for diagnosis of alopecia, but in several cases lack to provide sufficient information on the status of the disease. Recently, reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated its usefulness for the evaluation of several inflammatory skin condition and preliminary reports about alopecia have been proposed in the literature. The aim was to identify the confocal features characterizing scarring and non-scarring alopecia. Reflectance confocal microscopy from 86 patients affected by scarring (28 lichen planopilaris and 9 lupus erythematosus) and non-scarring alopecia (30 androgenic alopecia and 19 alopecia areata), were retrospectively, blinded evaluated. Good concordance between different readers on the confocal criteria has been assessed. Statistical significant features, specific for scarring alopecia and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. In this study, data on reflectance confocal microscopy features useful for the differential diagnosis between scarring and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. Further studies focusing on the use of this non-invasive technique in the therapeutic follow-up and distinction of sub-entities of alopecia are still required.

  7. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  8. Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

  9. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  10. Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on fish and wildlife: results of a survey of u. s. fish and wildlife service endangered species and ecological services field offices, refuges, hatcheries, and research centers

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwin, D.N.; Asherin, D.A.; Manci, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low-altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field-installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: observations pf amo,a; reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

  11. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    The launching of the first rocket at the NACA's Wallop's Island Facility on June 27, 1945. Joseph Shortal described this launch as follows: 'The initial operations on June 27, 1945 on Wallops were to check the tracking station location and operation, check the use of CW (Doppler radar for measuring velocities of missiles and to gain experience with actual rockets. Five 3.25 inch rockets were fired at 39.4 elevation angle, and one each at 33.7, 29.3, and 21.5. All were fired in a direction parallel to the beach to simulate the first Tiamat missile launching. Four of the eight rockets were tracked satisfactorily by the SCR-584 radar located at the mainland tracking station 2 and a strong signal was obtained on the CW radar. As [Ray W.] Hooker stated in his official report on the operations, 'In general, the operation was successful.' [Germain S.] Brown, in his diary expressed it this way: 'Hooker and gang arrived by B24 at 10:30. Went to Island and launched about eight rockets with satisfactory results. Lt. Rucker and 3 Navy enlisted men assisted us.' 'For this operation the rockets and the ordnance personnel were supplied by the Patuxent Naval Air Station. Navy Buaer had established a special project to cover this cooperation with NACA.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  12. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Sperry Model 10 Velocimeter, Doppler radar at Wallops Island with trackers P.R. Mears and J. Quillen. Metallic ears pointed to the heavens, this radio tracking device kept tabs on Wallops rocket firings. Joseph Shortal has described this Doppler radar as follows: 'The Doppler radar was a genuine asset to PARD; it made possible the direct determination of velocity and allowed the measurement of drag for such simple models as the RM-2 and RM-5 types. Doppler radars were used in every launching from Wallops.' 'In cooperation with the Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, specifications for a more powerful Doppler radar were prepared. A 150-watt radar which its manufacturer, Sperry Gyroscope Corp., called the Model 10 Velocimeter, was purchased. This radar was mounted on a SCR-547 trailer, which led Langley men to call it the TPS-547 radar for some time. This radar had a range of approximately five miles and was the first of a series of this type in use at Wallops for many years.' 'One operator directed the dishes toward the target in azimuth while the other operator controlled the elevation (The fact that two operators with independent gun sights and earphones could coordinate their efforts in this fashion surprised many 'experts'.). The Doppler radars were always located near the launcher and the operators normally served in the dual capacity of rocket technicians. After the Velocimeter was placed in operation, the TPS-5 radars were no longer used.' Photograph published in Winds of Change, a 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 74), by James Schultz. Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition. Photograph published in A New Dimension; Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Adams Shortal. A NASA publication (page 99).

  13. Pilot Comments From the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, Simulation Study of the Effects of Aeroservoelasticity (LaRC.3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, simulation study (LaRC.3) of the effects of aeroservoelasticity, conducted from October to December 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are from direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only. These comments were made on tape following the completion of each flight card, immediately after the pilot was satisfied with his practice and data recording runs. Six pilots were used in the evaluation and they are identified as pilots A through F.

  14. Segmentation of scarred and non-scarred myocardium in LG enhanced CMR images using intensity-based textural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotu, Lasya Priya; Engan, Kjersti; Eftestøl, Trygve; Ørn, Stein; Woie, Leik

    2011-01-01

    The Late Gadolinium (LG) enhancement in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging is used to increase the intensity of scarred area in myocardium for thorough examination. Automatic segmentation of scar is important because scar size is largely responsible in changing the size, shape and functioning of left ventricle and it is a preliminary step required in exploring the information present in scar. We have proposed a new technique to segment scar (infarct region) from non-scarred myocardium using intensity-based texture analysis. Our new technique uses dictionary-based texture features and dc-values to segment scarred and non-scarred myocardium using Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) based Bayes classification. Texture analysis aided with intensity values gives better segmentation of scar from myocardium with high sensitivity and specificity values in comparison to manual segmentation by expert cardiologists.

  15. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  16. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  17. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  18. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  19. Inflammation and cutaneous nervous system involvement in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-hua; Yang, Heng-lian; Xiao, Hu; Wang, Yi-bing; Wang, De-chang; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to use a mouse model of hypertrophic scarring by mechanical loading on the dorsum of mice to determine whether the nervous system of the skin and inflammation participates in hypertrophic scarring. Results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that inflammation contributed to the formation of a hypertrophic scar and increased the nerve density in scar tissue.Western blot assay verified that interleukin-13 expression was increased in scar tissue. These findings suggest that inflammation and the cutaneous nervous system play a role in hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:26692869

  20. Disseminated scar sarcoidosis may predict pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Topukçu, Buğçe; Ozçelik, Hatice Kutbay; Cakıter, Alkım Unal; Büyükpınarbaşılı, Nur

    2013-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-organ disease of unknown origin that is characterized by non-caseating granuloma formation in affected organs. Cutaneous involvement is reported in 25% of patients with sarcoidosis. Scar sarcoidosis is rare but is clinically specific for skin sarcoidosis. Systemic involvement is seen in most patients with scar sarcoidosis. We present a case of scar sarcoidosis in a 30-year-old male that developed infiltrated nodules on old scars, including on his penile shaft, which is rare, and that also had pulmonary involvement. Scar sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of changes in all scar areas and should be investigated for systemic involvement.

  1. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.

    PubMed

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

    2013-12-10

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus.

  2. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  3. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  4. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  5. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  6. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  7. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  8. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal scars.

    PubMed

    Cintron, C; Szamier, R B; Hassinger, L C; Kublin, C L

    1982-07-01

    Central full-thickness perforating excision wounds were made in rabbit corneas and were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy at various times after wounding to study the three-dimensional morphologic changes in the tissue during healing and remodeling. Formation of a fibrin clot soon after wounding seals the hole and functions as a substrate for the healing epithelium. Changes in the histologic appearance of the fibrin lot immediately below the new epithelium are followed by migration of adjacent stromal cells under the epithelium, parallel to the basal surface of this tissue. Further healing is characterized by the organization of stromal fibroblasts into several layers parallel to the corneal surface and the deposition of collagen as a matted meshwork of fibrils tangential to the cell surface. Although remodeling of the collagenous matrix of corneal scar is evident and the scar eventually appears less opaque, the lamellae of the scar are narrower and shorter than normal. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that the orientation of the fibroblasts in healing tissues is determined by the organization of the newly formed epithelium. Furthermore, our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that collagen fibrils are deposited parallel to the flat surface of the fibroblasts during scar formation. Subsequent reorganization of this collagenous matrix approaches the normal lamellar appearance, but the matrix fails to regenerate even after 2 years.

  10. Computationally efficient method to construct scar functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, F.; Vergini, E. G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2012-02-01

    The performance of a simple method [E. L. Sibert III, E. Vergini, R. M. Benito, and F. Borondo, New J. Phys.NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/5/053016 10, 053016 (2008)] to efficiently compute scar functions along unstable periodic orbits with complicated trajectories in configuration space is discussed, using a classically chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator as an illustration.

  11. Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

  12. The NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP): Research in atmospheric electricity from an instrumented U-2 aircraft platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP) is presented. The various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used to collect optical and electronic signature from the lightning events, are discussed. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 6400 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed.

  13. Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

  14. Scar formation and revision after the removal of orthodontic miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Many clinicians expect complete healing after the removal of temporary anchorage devices, but clinical examination may reveal scar-like tissue. This report presents the typical features of scarring detected after the removal of miniscrews, and the clinical outcome of scar revision along with its pathologic features. PMID:26023543

  15. The Use of Silicone Adhesives for Scar Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, Benjamin; Finnegan, Simon; Murray, Kathyryn; Kelly, Sean; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: This article discusses the history and developments of silicone gel sheeting (SGS) scar therapy. Furthermore, we review a breadth of literature to gain an insight into how and why topical silicone gels remain the favored treatment of medical experts in scar management. We also analyze an ever increasing number of alternative therapies claiming to provide enhanced scar reduction performance. Recent Advances: Topical silicone gel treatments seem to remain the first point of clinical recommendation in scar management. SGS has been used in scar therapy for over 30 years, during which its efficacy has been the subject of numerous clinical evaluations. Critical Issues: While the exact mechanisms by which SGS improves hypertrophic scars, keloid development and recovery are yet to be fully agreed upon, its ability to do so remains largely undisputed at present. However, there still is ongoing deliberation over the exact mechanism of action of silicone in improving a scar. At present it is likely that through occlusion of the scar site and hydration of the wound bed, the overactivity of scar-related cells is suppressed, and their activity normalized. Future Direction: The clinical support of topical silicone gel products, relative to all alternative scar therapies, is considered the internationally recommended first-line form of scar management, and favored by consensus among healthcare professionals. However, there still remains the need for further clinical evidence and a better understanding of the mechanism behind the benefit of silicone gel for use in the prevention of abnormal scarring. PMID:26155385

  16. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  17. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  18. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  19. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Leptin Expression in Wound Healing: A Clue to Exuberant Scar Formation.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola A; Samaka, Rehab M; Tawfik, Amira S

    2016-04-01

    Leptin has been recognized as an important factor for promoting normal cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this work was to explore leptin expression in keloid and hypertrophic scars (HS) compared with surgical scars and normal skin. The relationship of this expression with clinicopathologic parameters of studied cases was also evaluated. Using immunohistochemical techniques, leptin was analyzed in skin biopsies of 60 nonobese subjects without metabolic syndrome who presented with keloids (20), HS (20), and surgical scars (20). Twenty normal skin samples, from age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index-matched subjects, were enrolled as a control group. Leptin showed positive immunoreactivity in epidermis in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 75% of HS cases. Dermal expression in fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells was positive in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 70% of HS cases. Leptin was overexpressed in keloids and HS compared with normal skin in epidermis (P<0.001 for both) and dermis (P<0.001 for both) and to surgical scars both in epidermis (P=0.0006, P=0.01, respectively) and dermis (P=0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). Higher leptin H score was significantly associated with older age (P=0.02) and positive family history (P=0.002) in keloid cases and with axial site in keloid and HS cases (P=0.001, P=0.02, respectively). Significant positive correlation was noted between epidermal and dermal leptin H scores in keloids (r=+0.37, P=0.04) and HS (r=+0.39, P=0.02). This may be due to epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in scar pathogenesis. In conclusion, in situ leptin overexpression may increase the possibility of keloid and HS occurrence through altered cytokine production and prolonged healing phases with excessive deposition and delayed collagen degradation. This may open an avenue for research for new therapeutic modalities based on its inhibition.

  20. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-11-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under

  1. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the HALO airplane

  2. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  4. Biology and principles of scar management and burn reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tredget, Edward E; Levi, Benjamin; Donelan, Matthias B

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is extremely common and is the source of most morbidity related to burns. The biology of hypertrophic healing is complex and poorly understood. Multiple host and injury factors contribute, but protracted healing of partial thickness injury is a common theme. Hypertrophic scarring and heterotopic ossification may share some basic causes involving marrow-derived cells. Several traditional clinical interventions exist to modify hypertrophic scar. All have limited efficacy. Laser interventions for scar modification show promise, but as yet do not provide a definitive solution. Their efficacy is only seen when used as part of a multimodality scar management program. PMID:25085089

  5. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  6. Implantation of atelocollagen sheet for vocal fold scar

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yo; Welham, Nathan V.; Hirano, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recent advances in scaffold-based interventions for the treatment of vocal fold scarring, with a particular emphasis on atelocollagen sheet implantation in the vocal fold lamina propria. Recent findings Scaffold-based therapies have demonstrated therapeutic promise in both pre-clinical and early clinical studies. Recent research has begun to shed light on the interactions between scaffold material properties, encapsulated and infiltrating cells, stimulatory molecules such as growth factors, and external regulatory variables such as stress, strain and vibration. The atelocollagen sheet, a cross-linked collagen material with abundant micropores, has an established clinical track record as a scaffold for dermal and epidermal repair and exhibited potential therapeutic benefit in a recent study of patients with vocal fold scarring and sulcus vocalis. Summary Scaffolding is one of the useful tools in tissue engineering and atelocollagen sheet implantation has shown to be effective in vocal fold regeneration. However, many of the scaffold materials under investigation still await clinical translation, and those that have been investigated in human patients (such as the atelocollagen sheet) require additional research in appropriately powered placebo controlled studies. PMID:20856118

  7. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  8. A systematic review on burn scar contracture treatment: searching for evidence.

    PubMed

    Stekelenburg, Carlijn M; Marck, Roos E; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; de Vet, Henrica C W; Ogawa, Rei; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    Treating burn scar contracture remains a challenging problem for reconstructive surgeons. At present, no consensus exists on when to use what kind of technique. Therefore, a systematic review was performed on the effectiveness of the different surgical techniques after burn scar contracture release. Electronic databases were searched using a predefined search strategy. Studies evaluating the outcome of surgical techniques for the treatment of burn scar contractures were included. The methodological quality was tested and the data were summarized. One thousand six hundred fourty-nine papers were identified of which 17 met the inclusion criteria. Three papers reported on a controlled trial, 14 were cohort studies, including 10 of a pre-post operative design and 4 of a comparative design. The papers described outcomes of grafts, flaps with random or defined vascularization, and dermal substitutes. All studies had methodological shortcomings and most used inappropriate statistical methods. The current evidence on the effectiveness of reconstruction techniques for burn scar contractures was summarized. Due to the scarcity and low quality of the included studies, no definitive conclusions could be reached about the effectiveness of different techniques. Therefore, no direct implications for daily practice could be made. However, recommendations could be given for improvement of the quality of further primary research on the effectiveness of surgical treatment strategies for burn scar contracture release.

  9. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. PMID:27119465

  10. An inverse-modelling approach for frequency response correction of capacitive humidity sensors in ABL research with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Kaufmann, F.; Bange, J.

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of water vapour concentration in the atmosphere is an ongoing challenge in environmental research. Satisfactory solutions exist for ground-based meteorological stations and measurements of mean values. However, carrying out advanced research of thermodynamic processes aloft as well, above the surface layer and especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), requires the resolution of small-scale turbulence. Sophisticated optical instruments are used in airborne meteorology with manned aircraft to achieve the necessary fast-response measurements of the order of 10 Hz (e.g. LiCor 7500). Since these instruments are too large and heavy for the application on small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), a method is presented in this study that enhances small capacitive humidity sensors to be able to resolve turbulent eddies of the order of 10 m. The sensor examined here is a polymer-based sensor of the type P14-Rapid, by the Swiss company Innovative Sensor Technologies (IST) AG, with a surface area of less than 10 mm2 and a negligible weight. A physical and dynamical model of this sensor is described and then inverted in order to restore original water vapour fluctuations from sensor measurements. Examples of flight measurements show how the method can be used to correct vertical profiles and resolve turbulence spectra up to about 3 Hz. At an airspeed of 25 m s-1 this corresponds to a spatial resolution of less than 10 m.

  11. Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, W. B., II

    1977-01-01

    The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

  12. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGFβ3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies. PMID:25939875

  13. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  14. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  15. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Baum, Christian L; Hamilton, Grant S; Wehby, George L; Dunnwald, Martine

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive, and unbiased assessments of postsurgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue digital images of postsurgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD imaging system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software, and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with intraclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (p ranging from 1.20(-05) to 1.95(-14) ). Physicians' clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high interobserver variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome.

  17. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian J.; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Baum, Christian L.; Hamilton, Grant S.; Wehby, George L.; Dunnwald, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive and unbiased assessments of post-surgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue (RGB) digital images of post-surgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD image system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with interclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (P ranging from 1.20−05 to 1.95−14). Physicians’ clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high inter-observer variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome. PMID:24635173

  18. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  19. Understanding the Role of the Saharan Heat Low in Modifying Atmospheric Dust Distributions - Observations From Two Research Aircraft Flying Simultaneously Over Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Allen, C.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Kocha, C.; Lavaysse, C.

    2012-04-01

    The near-surface low pressure system that develops over western Africa in Boreal summer (know as the Saharan Heat Low) is thought to have a significant influence on regional and global climate due to its links with the Monsoon, the Northern Atlantic and the Mediterranean climate system. The SHL is associated with the deepest atmospheric boundary layer on the planet and is co-located with the highest dust loadings in the world. The processes that link the heat low and dust distribution are only poorly understood. Improving the representation of the heat low and the processes that control the emission and atmospheric distribution of dust in climate and NWP models is crucial if we are to reduce known systematic errors in climate predictions and weather forecasts. In collaboration with European partners, the UK-based consortium project "Fennec - The Saharan Climate System" aims at improving our understanding of this complex climate system by integrating for the first time coordinated ground and aircraft observations from the central Sahara, newly developed satellite products, and the application of regional and global models. On 22 June 2011, two research aircraft operating out of Fuerteventura (Spain) surveyed the Saharan Heat Low centred over Mauritania-Mali border. The aircraft flew simultaneously in the morning and in the afternoon on two different tracks thereby sampling each track four times on that day. Both aircraft were equipped with a downward looking LIDAR for aerosol detection. In total, 51 sondes were dropped during the flights making this the most comprehensive dataset to study the spatio-temporal diurnal evolution of the heat low including the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and dust distributions. Combining LIDAR observations, satellite imagery and back-trajectory modelling we show that an aged dust layer was present in the heat low region resulting from previous day's dust activity associated with a south-moving density current from

  20. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  1. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  2. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  3. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation, and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental techniques of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure, and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Areas requiring further research are discussed, and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installation is addressed.

  4. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-03-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  5. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  6. Flight testing of unique aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some historical developments of flight testing of unique aircraft configurations by NASA and the military sector are documented. Several test aircraft are outlined including the M2-F1 (which was the first Space Shuttle concept ever demonstrated, and contributed to the present design), the X-15, the Flying Wing, the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Future test aircraft such as the forward swept wing X-29A Advanced Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, and the X-Wing vehicle are also mentioned. It is noted that the logical preliminary to flight testing is flight simulation, and that flight testing itself is the vital final component of the development, and seems to be the most direct approach to aircraft evaluations.

  7. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  8. Recommendations for ground effects research for V/STOL and STOL aircraft and associated equipment for large scale testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The current understanding of the effects of ground proximity on V/STOL and STOL aircraft is reviewd. Areas covered include (1) single jet suckdown in hover, (2) fountain effects on multijet configurations, (3) STOL ground effects including the effect of the ground vortex flow field, (4) downwash at the tail, and (5) hot gas ingestion in both hover and STOL operation. The equipment needed for large scale testing to extend the state of the art is reviewed and developments in three areas are recommended as follows: (1) improve methods for simulating the engine exhaust and inlet flows; (2) develop a model support system that can simulate realistic rates of climb and descent as well as steady height operation; and (3) develop a blowing BLC ground board as an alternative to a moving belt ground board to properly simulate the flow on the ground.

  9. A throat-bypass stability system for a YF-12 aircraft research inlet using self-acting mechanical valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel investigation are presented. The inlet was modified so that airflow can be removed through a porous cowl-bleed region in the vicinity of the throat. Bleed plenum exit flow area is controlled by relief type mechanical valves. Unlike valves in previous systems, these are made for use in a high Mach flight environment and include refinements so that the system could be tested on a NASA YF-12 aircraft. The valves were designed to provide their own reference pressure. The results show that the system can absorb internal-airflow-transients that are too fast for a conventional bypass door control system and that the two systems complement each other quite well. Increased tolerance to angle of attack and Mach number changes is indicated. The valves should provide sufficient time for the inlet control system to make geometry changes required to keep the inlet started.

  10. Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements. PMID:22859864

  11. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  12. The Spectrum of Histopathological Lesions in Scarring Alopecia: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar U., Mahesh; Yelikar, Balasaheb Ramling

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the article was to study the histopathological features of various lesions of Scarring Alopecia (SA) and to classify Primary SA on the basis of the predominant type of inflammatory cell component. Scarring or cicatricial alopecias are those that are produced as a result of the malformation, damage or destruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, which are replaced by cicatricial tissue, in such a way that they cannot again produce hair. Material and Methods: This prospective study included 32 biopsy – proven cases of SA, who had attended our hospital. Primary SA was classified according to the North American Hair Research Society. The informed consents of the subjects and the institutional ethical clearance was obtained for the study. The SPSS, version 14 software was used to analyse the data. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the data. Results: During the study period, 32 cases of scarring alopecia were diagnosed, of which 24 were primary SA and 8 were secondary SA. Among the primary SA, there were 23 cases of lymphocyte associated primary scarring alopecias, of which, 19 of lupus erythematosus, 3 of lichen planopilaris (LPP) and one case of non specific SA. 1 case of neutrophil associated primary scarring (folliculitis decalvans) was also noted and among the secondary SA, there were 4 cases of morphea and 1 case each of lupus vulgaris, congenital absence of skin, burn and sarcoidosis. Conclusion: To conclude, histopathology is a dependable tool for identifying the underlying cause in scarring alopecia, which is helpful for an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23998068

  13. Early postoperative treatment of thyroidectomy scars using botulinum toxin: a split-scar, double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-01-01

    Operational scars, especially those located on the exposed parts of the body, can be distressing. Despite high demand for an early intervention to minimize surgical scars, there is yet no universal consensus on optimal treatment. A split-scar, double-blind randomized controlled trial was held to assess the safety and efficacy of early postoperative botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection in surgical scars. A single session of treatment was performed where BTA was allocated to one half of the scar and 0.9% saline to the control half. Scars were assessed using the modified Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES) with standardized photographs. Fifteen patients completed the study, and their data were analyzed. At 6 months' follow-up, a significant improvement in SBSES score was noted for the BTA-treated halves of the scars (p < 0.001), with minimal change on the saline-treated side (p = 0.785). The mean calculated difference in SBSES scores (final/initial) between the BTA-treated side and the saline-treated side was also significant (p < 0.001). Early postoperative BTA injection was safe and effective in modulating thyroidectomy scars and may be a promising option for scar prevention.

  14. Scar Management in the Pediatric and Adolescent Populations.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Totri, Christine R; Donelan, Matthias B; Shumaker, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    For most children and adolescents who have developed symptomatic scars, cosmetic concerns are only a portion of the motivation that drives them and their caregivers to obtain treatment. In addition to the potential for cosmetic disfigurement, scars may be associated with a number of physical comorbidities including hypertrichosis, dyshidrosis, tenderness/pain, pruritus, dysesthesias, and functional impairments such as contractures, all of which may be compounded by psychosocial factors. Although a plethora of options for treating scars exists, specific management guidelines for the pediatric and adolescent populations do not, and evidence must be extrapolated from adult studies. New modalities such as the scar team approach, autologous fat transfer, and ablative fractional laser resurfacing suggest a promising future for children who suffer symptomatically from their scars. In this state-of-the-art review, we summarize cutting-edge scar treatment strategies as they relate to the pediatric and adolescent populations. PMID:26743819

  15. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  16. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  17. Dermal tunneling: a proposed treatment for depressed scars*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Depressed facial scars are still a challenge in medical literature, despite the wide range of proposed treatments. Subcision is a technique that is frequently performed to improve this type of lesions. This article proposes a new method to release depressed scars, reported and named by the author as dermal tunneling. This study presents a simple and didactic manner to perform this method. The results in 17 patients with facial scars were considered promising. Thus, the technique was deemed to be safe and reproducible.

  18. Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

    2014-02-01

    We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus.

  19. Analysis of state of vehicular scars on Arctic Tundra, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.

  20. Scar Endometriosis: a Case Report with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Gupta, Sangeeta

    2015-12-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can sometimes occur in a previous surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. This condition is often confused with other surgical conditions. We are reporting one case of scar endometriosis involving rectus sheath following cesarean section. The patient required wide surgical excision of the lesion. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare condition are being discussed.

  1. Uighur medicine abnormal savda munzip (ASMq) suppresses expression of collagen and TGF-β1 with concomitant induce Smad7 in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Kong, Menglong; Ma, Tao; Gao, Weicheng; Ma, Shaolin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a common dermal disease, for which numerous treatments are currently available but they do not always yield excellent therapeutic results. Hence, alternative strategy are needed. Recent basic and clinic research has shown that Uighur medicine abnormal savda munzip (ASMq) has anti-hypertrophic scar properties but its molecular mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of ASMq on TGF-β/Smads signaling in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar. Purpose: To investigate the effect of ASMq on the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs). Methods: Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were isolated from human of hypertrophic scar and passaged to the 3~4 generation, which were treated with the different concentrations of ASMq. Cells treated with 5-Fu served as the positive control group. After treatment for 48 hours, expressions of Smad7, TGF-β1, type I and III collagen, were examined by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: ASMq markedly enhanced the expression of inhibitory Smad7, with suppression of type I and III collagen and TGF-β1. We observed that treatment of ASMq induced Smad7 to enter the cytoplasm from the nucleus of hypertrophic fibroblasts. Conclusions: ASMq inhibits scarring probably by enhancing the expression of inhibitory Smad7, and inhibiting TGF-β1, collagen expression, and is a potential treatment for scarring. PMID:26309506

  2. Nanolayered siRNA delivery platforms for local silencing of CTGF reduce cutaneous scar contraction in third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Steven A; Golberg, Alexander; Sharkh, Malak Abu; Khan, Saiqa; Almquist, Benjamin D; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L; Hammond, Paula T

    2016-07-01

    Wound healing is an incredibly complex biological process that often results in thickened collagen-enriched healed tissue called scar. Cutaneous scars lack many functional structures of the skin such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and papillae. The absence of these structures contributes to a number of the long-term morbidities of wound healing, including loss of function for tissues, increased risk of re-injury, and aesthetic complications. Scar formation is a pervasive factor in our daily lives; however, in the case of serious traumatic injury, scars can create long-lasting complications due to contraction and poor tissue remodeling. Within this report we target the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key mediator of TGFβ pro-fibrotic response in cutaneous wound healing, with controlled local delivery of RNA interference. Through this work we describe both a thorough in vitro analysis of nanolayer coated sutures for the controlled delivery of siRNA and its application to improve scar outcomes in a third-degree burn induced scar model in rats. We demonstrate that the knockdown of CTGF significantly altered the local expression of αSMA, TIMP1, and Col1a1, which are known to play roles in scar formation. The knockdown of CTGF within the healing burn wounds resulted in improved tissue remodeling, reduced scar contraction, and the regeneration of papillary structures within the healing tissue. This work adds support to a number of previous reports that indicate CTGF as a potential therapeutic target for fibrosis. Additionally, we believe that the controlled local delivery of siRNA from ultrathin polymer coatings described within this work is a promising approach in RNA interference that could be applied in developing improved cancer therapies, regenerative medicine, and fundamental scientific research. PMID:27108403

  3. [How I treat...fibroproliferative scars].

    PubMed

    Smeets, L; Grandjean, F X; Nickers, P; Deleuze, J P; Schmitz, C; Heymans, O

    2006-01-01

    Following a skin injury like burn, surgery or a trauma, fibroproliferatives scars are responsible of cosmetic, psychologic and symptomatic disorders. Keloids are benign and occur secondary to an imbalance between the synthesis of extracellular matrix and its degradation. There is a lot of therapeutic modalities available. Despite this, recurrence and sometimes increasing lesions are the major complications. Surgery with adjuvant therapy like steroids injections, radiotherapy, silicone materials seems today the best therapeutic choice. A best physiopatholgy's comprehension is at the base of new treatments, but their efficacity still need to be demonstrate in larger studies.

  4. Repair of acne scars with Dermicol-P35.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that can cause disfiguring residual scarring. While the complete removal of acne scars is unlikely, several treatments exist that can improve the appearance of acne scars. Dermal fillers offer a simple, nonsurgical corrective procedure that can provide improved skin texture. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence [Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ]) is a new, highly purified, ribose cross-linked, porcine collagen-based dermal filler that has demonstrated low immunogenicity and results that persist for at least 12 months. This article presents the aesthetic results of a male patient treated with Dermicol-P35 for severe facial acne scars.

  5. Repair of acne scars with Dermicol-P35.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that can cause disfiguring residual scarring. While the complete removal of acne scars is unlikely, several treatments exist that can improve the appearance of acne scars. Dermal fillers offer a simple, nonsurgical corrective procedure that can provide improved skin texture. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence [Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ]) is a new, highly purified, ribose cross-linked, porcine collagen-based dermal filler that has demonstrated low immunogenicity and results that persist for at least 12 months. This article presents the aesthetic results of a male patient treated with Dermicol-P35 for severe facial acne scars. PMID:19577176

  6. [Hypertrophic scars and keloids: which therapeutic options today?].

    PubMed

    Gailloud-Matthieu, M C; Raffoul, W; Egloff, D V

    1999-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids are a hyperproliferative response of connective tissue to trauma. Histologically the difference between the two is that keloids invade normal tissue whereas hypertrophic scars remain confined within the original wound. A variety of treatments have been proposed, which we will review according to their efficiency. Prevention of pathological scarring will also be discussed, and we will present our current attitude to treat these scars. As a surgical treatment for keloids, we have been using the intralesional technique which we think gives better results.

  7. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  8. A parametric determination of transport aircraft price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Cost per unit weight and other airframe and engine cost relations are given. Power equations representing these relations are presented for six airplane groups: general aircraft, turboprop transports, small jet transports, conventional jet transports, wide-body transports, supersonic transports, and for reciprocating, turboshaft, and turbothrust engines. Market prices calculated for a number of aircraft by use of the equations together with the aircraft characteristics are in reasonably good agreement with actual prices. Such price analyses are of value in the assessment of new aircraft devices and designs and potential research and development programs.

  9. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  10. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  11. Advanced Aircraft Structures program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Schroeder, H. W.; Dittrich, Kay W.; Bauer, E. J.; Zippold, H.

    1999-07-01

    Requirements of future military aircraft structures are constantly increasing with advancing technological progress. While performance is still the main focus, costs have become a major issue in military aircraft procurement.In order to efficiently support its technological base oriented on the future demands of the market Daimler Chrysler Aerospace/Military Aircraft Division has inaugurated the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program, a collaborative research effort together with the German Aerospace Center and Daimler Chrysler Research and Technology, the corporate research division of Daimler Benz. The two key technologies to be pursued within the framework of this program are cost- effective composite structures and smart materials. This paper will give an overview of the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program with particular emphasis on smart structures technology as applied to active vibration damping, vibration isolation of equipment and composite health monitoring.

  12. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  13. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  14. An Overview of the NASA Spring/Summer 2008 Arctic Campaign - ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Clarke, Antony; Crawford, James H.; Dibbs, Jack; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Maring, Hal; Russell, Philip B.; Singh, Hanwant B.

    2008-01-01

    ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) is a major NASA led airborne field campaign being performed in the spring and summer of 2008 at high latitudes (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas/). ARCTAS is a part of the International Polar Year program and its activities are closely coordinated with multiple U. S. (NOAA, DOE), Canadian, and European partners. Observational data from an ensemble of aircraft, surface, and satellite sensors are closely integrated with models of atmospheric chemistry and transport in this experiment. Principal NASA airborne platforms include a DC-8 for detailed atmospheric composition studies, a P-3 that focuses on aerosols and radiation, and a B-200 that is dedicated to remote sensing of aerosols. Satellite validation is a central activity in all these platforms and is mainly focused on CALIPSO, Aura, and Aqua satellites. Major ARCTAS themes are: (1) Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury; (2) Boreal forest fires and their implications for atmospheric composition and climate; (3) Aerosol radiative forcing from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations; and (4) Chemical processes with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens. The spring deployment (April) is presently underway and is targeting plumes of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution and dust from Asia and North America, arctic haze, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and ozone photochemistry involving HOx and halogen radicals. The summer deployment (July) will target boreal forest fires and summertime photochemistry. The ARCTAS mission is providing a critical link to enhance the value of NASA satellite observations for Earth science. In this talk we will discuss the implementation of this campaign and some preliminary results.

  15. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the cyto-genotoxic potential of Ruthenium(II) SCAR complexes: a promising class of antituberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, Rone Aparecido; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; da Silva, Monize Martins; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a top infectious disease killer worldwide, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Increasing incidences of multiple drug-resistance (MDR) strains are emerging as one of the major public health threats. However, the drugs in use are still incapable of controlling the appalling upsurge of MDR. In recent years a marked number of research groups have devoted their attention toward the development of specific and cost-effective antimicrobial agents against targeted MDR-Tuberculosis. In previous studies, ruthenium(II) complexes (SCAR) have shown a promising activity against MDR-Tuberculosis although few studies have indeed considered ruthenium toxicity. Therefore, within the preclinical requirements, we have sought to determine the cyto-genotoxicity of three SCAR complexes in this present study. The treatment with the SCARs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability in CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells. Based on the clonogenic survival, SCAR 5 was found to be more cytotoxic while SCAR 6 exhibited selectivity action on tumor cells. Although SCAR 4 and 5 did not indicate any mutagenic activity as evidenced by the Ames and Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assays, the complex SCAR 6 was found to engender a frameshift mutation detected by Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9. Similarly, we observed a chromosomal damage in HepG2 cells with significant increases of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. These data indicate that SCAR 4 and 5 complexes did not show genotoxicity in our models while SCAR 6 was considered mutagenic. This study presented a comprehensive genotoxic evaluation of SCAR complexes were shown to be genotoxic in vitro. All in all, further studies are required to fully elucidate how the properties can affect human health.

  17. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Treatment of Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrej; Pljakovska, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in Acibadem Sistina Clinical Hospital, Skopje at the Department of Dermatovenerology, with a total of 40 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser (Lutronic eCO2). The study included patients with residual acne scars of a different type. RESULTS: Comedogenic and papular acne in our material were proportionately presented in 50% of cases, while the other half were the more severe clinical forms of acne - pustular inflammatory acne and nodulocystic acne that leave residual lesions in the form of second, third and fourth grade of scars. CONCLUSION: The experiences of our work confirm the world experiences that the best result with this method is achieved in dotted ice pick or V-shaped acne scars. PMID:27275326

  18. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.

  19. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars.

  20. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars. PMID:21856542