Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft safety enhanced

  1. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  4. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  6. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  7. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  8. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  9. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  11. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  12. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  13. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines...

  14. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  15. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  16. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  17. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  18. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, November 30, 2011... participate. The forum is open to all and free to attend (there is no registration). Public aircraft...

  19. Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

  20. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  1. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  2. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  3. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  4. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  5. Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

  6. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    aircraft to safe flight. Today, all aircraft must have a flutter boundary 15 percent beyond the aircraft s expected maximum speed to ensure that flutter conditions are not encountered in flight. NASA continues to support research in new aircraft designs to improve knowledge of aeroelasticity and flutter. Through platforms such as Dryden Flight Research Center s Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research aircraft, the Agency researches methods for in-flight validation of predictions and for controlling and taking advantage of aeroelastic conditions to enhance aircraft performance.

  7. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  8. A system safety model for developmental aircraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amberboy, E. J.; Stokeld, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Basic tenets of safety as applied to developmental aircraft programs are presented. The integration of safety into the project management aspects of planning, organizing, directing and controlling is illustrated by examples. The basis for project management use of safety and the relationship of these management functions to 'real-world' situations is presented. The rationale which led to the safety-related project decision and the lessons learned as they may apply to future projects are presented.

  9. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  10. Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Roger Lee

    2001-10-01

    A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained

  11. [Radiation safety in flights of high-altitude aircraft].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E; Petrov, V M

    1975-01-01

    The major sources of radiation hazard for flights of supersonic high altitude aircraft--galactic and solar radiation--are described. Estimates of an equivalent dose rate at different distances from these sources are given. The estimates are compared with the radiation dosages allowed for the average population and special personnel. It is concluded that specific measures are needed to provide radiation safety of the crews and passengers aboard supersonic aircraft.

  12. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    It is difficult to categorize aircraft operating problems, human factors and safety. Much of NASA's research involves all three and considers the important inter-relationships between man, the machine and the environment, whether the environment be man-made or natural. Topics covered in 20 papers include terminal-area operations; avionics and human factors; and the atmospheric environment.

  13. Effectiveness of Enhanced Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Waterfall, K.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) campaign to improve safety and reduce risk in oil and gas exploration. The essentials of ESM are summarized by the author. The paper addresses the method developed to implement ESM and how the control of process designs to control operations minimizes the risk of a major accident.

  14. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  15. Propulsion Health Monitoring for Enhanced Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, Mark G.; Rodriguez, Hector M.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the NASA contract Propulsion System Health Management for Enhanced Safety performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GE AE), General Electric Global Research (GE GR), and Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory (PSU ARL) under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This activity supports the overall goal of enhanced civil aviation safety through a reduction in the occurrence of safety-significant propulsion system malfunctions. Specific objectives are to develop and demonstrate vibration diagnostics techniques for the on-line detection of turbine rotor disk cracks, and model-based fault tolerant control techniques for the prevention and mitigation of in-flight engine shutdown, surge/stall, and flameout events. The disk crack detection work was performed by GE GR which focused on a radial-mode vibration monitoring technique, and PSU ARL which focused on a torsional-mode vibration monitoring technique. GE AE performed the Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control work which focused on the development of analytical techniques for detecting, isolating, and accommodating gas-path faults.

  16. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  17. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  18. Aircraft as adaptive nonlinear system which must be in the adaptational maximum zone for safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ignative, M.; Simatos, N.; Sivasundaram, S.

    1994-12-31

    Safety is a main problem in aircraft. We are considering this problem from the point of view related to existence of the adaptational maximum in complex developing systems. Safety space of aircraft parameters are determined. This space is transformed to different regimes of flight, when one engine malfunctions etc., are considered. Also it is shown that maximum safety is in adaptational maximum zone.

  19. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  20. A composite system approach to aircraft cabin fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Lerner, N. R.; Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of one of the baremaleimide composites are detailed.

  1. Application of aircraft navigation sensors to enhanced vision systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Barbara T.

    1993-01-01

    In this presentation, the applicability of various aircraft navigation sensors to enhanced vision system design is discussed. First, the accuracy requirements of the FAA for precision landing systems are presented, followed by the current navigation systems and their characteristics. These systems include Instrument Landing System (ILS), Microwave Landing System (MLS), Inertial Navigation, Altimetry, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Finally, the use of navigation system data to improve enhanced vision systems is discussed. These applications include radar image rectification, motion compensation, and image registration.

  2. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  3. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  4. Safety concerns as a factor in pilot desire to change aircraft.

    PubMed

    Ungs, T J

    1993-01-01

    An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed by 461 (73.4%) Coast Guard aviators at 26 participating Air Stations. Most (92%) pilots felt that helicopters had more dangerous missions and were less safe than fixed wing aircraft (FXAC). Two thirds (204) of helicopter and 19.3% (29) of FXAC pilots stated a desire to change to a different aircraft category. Only 1 (3.6%) of the FXAC pilots but 81 (39.8%) of the helicopter pilots stated their wish for aircraft change was influenced by a desire to operate aircraft they perceived as safer. Pilots who desired change in aircraft category were more senior, more experienced, and felt they were currently engaging in dangerous flight operations. In conclusion this study found that: 1) Coast Guard pilots consider helicopters less safe than FXAC; 2) a substantial proportion of helicopter pilots would like to change to FXAC; 3) safety concerns can be a common factor in pilots' desires to change aircraft.

  5. X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability aircraft in flight over California's Mojave desert during a 1992 test flight. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat

  6. Aircraft Detection System Ensures Free-Space Laser Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, Brian; Wilson, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists continue to explore our solar system, there are increasing demands to return greater volumes of data from smaller deep-space probes. Accordingly, NASA is studying advanced strategies based on free-space laser transmissions, which offer secure, high-bandwidth communications using smaller subsystems of much lower power and mass than existing ones. These approaches, however, can pose a danger to pilots in the beam path because the lasers may illuminate aircraft and blind them. Researchers thus are investigating systems that will monitor the surrounding airspace for aircraft that could be affected. This paper presents current methods for safe free space laser propagation.

  7. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  8. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  9. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  10. Sense-and-Avoid Equivalent Level of Safety Definition for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Revision 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a pilot on-board the aircraft, they cannot literally comply with the "see and avoid" requirement beyond a short distance from the location of the unmanned pilot. No performance standards are presently defined for unmanned Sense and Avoid systems, and the FAA has no published approval criteria for a collision avoidance system. Before the FAA can develop the necessary guidance (rules / regulations / policy) regarding the see-and-avoid requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), a concise understanding of the term "equivalent level of safety" must be attained. Since this term is open to interpretation, the UAS industry and FAA need to come to an agreement on how this term can be defined and applied for a safe and acceptable collision avoidance capability for unmanned aircraft. Defining an equivalent level of safety (ELOS) for sense and avoid is one of the first steps in understanding the requirement and developing a collision avoidance capability. This document provides a functional level definition of see-and-avoid as it applies to unmanned aircraft. The sense and avoid ELOS definition is intended as a bridge between the see and avoid requirement and the system level requirements for unmanned aircraft sense and avoid systems. Sense and avoid ELOS is defined in a rather abstract way, meaning that it is not technology or system specific, and the definition provides key parameters (and a context for those parameters) to focus the development of cooperative and non-cooperative sense and avoid system requirements.

  11. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  12. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  13. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  14. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  15. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  16. Study of a safety margin system for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin system for powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The objective of the safety margin system was to present multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked manually or automatically and which could be monitored for the purpose of deriving safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several safety margin system concepts and a simulation experiment to evaluate those concepts which showed promise of providing a good solution. A system was ultimately configured which offered reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate the safety margin at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  17. Maneuver Performance Enhancement for an Advanced Fighter/Attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jeff; Langan, Kevin J.; Schmitz, Frederic H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A small scale wind tunnel test of a realistic fighter configuration has been completed in NASA Ames' 7'x10' wind tunnel. This test was part of the Fighter Lift and Control (FLAC) program, a joint NASA - USAF research program, involving small and large-scale wind-tunnel tests and computational analysis of unique lift augmentation and control devices. The goal of this program is to enhance the maneuver and control capability of next-generation Air Force multi-role fighter aircraft with low-observables geometries. The principal objective of this test was to determine the effectiveness of passive boundary layer control devices at increasing L/D at sustained maneuver lift coefficients. Vortex generators (VGs) were used to energize the boundary layer to prevent or delay separation. Corotating vanes, counter-rotating vanes, and Wheeler Wishbone VGs were used in the vicinity of the leading and trailing edge flap hinge lines. Principle test parameters were leading and trailing edge flap deflections, and location, size, spacing, and orientation for each VG type. Gurney flaps were also tested. Data gathered include balance force and moment data, surface pressures, and flow visualization for characterizing flow behavior and locating separation lines. Results were quite different for the two best flap configurations tested. All VG types tested showed improvement (up to 5%) in maneuver L/D with flaps at LE=20 degrees, TE=0 degrees. The same VGs degraded performance, in all but a few cases, with flaps at LE=15 degrees, TE=10 degrees.

  18. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  19. The possible effects on health, comfort and safety of aircraft cabin environments.

    PubMed

    Brown, T P; Shuker, L K; Rushton, L; Warren, F; Stevens, J

    2001-09-01

    A consultation was undertaken to investigate the views and concerns of stakeholders in the aircraft industry about the possible harmful effects on personal health, comfort and safety of aircraft cabin environments. Stakeholders were identified from a variety of sources including Government agencies, the Internet, House of Lords inquiry, and suggestions of interviewees. They represented: aircraft crews, aircraft constructors and engineers, government departments and authorities, holiday/flight companies, insurance companies, non-governmental organisations, occupational health physicians, passenger representatives, and independent researchers and consultants. Eighty-seven were contacted of which 57 were interviewed over the telephone using a semi-structured questionnaire. Their concerns were transcribed into a standard format and analysed qualitatively. Key stakeholders, along with Government officials, were invited to a workshop to discuss and prioritize the issues raised during the interviews. The main concerns expressed by the participants fell into five main areas: deep vein thrombosis, air quality, infection, cosmic radiation, and jet lag and work patterns. In addition, a number of safety concerns were raised as well as comments on the provision of appropriate advice to passengers. It was generally felt that further research was required on each of these subjects, as well as an improvement in the quality, quantity and availability of information provided for passengers prior to boarding a flight.

  20. 78 FR 53790 - Public Forum-Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... advances in safety culture research, and describe the roles, responsibilities, and methods for developing... SAFETY BOARD Public Forum--Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety On Tuesday and Wednesday... Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both days and is open...

  1. Safety Analysis of FMS/CTAS Interactions During Aircraft Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded research on human-computer interaction design and analysis techniques, using future ATC environments as a testbed. The basic approach was to model the nominal behavior of both the automated and human procedures and then to apply safety analysis techniques to these models. Our previous modeling language, RSML, had been used to specify the system requirements for TCAS II for the FAA. Using the lessons learned from this experience, we designed a new modeling language that (among other things) incorporates features to assist in designing less error-prone human-computer interactions and interfaces and in detecting potential HCI problems, such as mode confusion. The new language, SpecTRM-RL, uses "intent" abstractions, based on Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy, and includes both informal (English and graphical) specifications and formal, executable models for specifying various aspects of the system. One of the goals for our language was to highlight the system modes and mode changes to assist in identifying the potential for mode confusion. Three published papers resulted from this research. The first builds on the work of Degani on mode confusion to identify aspects of the system design that could lead to potential hazards. We defined and modeled modes differently than Degani and also defined design criteria for SpecTRM-RL models. Our design criteria include the Degani criteria but extend them to include more potential problems. In a second paper, Leveson and Palmer showed how the criteria for indirect mode transitions could be applied to a mode confusion problem found in several ASRS reports for the MD-88. In addition, we defined a visual task modeling language that can be used by system designers to model human-computer interaction. The visual models can be translated into SpecTRM-RL models, and then the SpecTRM-RL suite of analysis tools can be used to perform formal and informal safety analyses on the task model in isolation or integrated with

  2. Image enhancement and understanding for remote visual inspection of aircraft surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunatilake, Priyan; Siegel, Mel; Jordan, Angel G.; Podnar, Gregg W.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a library of image enhancement and understanding algorithms developed to enhance and recognize surface defects from remote live imagery of an aircraft surface. Also described are the supporting mobile robot platform that generates the remote stereoscopic imagery and the inspection console containing a graphical user interface, through which the inspector accesses the live imagery for remote inspection. We will discuss initial results of the remote imaging process and the image processing library, and speculate on their future application in aircraft inspection.

  3. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  4. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  5. Sense and Avoid Safety Analysis for Remotely Operated Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace System. Version 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor

    2006-01-01

    This document describes a method to demonstrate that a UAS, operating in the NAS, can avoid collisions with an equivalent level of safety compared to a manned aircraft. The method is based on the calculation of a collision probability for a UAS , the calculation of a collision probability for a base line manned aircraft, and the calculation of a risk ratio given by: Risk Ratio = P(collision_UAS)/P(collision_manned). A UAS will achieve an equivalent level of safety for collision risk if the Risk Ratio is less than or equal to one. Calculation of the probability of collision for UAS and manned aircraft is accomplished through event/fault trees.

  6. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  7. Enhanced Airport Capacity Through Safe, Dynamic Reductions in Aircraft Separation: NASA's Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Cornelius J.; Rutishauser, David K.

    2001-01-01

    An aspect of airport terminal operations that holds potential for efficiency improvements is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria evolved to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards, and are consequently overly conservative during a significant portion of operations. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully operated in a real-time field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. Gains in airport throughput using AVOSS spacing as compared to the current criteria averaged 6%, with peak values approaching the theoretical maximum of 16%. The average throughput gain translates to 15-40% reductions in delay when applied to realistic capacity ratios at major airports.

  8. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  9. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  10. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... conditions of aircraft cabin crew while they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: This action becomes... the working conditions of aircraft cabin crewmembers while they are onboard aircraft in operation... enforcement onboard the aircraft. The FAA agrees with the proposed recommendation. Specific procedures...

  11. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  12. Estimating electric field enhancement factors on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model: A method evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Calvin C.; Rudolph, Terence; Easterbrook, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    A method for obtaining field enhancement factors at specific points on an aircraft utilizing a small scale model was evaluated by measuring several canonical shapes. Comparison of the form factors obtained by analytical means with measurements indicate that the experimental method has serious flaws. Errors of 200 to 300 percent were found between analytical values and measured values. As a result of the study, the analytical method is not recommended for calibration of field meters located on aircraft, and should not be relied upon in any application where the local spatial derivatives of the electric field on the model are large over the dimensions of the sensing probe.

  13. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  14. Predicted Performance of a Thrust-Enhanced SR-71 Aircraft with an External Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed a preliminary performance analysis of the SR-71 aircraft for use as a launch platform for high-speed research vehicles and for carrying captive experimental packages to high altitude and Mach number conditions. Externally mounted research platforms can significantly increase drag, limiting test time and, in extreme cases, prohibiting penetration through the high-drag, transonic flight regime. To provide supplemental SR-71 acceleration, methods have been developed that could increase the thrust of the J58 turbojet engines. These methods include temperature and speed increases and augmentor nitrous oxide injection. The thrust-enhanced engines would allow the SR-71 aircraft to carry higher drag research platforms than it could without enhancement. This paper presents predicted SR-71 performance with and without enhanced engines. A modified climb-dive technique is shown to reduce fuel consumption when flying through the transonic flight regime with a large external payload. Estimates are included of the maximum platform drag profiles with which the aircraft could still complete a high-speed research mission. In this case, enhancement was found to increase the SR-71 payload drag capability by 25 percent. The thrust enhancement techniques and performance prediction methodology are described.

  15. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  16. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  17. How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

  18. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  19. Flight study of on-board enhanced vision system for all-weather aircraft landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopdjanan, Yuri A.; Machikhin, Alexander S.; Bilanchuk, Vyacheslav V.; Drynkin, Vladimir N.; Falkov, Eduard Y.; Tsareva, Tatiana I.; Fomenko, Anatoly I.

    2014-11-01

    On-board enhanced vision system for all-weather aircraft navigation and landing which is currently under development in State research institute of aviation systems is described. The system is based on combination of three imagers sensitive in visible, short wave infrared (SWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral ranges and demonstrating to the pilot only the most informative images from the time-aligned multi-sensor data. The results of flight tests at glissade trajectories of the light aircraft OR-5 MO obtained at various weather conditions are presented. It is shown that each spectral range may be informative under certain conditions of observation. In adverse and poor-visibility conditions, such as fog, high humidity and low clouds, SWIR range has the biggest information content.

  20. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  1. Control Design Strategies to Enhance Long-Term Aircraft Structural Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Brett A.

    1999-01-01

    Over the operational lifetime of both military and civil aircraft, structural components are exposed to hundreds of thousands of low-stress repetitive load cycles and less frequent but higher-stress transient loads originating from maneuvering flight and atmospheric gusts. Micro-material imperfections in the structure, such as cracks and debonded laminates, expand and grow in this environment, reducing the structural integrity and shortening the life of the airframe. Extreme costs associated with refurbishment of critical load-bearing structural components in a large fleet, or altogether reinventoring the fleet with newer models, indicate alternative solutions for life extension of the airframe structure are highly desirable. Increased levels of operational safety and reliability are also important factors influencing the desirability of such solutions. One area having significant potential for impacting crack growth/fatigue damage reduction and structural life extension is flight control. To modify the airframe response dynamics arising from command inputs and gust disturbances, feedback loops are routinely applied to vehicles. A dexterous flight control system architecture senses key vehicle motions and generates critical forces/moments at multiple points distributed throughout the airframe to elicit the desired motion characteristics. In principle, these same control loops can be utilized to influence the level of exposure to harmful loads during flight on structural components. Project objectives are to investigate and/or assess the leverage control has on reducing fatigue damage and enhancing long-term structural integrity, without degrading attitude control and trajectory guidance performance levels. In particular, efforts have focused on the effects inner loop control parameters and architectures have on fatigue damage rate. To complete this research, an actively controlled flexible aircraft model and a new state space modeling procedure for crack growth

  2. Is Model-Based Development a Favorable Approach for Complex and Safety-Critical Computer Systems on Commercial Aircraft?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    A system is safety-critical if its failure can endanger human life or cause significant damage to property or the environment. State-of-the-art computer systems on commercial aircraft are highly complex, software-intensive, functionally integrated, and network-centric systems of systems. Ensuring that such systems are safe and comply with existing safety regulations is costly and time-consuming as the level of rigor in the development process, especially the validation and verification activities, is determined by considerations of system complexity and safety criticality. A significant degree of care and deep insight into the operational principles of these systems is required to ensure adequate coverage of all design implications relevant to system safety. Model-based development methodologies, methods, tools, and techniques facilitate collaboration and enable the use of common design artifacts among groups dealing with different aspects of the development of a system. This paper examines the application of model-based development to complex and safety-critical aircraft computer systems. Benefits and detriments are identified and an overall assessment of the approach is given.

  3. Physician Attitudes towards Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement: Safety Concerns Are Paramount

    PubMed Central

    Banjo, Opeyemi C.; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between

  4. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  6. Enhanced Imaging of Corrosion in Aircraft Structures with Reverse Geometry X-ray(registered tm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Cmar-Mascis, Noreen A.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2000-01-01

    The application of Reverse Geometry X-ray to the detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft structures is presented. Reverse Geometry X-ray is a unique system that utilizes an electronically scanned x-ray source and a discrete detector for real time radiographic imaging of a structure. The scanned source system has several advantages when compared to conventional radiography. First, the discrete x-ray detector can be miniaturized and easily positioned inside a complex structure (such as an aircraft wing) enabling images of each surface of the structure to be obtained separately. Second, using a measurement configuration with multiple detectors enables the simultaneous acquisition of data from several different perspectives without moving the structure or the measurement system. This provides a means for locating the position of flaws and enhances separation of features at the surface from features inside the structure. Data is presented on aircraft specimens with corrosion in the lap joint. Advanced laminographic imaging techniques utilizing data from multiple detectors are demonstrated to be capable of separating surface features from corrosion in the lap joint and locating the corrosion in multilayer structures. Results of this technique are compared to computed tomography cross sections obtained from a microfocus x-ray tomography system. A method is presented for calibration of the detectors of the Reverse Geometry X-ray system to enable quantification of the corrosion to within 2%.

  7. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Curt N.

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  8. 76 FR 11752 - Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of affirmation of equivalence decision. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is affirming...

  9. Calculations and observations of solar particle enhancements to the radiation environment at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    Dyer, C S; Lei, F; Clucas, S N; Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    Solar particle events can give greatly enhanced radiation at aircraft altitudes, but are both difficult to predict and to calculate retrospectively. This enhanced radiation can give significant dose to aircrew and greatly increase the rate of single event effects in avionics. Validation of calculations is required but only very few events have been measured in flight. The CREAM detector on Concorde detected the event of 29 September 1989 and also four periods of enhancement during the events of 19-24 October 1989. Instantaneous rates were enhanced by up to a factor ten compared with quiet-time cosmic rays, while flight-averages were enhanced by up to a factor six. Calculations are described for increases in radiation at aircraft altitudes using solar particle spectra in conjunction with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. In order to obtain solar particle spectra with sufficient accuracy over the required energy range it is necessary to combine space data with measurements from a wide range of geomagnetically dispersed, ground-level neutron monitors. Such spectra have been obtained for 29 September 1989 and 24 October 1989 and these are used to calculate enhancements that are compared with the data from CREAM on Concorde. The effect of cut-off rigidity suppression by geomagnetic activity is shown to be significant. For the largest event on record on 23 February 1956, there are no space data but there are data from a number of ground-level cosmic-ray detectors. Predictions for all events show very steep dependencies on both latitude and altitude. At high latitude and altitude (17 km) calculated increases with respect to cosmic rays are a factor 70 and 500 respectively for 29 September 1989 and 23 February 1956. The levels of radiation for high latitude, subsonic routes are calculated, using London to Los Angeles as an example, and can exceed 1 mSv, which is significantly higher than for Concorde routes from Europe to New York. The sensitivity of the calculations

  10. Calculations and observations of solar particle enhancements to the radiation environment at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    Dyer, C S; Lei, F; Clucas, S N; Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    Solar particle events can give greatly enhanced radiation at aircraft altitudes, but are both difficult to predict and to calculate retrospectively. This enhanced radiation can give significant dose to aircrew and greatly increase the rate of single event effects in avionics. Validation of calculations is required but only very few events have been measured in flight. The CREAM detector on Concorde detected the event of 29 September 1989 and also four periods of enhancement during the events of 19-24 October 1989. Instantaneous rates were enhanced by up to a factor ten compared with quiet-time cosmic rays, while flight-averages were enhanced by up to a factor six. Calculations are described for increases in radiation at aircraft altitudes using solar particle spectra in conjunction with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. In order to obtain solar particle spectra with sufficient accuracy over the required energy range it is necessary to combine space data with measurements from a wide range of geomagnetically dispersed, ground-level neutron monitors. Such spectra have been obtained for 29 September 1989 and 24 October 1989 and these are used to calculate enhancements that are compared with the data from CREAM on Concorde. The effect of cut-off rigidity suppression by geomagnetic activity is shown to be significant. For the largest event on record on 23 February 1956, there are no space data but there are data from a number of ground-level cosmic-ray detectors. Predictions for all events show very steep dependencies on both latitude and altitude. At high latitude and altitude (17 km) calculated increases with respect to cosmic rays are a factor 70 and 500 respectively for 29 September 1989 and 23 February 1956. The levels of radiation for high latitude, subsonic routes are calculated, using London to Los Angeles as an example, and can exceed 1 mSv, which is significantly higher than for Concorde routes from Europe to New York. The sensitivity of the calculations

  11. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents or... they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: Send comments on or before January 7, 2013....

  12. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...) on Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (76 FR 5510). In the NPRM, the FAA... period until May 13, 2011, (76 FR 20570) because we learned that a number of airport operators were not... again reopened the comment period until July 5, 2011, (76 FR 32105) because several industry...

  13. Use of a Web Site to Enhance Criticality Safety Training

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T; Morman, J

    2003-08-04

    Currently, a website dedicated to enhancing communication and dissemination of criticality safety information is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). This website was developed as part of the DOE response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. The website is the focal point for DOE nuclear criticality safety (NCS) activities, resources and references, including hyperlinks to other sites actively involved in the collection and dissemination of criticality safety information. The website is maintained by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under auspices of the NCSP management. One area of the website contains a series of Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training (NCSET) modules. During the past few years, many users worldwide have accessed the NCSET section of the NCSP website and have downloaded the training modules as an aid for their training programs. This trend was remarkable in that it points out a continuing need of the criticality safety community across the globe. It has long been recognized that training of criticality safety professionals is a continuing process involving both knowledge-based training and experience-based operations floor training. As more of the experienced criticality safety professionals reach retirement age, the opportunities for mentoring programs are reduced. It is essential that some method be provided to assist the training of young criticality safety professionals to replenish this limited human expert resource to support on-going and future nuclear operations. The main objective of this paper is to present the features of the NCSP website, including its mission, contents, and most importantly its use for the dissemination of training modules to the criticality safety community. We will discuss lessons learned and several ideas

  14. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain.

  15. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  16. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  17. Artificial rain enhancement in warms cumulus clouds using aircraft sea water seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Inácio M.; Imai, Takeshi; Seguchi, Tomio

    This paper describes the development of a new process to induce enhancement of local rains with higher intensity by seeding clouds with sea water droplets of controlled size sown by aircraft. Clouds were selected for seeding based on meteorological radar observations. The radar operates in the C-band and was specially calibrated for this study. The seeding droplets were similar in size to those naturally found in clouds. The radar was used to track clouds that may produce rain over areas of interest, such as a drainage basin feeding a major city or a hydroelectric power plant, and reforested or even agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, a Brazil. The radar allowed the determination of cloud position, height, volume, trajectory, speed and water content. These are important parameters; they helped the seeder aircraft locate clouds above the area where the artificial rain is necessary or required. In the past, experiments in warm clouds that did not yield positive results were based on the use of silver iodide acting as a nucleating agent or solid particles of sodium chloride acting as a humectant. In our process, clouds are seeded with plain liquid sea water in the form of controlled-sized droplets. The seeding experiment was carried out during the local rainy season, from November 2007 to February 2008, in the region of Bragaña Paulista (22o 57'07" S, 46o 32'31" W), located c 90 km northeast of São Paulo. Forty five seeding flights were conducted during this period a of experiment. SABESP, the largest water supply company in Brazil, verified that the cloud seeding experiment produced an enhancement of 20

  18. Real-time prediction of unsteady aerodynamics: Application for aircraft control and manoeuvrability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Faller, W E; Schreck, S J

    1995-01-01

    The capability to control unsteady separated flow fields could dramatically enhance aircraft agility. To enable control, however, real-time prediction of these flow fields over a broad parameter range must be realized. The present work describes real-time predictions of three-dimensional unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients using neural networks. Unsteady surface-pressure readings were obtained from an airfoil pitched at a constant rate through the static stall angle. All data sets were comprised of 15 simultaneously acquired pressure records and one pitch angle record. Five such records and the associated pitch angle histories were used to train the neural network using a time-series algorithm. Post-training, the input to the network was the pitch angle (alpha), the angular velocity (dalpha/dt), and the initial 15 recorded surface pressures at time (t (0)). Subsequently, the time (t+Deltat) network predictions, for each of the surface pressures, were fed back as the input to the network throughout the pitch history. The results indicated that the neural network accurately predicted the unsteady separated flow fields as well as the aerodynamic coefficients to within 5% of the experimental data. Consistent results were obtained both for the training set as well as for generalization to both other constant pitch rates and to sinusoidal pitch motions. The results clearly indicated that the neural-network model could predict the unsteady surface-pressure distributions and aerodynamic coefficients based solely on angle of attack information. The capability for real-time prediction of both unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients across a wide range of parameters in turn provides a critical step towards the development of control systems targeted at exploiting unsteady aerodynamics for aircraft manoeuvrability enhancement.

  19. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Celik, Cihangir; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dunn, Michael E.; Hart, Shane W.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Langley, Brandon R.; Lefebvre, Jordan P.; Lefebvre, Robert A.; Marshall, William J.; Mertyurek, Ugur; Mueller, Don; Peplow, Douglas E.; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Petrie Jr, Lester M.; Thompson, Adam B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Wieselquist, William A.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  20. Water Vapor Sensors Go Sky-High to Assure Aircraft Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    JPL used a special tunable diode laser, which NASA scientists could tune to different wavelengths, like a radio being tuned to different frequencies, to accurately target specific molecules and detect small traces of gas. This tunable diode laser was designed to emit near-infrared light at wavelengths absorbed by the gas or gases being detected. The light energy being absorbed by the target gas is related to the molecules present. This is usually measured in parts per million or parts per billion. Multiple measurements are made every second, making the system quick to respond to variations in the target gas. NASA scientists developed this technology as part of the 1999 Mars Polar Lander mission to explore the possibility of life-giving elements on Mars. NASA has since used the tunable diode laser-based gas sensor on aircraft and on balloons to successfully study weather and climate, global warming, emissions from aircraft, and numerous other areas where chemical gas analysis is needed. SpectraSensors, Inc., was formed in 1999 as a spinoff company of JPL, to commercialize tunable diode laser-based analyzers for industrial gas-sensing applications (Spinoff 2000). Now, the San Dimas, California-based firm has come back to the market with a new product featuring the NASA-developed instrument for atmospheric monitoring. This instrument is now helping aircraft avoid hazardous weather conditions and enabling the National Weather Service to provide more accurate weather forecasts.

  1. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  2. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception. PMID:27045909

  3. Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" versus Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Serious games for safety education (SGSE) are a novel tool for preparing people to prevent and\\or handle risky situations. Although several SGSE have been developed, design and evaluation methods for SGSE need to be better grounded in and guided by safety-relevant psychological theories. In particular, this paper focuses on threat appeals and the assessment of variables, such as safety locus of control, that influence human behavior in real risky situations. It illustrates how we took into account such models in the design and evaluation of "Learn to Brace", a first-of-its-kind serious game that deals with a major problem in aviation safety, i.e. the scarce effectiveness of the safety cards used by airlines. The study considered a sample of 48 users: half of them received instructions about the brace position through the serious game, the other half through a traditional safety card pictorial. Results showed that the serious game was much more effective than the traditional instructions both in terms of learning and of changing safety-relevant perceptions, especially safety locus of control and recommendation perception.

  4. Development of SCR Aircraft takeoff and landing procedures for community noise abatement and their impact on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulator studies to determine takeoff and landing procedures for a supersonic cruise transport concept that result in predicted community noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards are discussed. The results indicate that with the use of advanced procedures, the subject simulated aircraft meets the FAA traded noise levels during takeoff and landing utilizing average flight crew skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating three of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) noise test conditions. These were: (1) thrust cutbacks at altitudes below 214 meters (700 ft); (2) thrust cutback level below those presently allowed; and (3) configuration change, other than raising the landing gear. It was not necessary to violate any FAR noise test conditions during landing approach. It was determined that the advanced procedures developed do not compromise flight safety. Automation of some of the aircraft functions reduced pilot workload, and the development of a simple head-up display to assist in the takeoff flight mode proved to be adequate.

  5. Medication safety and pharmacovigilance resources for the ambulatory care setting: enhancing patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Jennifer A; Fass, Andrea D

    2014-04-01

    Reputable medication safety resources are fundamental to assist in reducing medication errors and educating consumers. The purpose of this article is to describe medication safety and pharmacovigilance electronic and mobile resources that are available to pharmacists to enhance patient safety in the ambulatory care setting at the national level through the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), American Medicine Chest Challenge, and Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). Information concerning drug disposal methods is available through the FDA, DEA, and the American Medicine Chest Challenge Rx Drop app. The ISMP provides a variety of tools for reporting and preventing medication errors including Assess-ERR and ConsumerMedSafety.org. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) were created as a requirement of the FDA Amendments Act of 2007 to ensure that the drug's benefits outweigh the risks. Health care professionals are encouraged to report adverse drug events through the FDA's MedWatch reporting system. Pharmacists have a variety of useful resources for their medication safety and pharmacovigilance toolbox. Studies should evaluate the use of these resources by pharmacists and consumers.

  6. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  7. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  8. HiVision millimeter-wave radar for enhanced vision systems in civil and military transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkl, Martin; Tospann, Franz-Jose

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a guideline to meet the requirements of forward looking sensors of an enhanced vision system for both military and civil transport aircraft. It gives an update of a previous publication with special respect to airborne application. For civil transport aircraft an imaging mm-wave radar is proposed as the vision sensor for an enhanced vision system. For military air transport an additional high-performance weather radar should be combined with the mm-wave radar to enable advanced situation awareness, e.g. spot-SAR or air to air operation. For tactical navigation the mm-wave radar is useful due to its ranging capabilities. To meet these requirements the HiVision radar was developed and tested. It uses a robust concept of electronic beam steering and will meet the strict price constraints of transport aircraft. Advanced image processing and high frequency techniques are currently developed to enhance the performance of both the radar image and integration techniques. The advantages FMCW waveform even enables a sensor with low probability of intercept and a high resistance against jammer. The 1997 highlight will be the optimizing of the sensor and flight trials with an enhanced radar demonstrator.

  9. Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships.

    PubMed

    Grant, Katharyn A; Garland, John G; Joachim, Todd C; Wallen, Andrew; Vital, Twyla

    2003-01-01

    Reduction in the environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, financial analysts, and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and ESOH in corrosion control facilities at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, and Robins AFB, Ga. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the strip-and-paint processes for the T-38 aircraft at Randolph and the F-15 radome and C-141 aft cowl at Robins revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices (22 and 39%, respectively). In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5 to 7%. This case study demonstrates how workplaces can identify cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing practices by partnering with ESOH professionals in planning and decision-making activities. PMID:14521429

  10. Low density bismaleimide-carbon microballoon composites. [aircraft and submarine compartment safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process is described for constructing for a composite laminate structure which exhibits a high resistance to heat and flame provides safer interior structures for aircraft and submarine compartments. Composite laminate structures are prepared by the bismaleimide resin preimpregnation of a fiberglass cloth to form a face sheet which is bonded with a bismaleimide hot melt adhesive to a porous core structure selected from the group consisting of polyamide paper and bismaleimide-glass fabric which is filled with carbon microballoons. The carbon microballoons are prepared by pyrolyzing phenolic micro-balloons in the presence of nitrogen. A slurry of the carbon microballoons is prepared to fill the porous core structure. The porous core structure and face sheet are bonded to provide panel structures exhibiting increased mechanical capacities and lower oxygen limit values and smoke density values.

  11. An Adaptive Control Technology for Safety of a GTM-like Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsutani, Megumi; Crespo, Luis G.; Annaswamy, Anuradha; Jang, Jinho

    2010-01-01

    An adaptive control architecture for safe performance of a transport aircraft subject to various adverse conditions is proposed and verified in this report. This architecture combines a nominal controller based on a Linear Quadratic Regulator with integral action, and an adaptive controller that accommodates actuator saturation and bounded disturbances. The effectiveness of the baseline controller and its adaptive augmentation are evaluated using a stand-alone control veri fication methodology. Case studies that pair individual parameter uncertainties with critical flight maneuvers are studied. The resilience of the controllers is determined by evaluating the degradation in closed-loop performance resulting from increasingly larger deviations in the uncertain parameters from their nominal values. Symmetric and asymmetric actuator failures, flight upsets, and center of gravity displacements, are some of the uncertainties considered.

  12. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  13. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    Operating conditions specific to Pressurizer Safety Valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring loaded self-actuated safety valves for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV, it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than {+-}1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of {+-}2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing.

  14. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    Operating conditions specific to pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring-loaded self-actuated safety valves for reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and pressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV (Moisidis and Ratiu, 1992), it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than {+-}1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of {+-} 2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing.

  15. The effect of a single standard of engineering safety (S3E) on the airworthiness of military derivative aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaxon, Victor Manuel

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the effects of applying a single standard of engineering safety (S3E) on the airworthiness of military derivative aircraft. For the purpose of this study, S3E is defined as the use of commercial standards for airworthiness in embodied in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 121 and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8300.10, then tailored and applied to the Department of Defense (DOD). Using a S3E audit normally used to inspect airlines but specially tailored to the military two randomly selected military units were pre-tested. Although the random selection was blind to the study it is known that the units were of different services but operated the same type of commercially built and certified military derivative aircraft. It is also known that their force of strength and fleet size were the same. After the pre-test, one unit was treated by exposure to S3E commercial standards for airworthiness per FAR Part 121 and FAA Order 8300.10 and the other unit was not. After 90 days, both units were post-tested. Percent change comparison on the pre and post test as well as the chi squared technique was used to analyze the data. Findings and conclusions. The results of the study indicate that the treated unit experienced significant improvement in airworthiness compliance and the control unit did not. It was concluded that S3E had a positive effect in this first of its kind study, but further and expanded research needs to continue.

  16. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    difference for the safety of the Space Shuttle Vehicle, its crew, and personnel. Because of the MSERP's valuable contribution to the assessment of safety risk for the SSP, this paper also proposes an enhanced Panel concept that takes this successful partnership concept to a higher level of 'true partnership'. The proposed panel is aimed to be responsible for the review and assessment of all risk relative to Safety for new and future aerospace and related programs.

  17. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  18. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  19. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  20. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  1. The Aircraft Simulation Role in Improving Flight Safety Through Control Room Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Hageman, Jacob J.; Le, Jeanette H.; Sitz, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center uses its six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) fixed-base simulations for mission control room training to improve flight safety and operations. This concept is applied to numerous flight projects such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), the X-38 Actuator Control Test (XACT), and X-43A (Hyper-X). The Dryden 6-DOF simulations are typically used through various stages of a project, from design to ground tests. The roles of these simulations have expanded to support control room training, reinforcing flight safety by building control room staff proficiency. Real-time telemetry, radar, and video data are generated from flight vehicle simulation models. These data are used to drive the control room displays. Nominal static values are used to complete information where appropriate. Audio communication is also an integral part of training sessions. This simulation capability is used to train control room personnel and flight crew for nominal missions and emergency situations. Such training sessions are also opportunities to refine flight cards and control room display pages, exercise emergency procedures, and practice control room setup for the day of flight. This paper describes this technology as it is used in the X-43A and F-15 IFCS and XACT projects.

  2. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  3. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  4. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  5. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  6. 76 FR 5510 - Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://Dockets... required to conduct pavement surface evaluations to ensure reliability of runway surfaces in wet weather... major step in achieving safer pavement surfaces for aircraft operations in wet weather...

  7. African partnerships for patient safety: a vehicle for enhancing patient safety across two continents. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Syed, S B; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Gooden, R; Storr, J; Hightower, J D; Rutter, P; Bagheri Nejad, S; Lardner, A; Kelley, E; Pittet, D

    2009-01-01

    African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS) aims to develop sustainable partnerships between hospitals in Africa and Europe to create a network of beacon hospitals for patient safety. The three core APPS objectives are focused on building strong patient safety partnerships between hospitals in Africa and Europe, implementing patient safety improvements in each partnership hospital on 12 patient safety action areas, and facilitating spread of patient safety improvements. APPS is working with six first wave hospital partnerships and will capture and report learning from implementation. A range of APPS resources will shortly be available to hospitals working on patient safety systems.

  8. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeri W.

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases, supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  9. Video capture of clinical care to enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    Weinger, M B; Gonzales, D C; Slagle, J; Syeed, M

    2004-04-01

    Experience from other domains suggests that videotaping and analyzing actual clinical care can provide valuable insights for enhancing patient safety through improvements in the process of care. Methods are described for the videotaping and analysis of clinical care using a high quality portable multi-angle digital video system that enables simultaneous capture of vital signs and time code synchronization of all data streams. An observer can conduct clinician performance assessment (such as workload measurements or behavioral task analysis) either in real time (during videotaping) or while viewing previously recorded videotapes. Supplemental data are synchronized with the video record and stored electronically in a hierarchical database. The video records are transferred to DVD, resulting in a small, cheap, and accessible archive. A number of technical and logistical issues are discussed, including consent of patients and clinicians, maintaining subject privacy and confidentiality, and data security. Using anesthesiology as a test environment, over 270 clinical cases (872 hours) have been successfully videotaped and processed using the system.

  10. Application of supersonic particle deposition to enhance the structural integrity of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N.; Jones, R.; Sih, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft metal components and structures are susceptible to environmental degradation throughout their original design life and in many cases their extended lives. This paper summarizes the results of an experimental program to evaluate the ability of Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD), also known as cold spray, to extend the limit of validity (LOV) of aircraft structural components and to restore the structural integrity of corroded panels. In this study [LU1]the potential for the SPD to seal the mechanically fastened joints and for this seal to remain intact even in the presence of multi-site damage (MSD) has been evaluated. By sealing the joint the onset of corrosion damage in the joint can be significantly retarded, possibly even eliminated, thereby dramatically extending the LOV of mechanically fastened joints. The study also shows that SPD can dramatically increase the damage tolerance of badly corroded wing skins.

  11. Enhancing vaccine safety capacity globally: a lifecycle perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert T.; Shimabukuro, Tom T.; Martin, David B.; Zuber, Patrick L.F.; Weibel, Daniel M.; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th Century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved in the future to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a “lifecycle” approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle- income countries. PMID:26433922

  12. Enhancing Vaccine Safety Capacity Globally: A Lifecycle Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Shimabukuro, Tom T; Martin, David B; Zuber, Patrick L F; Weibel, Daniel M; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26590436

  13. Enhancing vaccine safety capacity globally: A lifecycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Shimabukuro, Tom T; Martin, David B; Zuber, Patrick L F; Weibel, Daniel M; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-11-27

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries.

  14. Enhancing Vaccine Safety Capacity Globally: A Lifecycle Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Shimabukuro, Tom T; Martin, David B; Zuber, Patrick L F; Weibel, Daniel M; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries.

  15. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  16. A spatial disorientation predictor device to enhance pilot situational awareness regarding aircraft attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelette, T. L.; Repperger, Daniel W.; Albery, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was initiated at the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) to investigate the improvement of the situational awareness of a pilot with respect to his aircraft's spatial orientation. The end product of this study is a device to alert a pilot to potentially disorienting situations. Much like a ground collision avoidance system (GCAS) is used in fighter aircraft to alert the pilot to 'pull up' when dangerous flight paths are predicted, this device warns the pilot to put a higher priority on attention to the orientation instrument. A Kalman filter was developed which estimates the pilot's perceived position and orientation. The input to the Kalman filter consists of two classes of data. The first class of data consists of noise parameters (indicating parameter uncertainty), conflict signals (e.g. vestibular and kinesthetic signal disagreement), and some nonlinear effects. The Kalman filter's perceived estimates are now the sum of both Class 1 data (good information) and Class 2 data (distorted information). When the estimated perceived position or orientation is significantly different from the actual position or orientation, the pilot is alerted.

  17. Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

  18. These New Devices Aim to Enhance School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1988-01-01

    Describes school bus safety products currently on the market, such as motion-sensing alarms, automatic breaking shields, front-mounted crossing gates, and strobe lights. Gives price information and evaluates products' usefulness and necessity. (MLH)

  19. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of an Enhanced System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced on-line diagnostic system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements is developed for the aircraft engine application. The enhanced system is composed of a nonlinear on-board engine model (NOBEM), the hybrid Kalman filter (HKF) algorithm, and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The NOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. The NOBEM is further utilized as part of the HKF algorithm which estimates measured engine parameters. Engine parameters obtained from the dual-channel measurements, the NOBEM, and the HKF are compared against each other. When the discrepancy among the signals exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of discrepancy. Through this approach, the enhanced system achieves the following objectives: 1) anomaly detection, 2) component fault detection, and 3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the enhanced system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components, and it is compared to an existing baseline system.

  20. Enhancing food-safety education through shared teaching resources.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    The American public is concerned about food safety, and there is a growing realization that we are ill equipped to handle major food-borne illness outbreaks and bioterrorism. Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring the safety of our nation's food supply, we would like to present to veterinary and public health educators a newly emerging resource for food-safety educational materials. This article describes an integrative collaborative approach for the creation and dissemination of engaging food-safety teaching resources for veterinary faculty. This USDA-funded project, Design to Dissemination: Developing Materials and Repository for Integrative Veterinary Food Safety Education, involves expert teachers in diverse fields and from many veterinary schools. The purpose of the project is to create materials that teach students food safety from farm to fork, and it offers teachers clinically relevant teaching resources that are difficult to create or locate. The educational materials are being created as smaller "building blocks" of content, commonly referred to as "learning objects" (LOs), focused on individual learning objectives. These learning objects are placed in the Veterinary Food Safety Education Learning Object Repository, where they are catalogued, stored, and kept accessible and where faculty can search, evaluate, and download teaching materials to use in their courses. In this way the learning objects can be more easily shared and reused or repurposed for other courses and applications. With this article we hope to excite faculty in veterinary schools and public-health programs and encourage them to use the repository and participate in piloting the educational materials.

  1. Jet stream winds - Enhanced aircraft data acquisition and analysis over Southwest Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    A project is described for providing the accurate initial and verification analyses for the jet stream in regions where general circulation models are known to have large systematic errors, either due to the extreme sparsity of data or to incorrect physical parameterizations. For this purpose, finely spaced aircraft-based meteorological data for the Southwest Asian regions collected for three 10-day periods in the winter of 1988-1989 will be used, together with corresponding data for the North American regions used as a control, to rerun the assimilation cycles and forecast models of the NMC and the NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. Data for Southeast Asia will be collected by three carriers with extensive wide-body routes crossing the total region, while data for the North American region will be obtained from the archives of ACARS and GTS.

  2. Aircraft Loss-of-Control: Analysis and Requirements for Future Safety-Critical Systems and Their Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex, resulting from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper summarizes recent analysis results in identifying worst-case combinations of loss-of-control accident precursors and their time sequences, a holistic approach to preventing loss-of-control accidents in the future, and key requirements for validating the associated technologies.

  3. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF MODULATING PARACELLULAR PERMEABILITY TO ENHANCE AIRWAY EPITHELIAL GENE TRANSFER IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT

    We evaluated the safety of agents that enhance gene transfer by modulating paracellular permeability. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytokine release were measured in polarized primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cells after luminal application of vehicle, ...

  4. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  5. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  6. Tripod Delta: Proactive approach to enhanced safety. [Safety engineering methods for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, P.T.W. Limburg Univ., Maastricht ); Reason, J.T. ); Wagenaar, W.A. ); Bentley, P.D.; Primrose, M.; Visser, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Tripod Delta (diagnostic evaluation tool for accident prevention) is a checklist-based approach to carrying out safety health checks. This paper describes the theoretical background of the approach, which is based on a model for understanding the role of human error in accidents. The method for constructing databases from which to make checklists and use of the system to generate remedial safety plans are described. Finally, the implementation is discussed and the status is reviewed.

  7. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  8. Condition concern: an innovative response system for enhancing hospitalized patient care and safety.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sylvia K; Turbin, Lynn Bobel

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is rapidly becoming everyone's responsibility. Bedside clinicians, physicians, and ancillary and administrative staff are well aware of their roles in patient safety, but patients and their families are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about potential safety issues related to hospitalization. This article describes how a Midwestern regional health care system enhances safety for its hospitalized patients through a program called "Condition Concern," designed to provide patients and their families/friends with a quick, convenient method for reporting unattended care concerns. The program's structure is described along with postimplementation findings to date. PMID:21233769

  9. WEB-BASED RESOURCES ENHANCE HYDROGEN SAFETY KNOWLEDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Blake, Chad; Aceves, Salvador; Somerday, Brian P.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Program addresses key technical challenges and institutional barriers facing the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies with the goal of decreasing dependence on oil, reducing carbon emissions and enabling reliable power generation. The Safety, Codes & Standards program area seeks to develop and implement the practices and procedures that will ensure safety in the operation, handling and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems for all projects and utilize these practices and lessons learned to promote the safe use of hydrogen. Enabling the development of codes and standards for the safe use of hydrogen in energy applications and facilitating the development and harmonization of international codes and standards are integral to this work.

  10. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  11. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

  12. Enhanced radiographic imaging of defects in aircraft structure materials with the dehazing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaghi, Effat; Movafeghi, Amir; Mohmmadzadeh, Nooreddin

    2015-04-01

    The aircraft structures are made of aluminium alloys because of its various advantages, including ease of manufacture, high tolerance and ease of maintenance. Corrosions and cracks are often found in high-strength aluminium alloys. The industrial radiographic testing method and digital radiography are two most important tools for detecting different kinds of defects in aluminium structures. However, because of greater sensitivity and dynamic range of phosphor plates in computed radiography than in film, digital radiography can produce clear and high-contrast images, but digital radiography images appear foggy. In this study, a dehazing algorithm is implemented for the digital radiography images of airplane parts to remove fog. The used dehazing algorithm is based on the dark channel prior and it is based on the statistics of outdoor haze-free images. In most of the local regions of the radiography images, some pixels very often have very low intensity in at least one colour (RGB: red, green, blue) channel which are called dark pixels. In hazy radiography images, the intensity of these dark pixels in that channel is mainly contributed by scattering. Therefore, these dark pixels can directly provide an accurate estimation of the haze transmission and combining a haze imaging model and a soft matting interpolation method can be recovered a high-quality haze free in the radiography image and produce a good depth map and the defects. The results show that the fog-removed images have better contrast and the shapes of defects are very clear. In addition, some invisible cracks in the digital images can be seen in the defogged image.

  13. NDE: An effective approach to improved reliability and safety. A technology survey. [nondestructive testing of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Technical abstracts are presented for about 100 significant documents relating to nondestructive testing of aircraft structures or related structural testing and the reliability of the more commonly used evaluation methods. Particular attention is directed toward acoustic emission; liquid penetrant; magnetic particle; ultrasonics; eddy current; and radiography. The introduction of the report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art represented in the documents that have been abstracted.

  14. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  16. Interdisciplinary process improvement for enhancing blood transfusion safety.

    PubMed

    LaRocco, Mark; Brient, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    We describe a multipronged, multidisciplinary effort to improve the safety of blood transfusion in our hospital. System-wide practices related to the ordering, delivery, and transfusion of blood products were addressed including: (1) appropriate selection of patients and utilization of blood, (2) accurate blood product labeling and tracking, (3) reliable transportation of blood products between the transfusion service laboratory and the bedside, (4) electronic verification of patients and products at the point of transfusion, and (5) documentation of transfusion events in the patient's medical record. By implementing new technologies and focusing LEAN process improvement techniques on the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical phases of the transfusion cycle, we have been able to significantly reduce the risk of transfusion error in our patient population.

  17. Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

  18. Evaluation of an educational intervention using the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Robert L; McDowell, Joyce; Medeiros, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of federally sponsored state-based food safety education programs have conducted economic evaluations aimed at demonstrating the efficacy of their approaches. These evaluations have typically been based on the "Virginia method," a comprehensive, but overly simplistic means of estimating benefit-cost ratios for food safety and nutrition education programs. In this article, we use the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model, coupled with a more complete food safety education intervention model to evaluate the efficacy of the Ohio Family Nutrition Program. We find that, under most reasonable assumptions, the derived benefit-cost ratios imply that this program is socially beneficial. The model presented here is of particular use because it can be replicated to evaluate other broad-based food safety programs.

  19. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  20. 10 CFR 32.53 - Luminous safety devices for use in aircraft: Requirements for license to manufacture, assemble...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pertinent to evaluation of the potential radiation exposure, including: (1) Chemical and physical form and... experimental studies and tests, required by the Commission to facilitate a determination of the safety of...

  1. Aeroelastic Tailoring for Stability Augmentation and Performance Enhancements of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Piatak, David J.; Corso, Lawrence M.; Popelka, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements for increased speed and productivity for tiltrotors has spawned several investigations associated with proprotor aeroelastic stability augmentation and aerodynamic performance enhancements. Included among these investigations is a focus on passive aeroelastic tailoring concepts which exploit the anisotropic capabilities of fiber composite materials. Researchers at Langley Research Center and Bell Helicopter have devoted considerable effort to assess the potential for using these materials to obtain aeroelastic responses which are beneficial to the important stability and performance considerations of tiltrotors. Both experimental and analytical studies have been completed to examine aeroelastic tailoring concepts for the tiltrotor, applied either to the wing or to the rotor blades. This paper reviews some of the results obtained in these aeroelastic tailoring investigations and discusses the relative merits associated with these approaches.

  2. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  3. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations With Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that airport surface operations can be enhanced by using synthetic vision and associated technologies, employed on a Head-Up Display (HUD) and head-down display electronic moving maps (EMM). Although HUD applications have shown the greatest potential operational improvements, the research noted that two major limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations may be the application of advanced Head Worn Displays (HWDs) particularly during low-visibility operations wherein surface movement is substantially limited because of the impaired vision of pilots and air traffic controllers. The paper describes the results of ground simulation experiments conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD concept provided significantly improved path performance compared to using paper charts alone. When comparing the HWD and HUD concepts, there were no statistically-significant differences in path performance or subjective ratings of situation awareness and workload. Implications and directions for future research are described.

  4. Certification of a Modified Research Public Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, T. J.; Reynolds, R. S.; Mountz, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has several aircraft that have been modified to conduct aeronautical and scientific research. NASA's purpose is to provide research to improve safety of flight and support scientific research for Mission to Planet Earth. Our research and platform aircraft have been modified to fit the needs of the scientific and research programs. Because NASA's aircraft have been modified and operated as public aircraft, certification of airworthiness on many are not current. Some of our aircraft are military aircraft and were never certificated. This paper discusses the process of bringing a modified B200 King Air aircraft certification current to meet Federal Aviation Regulations.

  5. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  6. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  7. Augmented heavy lift assist devices for enhanced safety performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecke, Greg R.; Tan, Kok-Leong; Simpson, Gary

    1998-12-01

    Heavy lift assist devices are an important part of manufacturing facilities that involve large, heavy or bulky material. Many devices are available that provide lift but not motive force augmentation. In these devices, the physical strength of the operator is used to move and position the work piece. Due to large work piece inertial characteristics, inertial contributions from the lift device itself, and misuse of the assist manipulator, injuries may still occur. In this research, an approach is presented that provides reduced-authority actuation to the motive joints of the lift device that allows for augmentation of the human motion forces, provides a means of correcting injurious ergonomic interactions, and allows for high rate energy dissipation for payload trajectory control and emergency situations. The approach is to provide low torque input controlled by operator hand motions. These hand motions move the payload under a centralized trajectory generation scheme that uses modulated braking commands to impose motion constraints, such as object avoidance, resonance attenuation and ergonomic trajectory enhancement. The system is implemented in an virtual reality robot simulator that allows for the investigation of dynamic characteristics prior to the prototype stage.

  8. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 1: Hazards. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 817

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Ignition temperatures of n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane, JP-6 jet fuel, and aircraft engine oil MIL-7-7808 (0-60-18) were determined in air using heated Pyrex cylinders and Nichrome wires, rods, or tubes. Ignition temperature varied little with fuel-air ratio, but increased as the size of the heat source was decreased. Expressions are given which define the variation of the hot surface ignition temperatures of these combustibles with the radius and the surface area of the heat source. The expressions are applicable to stagnant or low velocity flow conditions (less than 0.2 in./sec.). In addition, the hot gas ignition temperatures of the combustible vapor-air mixtures were determined with jets of hot air. These ignition temperatures also varied little with fuel-air ratio and increased as the diameter of the heat sources was decreased.

  9. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  10. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products. PMID:26787929

  11. Creating and Maintaining Safe College Campuses: A Sourcebook for Enhancing and Evaluating Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L., Ed.; Terrell, Melvin Cleveland, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book serves as a sourcebook to enhance and evaluate safety programs, generate new solutions and interventions, comply with new legislation, and present practical steps and guidelines to establish best practices. It pays particular attention to the factors that may give rise to crime, considering high-risk drinking and examining the…

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  13. ACCE Submission to Public Consultation to "Enhancing Online Safety for Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article represents the submission of the "Australian Council for Computers in Education's" (AACE) response to the Australian Government's Department of Communications' initiative for "Enhancing Online Safety for Children." Henderson and de Zwart agree that children and their educators and caregivers are in serious need…

  14. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  15. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  16. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 61 Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety...

  17. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  18. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  19. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  20. Technology-enhanced learning/distance education: market survey of occupational health and safety professionals.

    PubMed

    Carlson, V; Olson, D K

    2001-01-01

    A market survey of occupational health and safety professionals was performed to assess their interest in course work offered through distance education, using technology-enhanced learning methods such as the Internet or CD-ROM. A random sample of 800 active and student members of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, and the American Society of Safety Engineers from the eight-state Midwest region were queried through a mail survey. Respondents expressed a high likeliness (87.4%) to participate in distance education opportunities for the purposes of continuing education and academic degree. The areas of study interest selected most often were occupational health (73%), injury prevention and control (60%), and industrial hygiene (53%). More than three-quarters of respondents (79%) said that an on-campus component was not important to their learning experience. The majority of respondents (68%) indicated that they were reimbursed for the cost of education with significant differences identified by association. Occupational health and safety professionals are interested in distance education using technology-enhanced learning (TEL) methodologies for meeting their educational needs. TEL/distance education, built on a tested educational approach, should be implemented and outcomes shared to increase the body of knowledge regarding these teaching strategies as they pertain to occupational health and safety professionals.

  1. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  2. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  3. Navigating the information technology highway: computer solutions to reduce errors and enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Ranie

    2005-10-01

    Standardized, seamless, integrated information technology in the health-care environment used with other industry tools can markedly decrease preventable errors or adverse events and increase patient safety. According to an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report released in 1999, preventable errors have caused between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths per year. Following the report, President Bill Clinton requested that the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality, a government agency, look into the issue and fund, at the local or state level, processes that can reduce errors. Funding subsequently was made available for research that utilizes best practice tools in clinical practice to increase patient safety. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization has placed a great deal of emphasis on strategies to reduce patient identification errors. Fragmented systems tout the individual as well as enhanced safety applications. These applications, however, are related to prevention in specific conditions and in specific health-care settings. Systems are not integrated with common reference data and common terminology aggregated at a regional or national level to provide access to patient safety risks for timely interventions before errors and adverse events occur. Standardized integrated patient care information systems are not available either on a regional or on a national level. This article examines tangible options to increase patient safety through improved state-of-the-art tools that can be incorporated into the health-care system to prevent errors.

  4. Aircraft fires, smoke toxicity, and survival.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Sanders, D C

    1996-03-01

    In-flight fires in modern aircraft are rare, but post-crash fires do occur. Cabin occupants frequently survive initial forces of such crashes but are incapacitated from smoke inhalation. According to an international study, there were 95 fire-related civil passenger aircraft accidents worldwide over a 26-yr period, claiming approximately 2400 lives. Between 1985 and 1991, about 16% (32 accidents) of all U.S. transport aircraft accidents involved fire and 22% (140 fatalities) of the deaths in these accidents resulted from fire/smoke toxicity. Our laboratory analyses of postmortem blood samples (1967-93) indicate that 360 individuals in 134 fatal fire-related civil aircraft (air carrier and general aviation) accidents had carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels (> or = 20%), with or without blood cyanide, high enough to impair performance. Combustion toxicology is now moving from a descriptive to a mechanistic phase. Methods for gas analyses have been developed and combustion/animal-exposure assemblies have been constructed. Material/fire-retardant toxicity and interactions between smoke gases are being studied. Relationships between gas exposure concentrations, blood levels, and incapacitation onset are being established in animal models. Continuing basic research in smoke toxicity will be necessary to understand its complexities, and thus enhance aviation safety and fire survival chances. PMID:8775410

  5. Some highlights of aircraft passenger behavior research.

    PubMed

    Altman, H B

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is offered of the field of aircraft passenger safety research. Probelms associated with passenger behavior, e.g. panic, and passenger safety education studies and requirements are discussed. In addition, a comparison is drawn between commerical and corporate aircraft passenger safty requirements and current research and development programs. It is concluded there is a need for increased funding and more emphasis to be placed on education in the areas of aircraft passenger safty research.

  6. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  7. Technical Seminar: "Crash Safety"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite s...

  8. An Approach to Estimate the Localized Effects of an Aircraft Crash on a Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C; Sanzo, D; Sharirli, M

    2004-04-19

    Aircraft crashes are an element of external events required to be analyzed and documented in facility Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) and Nuclear Explosive Safety Studies (NESSs). This paper discusses the localized effects of an aircraft crash impact into the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), given that the aircraft hits the facility. This was done to gain insight into the robustness of the DAF and to account for the special features of the DAF that enhance its ability to absorb the effects of an aircraft crash. For the purpose of this paper, localized effects are considered to be only perforation or scabbing of the facility. This paper presents an extension to the aircraft crash risk methodology of Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3014. This extension applies to facilities that may find it necessary or desirable to estimate the localized effects of an aircraft crash hit on a facility of nonuniform construction or one that is shielded in certain directions by surrounding terrain or buildings. This extension is not proposed as a replacement to the aircraft crash risk methodology of DOE Standard 3014 but rather as an alternate method to cover situations that were not considered.

  9. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  10. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  11. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  12. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  13. Earth based approaches to enhancing the health and safety of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koller, A. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of our earth based knowledge of space safety hazards; identification of several key areas of concern for space operations; and proposed approaches to providing technology enhancement and information needed to improve the health and safety to those conducting space operations. Included are a review of the identified hazards for space oeprations by hazard classification; a summarization of the information currently available on space experiences and an assessment of potential hazards for long duration spaceflight; a discussion of potential failure modes and their significance for Space Station work: and an assessment of current work which indicates additional research and experimentation which can only be accomplished in actual space missions.

  14. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  15. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  16. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  17. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  18. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  19. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  20. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  1. Enhancing patient safety in the pediatric emergency department: teams, communication, and lessons from crew resource management.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Christopher M; Liebelt, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    The fast-paced and multifaceted nature of patient care in the emergency department makes our discipline especially prone to errors and adverse events. In recent years, strategies such as formal communication and medical team training have been proposed as potential means to enhance patient safety. In many ways, practice dynamics particular to the emergency department make this setting almost ideal for implementation of these strategies. This article reviews concepts of communication and team training in medicine, including those learned from the aviation industry (known as crew resource management). Recent literature pertaining to teams and communication in medicine is reviewed.

  2. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-08

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  3. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-01

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  4. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  6. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  7. FEASIBILITY AND SAFETY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DISTAL LIMB OF SIX HORSES.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Campbell, Nigel; Nixon, Britton; Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Jennings, Samuel; Redding, W Rich; Lustgarten, Meghann

    2016-05-01

    Vascular alterations play important roles in many orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and synovitis in both human and equine athletes. Understanding these alterations could enhance diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be a valuable method for evaluation of blood flow and perfusion of these processes in the equine distal limb, however no reports were found describing feasibility or safety of the technique. The goal of this prospective, experimental study was to describe the feasibility and safety of distal limb CEUS in a sample of six horses. For each horse, CEUS of the distal limb was performed after intravenous injections of 5 and 10 ml, as well as intra-arterial injections of 0.5 and 1 ml contrast medium. Vital parameters were monitored and CEUS images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of contrast enhancement. None of the horses had clinically significant changes in their vital parameters after contrast medium injection. One horse had a transient increase in respiratory rate, and several horses had mild increases of systolic blood pressure of short duration after intravenous, but not after intra-arterial injections. Intra-arterial injection was possible in all horses and resulted in significantly improved contrast enhancement both quantitatively (P = 0.027) and qualitatively (P = 0.019). Findings from this study indicated that CEUS is a feasible and safe diagnostic test for evaluation of the equine distal limb. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of this test for horses with musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:26765518

  8. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  9. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  10. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  11. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  12. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Nabili, Marjan; Geist, Craig E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu; Zderic, Vesna E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm{sup 2}, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm{sup 2} (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety

  13. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  14. A cell engineering strategy to enhance the safety of stem cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    Oricchio, Elisa; Papapetrou, Eirini P.; Lafaille, Fabien; Ganat, Yosif M.; Kriks, Sonja; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Mark, Willie H.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Huse, Jason T.; Reuter, Victor; Sadelain, Michel; Studer, Lorenz; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2014-01-01

    The long-term risk of malignancy associated with stem cell therapies is a significant concern in the clinical application of this exciting technology. We report a cancer-selective strategy to enhance the safety of stem cell therapies. Briefly, using a cell engineering approach we show that aggressive cancers derived from human or murine iPS and ES cells are strikingly sensitive to temporary MYC blockade. On the other hand, differentiated tissues derived from human or mouse iPS cells can readily tolerate temporary MYC inactivation. In cancer cells, endogenous MYC is required to maintain the metabolic and epigenetic functions of the embryonic and cancer-specific pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) (Vander Heiden et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2012). In summary, our results implicate PKM2 in cancer’s increased MYC dependence and indicate dominant MYC inhibition as a cancer-selective failsafe for stem cell therapies. PMID:25242333

  15. The need to optimize inservice testing and inspection to enhance safety

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Welcome to the Fourth U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (USNRC/ASME) Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in Nuclear Power Plants. This symposium provides a forum to exchange information on technical and regulatory issues associated with the testing of valves and pumps used in nuclear power plants. Progress made since the last symposium will be discussed along with various methods for in service testing of valves and pumps. Active participation by industry representatives, regulators and consultants will entail discussion of a broad array of ideas and points of view regarding how to improve the in service testing of valves and pumps at nuclear power plants. One of the challenges faced is the need to optimize the in service testing and inspection to enhance safety, operability and reliability. The author addresses this challenge from an ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards point of view.

  16. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems.

  17. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.

  18. Male enhancement Nutraceuticals in the Middle East market: Claim, pharmaceutical quality and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    ElAgouri, Ghada; ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElYazbi, Ahmed; Eshra, Ahmed; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2015-08-15

    The global market is invaded by male enhancement nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a major therapeutic claim. Most of these products have been reported by international systems like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We hypothesize that these products could represent a major threat to the health of the consumers. In this paper, pharmaceutical evaluation of some of these nutraceutical products sold in Egypt under the therapeutic claim of treating erectile dysfunction, are discussed along with pharmacological evaluation to investigate their safety and efficacy parameters. Samples were analyzed utterly using conventional methods, i.e.: HPLC, HPTLC, NIR, content uniformity and weight variation and friability. The SeDeM system was used for quality assessment. On the basis of the results of this research, the sampled products are adulterated and totally heterogeneous in their adulterant drug content and pharmaceutical quality. These products represent a major safety threat for the consumers in Egypt and the Middle East, especially; the target audience is mostly affected with heart and blood pressure problems seeking natural and safe alternatives to the well-established Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5Is).

  19. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. PMID:27159254

  20. The immediate problems of aircraft fires.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R

    1986-12-01

    Fires that occur either while aircraft are in flight or as a consequence of a crash remain life-threatening possibilities despite progress in technology and adoption of safety precautions. This article details some of the likely causes of aircraft fires, the resulting dangers in the immediate environment, prospects for survival, and recommends additional measures that may help avoid future accidents.

  1. Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

  2. [Microcystin safety study during Cyanobacteria removal by pressure enhanced coagulation process].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin-Yue; Luan, Qing; Cong, Hai-Bing; Xu, Si-Tao; Liu, Yu-Jiao; Zhu, Xue-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Pressure enhanced coagulation and sedimentation technique is an effective way for blue algae treatment. It is not clear whether Cyanobacteria balloon rupture will cause Cyanobacteria cells rupture, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of microcystin LR leak into the water, affecting drinking water safety. Therefore, in this study experimental comparative study of pressure and pre-oxidation of water containing Cyanobacteria was carried out to examine the microcystin LR concentration changes and Cyanobacteria removal efficiency. The results showed that microcystin concentration increase was not significant by the pre-treatment with Cyanobacteria water pressure, while the pre-oxidation process caused a significant increase in the concentration of microcystin. After 0.5-0.8 MPa pressure coagulation and sedimentation, removal of Cyanobacteria basically was over 90%, up to 93.5%, while the removal rate by pre-oxidation was low and unstable. Effluent turbidity is also significantly better in the pre-pressure method than the pre-oxidation. The results indicated that pressure enhanced coagulation is a safe and reliable method for Cyanobacteria removal.

  3. Neutron-Absorbing Coatings for Safe Storage of Fissile Materials with Enhanced Shielding & Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Farmer, J; Lee, C; Fischer, L; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Egbert, H

    2007-07-03

    Neutron-absorbing Fe-based amorphous-metal coatings have been developed that are more corrosion resistant than other criticality-control materials, including Al-B{sub 4}C composites, borated stainless steels, and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloys. The presence of relatively high concentration of boron in these coatings not only enhances its neutron-absorption capability, but also enables these coatings to exist in the amorphous state. Exceptional corrosion resistance has been achieved with these Fe-based amorphous-metal alloys through additions of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The addition of rare earth elements such as yttrium has lowered the critical cooling rate of these materials, thereby rendering them more easily processed. Containers used for the storage of nuclear materials, and protected from corrosion through the application of amorphous metal coatings, would have greatly enhanced service lives, and would therefore provide greater long-term safety. Amorphous alloy powders have been successfully produced in multi-ton quantities with gas atomization, and applied to several half-scale spent fuel storage containers and criticality control structures with the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. Salt fog testing and neutron radiography of these prototypes indicates that such an approach is viable for the production of large-scale industrial-scale facilities and containers. The use of these durable neutron-absorbing materials to coat stainless steel containers and storage racks, as well as vaults, hot-cell facilities and glove boxes could substantially reduce the risk of criticality in the event of an accident. These materials are particularly attractive for shielding applications since they are fire proof. Additionally, layers of other cold and thermal sprayed materials that include carbon and/or carbides can be used in conjunction with the high-boron amorphous metal coatings for the purpose of moderation. For example, various carbides, including boron

  4. Mountain Pesticide Education and Safety Outreach program: a model for community collaboration to enhance on-farm safety and health.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jim; Sidebottom, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases the outcomes of the Mountain Pesticide Education and Safety Outreach program, a collaborative effort between Christmas tree growers, cooperative extension, farmworkers, farmworker health outreach staff, and others to reduce pesticide exposure and on-farm injuries. Lessons learned during the project that can be adopted by other communities will also be shared.

  5. Evaluation of aircraft microwave data for locating zones for well stimulation and enhanced gas recovery. [Arkansas Arkoma Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W.; Elachi, C.; Babcock, R.; Konig, R.; Gattis, J.; Borengasser, M.; Tolman, D.

    1980-01-01

    Imaging radar was evaluated as an adjunct to conventional petroleum exploration techniques, especially linear mapping. Linear features were mapped from several remote sensor data sources including stereo photography, enhanced LANDSAT imagery, SLAR radar imagery, enhanced SAR radar imagery, and SAR radar/LANDSAT combinations. Linear feature maps were compared with surface joint data, subsurface and geophysical data, and gas production in the Arkansas part of the Arkoma basin. The best LANDSAT enhanced product for linear detection was found to be a winter scene, band 7, uniform distribution stretch. Of the individual SAR data products, the VH (cross polarized) SAR radar mosaic provides for detection of most linears; however, none of the SAR enhancements is significantly better than the others. Radar/LANDSAT merges may provide better linear detection than a single sensor mapping mode, but because of operator variability, the results are inconclusive. Radar/LANDSAT combinations appear promising as an optimum linear mapping technique, if the advantages and disadvantages of each remote sensor are considered.

  6. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  7. Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power density and therefore the reactor power can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options with different cooling pipe locations are discussed. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations are presented. (authors)

  8. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  9. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  10. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  11. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS, C.R.

    2000-02-09

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the institutionalization of worker involvement; (5) encouragement of self-reporting and self

  12. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  13. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You Xu, Jia; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release.

  14. Historical Data Enhances Safety Supervision System Performance in T1DM Insulin Therapy Risk Management★

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Patek, Stephen D.; Breton, Marc D.; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2012-01-01

    Safety measures to prevent or mitigate hypoglycemia are an important component of open loop, closed loop, and advisory mode insulin therapy control settings in type 1 diabetes. In recent work, we introduce a method for the automatic, gradual attenuation of the insulin pump delivery rate when a risk of hypoglycemia is detected, a method that we refer to as brakes. In the methods presented here, we demonstrate the use of historical glucose measurement data to inform and enhance the ability of the brakes to prevent hypoglycemia in real-time. The updated brakes are based on a patient-specific, time-varying model that reflects the typical trajectory of glycemic fluctuations throughout the day. Historical heightened risk of hypoglycemia throughout the day prompts an increase in the aggressiveness of insulin attenuation as compared to the original brakes that are based on real-time data alone. Through the use of available real-time data supplemented with historical glucose information to assess hypoglycemic risk, we are able to better anticipate and prevent hypoglycemia. PMID:22342221

  15. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  16. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  17. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  18. Enhancing patient safety through the management of Clostridium difficile at Toronto East General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tomiczek, Arladeen; Stumpo, C; Downey, James F

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 Toronto East General Hospital experienced a steady increase in the number of C. difficile cases diagnosed within the hospital. This was identified as a patient safety issue, and several areas of the hospital came together to address the problem. Pharmacy immediately started a medication review of past cases. Environmental services took the lead on the environmental cleaning, and a process was put into place with Infection Control so that housekeeping knew of every room that contained a patient with C. difficile and enhanced cleaning could be practised. Staff, including nursing, housekeeping and porters, were educated on C. difficile and the methods of transmission. A business case was developed for a disposable bedpan system, and this was approved by the senior team. A new washable product was tried out with success for the overhead patient light pulls and bathroom call bell systems. Infection rates were shared with staff through a variety of venues. As a result of the initiatives, the hospital has seen a decrease of 50% in the rates of C. difficile. A bonus was that our MRSA rates dropped as well. PMID:17087168

  19. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  20. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  1. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  2. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  3. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  4. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  5. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  6. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  7. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  8. Control of the forebody vortex orientation by asymmetric air injection. Part A: Application to enhance departure/spin recovery of fighter aircraft. Part B: Details of the flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, A. M.; Penke, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    A novel concept which was developed to provide powerful directional control effectiveness for a fighter aircraft at high angles of attack, where more traditional controls have very limited capability is discussed. The concept utilizes the energy concentrated in the strong forebody vortices (which form on slender bodies at high relative incidence) by controlling the lateral orientation of the vortices with respect to the body. The present concept seeks to utilize the inherent sensitivity of the vortex positioning and its bistable nature to an advantage allowing control of the forces which are developed. As it turns out, the direction or sense of the asymmetric vortex pair is much easier to control than to attenuate. The work which was done to develop the concept for application to an aircraft is described and is directed toward the effects of the concept on aircraft forces and moments and on the flight mechanics of the aircraft during maneuvering at high angles of attack. The objective was to utilize the side force associated with asymmetric vortices, in a controlled manner, to enhance the ability of the fighter to recover from a departure from controlled flight. The results from these water tunnel and wind tunnel experiments show that a small amount of tangential blowing along the forebody near the apex can effectively alter the forebody vortex system and generate large restoring yawing moments.

  9. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt; Suh, John H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  10. 78 FR 76391 - Proposed Enhancements to the Motor Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) Public Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...: Background On November 5, 2013 (78 FR 66420), FMCSA published a notice in the Federal Register requesting... System (SMS) Public Web Site AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... Safety Measurement System (SMS) public Web site. On December 6, 2013, Advocates ] for Highway and...

  11. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  12. Pre- and post-exposure safety and efficacy of attenuated rabies virus vaccines are enhanced by their expression of IFNγ

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Darryll A.; Faber, Milosz; Hooper, D. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with evidence of a strong correlation between interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and rabies virus (RABV) clearance from the CNS, we recently demonstrated that engineering a pathogenic RABV to express IFNγ highly attenuates the virus. Reasoning that IFNγ expression by RABV vaccines would enhance their safety and efficacy, we reverse-engineered two proven vaccine vectors, GAS and GASGAS, to express murine IFNγ. Mortality and morbidity were monitored during suckling mice infection, immunize/challenge experiments and mixed intracranial infections. We demonstrate that GASγ and GASγGAS are significantly attenuated in suckling mice compared to the GASGAS vaccine. GASγ better protects mice from lethal DRV4 RABV infection in both pre- and post-exposure experiments compared to GASGAS. Finally, GASγGAS reduces post-infection neurological sequelae, compared to control, during mixed intracranial infection with DRV4. These data show IFNγ expression by a vaccine vector can enhance its safety while increasing its efficacy as pre- and post-exposure treatment. - Highlights: • IFNγ expression improves attenuated rabies virus safety and immunogenicity. • IFNγ expression is safer and more immunogenic than doubling glycoprotein expression. • Co-infection with IFNγ-expressing RABV prevents wild-type rabies virus lethality. • Vaccine safety and efficacy is additive for IFNγ and double glycoprotein expression.

  13. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  14. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  15. NASGRO 3.0: A Software for Analyzing Aging Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettu, S. R.; Shivakumar, V.; Beek, J. M.; Yeh, F.; Williams, L. C.; Forman, R. G.; McMahon, J. J.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis of aging aircraft is a critical necessity in view of the increasing numbers of such aircraft in general aviation, the airlines and the military. Efforts are in progress by NASA, the FAA and the DoD to focus attention on aging aircraft safety. The present paper describes the NASGRO software which is well-suited for effectively analyzing the behavior of defects that may be found in aging aircraft. The newly revised Version 3.0 has many features specifically implemented to suit the needs of the aircraft community. The fatigue crack growth computer program NASA/FLAGRO 2.0 was originally developed to analyze space hardware such as the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station and the associated payloads. Due to popular demand, the software was enhanced to suit the needs of the aircraft industry. Major improvements in Version 3.0 are the incorporation of the ability to read aircraft spectra of unlimited size, generation of common aircraft fatigue load blocks, and the incorporation of crack-growth models which include load-interaction effects such as retardation due to overloads and acceleration due to underloads. Five new crack-growth models, viz., generalized Willenborg, modified generalized Willenborg, constant closure model, Walker-Chang model and the deKoning-Newman strip-yield model, have been implemented. To facilitate easier input of geometry, material properties and load spectra, a Windows-style graphical user interface has been developed. Features to quickly change the input and rerun the problem as well as examine the output are incorporated. NASGRO has been organized into three modules, the crack-growth module being the primary one. The other two modules are the boundary element module and the material properties module. The boundary-element module provides the ability to model and analyze complex two-dimensional problems to obtain stresses and stress-intensity factors. The material properties module allows users to store and

  16. Dynamic enhancement of drug product labels to support drug safety, efficacy, and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-date or incomplete drug product labeling information may increase the risk of otherwise preventable adverse drug events. In recognition of these concerns, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) requires drug product labels to include specific information. Unfortunately, several studies have found that drug product labeling fails to keep current with the scientific literature. We present a novel approach to addressing this issue. The primary goal of this novel approach is to better meet the information needs of persons who consult the drug product label for information on a drug’s efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Using FDA product label regulations as a guide, the approach links drug claims present in drug information sources available on the Semantic Web with specific product label sections. Here we report on pilot work that establishes the baseline performance characteristics of a proof-of-concept system implementing the novel approach. Claims from three drug information sources were linked to the Clinical Studies, Drug Interactions, and Clinical Pharmacology sections of the labels for drug products that contain one of 29 psychotropic drugs. The resulting Linked Data set maps 409 efficacy/effectiveness study results, 784 drug-drug interactions, and 112 metabolic pathway assertions derived from three clinically-oriented drug information sources (ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Drug File – Reference Terminology, and the Drug Interaction Knowledge Base) to the sections of 1,102 product labels. Proof-of-concept web pages were created for all 1,102 drug product labels that demonstrate one possible approach to presenting information that dynamically enhances drug product labeling. We found that approximately one in five efficacy/effectiveness claims were relevant to the Clinical Studies section of a psychotropic drug product, with most relevant claims providing new information. We also identified several cases where all of the drug

  17. Geographical information system for flight safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiromichi; Homma, Kohzo; Gomi, Hiromi; Kitagata, Satoru; Kumasaka, Kazuhiro; Oikawa, Tetsuya

    2003-03-01

    This paper proposes a geographical information system for terrain and obstacle awareness and alerting that extracts information from high-resolution satellite images. On-board terrain elevation databases are being increasingly used in aircraft terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS), offering a step change in capability from the radar altimeter-based ground proximity warning system. However, to enhance the safety of flight of small aircraft and helicopters, in addition to pure topographic information a TAWS database should also contain significant man-made obstacles that present a collision hazard, such tall buildings and chimneys, communications masts and electrical power transmission lines. Another issue is keeping the terrain and obstacle database current, reflecting changes to features over time. High-resolution stereoscopic images remotely sensed from Earth orbit have great potential for addressing these issues. In this paper, some critical items are discussed and effective information processing schemes for extracting information relevant to flight safety from satellite images are proposed.

  18. Enhancement of a radiation safety system through the use of a microprocessor-controlled speech synthesizer

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.

    1980-01-01

    A speech synthesizer is being used to differentiate eight separate safety alarms on a high energy accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. A single board microcomputer monitors eight signals from an existing radiation safety logic circuit. The microcomputer is programmed to output the proper code at the proper time and sequence to a speech synthesizer which supplies the audio input to a local public address system. This eliminates the requirement for eight different alarm tones and the personnel training required to differentiate among them. A twenty-word vocabulary was found adequate to supply the necessary safety announcements. The article describes the techniques used to interface the speech synthesizer into the existing safety logic circuit.

  19. Strategies for enhancing perioperative safety: promoting joy and meaning in the workforce.

    PubMed

    Morath, Julianne; Filipp, Rhonda; Cull, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Workforce safety is a precondition of patient safety, and safety from both physical and psychological harm in the workplace is the foundation for an environment in which joy and meaning can exist. Achieving joy and meaning in the workplace allows health care workers to continuously improve the care they provide. This requires an environment in which disrespectful and harmful behaviors are not tolerated or ignored. Health care leaders have an obligation to create workplace cultures that are characterized by respect, transparency, accountability, learning, and quality care. Evidence suggests, however, that health care settings are rife with disrespectful behavior, poor teamwork, and unsafe working conditions. Solutions for addressing workplace safety problems include defining core values, tasking leaders to act as role models, and committing to becoming a high-reliability organization. PMID:25260671

  20. Strategies for enhancing perioperative safety: promoting joy and meaning in the workforce.

    PubMed

    Morath, Julianne; Filipp, Rhonda; Cull, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Workforce safety is a precondition of patient safety, and safety from both physical and psychological harm in the workplace is the foundation for an environment in which joy and meaning can exist. Achieving joy and meaning in the workplace allows health care workers to continuously improve the care they provide. This requires an environment in which disrespectful and harmful behaviors are not tolerated or ignored. Health care leaders have an obligation to create workplace cultures that are characterized by respect, transparency, accountability, learning, and quality care. Evidence suggests, however, that health care settings are rife with disrespectful behavior, poor teamwork, and unsafe working conditions. Solutions for addressing workplace safety problems include defining core values, tasking leaders to act as role models, and committing to becoming a high-reliability organization.

  1. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  2. Initial development of a metric to describe the level of safety associated with piloting an aircraft with synthetic vision systems (SVS) displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Throughout the course of recent SVS research, significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. The previous piloted simulations and flight tests have shown better SA and path precision is achievable with SVS displays without causing an increase in workload, however none of the previous SVS research attempted to fully capture the significance of SVS displays in terms of their contribution to safety or operational benefits. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. Such a comparison was the focus of the SVS-ES experiment conducted under the Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) GA Element of the SVS Project at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A combination of

  3. Initial Development of a Metric to Describe the Level of Safety Associated with Piloting an Aircraft with Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glabb, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. A combination of subjective and objective data measures were used to quantify the relationship between selected components of safety that are associated with flying an approach. Four information display methods ranging from a "round dials" baseline through a fully integrated SVS package that includes terrain, pathway based guidance, and a strategic navigation display, were investigated in this high fidelity simulation experiment. In addition, a broad spectrum of pilots, representative of the GA population, were employed for testing in an attempt to enable greater application of the results and

  4. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  5. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  6. PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study Report: Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety), DFS-IC-0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David; Schreiner, John

    2002-01-01

    This technology evaluation report documents the findings and recommendations of the Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety) PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP's) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. A team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) performed this Study. This Study was initiated as a follow-on to the NASA chartered Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) review (performed in the Fall of 1999) which identified deficiencies in the current PRACA implementation. The Pilot Study was launched with an initial qualitative assessment and technical review performed during January 2000 with the quantitative formal Study (the subject of this report) started in March 2000. The goal of the PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study is to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP PRACA systems and recommend enhancements to address deficiencies and in preparation for future system upgrades.

  7. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  8. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. Use of a computer-assisted administrative control to enhance criticality safety in LLNL for fissile material disposition operations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Song T.; Lappa, D.A.; Chiao, Tang

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals primarily with the use of a two-person rule on the mass limit control. Main emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of a computer program to assist operators in carrying out mass control. An attempt will be exercised to compare the use of a mass control card system under a two-person rule with a computer-assist two-person system. The interface points relevant to criticality safety between computer and human operators will be identified. Features that will make a computer program useful in a multiple workstation application environment will be discussed along with the merits of the using the computer program. How such a computer-assist administrative control may be incorporated in the overall infrastructure for criticality safety will be analyzed. Suggestion of future development of using a computer program to enhance safety margin will also be made to stimulate further discussion on the application of computer technology for real-time criticality safety control.

  11. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of certain aspects of the evaluation of the fireworthiness of transport aircraft interiors. First, it addresses the key materials question concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled fire. Second, it examines some technical opportunities that are available today through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably by expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Cost and risk benefits still remain to be determined.

  12. Strengthening the evidence-policy interface for patient safety: enhancing global health through hospital partnerships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the evidence-policy interface is a well-recognized health system challenge in both the developed and developing world. Brokerage inherent in hospital-to-hospital partnerships can boost relationships between “evidence” and “policy” communities and move developing countries towards evidence based patient safety policy. In particular, we use the experience of a global hospital partnership programme focused on patient safety in the African Region to explore how hospital partnerships can be instrumental in advancing responsive decision-making, and the translation of patient safety evidence into health policy and planning. A co-developed approach to evidence-policy strengthening with seven components is described, with reflections from early implementation. This rapidly expanding field of enquiry is ripe for shared learning across continents, in keeping with the principles and spirit of health systems development in a globalized world. PMID:24131652

  13. Management improvement could enhance enforcement of Coast Guard marine safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-15

    In managing its marine safety programs, the Coast Guard periodically inspects and boards vessels entering the United States to determine compliance with safety regulations. The Coast Guard uses data on vessels' enforcement history to assist it in determining those warranting inspection and boarding. The Coast Guard also relies on data from its field units to assist it in making personnel resource determinations. GAO found that the Coast Guard used inaccurate and incomplete information in its oversight of enforcement activities at the field level. Accordingly, GAO is recommending that the Coast Guard improve its collection, analysis, and use of information on marine industry activities to execute its marine safety responsibilities more effectively. The Department of Transportation said that the Coast Guard is aware of the GAO identified weaknesses and has taken steps to improve many of the issues brought out in this report.

  14. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  15. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  16. Passive detection of subpixel obstacles for flight safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Matthew D.; Loveland, Rohan C.

    2001-12-01

    Military aircraft fly below 100 ft. above ground level in support of their missions. These aircraft include fixed and rotary wing and may be manned or unmanned. Flying at these low altitudes presents a safety hazard to the aircrew and aircraft, due to the occurrences of obstacles within the aircraft's flight path. The pilot must rely on eyesight and in some cases, infrared sensors to see obstacles. Many conditions can exacerbate visibility creating a situation in which obstacles are essentially invisible, creating a safety hazard, even to an alerted aircrew. Numerous catastrophic accidents have occurred in which aircraft have collided with undetected obstacles. Accidents of this type continue to be a problem for low flying military and commercial aircraft. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have the same problem, whether operating autonomously or under control of a ground operator. Boeing-SVS has designed a passive, small, low- cost (under $100k) gimbaled, infrared imaging based system with advanced obstacle detection algorithms. Obstacles are detected in the infrared band, and linear features are analyzed by innovative cellular automata based software. These algorithms perform detection and location of sub-pixel linear features. The detection of the obstacles is performed on a frame by frame basis, in real time. Processed images are presented to the aircrew on their display as color enhanced features. The system has been designed such that the detected obstacles are displayed to the aircrew in sufficient time to react and maneuver the aircraft to safety. A patent for this system is on file with the US patent office, and all material herein should be treated accordingly.

  17. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  18. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  19. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  20. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  1. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  2. Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

  3. Enhancing the Safety of Children in Foster Care and Family Support Programs: Automated Critical Incident Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Eliot; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has made child safety an explicit focus in child welfare. The authors describe an automated critical incident reporting program designed for use in foster care and family-support programs. The program, which is based in Lotus Notes and uses e-mail to route incident reports from direct service staff to…

  4. The use of silver nanorod array based surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the advancement of preventive strategies, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods with nanotechnology for food safety applications. This article reports the recent development on the use of aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition, as surf...

  5. Enhancing Nursing Staffing Forecasting With Safety Stock Over Lead Time Modeling.

    PubMed

    McNair, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    In balancing competing priorities, it is essential that nursing staffing provide enough nurses to safely and effectively care for the patients. Mathematical models to predict optimal "safety stocks" have been routine in supply chain management for many years but have up to now not been applied in nursing workforce management. There are various aspects that exhibit similarities between the 2 disciplines, such as an evolving demand forecast according to acuity and the fact that provisioning "stock" to meet demand in a future period has nonzero variable lead time. Under assumptions about the forecasts (eg, the demand process is well fit as an autoregressive process) and about the labor supply process (≥1 shifts' lead time), we show that safety stock over lead time for such systems is effectively equivalent to the corresponding well-studied problem for systems with stationary demand bounds and base stock policies. Hence, we can apply existing models from supply chain analytics to find the optimal safety levels of nurse staffing. We use a case study with real data to demonstrate that there are significant benefits from the inclusion of the forecast process when determining the optimal safety stocks. PMID:26340239

  6. Enhancing Nursing Staffing Forecasting With Safety Stock Over Lead Time Modeling.

    PubMed

    McNair, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    In balancing competing priorities, it is essential that nursing staffing provide enough nurses to safely and effectively care for the patients. Mathematical models to predict optimal "safety stocks" have been routine in supply chain management for many years but have up to now not been applied in nursing workforce management. There are various aspects that exhibit similarities between the 2 disciplines, such as an evolving demand forecast according to acuity and the fact that provisioning "stock" to meet demand in a future period has nonzero variable lead time. Under assumptions about the forecasts (eg, the demand process is well fit as an autoregressive process) and about the labor supply process (≥1 shifts' lead time), we show that safety stock over lead time for such systems is effectively equivalent to the corresponding well-studied problem for systems with stationary demand bounds and base stock policies. Hence, we can apply existing models from supply chain analytics to find the optimal safety levels of nurse staffing. We use a case study with real data to demonstrate that there are significant benefits from the inclusion of the forecast process when determining the optimal safety stocks.

  7. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  8. Putting Research to Work for Monitoring Volcanic Hazards and Enhancing Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, J. T.; Lopez, T. M.; West, M. E.; Larsen, J. F.; Fee, D.; Izbekov, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose serious hazards to aircraft in flight and to people and facilities on the ground. Fortunately, some aspects of volcanic activity are predictable, or at least predictable enough that warning signs of impending activity can be used to warn the public about elevated levels of hazard. The study of and monitoring of active volcanoes is inherently multi-disciplinary, a microcosm of earth sciences. Many different types of data must be brought together to study active volcanic systems. A volcano observatory brings together experts in various disciplines to work on a common mission of providing accurate and timely warnings of potential future activity, notifications of ongoing activity, and assessments of hazards and impacts that may result if an eruption escalates. This requires using an array of data including seismic, geodetic, remote sensing, gas monitoring, thermal imaging, and visual observations. Effective communication of scientific information to the public is of critical importance. The Alaska Volcano Observatory pioneered the use of a simple green-yellow-orange-red color code to communicate the level of concern about activity at individual volcanoes, and this color code has been refined and adopted by all US volcano observatories. The use of an easily understood color code and other standard notifications makes for more effective communication with other agencies, emergency managers, and the public.

  9. Aircraft automation: the problem of the pilot interface.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, H P; Hinton, D A

    1985-02-01

    Aircraft operations, particularly in the IFR environment, are rapidly becoming very complex. Studies have shown that this complexity can frequently lead to accidents and incidents. Results of studies performed at NASA and elsewhere are presented to show that one of the major themes evident in both the accidents and incidents and in the research performed to solve the problems associated with them is that of human error. Examples of various incidents and blunders, recorded in several studies, illustrate and emphasize the hypothesis: "As systems become more and more automated and complex, the more they become prone to human error. The problem can be eliminated or reduced only if good human factor principles are incorporated in the implementation of the systems, to guarantee a good man/machine interface". Aircraft systems technology, however, (e.g.: electronics, avionics, automation) is evolving and developing at a very high rate. Examples of research are presented showing where this emerging technology has been employed to reduce the complexity and enhance the safety and utility of the aircraft operations.

  10. Pareto optimisation of railway bogie suspension damping to enhance safety and comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Albin; Berbyuk, Viktor; Enelund, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of damping characteristics in bogie suspensions using a multi-objective optimisation methodology. The damping is investigated and optimised in terms of the resulting performances of a railway vehicle with respect to safety, comfort and wear considerations. A complete multi-body system model describing the railway vehicle dynamics is implemented in commercial software Gensys and used in the optimisation. In complementary optimisation analyses, a reduced and linearised model describing the bogie system dynamics is also utilised. Pareto fronts with respect to safety, comfort and wear objectives are obtained, showing the trade-off behaviour between the objectives. Such trade-off curves are of importance, especially in the design of damping functional components. The results demonstrate that the developed methodology can successfully be used for multi-objective investigations of a railway vehicle within models of different levels of complexity. By introducing optimised passive damping elements in the bogie suspensions, both safety and comfort are improved. In particular, it is noted that the use of optimised passive damping elements can allow for higher train speeds. Finally, adaptive strategies for switching damping parameters with respect to different ride conditions are outlined and discussed.

  11. Energy absorption studied to reduce aircraft crash forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/FAA aircraft safety reseach programs for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Energy absorption of aircraft subflooring and redesign of interior flooring are being studied. The testing of energy absorbing configurations is described. The three NASA advanced concepts performed at neary the maximum possible amount of energy absorption, and one of two minimum modifications concepts performed well. Planned full scale tests are described. Airplane seat concepts are being considered.

  12. Human-centered aircraft automation: A concept and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.

  13. Requirements analysis for an air traffic control tower surface surveillance enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Deaver, Dawne M.; Henry, Daniel J.

    2003-09-01

    Tower controllers are responsible for maintaining separation between aircraft and expediting the flow of traffic in the air. On the airport surface, they also are responsible for maintaining safe separation between aircraft, ground equipment, and personnel. They do this by sequencing departing and arriving aircraft, and controlling the location and movement of aircraft, vehicles, equipment, and personnel on the airport surface. The local controller and ground controller are responsible for determining aircraft location and intent, and for ensuring that aircraft, vehicles, and other surface objects maintain a safe separation distance. During nighttime or poor visibility conditions, controllers' situation awareness is significantly degraded, resulting in lower safety margins and increased errors. Safety and throughput can be increased by using an Enhanced Vision System, based upon state-of-the-art infrared sensor technology, to restore critical visual cues. We discuss the results of an analysis of tower controller critical visual tasks and information requirements. The analysis identified: representative classes of ground obstacles/targets (e.g., aircraft, vehicles, wildlife); sample airport layouts and tower-to-runway distances; and obstacle subtended visual angles. We performed NVTherm modeling of candidate sensors and field data collections. This resulted in the identification of design factors for an airport surface surveillance Enhanced Vision System.

  14. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    PubMed

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities.

  15. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  16. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  17. A passive control methodology for seismic safety enhancement of monumental structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalou, Angeliki; Roubien, Denis; Triantafillou, Thanasis; Strepelias, Elias

    2015-04-01

    A passive control methodology to increase the seismic safety of multi-drum columns is presented. The response of a large scale column-model to dynamic excitations is investigated experimentally. A particle damper is used to replace one of the columns' original drums. The influence of the system parameters on the response of the column is also examined. The seismic response of the column can be considerably reduced if a particle damper replaces a drum above the mid-height. Guidelines and a design methodology are proposed to restore and protect monumental structures consisting of multi-drum columns.

  18. Control of the forebody vortex orientation by asymmetric air injection. Part A: Application to enhance departure/spin recovery of fighter aircraft and Part B: Details of the flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, A. M.; Peake, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A concept developed to provide powerful directional control effectiveness for a fighter aircraft at high angles of attack is described. The concept utilizes the energy concentrated in the strong forebody vortices (which form on slender bodies of high relative incidence) by controlling the lateral orientation of the vortices with respect to the body. The objective was to utilize the side force associated with asymmetric vortices, in a controlled manner, to enhance the ability of the fighter to recover from a departure from controlled flight. The results from water tunnel and wind tunnel experiments show that a small amount of tangential blowing along the forebody near the apex can effectively alter the forebody vortex system and generate large restoring yawing moments. Six degree of freedom digital simulation results show that this concept can substantially enhance recovery characteristics of fighter aircraft with long, slender forebodies. Also, the results of experiments which were conducted on a cone model are discussed where the principal test objective was to develop an understanding of the fluid mechanics involved in the process of vortex control. Knowledge gained in these more generic tests should allow the concept to be applied to a wider range of configurations.

  19. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  20. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm−1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350°C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance. PMID:25168687

  1. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik; Seong, Baik Lin

    2016-04-01

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response.

  2. Role of medical students in preventing patient harm and enhancing patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, S C; Galvan, C; Lamm, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Substantial efforts are focused on the high prevalence of patient harm due to medical errors and the mechanisms to prevent them. The potential role of the medical student as a valuable member of the team in preventing patient harm has, however, often been overlooked. Methods Four cases are presented from two US academic health centers in which medical students prevented or were in a position to prevent patient harm from occurring. The authors directly participated in each case. Results The types of harm prevented included averting non‐sterile conditions, missing medications, mitigating exposure to highly contagious patients, and respecting patients' “do not resuscitate” requests. Conclusion Medical students are often overlooked as valuable participants in ensuring patient safety. These cases show that medical students may be an untapped resource for medical error prevention. Medical students should be trained to recognize errors and to speak up when errors occur. Those supervising students should welcome and encourage students to actively communicate observed errors and near misses and should work to eliminate all intimidation by medical hierarchy that can prevent students from being safety advocates. PMID:16885252

  3. Novel biopreservatives to enhance the safety and quality of strawberry juice.

    PubMed

    Tomadoni, B; Viacava, G; Cassani, L; Moreira, M R; Ponce, A

    2016-01-01

    Pomegranate extract, vanillin and geraniol were studied as natural antimicrobials on strawberry juice. Strawberry juice was treated with each agent at two concentrations: pomegranate extract at 180 and 360 μg/mL; vanillin at 2.5 and 5 mg/mL; and geraniol at 0.6 and 1.2 μL/mL. After being treated, juices were stored at 5 °C and microbiological, physicochemical and sensory studies were carried out. Also, a second batch of juice was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (10(5) CFU/mL) before being treated, to safety study. Geraniol and vanillin, at both concentrations tested, were highly effective in reducing the native microflora on strawberry juice (more than 3 log cycles), extending the microbiological shelf-life of the product. Moreover, both antimicrobials improved the product safety by reducing inoculated E. coli O157:H7. Furthermore, vanillin showed a significant increase in polyphenol content compared to untreated juice. On the other hand, pomegranate extract applied at the highest concentration showed important reductions on mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, but no effect on yeast and molds and inoculated E. coli. Even though vanillin and geraniol incorporation on strawberry juice had a negative effect on its sensory quality, pomegranate extract had no impact on the sensory attributes evaluated. Combinations of the biopreservatives could be studied in order to decrease the concentration of the antimicrobials, reducing the effects on strawberry juice sensory characteristics. PMID:26787948

  4. Safety enhancement of a specialized power assisted tricycle for a child with osteogenesis imperfecta type III.

    PubMed

    Geu, Matthew J; Tuffner, Francis F; Madsen, Robert O; Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F

    2005-01-01

    A child in the community of Laramie, Wyoming was born with Osteogenesis Imperfecta which is a genetic disorder that limits the physical abilities, size, and strength of the child. A customized power assisted tricycle was developed, which offered a unique opportunity to serve multiple purposes in his childhood development. This tricycle will ultimately provide him with the opportunity to gain muscle mass, strength, coordination, and confidence. The tricycle was completed as a senior design project in 2002, funded by the National Science Foundation, Biomedical Engineering Program and research to Aid Persons with Disabilities Program and University of Wyoming, College of Engineering Undergraduate Design Project to Aid Wyoming Persons with Disabilities. Unfortunately, the tricycle did not provide the necessary features to allow him to ride the tricycle safely. For this reason the tricycle was redesigned to include many different redundant safety systems which allows the tricycle to be safe for the child's use. Being funded by the same grant, new systems were added to the tricycle. A panic kill switch, automatic brakes, numerous redundant velocity sensors, tip over prevention circuitry, a redesigned operating system, a battery recharge port, and other systems were added, allowing for the tricycle to provide a high level of safety. A great deal of testing and sound design practices have been taken into consideration throughout the addition of these systems. Without these improvements, the child would not have the opportunity to use the tricycle to help with his development. PMID:15850131

  5. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  6. The Tapioca Bomb: A Demonstration to Enhance Learning about Combustion and Chemical Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeratichamroen, Wasana; Dechsri, Precharn; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-01-01

    In any demonstration to students, producing light and sound usually ensures interest and can enhance understanding and retention of the concepts involved. A guided inquiry (Predict, Observe, Explain: POE) approach was used to involve the students actively in their learning about the explosive combustion of fine flour particles in air in the…

  7. Steering Aircraft Clear of Choppy Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    AeroTech Research (U.S.A.), Inc., a leader in turbulence-detection and warning systems, has been involved with NASA Aviation Safety research since 1998. AeroTech served as a contractor for the TPAWS government/industry development project, and was funded by NASA to develop the E-Turb Mode Radar algorithms and the TAPS software. (Other contributors to this project include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the FAA, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute.) The radar algorithms combine an aircraft's turbulenceresponse characteristics with radar measurements to determine the predicted turbulence loads the aircraft will experience, and present this information to the pilot. The TAPS software monitors and processes onboard aircraft sensor data; generates automatic reports when an aircraft encounters turbulence and a set turbulence threshold is exceeded; and then displays the reports and underlying information to ground personnel to improve situational awareness of the location and the severity of the turbulence encounter.

  8. Very Light Aircraft: Revitalization through Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    As the future of the general aviation industry seems to be improving, a cultural paradigm shift may be imminent with the implementation of an advanced, revolutionary transportation system within the United States. By observing the support of government and industry for this idea, near and long term effects must be addressed if this change is going to occur. The high certification costs associated with general aviation aircraft must be reduced without compromising safety if a new transportation system is to be developed in the future. With the advent of new, streamlined rules recently issued for the certification of small aircraft, it seems as though new opportunities are now available to the general aviation industry. Not only will immediate benefits be realized with increased sales of certified small aircraft, but there would now be a way of introducing the advanced concepts of future aircraft at varying degrees of technology and cost as options to the customer.

  9. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  10. Maneuvering technology for advanced fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, Scott H.; Byers, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    The need for increased maneuverability has its genesis from the first aerial combat engagement when two adversaries entangled themselves in a deadly aerial dance trying to gain the advantage over the other. It has only been in the past two decades that technologies have been investigated to increase aircraft control at maneuver attitudes that are typically dominated by highly separated flows. These separated flow regions are aggravated by advanced fighter aircraft shapes required to defeat an electronic enemy. This paper discusses passive and active devices that can be used to enhance the maneuverability of advanced fighter aircraft through vortex flow control, boundary layer control, and innovative flow manipulation.

  11. Extracellular control of intracellular drug release for enhanced safety of anti-cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Qi, Haixia; Long, Ziyan; Liu, Shang; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Chunming; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of controlling drug release at an intracellular level remains a key challenge for maximising drug safety and efficacy. We demonstrate herein a new, efficient and convenient approach to extracellularly control the intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX), by designing a delivery system that harnesses the interactions between the system and a particular set of cellular machinery. By simply adding a small-molecule chemical into the cell medium, we could lower the release rate of DOX in the cytosol, and thereby increase its accumulation in the nuclei while decreasing its presence at mitochondria. Delivery of DOX with this system effectively prevented DOX-induced mitochondria damage that is the main mechanism of its toxicity, while exerting the maximum efficacy of this anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The present study sheds light on the design of drug delivery systems for extracellular control of intracellular drug delivery, with immediate therapeutic implications. PMID:27334142

  12. Use of artificial intelligence to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, the sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which the available raw data can be converted into and assimilated as meaningful knowledge. Plant personnel are sometimes affected by stress and emotion, which may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems can take some of the uncertainty and guesswork out of their decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. Application of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, to control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and improve power plant safety and reliability. 12 refs.

  13. Extracellular control of intracellular drug release for enhanced safety of anti-cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qian; Qi, Haixia; Long, Ziyan; Liu, Shang; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Chunming; Dong, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The difficulty of controlling drug release at an intracellular level remains a key challenge for maximising drug safety and efficacy. We demonstrate herein a new, efficient and convenient approach to extracellularly control the intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX), by designing a delivery system that harnesses the interactions between the system and a particular set of cellular machinery. By simply adding a small-molecule chemical into the cell medium, we could lower the release rate of DOX in the cytosol, and thereby increase its accumulation in the nuclei while decreasing its presence at mitochondria. Delivery of DOX with this system effectively prevented DOX-induced mitochondria damage that is the main mechanism of its toxicity, while exerting the maximum efficacy of this anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The present study sheds light on the design of drug delivery systems for extracellular control of intracellular drug delivery, with immediate therapeutic implications.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Twitter as a tool to enhance student engagement during an interprofessional patient safety course.

    PubMed

    Mckay, Mary; Sanko, Jill Steiner; Shekhter, Ilya; Birnbach, David J

    2014-11-01

    Twitter and other social media forums are gaining popularity in both the academic and conference arenas as tools to increase participant engagement, attention and interaction. While Twitter has been used successfully to engage college students, it has not been explored for use in an interprofessional curriculum. We sought to explore it as a method to foster student engagement. During a weeklong interprofessional patient safety course we invited students and faculty to participate in a Twitter conversation. It was found that this form of social media successfully captured a "behind the scenes" conversation and the experiences of the students which would have not been otherwise captured. This information is guiding future interprofessional educational programming in both the medical and nursing schools.

  16. [Further enhance the long-term myopia control efficacy and safety of orthokeratology].

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying

    2014-01-01

    Strategies and methods of myopia prevention and control has been more and more. In recent years optical correction method is focusing on promoting the retinal mid-peripheral myopic defocus, improving the visual quality and promoting the accommodative function. Among the all, orthokeratology is the most notable optometry technology. This article will combine research progress both local and international achievements, the present situation of the domestic popularized the technique, and the existing problems. From the realistic approach, keep improving, the pursuit of stability, the pursuit of harmony and eliminate the false five aspects, to discuss how to promote orthokeratology for the myopia control with long-term stably efficacy and safety. How to promote the harmony and cooperation between doctors, patients and manufactures. And how to correctly guide the orthokeratology Having both specification and continued development. PMID:24709125

  17. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  18. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. PMID:25958794

  19. Airworthiness criteria development for powered-lift aircraft: A program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Stapleford, R. L.; Rumold, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A four-year simulation program to develop airworthiness criteria for powered-lift aircraft is summarized. All flight phases affected by use of powered lift (approach, landing, takeoff) are treated with regard to airworthiness problem areas (limiting flight conditions and safety margins: stability, control, and performance; and systems failure). The general features of powered-lift aircraft are compared to conventional aircraft.

  20. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  1. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  2. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  3. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Elliott, Kathryn A.; Huebner, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, new technology engines were defined in two power classes: a 200 hp class, for a light, 4-place personal aircraft, and a 1500 pound thrust class for a twin-engined, 6 place business jet type aircraft. The engines were evaluated for retrofitting suitable current production aircraft for comparison to the existing engines. The engines were evaluated for performance using a typical mission for each aircraft, as well as a variant mission to further appraise performance.Issues of cost, safety, maintenance, and reliability were also addressed. Manufacturing plans were then constructed.

  4. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Numpraphrut, Pornpayom; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Neungton, Neelobol; Tunrungruangtavee, Vachara; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Charoensak, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood. PMID:27703599

  5. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  6. Hydrogel-forming Microneedle Arrays Exhibit Antimicrobial Properties: Potential for Enhanced Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Alkilani, Ahlam Zaid; McCrudden, Maelíosa T.C.; O’Mahony, Conor; Armstrong, Keith; McLoone, Nabla; Kole, Prashant; Woolfson, A. David

    2014-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, the microbial characterisation of hydrogel-forming polymeric microneedle arrays and the potential for passage of microorganisms into skin following microneedle penetration. Uniquely, we also present insights into the storage stability of these hydroscopic formulations, from physical and microbiological viewpoints, and examine clinical performance and safety in human volunteers. Experiments employing excised porcine skin and radiolabelled microorganisms showed that microorganisms can penetrate skin beyond the stratum corneum following microneedle puncture. Indeed, the numbers of microorganisms crossing the stratum corneum following microneedle puncture was greater than 105 cfu in each case. However, no microorganisms crossed the epidermal skin. When using a 21G hypodermic needle, more than 104 microorganisms penetrated into the viable tissue and 106 cfu of C. albicans and S. epidermidis completely crossed the epidermal skin in 24 h. The hydrogel-forming materials contained no microorganisms following de-moulding and exhibited no microbial growth during storage, while also maintaining their mechanical strength, apart from when stored at relative humidities of 86%. No microbial penetration through the swelling microneedles was detectable, while human volunteer studies confirmed that skin or systemic infection is highly unlikely when polymeric microneedles are used for transdermal drug delivery. Since no pharmacopoeial standards currently exist for microneedle-based products, the exact requirements for a proprietary product based on hydrogel-forming microneedles are at present unclear. However, we are currently working towards a comprehensive specification set for this microneedle system that may inform future developments in this regard. PMID:23644043

  7. Advanced driver assistance systems: Using multimodal redundant warnings to enhance road safety.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Francesco; Strayer, David L; Rossi, Riccardo; Gastaldi, Massimiliano; Mulatti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether multimodal redundant warnings presented by advanced assistance systems reduce brake response times. Warnings presented by assistance systems are designed to assist drivers by informing them that evasive driving maneuvers are needed in order to avoid a potential accident. If these warnings are poorly designed, they may distract drivers, slow their responses, and reduce road safety. In two experiments, participants drove a simulated vehicle equipped with a forward collision avoidance system. Auditory, vibrotactile, and multimodal warnings were presented when the time to collision was shorter than five seconds. The effects of these warnings were investigated with participants performing a concurrent cell phone conversation (Exp. 1) or driving in high-density traffic (Exp. 2). Braking times and subjective workload were measured. Multimodal redundant warnings elicited faster braking reaction times. These warnings were found to be effective even when talking on a cell phone (Exp. 1) or driving in dense traffic (Exp. 2). Multimodal warnings produced higher ratings of urgency, but ratings of frustration did not increase compared to other warnings. Findings obtained in these two experiments are important given that faster braking responses may reduce the potential for a collision.

  8. Listserv use enhances quality and safety in multisite quality improvement efforts.

    PubMed

    Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Surott-Kimberly, B C; Weeks, William Brinson

    2004-01-01

    A listserv is an e-mail group to which people subscribe based upon common interests. We used a retrospective study to examine the relationship between listserv use and team success for health care quality improvement efforts. We hypothesized high listserv use would be associated with team success. Eighty-seven Department of Veterans Affairs teams participated in facilitated quality improvement efforts to address three areas: improving safety in high-hazard areas, improving the disability evaluation process, and reducing falls and related injuries. We coded messages sent to the listserv according to sender (faculty or participant), team, and content. We correlated the volume of messages sent per team with team success and with team and facility characteristics. Teams with high listserv contributions were more likely to complete their first test of change, report facility use of nonpunitive methods of investigating medical incidents, and report their information systems were useful. We found a negative correlation between listserv contribution and the number of face-to-face meetings and a physician as an active team member, but we found no relationship between team success and listserv contribution. Team listserv contribution was not associated with team success in multisite quality improvement efforts. Successful teams may be accessing information on the listserv but not sending a message to indicate use.

  9. Using swarm intelligence to boost the root cause analysis process and enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to strengthen patient safety, leadership at the University of Kentucky HealthCare (UKHC) decided to replace its traditional approach to root cause analysis (RCA) with a process based on swarm intelligence, a concept borrowed from other industries. Under this process, when a problem or error is identified, staff quickly hold a swarm--a meeting in which all those involved in the incident or problem quickly evaluate why the issue occurred and identify potential solutions for implementation. A pillar of the swarm concept is a mandate that there be no punishments or finger-pointing during the swarms. The idea is to encourage staff to be forthcoming to achieve effective solutions. Typically, swarms last for one hour and result in action plans designed to correct problems or deficiencies within a specific period of time. The ED was one of the first areas where UKHC applied swarms. For example, hospital administrators note that the approach has been used to address issues involving patient flow, triage protocols, assessments, overcrowding, and boarding. After seven years, incident reporting at UKHC has increased by 52%, and the health system has experienced a 37% decrease in the observed-to-expected mortality ratio. PMID:26979047

  10. Safety of Intra-Articular Use of Atelocollagen for Enhanced Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Magarian, Elise M; Vavken, Patrick; Connolly, Susan A; Mastrangelo, Ashley N; Murray, Martha M

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is an important biomaterial in intra-articular tissue engineering, but there are unanswered questions about its safety. We hypothesize that the addition of type-I-collagen for primary repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) might result in a local and systemic reaction in a porcine model after 15 weeks as demonstrated by joint effusion, synovial thickening, elevated intraarticular and systemic leukocyte counts. Further, this reaction might be aggravated by the addition of a platelet concentrate. Eighteen porcine ACLs were transected and repaired with either sutures (n=6), a collagen sponge (n=6), or a collagen-platelet-composite (CPC; n=6). Twelve intact contralateral knees served as controls (n=12). No significant synovial thickening or joint effusion was seen in the collagen-treated knees. Synovial fluid leukocyte counts showed no significant differences between surgically treated and intact knees, and no differences were seen in leukocyte counts of the peripheral blood. The addition of a platelet concentrate to the knee joint resulted in lower serum levels of IL-1β, but serum levels of TNF-α were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the presence of collagen, with or without added platelets, did not increase the local or systemic inflammatory reactions following surgery, suggesting that Type I collagen is safe to use in the knee joint. PMID:22802918

  11. Using swarm intelligence to boost the root cause analysis process and enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to strengthen patient safety, leadership at the University of Kentucky HealthCare (UKHC) decided to replace its traditional approach to root cause analysis (RCA) with a process based on swarm intelligence, a concept borrowed from other industries. Under this process, when a problem or error is identified, staff quickly hold a swarm--a meeting in which all those involved in the incident or problem quickly evaluate why the issue occurred and identify potential solutions for implementation. A pillar of the swarm concept is a mandate that there be no punishments or finger-pointing during the swarms. The idea is to encourage staff to be forthcoming to achieve effective solutions. Typically, swarms last for one hour and result in action plans designed to correct problems or deficiencies within a specific period of time. The ED was one of the first areas where UKHC applied swarms. For example, hospital administrators note that the approach has been used to address issues involving patient flow, triage protocols, assessments, overcrowding, and boarding. After seven years, incident reporting at UKHC has increased by 52%, and the health system has experienced a 37% decrease in the observed-to-expected mortality ratio.

  12. Advanced driver assistance systems: Using multimodal redundant warnings to enhance road safety.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Francesco; Strayer, David L; Rossi, Riccardo; Gastaldi, Massimiliano; Mulatti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether multimodal redundant warnings presented by advanced assistance systems reduce brake response times. Warnings presented by assistance systems are designed to assist drivers by informing them that evasive driving maneuvers are needed in order to avoid a potential accident. If these warnings are poorly designed, they may distract drivers, slow their responses, and reduce road safety. In two experiments, participants drove a simulated vehicle equipped with a forward collision avoidance system. Auditory, vibrotactile, and multimodal warnings were presented when the time to collision was shorter than five seconds. The effects of these warnings were investigated with participants performing a concurrent cell phone conversation (Exp. 1) or driving in high-density traffic (Exp. 2). Braking times and subjective workload were measured. Multimodal redundant warnings elicited faster braking reaction times. These warnings were found to be effective even when talking on a cell phone (Exp. 1) or driving in dense traffic (Exp. 2). Multimodal warnings produced higher ratings of urgency, but ratings of frustration did not increase compared to other warnings. Findings obtained in these two experiments are important given that faster braking responses may reduce the potential for a collision. PMID:27633218

  13. Safety Assurance in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HarrisonFleming, Cody; Spencer, Melissa; Leveson, Nancy; Wilkinson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The generation of minimum operational, safety, performance, and interoperability requirements is an important aspect of safely integrating new NextGen components into the Communication Navigation Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system. These requirements are used as part of the implementation and approval processes. In addition, they provide guidance to determine the levels of design assurance and performance that are needed for each element of the new NextGen procedures, including aircraft, operator, and Air Navigation and Service Provider. Using the enhanced Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness for InTrail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) as an example, this report describes some limitations of the current process used for generating safety requirements and levels of required design assurance. An alternative process is described, as well as the argument for why the alternative can generate more comprehensive requirements and greater safety assurance than the current approach.

  14. Simulation to enhance patient safety: why aren't we there yet?

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2011-10-01

    The delivery of state-of-the-art medical care is complex, with large numbers of treatment strategies often available to individual patients. It is paramount to ensure that each patient receives optimal treatment in a safe, effective, and timely manner. Evidence suggests that an unacceptably high number of patients currently experience suboptimal care as the result of adverse events and medical error. Simulation-based training reduces medical error, enhances clinical outcomes, and reduces the cost of clinical care. It is surprising that medical simulation is not routinely integrated into the training curricula of all health-care professionals. Simulation enables doctors to practice and hone their technical, communication, decision making, and crisis management skills in a safe and educationally orientated environment. The process can foster the development of interprofessional working skills, leading to enhanced patient outcomes. Selection, credentialing, and revalidation of medical professionals are also possible in a simulation setting, enabling maintenance of standards of practice throughout a medical career. In order for simulation to become a part of the medical curriculum, collaborative efforts are required from academics, physicians, managers, and policy makers alike. Bringing these groups together, while a challenge, can lead to high-level outputs in medical care, which will benefit all.

  15. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  16. Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

    1995-05-01

    The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

  17. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  18. Renal safety of intravenous gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Katherine M; Parikh, Mehul R; Runge, Thomas M; Perez, Sebastian D; Sakaria, Sonali S; Subramanian, Ram M

    2015-11-01

    Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis carries a high morbidity and mortality. Given the potential risk of contrast-induced nephropathy associated with iodinated intravenous contrast used in computed tomography (CT), alternate contrast modalities for abdominal imaging in liver transplant candidates need to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the renal safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium in patients awaiting liver transplantation. The study involved a retrospective analysis of 352 patients of abdominal MRI with low-dose gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) (0.05 mmol/kg) in patients with cirrhosis and without renal replacement therapy at a single center during the period from 2007 to 2013. For each case, serum creatinine before and within a few days after the MRI were compared. In addition, the patients were analyzed for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a reported complication of gadolinium in chronic kidney disease. The pre-MRI serum creatinine values ranged from 0.36 to 4.86 mg/dL, with 70 patients (20%) having values ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. A comparison of the pre- and post-MRI serum creatinine values did not demonstrate a clinically significant difference (mean change = 0.017 mg/dL; P = 0.38), including those patients with a pre-MRI serum creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. In addition, no cases of NSF were noted. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MRI with low-dose gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) is a nonnephrotoxic imaging modality in liver transplant candidates, and its use can be cautiously expanded to liver transplant candidates with concomitant renal insufficiency.

  19. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.

    PubMed

    Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED. PMID:19494825

  20. Safety and feasibility of an enhanced recovery pathway after a liver resection: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Bobby V M; Rahman, Rasha; Khan, Shakeeb; Bennett, Davinia; Hodson, James; Isaac, John; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Mirza, Darius F; Muiesan, Paolo; Roberts, Keith J; Sutcliffe, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to colorectal surgery, enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) have not yet become standard practice after major upper abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcomes after implementation of an ERP after liver a resection. Methods Patients who underwent a liver resection in two consecutive 6-month periods before (July–December 2013) and after (January–June 2014) implementation of an ERP were included in a prospective study. Patients who underwent live donation, ALPPS (associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy) or concomitant procedures were excluded. Peri-operative outcomes were compared between groups, and multivariate analysis of factors influencing the length of hospital stay (LOS) was performed. Results Two hundred and eleven patients (93 pre-ERP and 91 post-ERP patients) underwent a liver resection during the study period. There was no significant difference in the median LOS (P = 0.907) and 30-day readmission rates (P = 0.645) between the groups. Severe (Clavien grade III–V) complications were reduced in ERP patients (13.9% versus 4.3%; P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, an increased age (< 0.001), open resection (< 0.001) and complications (< 0.001) were associated with an increased LOS. Conclusion Enhanced recovery after a liver resection appears to be safe, feasible and may reduce severe complications. However, the LOS was significantly influenced by patient age, open surgery and post-operative complications, but not by an ERP. PMID:26099347

  1. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  2. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  3. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  4. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  5. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  6. On the use of a compact optical fiber sensor system in aircraft structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Nezih; Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Rocha, Bruno; Sun, Zhigang

    2012-06-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been identified as an area of significant potential for advanced aircraft maintenance programs that ensure continued airworthiness, enhanced operational safety and reduced life cycle cost. Several sensors and sensory systems have been developed for the implementation of such health monitoring capability. Among a wide range of developed technologies, fiber optic sensor technology, in particular fiber Bragg grating based emerged as one of the most promising for aircraft structural applications. This paper is set to explore the suitability of using a new Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBG) system developed for operation in two modes, low and high speed sensing modes, respectively. The suitability of the system for potential use in aircraft load monitoring and damage detection applications has been demonstrated. Results from FBG sensor system were in good agreement with results from conventional resistive strain gauges, validating this capability for load monitoring. For damage detection, the FBG sensor system was able to detect acoustic waves generated 52 inches (1.32 m) away. The initial results, obtained in a full stale experimentation, demonstrate the potential of using FBG sensors for both load monitoring and damage detection in aircraft environment.

  7. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  8. Simulation Tools Model Icing for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Here s a simple science experiment to try: Place an unopened bottle of distilled water in your freezer. After 2-3 hours, if the water is pure enough, you will notice that it has not frozen. Carefully pour the water into a bowl with a piece of ice in it. When it strikes the ice, the water will instantly freeze. One of the most basic and commonly known scientific facts is that water freezes at around 32 F. But this is not always the case. Water lacking any impurities for ice crystals to form around can be supercooled to even lower temperatures without freezing. High in the atmosphere, water droplets can achieve this delicate, supercooled state. When a plane flies through clouds containing these droplets, the water can strike the airframe and, like the supercooled water hitting the ice in the experiment above, freeze instantly. The ice buildup alters the aerodynamics of the plane - reducing lift and increasing drag - affecting its performance and presenting a safety issue if the plane can no longer fly effectively. In certain circumstances, ice can form inside aircraft engines, another potential hazard. NASA has long studied ways of detecting and countering atmospheric icing conditions as part of the Agency s efforts to enhance aviation safety. To do this, the Icing Branch at Glenn Research Center utilizes a number of world-class tools, including the Center s Icing Research Tunnel and the NASA 607 icing research aircraft, a "flying laboratory" for studying icing conditions. The branch has also developed a suite of software programs to help aircraft and icing protection system designers understand the behavior of ice accumulation on various surfaces and in various conditions. One of these innovations is the LEWICE ice accretion simulation software. Initially developed in the 1980s (when Glenn was known as Lewis Research Center), LEWICE has become one of the most widely used tools in icing research and aircraft design and certification. LEWICE has been transformed over

  9. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, Fred C.; Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  10. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we explore the role of "Omics" in advancing our ability to: (1) more thoroughly describe the biological response of humans in space; (2) describe molecular attributes of individual astronauts that alter the risk profile prior to entering the space environment; (3) deploy Omics techniques in the development of personalized countermeasures; and (4) develop a comprehensive Omics-based assessment and countermeasure platform that will guide human space flight in the future. In this review, we advance the concept of personalized medicine in human space flight, with the goal of enhancing astronaut safety and performance. Because the field is vast, we explore selected examples where biochemical individuality might significantly impact countermeasure development. These include gene and small molecule variants associated with: (1) metabolism of therapeutic drugs used in space; (2) one carbon metabolism and DNA stability; (3) iron metabolism, oxidative stress and damage, and DNA stability; and (4) essential input (Mg and Zn) effects on DNA repair. From these examples, we advance the case that widespread Omics profiling should serve as the foundation for aerospace medicine and research, explore methodological considerations to advance the field, and suggest why personalized medicine may become the standard of care for humans in space.

  11. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  12. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  13. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  14. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  15. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires, and connectors, Medelius devised the SWR. "It came down to what was affected when a wire is short circuited or opened," he says. "We worked out a few equations based on physical principles." The SWR proved very sensitive, and the technology was patented.

  16. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  17. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  18. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  19. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  20. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  1. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  6. 75 FR 922 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), published in the Federal Register (FR), is available for inspection...'' in 73 FR 58520. This NPRM proposed and the final rule herein codifies the addition of five reportable... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and...

  7. Lessons learned from the introduction of an electronic safety net to enhance test result management in an Australian mothers’ hospital

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Andrew; Lymer, Sharyn; Forster, Megan; Strachan, Michael; Graham, Sara; Hirst, Geof; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement (RA) system in the Mater Mothers’ Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The Verdi application electronically records clinicians’ acknowledgement of the review of results. Hospital data (August 2011–August 2012) were extracted to measure clinicians’ acknowledgement practices. There were 27 354 inpatient test results for 6855 patients. All test results were acknowledged. 60% (95% CI 59% to 61%) of laboratory and 44% (95% CI 40% to 48%) of imaging results were acknowledged within 24 h. The median time between report availability and acknowledgement was 18.1 h for laboratory and 1 day 18 h for imaging results. The median time from when a result was first viewed to its acknowledgement was 7 min for laboratory and 1 min for imaging results. The longest recorded time to acknowledgement was 38 days. Electronic RA provides a safety net to enhance test result management. PMID:24598829

  8. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  9. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  10. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  11. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  12. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  13. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  14. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  15. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash frequencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash Frequency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash frequency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more frequent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required.

  16. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  17. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  18. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  19. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture: a repeated cross-sectional experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette; Møller Beck, Carsten; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. Methods A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. Results In total, 358 and 325 staff members participated before and after the intervention, respectively. 19 of the staff members were clinical area level leaders. In both surveys, the response rate was >75%. The proportion of frontline staff with positive attitudes improved by ≥5% for 5 of the 7 patient safety culture dimensions over time. 6 patient safety culture dimensions became more positive (increase in mean) (p<0.05). Frontline staff became more positive on all dimensions except stress recognition (p<0.05). For the leaders, the opposite was the case (p<0.05). Staff leaving the department after the first measurement had rated job satisfaction lower than the staff staying on (p<0.05). Conclusions The improvements documented in the patient safety culture are remarkable, and imply that strengthening the leadership can act as a significant catalyst for patient safety culture improvement. Further studies using a longitudinal study design are recommended to investigate the mechanism behind leadership's influence on patient safety culture, sustainability of improvements over time, and the association of change

  20. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. The project used a QF-106 interceptor aircraft to simulate a future orbiter, which would be towed to a high altitude and released to fire its own engines and carry a payload into space. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. Assessment of risk to Boeing commerical transport aircraft from carbon fibers. [fiber release from graphite/epxoy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. A.; Brown, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible effects of free carbon fibers on aircraft avionic equipment operation, removal costs, and safety were investigated. Possible carbon fiber flow paths, flow rates, and transfer functions into the Boeing 707, 727, 737, 747 aircraft and potentially vulnerable equipment were identified. Probabilities of equipment removal and probabilities of aircraft exposure to carbon fiber were derived.

  2. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. PMID:24745557

  3. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.

  4. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions.

  5. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions. PMID:17547319

  6. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  7. Aircraft technology opportunities for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1988-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities, and at the same time provide greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. Both current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers are addressed. The complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts is considered including rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies for current aircraft will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility. Research and technology promises to enable development of new vehicles that will revolutionize or greatly change the transportation system. These vehicles will provide new capabilities which will lead to enormous market opportunities and economic growth, as well as improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  8. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  9. Statistical Detection of Atypical Aircraft Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving; Chidester, Thomas; Shafto, Michael; Ferryman, Thomas; Amidan, Brett; Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan; Cooley, Scott; Jay, Joseph; Rosenthal, Loren; Swickard, Andrea; Bates, Derrick; Scherrer, Chad; Webb, Bobbie-Jo; Lawrence, Robert; Mosbrucker, Chris; Prothero, Gary; Andrei, Adi; Romanowski, Tim; Robin, Daniel; Prothero, Jason; Lynch, Robert; Lowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A computational method and software to implement the method have been developed to sift through vast quantities of digital flight data to alert human analysts to aircraft flights that are statistically atypical in ways that signify that safety may be adversely affected. On a typical day, there are tens of thousands of flights in the United States and several times that number throughout the world. Depending on the specific aircraft design, the volume of data collected by sensors and flight recorders can range from a few dozen to several thousand parameters per second during a flight. Whereas these data have long been utilized in investigating crashes, the present method is oriented toward helping to prevent crashes by enabling routine monitoring of flight operations to identify portions of flights that may be of interest with respect to safety issues.

  10. Tailoring neurophysiological strategies with clinical context enhances resection and safety and expands indications in gliomas involving motor pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Lorenzo; Riva, Marco; Fava, Enrica; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Castellano, Antonella; Raneri, Fabio; Pessina, Federico; Bizzi, Alberto; Falini, Andrea; Cerri, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Resection of motor pathway gliomas requires the intraoperative recognition of essential cortical-subcortical motor structures. The degree of involvement of motor structures is variable, and increases as result of treatments patients are submitted to. Intraoperative neurophysiology offers various stimulation modalities, which efficiency is based on the ability to recognize essential sites with the highest possible resolution in most clinical conditions. Two stimulation paradigms evolved for intraoperative guidance of motor tumors removal: the 60 Hz-technique [low frequency (LF)] and the pulse-technique [high frequency-(HF)], delivered by bipolar or monopolar probe respectively. Most surgical teams rely on to either of the 2 techniques. The key point is the integration of the choice of the stimulation modality with the clinical context. Methods In 591 tumors involving the corticospinal tract, the use of HF and LF was tailored to the clinical context defined by patient clinical history and tumor features (by imaging). The effect was evaluated on the feasibility of mapping, the impact on immediate and permanent morbidity, the extent of resection, and the number of patients treated. Results By integrating the choice of the probe and the stimulation protocol with patient clinical history and tumor characteristics, the best probe-frequency match was identified for the different sets of clinical conditions. This integrative approach allows increasing the extent of resection and patient functional integrity, and greatly expands the number of patients who could benefit from surgery. Conclusions The integration of stimulation modalities with clinical context enhances the extent and safety of resection and expands the population of patients who could benefit from surgical treatment. PMID:24500420

  11. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  12. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired on the actual flight experience with the various subsystems are assessed. These subsystems include: flight control and performance, structural integrity, orbiter landing gear, lithium batteries, EVA and prebreathing, and main engines. Improvements for routine operations are recommended. Policy issues for operations and flight safety for aircraft operations are discussed.

  13. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply. PMID:25748230

  14. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply.

  15. A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.

  16. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  17. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  18. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  19. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  20. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  1. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  2. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  3. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone for Aircraft GPS Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of spurious emissions from a mobile phone are conducted in a reverberation chamber for the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio frequency band. This phone model was previously determined to have caused interference to several aircraft GPS receivers. Interference path loss (IPL) factors are applied to the emission data, and the outcome compared against GPS receiver susceptibility. The resulting negative safety margins indicate there are risks to aircraft GPS systems. The maximum emission level from the phone is also shown to be comparable with some laptop computer's emissions, implying that laptop computers can provide similar risks to aircraft GPS receivers.

  4. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  5. Enhancing Resident Safety by Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infection: A National Initiative to Reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Mody, Lona; Meddings, Jennifer; Edson, Barbara S; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Stone, Nimalie D; Krein, Sarah L; Saint, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Preventing healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a key contributor to enhancing resident safety in nursing homes. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services approved a plan to enhance resident safety by reducing HAIs in nursing homes, with particular emphasis on reducing indwelling catheter use and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Lessons learned from a recent multimodal Targeted Infection Prevention program in a group of nursing homes as well as a national initiative to prevent CAUTI in over 950 acute care hospitals called "On the CUSP: STOP CAUTI" will now be implemented in nearly 500 nursing homes in all 50 states through a project funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). This "AHRQ Safety Program in Long-Term Care: HAIs/CAUTI" will emphasize professional development in catheter utilization, catheter care and maintenance, and antimicrobial stewardship as well as promoting patient safety culture, team building, and leadership engagement. We anticipate that an approach integrating technical and socio-adaptive principles will serve as a model for future initiatives to reduce other infections, multidrug resistant organisms, and noninfectious adverse events among nursing home residents. PMID:25814630

  6. Antecedents and analogues - Experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of experimental aircraft from 1953 to the present. Consideration is given to the X-series experimental aircraft, to X-15 (the first aerospace plane), to the transition of experimental aircraft to high-speed flight, to XB-70 research, to lifting body research aircraft, and to current high-speed flight research.

  7. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Gadoxetate Disodium–Enhanced Liver MRI in Pediatric Patients Aged >2 Months to <18 Years—Results of a Retrospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Geller, James; Kasahara, Mureo; Martinez, Mercedes; Soresina, Annarosa; Kashanian, Fran; Endrikat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium–enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs. Efficacy was defined based on the additional diagnostic information obtained from the combined (pre- and postcontrast) image sets as compared with the precontrast image sets by blinded reading. RESULTS A total of 52 patients for safety and 51 patients for efficacy analyses were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) reported a total of 51 serious AEs (SAEs) and one AE after one year. No SAE or AE was related to gadoxetate disodium injection. Gadoxetate disodium–related effects on vital signs were not seen. Additional diagnostic information was obtained for 86.3% of patients. The three most improved efficacy variables were lesion-to-background contrast, lesion characterization, and improved border delineation in 78.4%, 76.5%, and 70.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION Gadoxetate disodium in pediatric patients did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. Contrast enhancement provided additional clinically relevant information. PMID:27478381

  9. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  10. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  11. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  12. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  13. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  14. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  15. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  16. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  18. Synthetic Vision CFIT Experiments for GA and Commercial Aircraft: "A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Lives"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Hughes, Monica F.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Glaab, Louis J.; Bailey, Randy E.; Parrish, Russell V.; Uenking, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Because restricted visibility has been implicated in the majority of commercial and general aviation accidents, solutions will need to focus on how to enhance safety during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The NASA Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies to help achieve these goals through the synthetic presentation of how the outside world would look to the pilot if vision were not reduced. The potential safety outcome would be a significant reduction in several accident categories, such as controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), that have restricted visibility as a causal factor. The paper describes two experiments that demonstrated the efficacy of synthetic vision technology to prevent CFIT accidents for both general aviation and commercial aircraft.

  19. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  20. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  2. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wind loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  3. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  4. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  5. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  6. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  7. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 25.1561 Section 25.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 27.1561 Section 27.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety equipment. 25.1561 Section 25.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety equipment. 25.1561 Section 25.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  13. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety equipment. 27.1561 Section 27.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such...

  15. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety equipment. 29.1561 Section 29.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety equipment. 29.1561 Section 29.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  18. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety equipment. 27.1561 Section 27.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1561 - Safety equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety equipment. 29.1561 Section 29.1561 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1561 Safety equipment. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency,...

  1. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  2. Unveiling of sign for Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In a brief ceremony following a memorial service for the late Walter C. Williams on November 17, 1995, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, was formally renamed the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility. Shown is the family of Walt Williams: Helen, his widow, sons Charles and Howard, daughter Elizabeth Williams Powell, their spouses and children unveiling the new sign redesignating the Facility. The test facility provides state-of-the-art capabilities for thorough ground testing of advanced research aircraft. It allows researchers and technicians to integrate and test aircraft systems before each research flight, which greatly enhances the safety of each mission. In September 1946 Williams became engineer-in-charge of a team of five engineers who arrived at Muroc Army Air Base (now Edwards AFB) from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia (now NASA's Langley Research Center), to prepare for supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-Army Air Forces program involving the rocket-powered X-1. This established the first permanent NACA presence at the Mojave Desert site although initially the five engineers and others who followed them were on temporary assignment. Over time, Walt continued to be in charge during the many name changes for the NACA-NASA organization, with Williams ending his stay as Chief of the NASA Flight Research Center in September 1959 (today NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center).

  3. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  4. Research of hail impact on aircraft wheel door with lattice hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengze; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Xuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Aimed at a long lasting issue of hail impact on aircraft structures and aviation safety due to its high speed, the resistance performance of hail impact on the wheel door of aircraft with lattice hybrid structure is investigated. The proper anti-hail structure can be designed both efficiency and precision based on this work. The dynamic responses of 8 different sandwich plates in diverse impact speed are measured. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method is introduced to mimic the speciality of solid-liquid mixture trait of hailstone during the impact process. The deformation and damage degree of upper and lower panel of sandwich plate are analysed. The application range and failure mode for the relevant structure, as well as the energy absorbing ratio between lattice structure and aluminium foam are summarized. Results show that the tetrahedral sandwich plate with aluminium foam core is confirmed the best for absorbing energy. Furthermore, the high absorption characteristics of foam material enhance the capability of the impact resistance for the composition with lattice structure without increasing the structure surface density. The results of study are of worth to provide a reliable basis for reduced weight aircraft wheel door.

  5. Further safety enhancement of a specialized power assisted tricycle for a child with osteogenesis imperfecta type III and design of an adjustble hand power tricycle.

    PubMed

    Geu, Matthew; Madsen, Robert; Weber, Erica; Burnett, Michael; Barrett, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Several tricycles, one a customized power assisted tricycle, and the second a hand powered tricycle were developed, which offered a unique opportunity to serve multiple purposes in several children's development throughout Wyoming. In Both cases these tricycles provide the children with the opportunity to gain muscle mass, strength, coordination, and confidence. The power assisted tricycle was completed as a senior design project in 2002, and over time safety enhancements have been completed to make the tricycle safer for operation. Unfortunately, the safety system enhancements were not acceptable for it to be released for use. For this reason the tricycle was further redesigned to include more redundant safety systems which will allow the tricycle to be safe for the child's use. The second tricycle was designed to allow for a group of children who have limited use of their legs, to be able to use the same tricycle to give them more upper body strength. A gear system using multiple gear sprockets was adapted to a preexisting tricycle to provide hand power rather than foot power. Without these improvements, the children would not have the opportunity to use these tricycles to help with their development. PMID:16817593

  6. Technical Seminar: "Data Mining for Air Safety"

    NASA Video Gallery

    Anonymous collections of data from the aviation community can sometimes be "mined" to reveal patterns that can lead to improvements, most often in safety of operations or the aircraft itself. Two o...

  7. Ideas for a three-aircraft planetary observing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, David J.; Schumann, Ulrich

    2003-04-01

    A new generation of research aircraft, based on modern mid-sized business jets, will provide access to upper regions of the atmosphere and remote regions of the planet not reachable by the current research aircraft. Equipped with extensive research modifications, modern instruments, and advanced air-to-ground communication systems, these new aircraft will allow investigators to attack key questions in global atmospheric dynamics, global cycles of water and carbon, global energy budgets, and regional and global air quality and chemical transport. A three-aircraft fleet of these aircraft could provide unprecedented coordinated intercalibrated coverage of the planetary atmosphere and surfaces in a manner that greatly enhances the total ground, ocean, and satellite observing system.

  8. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  9. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  10. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  11. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  12. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  13. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  14. Continuous measurement of aircraft wing icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Stephen S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ice formation on the wings of aircraft is a problem that has plagued air travel since its inception. Several recent incidents have been attributed to ice formation on the lifting surfaces of wings. This paper describes a SBIR Phase 1 research effort on the use of small flat dielectric sensors in detecting a layer of ice above the sensor. The sensors are very small, lightweight, and inexpensive. The electronics package that controls the sensor is also small, and could be even smaller using commonly available miniaturization technologies. Thus, several sensors could be placed on a surface such that a representative ice thickness profile could be measured. The benefits offered by developing this technology go beyond the safety improvements realized by monitoring ice formation on the wings of an aircraft. Continuous monitoring of anti-icing fluid concentrations on the ground would warn the pilot of impending fluid failure as well as allowing the stations to use less de-icing solution per aircraft. This in turn would increase the safety of takeoffs and reduce the overall discharge of de-icing solution into the environment, thus reducing the biohazard of the de-icing procedure.

  15. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  16. Eagle RTS: A design for a regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This university design project concerns the Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System), a 66 passenger, twin turboprop aircraft with a range of 836 nautical miles. It will operate with a crew of two pilots and two flight attendents. This aircraft will employ the use of aluminum alloys and composite materials to reduce the aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. The Eagle RTS will use narrow body aerodynamics with a canard configuration to improve performance. Leading edge technology will be used in the cockpit to improve flight handling and safety. The Eagle RTS propulsion system will consist of two turboprop engines with a total thrust of approximately 6300 pounds, 3150 pounds thrust per engine, for the cruise configuration. The engines will be mounted on the aft section of the aircraft to increase passenger safety in the event of a propeller failure. Aft mounted engines will also increase the overall efficiency of the aircraft by reducing the aircraft's drag. The Eagle RTS is projected to have a takeoff distance of approximately 4700 feet and a landing distance of 6100 feet. These distances will allow the Eagle RTS to land at the relatively short runways of regional airports.

  17. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model J182T airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of an aircraft diesel engine (ADE). The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the......

  18. Development of lightweight fire retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. B.; Burnside, J. V.; Hajari, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Fire resistance mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex honeycomb core. The test results were compared to proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels.

  19. 76 FR 65103 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... GIV-X Airplane; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access... connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by external..., including: 1. Flight-safety related control, communication, and navigation systems (aircraft control...

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; (3) No commercial or other Governmental source is available to provide aviation services safely (i.e... aircraft and services is safe (i.e., conforms to applicable laws, safety standards, and regulations) and is... may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33.50 Public Contracts and...

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (3) No commercial or other Governmental source is available to provide aviation services safely (i.e... aircraft and services is safe (i.e., conforms to applicable laws, safety standards, and regulations) and is... may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33.50 Public Contracts and...

  2. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  3. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  4. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (P<.05) increased after participation in the lesson. Further, items with visual alternatives were found to be most useful in discriminating between more and less knowledgeable farmworkers. The pilot study suggests that the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  9. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  11. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  12. Solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the Sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  13. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  14. Human factors in design of passenger seats for commercial aircraft: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaedel, S. F.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Seat comfort and safety research since the early part of the century is reviewed. The approach blends empirical and theoretical human factors and technical knowledge of seated humans under static and dynamic conditions experienced on commercial aircraft.

  15. 76 FR 31823 - Regulation of Fractional Aircraft Ownership Programs and On-Demand Operations; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Programs and On-Demand Operations'' (68 FR 54520). In that final rule the FAA updated and revised the... Afghanistan, Agriculture, Air traffic control, Aircraft, Airmen, Airports, Aviation safety, Canada,...

  16. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  17. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Control

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J

    2007-01-12

    This report describes the analysis and modeling approaches used in the evaluation for criticality-control applications of the neutron-absorbing structural-amorphous metal (SAM) coatings. The applications of boron-containing high-performance corrosion-resistant material (HPCRM)--amorphous metal as the neutron-absorbing coatings to the metallic support structure can enhance criticality safety controls for spent nuclear fuel in baskets inside storage containers, transportation casks, and disposal containers. The use of these advanced iron-based, corrosion-resistant materials to prevent nuclear criticality in transportation, aging, and disposal containers would be extremely beneficial to the nuclear waste management programs.

  18. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  19. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  20. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  1. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Gadobutrol for Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Results from a Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Comparator Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan E; Rosenberg, Martin; Seemann, Jörg; Breuer, Josy; Haverstock, Daniel; Agris, Jacob; Balzer, Thomas; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system (CNS) with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is standard of care for CNS imaging and diagnosis because of the visualization of lesions that cause blood–brain barrier breakdown. Gadobutrol is a macrocyclic GBCA with high concentration and high relaxivity. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of gadobutrol 1.0 M vs unenhanced imaging and vs the approved macrocyclic agent gadoteridol 0.5 M at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, crossover trial in patients who underwent unenhanced MRI followed by enhanced imaging with gadobutrol or gadoteridol. Three blinded readers assessed the magnetic resonance images. The primary efficacy variables included number of lesions detected, degree of lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology. RESULTS Of the 402 treated patients, 390 patients received study drugs. Lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology were superior for combined unenhanced/gadobutrol-enhanced imaging vs unenhanced imaging (P < 0.0001 for all). Compared with gadoteridol, gadobutrol was non-inferior for all primary variables and superior for lesion contrast-enhancement, as well as sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease. The percentage of patients with at least one drug-related adverse event was similar for gadobutrol (10.0%) and gadoteridol (9.7%). CONCLUSION Gadobutrol is an effective and well-tolerated macrocyclic contrast agent for MRI of the CNS. Gadobutrol demonstrates greater contrast-enhancement and improved sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease than gadoteridol, likely because of its higher relaxivity. PMID:25922578

  3. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  4. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  5. Aircraft mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, D. S.; Rosendaal, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft missions, from low to hypersonic speeds, are analyzed rapidly using the FORTRAN IV program NSEG. Program employs approximate equations of motion that vary in form with type of flight segment. Takeoffs, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, decelerations, and landings are considered.

  6. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  7. Cockpit emergency safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  8. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility, practicability, and potential advantages/disadvantages of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in long range, subsonic transport aircraft of advanced design were studied. Both passenger and cargo-type aircraft were investigated. To provide a valid basis for comparison, conventional hydrocarbon (Jet A) fueled aircraft were designed to perform identical missions using the same advanced technology and meeting the same operational constraints. The liquid hydrogen and Jet A fueled aircraft were compared on the basis of weight, size, energy utilization, cost, noise, emissions, safety, and operational characteristics. A program of technology development was formulated.

  9. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  10. NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation: A Compilation of the Papers Presented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    This volume contains copies of the technical papers presented at the NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation on October 9 and 10, 1950 at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. This conference was attended by members of the aircraft industry and military services. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee's system of complete and formal reports. A list of the conferees is included. [Contents include four subject areas: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Effect on Aircraft Operation; Some Aspects of Aircraft Safety - Icing, Ditching and Fire; Aerodynamic Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes; Propulsion Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes.

  11. Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Peterson, Brian; Pintar, Frank; Yoganandan, Narayan; Moorcroft, David; Taylor, Amanda; DeWeese, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment. Four PMHS were seated upright with Frankfurt plane horizontal in a custom designed seat configured to simulate potential aircraft environments and candidate restraint geometries. A scaled Part 25.562 Emergency Landing condition for horizontal impact was used as the dynamic test input. High speed video recorded occupant kinematics. Pre and posttest x-rays and CT’s were obtained and autopsies were conducted. Severe injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were observed in three of the four specimens and attributed to torso flail. Pelvis injuries likely caused by the seat belt were found in two tests. Multiple rib fractures were also seen, caused by contact with arm rest or other body regions. The fourth test was run at a lower severity and did not produce injury. This suggests a conservative threshold for human tolerance to this loading environment. Although the study is of a limited sample size, it suggests the need for further testing to develop standards that provide similar levels of safety for obliquely mounted seats as forward/aft facing seats in aircraft. PMID:25996749

  12. Enhanced vision for adverse weather aircraft landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz; Helgeson, Mike; Radke, Jeff; Stein, Gunter

    1996-01-01

    Landing in poor weather is a crucial problem for the air transportation system of the future. To aid the pilots for these conditions several solutions have been suggested and/or implemented including instrument landing system(ILS) and microwave landing system(MLS) that put the responsibility of the landing to a large extent in the hands of the airport facilities. These systems even though useful are not available due to their high costs except in few major metropolitan airports. This shortcoming has generated interest in providing all weather capabilities not on the landing facility but on the vehicle itself. The Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration sponsored by the United States Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) and the US Air Force represents an effort to respond to the above needs[1,2]. In this paper we present a summary of a typical synthetic vision system. This system consists of a scanning 35GHz radar a scanning antenna, a signal/image processor and a head up display(HUD). The pilot is presented a final perspective image of the scene sensed by the radar with associated flight guidance symbology. This systems is implemented in real time hardware and has been under going tower and flight testing under a variety of weather conditions since early 1992.

  13. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  14. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  15. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  16. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  17. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  18. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  19. Aircraft disinsection: A guide for military and civilian air carriers; Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l`intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.A

    1996-05-01

    To prevent risks to air crews health, aircraft safety, and industry, Canada`s Department of National Defense (DND) has recently reviewed the potential problems associated with aircraft disinsection. Various directives for air crew, maintenance personnel and preventative medicine technicians to follow have been developed and updated periodically. This aircraft disinsection review is part of the latest effort to revise DND`s administrative orders on aircraft disinsection and could be a model for other military and civilian air carriers.

  20. Safety, Tolerance, and Enhanced Efficacy of a Bioavailable Formulation of Curcumin With Fenugreek Dietary Fiber on Occupational Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pandaran Sudheeran, Subash; Jacob, Della; Natinga Mulakal, Johannah; Gopinathan Nair, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Abhilash; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Im, Krishnakumar

    2016-06-01

    Drug delivery systems capable of delivering free (unconjugated) curcuminoids is of great therapeutic significance, since the absorption of bioactive and permeable form plays a key factor in mediating the efficacy of a substance which undergoes rapid biotransformation. Considering the recent understanding on the relatively high bioactivities and blood-brain-barrier permeability of free curcuminoids over their conjugated metabolites, the present human study investigated the safety, antioxidant efficacy, and bioavailability of CurQfen (curcumagalactomannoside [CGM]), a food-grade formulation of natural curcumin with fenugreek dietary fiber that has shown to possess improved blood-brain-barrier permeability and tissue distribution in rats. In this randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, 60 subjects experiencing occupational stress-related anxiety and fatigue were randomized to receive CGM, standard curcumin, and placebo for 30 days (500 mg twice daily). The study demonstrated the safety, tolerance, and enhanced efficacy of CGM in comparison with unformulated standard curcumin. A significant improvement in the quality of life (P < 0.05) with considerable reduction in stress (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and fatigue (P < 0.001) was observed among CGM-treated subjects as compared with the standard curcumin group, when monitored by SF-36, Perceived Stress Scale with 14 items, and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Improvement in the quality of life was further correlated with the significant enhancement in endogenous antioxidant markers (P < 0.01) and reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001). Further comparison of the free curcuminoids bioavailability after a single-dose (500 mg once per day) and repeated-dose (500 mg twice daily for 30 days) oral administration revealed enhanced absorption and improved pharmacokinetics of CGM upon both single- (30.7-fold) and repeated-dose (39.1-fold) administrations. PMID:27043120