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Sample records for aircraft situation display

  1. A manual control theory analysis of vertical situation displays for STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Levison, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Pilot-vehicle-display systems theory is applied to the analysis of proposed vertical situation displays for manual control in approach-to-landing of a STOL aircraft. The effects of display variables on pilot workload and on total closed-loop system performance was calculated using an optimal-control model for the human operator. The steep approach of an augmentor wing jet STOL aircraft was analyzed. Both random turbulence and mean-wind shears were considered. Linearized perturbation equations were used to describe longitudinal and lateral dynamics of the aircraft. The basic display configuration was one that abstracted the essential status information (including glide-slope and localizer errors) of an EADI display. Proposed flight director displays for both longitudinal and lateral control were also investigated.

  2. System for providing an integrated display of instantaneous information relative to aircraft attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A display device is disclosed which is particularly suited for providing the pilot of an aircraft with combined inflight attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation information previously available only by using two or three devices providing separate displays. The preferred embodiment combines a commonly used and commercially available flight director-type device for providing a display in combination with a miniature aircraft supported for angular displacement from a vertical orientation to indicate heading error, or heading offset, and an extended course deviation indicator bar which projects into juxtaposition with the miniature aircraft for providing a true picture of the aircraft's horizontal situation relative to a selective VOR, ILS, or MLS course.

  3. Effect of display size on utilization of traffic situation display for self-spacing task. [transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The weather radar cathode ray tube (CRT) is the prime candidate for presenting cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in current, conventionally equipped transport aircraft. Problems may result from this, since the CRT size is not optimized for CDTI applications and the CRT is not in the pilot's primary visual scan area. The impact of display size on the ability of pilots to utilize the traffic information to maintain a specified spacing interval behind a lead aircraft during an approach task was studied. The five display sizes considered are representative of the display hardware configurations of airborne weather radar systems. From a pilot's subjective workload viewpoint, even the smallest display size was usable for performing the self spacing task. From a performane viewpoint, the mean spacing values, which are indicative of how well the pilots were able to perform the task, exhibit the same trends, irrespective of display size; however, the standard deviation of the spacing intervals decreased (performance improves) as the display size increased. Display size, therefore, does have a significant effect on pilot performance.

  4. 76 FR 78328 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...As a result of recent legislation, the FAA has begun the process of amending the circumstances in which aircraft owners or operators can limit the dissemination of their aircraft data via the FAA's ASDI program. This Notice describes the immediate changes that the FAA has implemented. In a future Notice, the FAA will propose specific procedures by which owners or operators who want the FAA to......

  5. 78 FR 51804 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... with respect to the dissemination of aircraft data via ASDI. \\1\\ 77 FR 27,269 (May 9, 2012). \\2\\ 76 FR... subscriber responsibilities, consistent with the procedures described here. \\4\\ 76 FR 78,328. \\5\\ 77 FR 27... identified in the ``For Further Information Contact'' section of this document. \\7\\ 76 FR 78,328. NBAA...

  6. 77 FR 27269 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...: ASDI Block Requests. Summary: The FAA makes air traffic flow management data available to aviation and... Federal Register at 65 FR 19477-78 (April 11, 2000), or you may find it at http://docketsinfo.dot.gov... FAA block their aircraft from release to the public via the FAA's ASDI data feed. 78 FR 78,328...

  7. 76 FR 32258 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Aircraft Registration System; 65 FR 19,518 (Apr. 11, 2000). As stated in the System Notice, however, one of... Order 13563, Sec. 7(d), ``General Provisions,'' 76 FR 3,821 (Jan. 21, 2011), ``Improving Regulation and... ] harm against an individual, a recent history of violent terrorist activity in the geographic area...

  8. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  9. Investigation of the use of an electronic multifunction display and an electromechanical horizontal situation indicator for guidance and control of powered-lift short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    The use which pilots make of a moving map display from en route through the terminal area and including the approach and go-around flight phases was investigated. The content and function of each of three primary STOLAND displays are reviewed from an operational point of view. The primary displays are the electronic attitude director indicator (EADI), the horizontal situation indicator (HSI), and the multifunction display (MFD). Manually controlled flight with both flight director guidance and raw situation data is examined in detail in a simulated flight experiment with emphasis on tracking reference flight plans and maintaining geographic orientation after missed approaches. Eye-point-of-regard and workload measurements, coupled with task performance measurements, pilot opinion ratings, and pilot comments are presented. The experimental program was designed to offer a systematic objective and subjective comparison of pilots' use of the moving map MFD in conjunction with the other displays.

  10. The use of configural displays to promote pilot situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joseph C.; Gallimore, Jennie J.

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has shown that the use of configural displays allows people to more easily detect changes in dynamic processes for integration tasks thereby enhancing operator performance, yet the benefit of configural displays on operator situation awareness (SA) has yet to be assessed. To test whether or not the use of configural displays impacts the formation of pilot SA, a computer-based study was undertaken using two presentation rates (500ms and 1000ms) and three configural display formats (Mil-Std-1787 HUD, Dual-articulated (DA) HUD, and the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR)) to present aircraft flight reference information to pilots. One of five questions were possible following the removal of the display from the screen, a query about aircraft airspeed, altitude, flight path angle (climb or dive) or bank angle. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the ability to provide an increase in operator SA by utilizing emergent features in configural displays to increase cue saliency and thereby increase operator SA. The analysis of pilots' recall of aircraft flight path angle (percent correct) showed that pilots were significantly more aware of aircraft attitude with the ASAR than with either the MIL-STD 1787 or DA HUD formats. There was no difference among displays for recall of actual flight path angle (RMS error). The results are discussed in terms of the use of configural displays as a design approach in representing task goals to facilitate operator SA.

  11. Flight-deck display of neighboring aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holforty, Wendy L.

    Over the coming decades, aviation operations are predicted to rise steadily, increasing the burden on already congested and constrained airspace. A major factor governing the safe minimum separation distance between aircraft is the hazard generated by the wake of neighboring aircraft. Unaware of their proximity to other traffic, aircraft have encountered the wake turbulence of neighboring aircraft tens of miles ahead of them with serious or fatal consequences. The wake display described herein is a perspective view, synthetic vision, flight deck display that enables flight crews to "see" neighboring aircraft, as well as their wakes via a predictive algorithm. Capable of enhancing the situational awareness with respect to the wake-vortex encounter hazard by enabling the flight crew to see the relative position of their aircraft with respect to the wake hazard, the display may allow for a decrease in the standard aircraft spacing to those now used in VFR conditions and an increase in airport and airspace capacity. At present, there is no mechanism in place in the National Airspace System that warns pilots of potential wake vortex encounters. The concept of a wake vortex display addresses the need for a real-time wake vortex avoidance scheme available directly to the pilot. The wake display has been evaluated under both simulated and actual flight conditions. Thirteen pilots with flight experience ranging from a student pilot to commercial airline and military pilots served as pilot test subjects evaluating the display under simulated conditions. The pilot test subjects completed a survey concerning their knowledge and understanding of wake vortices prior to the simulation data trials and, after the trials, they completed a pilot evaluation and postflight survey rating their experience and providing feedback for the display design. One test pilot and four guest pilots flew the display during the in-flight evaluations incorporating three wake encounter scenarios. They

  12. Display/control requirements for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Curry, R. E.; Kleinman, D. L.; Hollister, W. M.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Quantative metrics were determined for system control performance, workload for control, monitoring performance, and workload for monitoring. Pilot tasks were allocated for navigation and guidance of automated commercial V/STOL aircraft in all weather conditions using an optimal control model of the human operator to determine display elements and design.

  13. Landing approach evaluation of an integrated CRT display for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, P. D.; Stinnett, G. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A flight director adaptable to general aviation aircraft was evaluated for the landing approach task in a twin turbojet business aircraft. The flight director combined aircraft heading, pitch and roll atitude, and ILS (Instrument Landing System) signals into a single picture on a small cathode ray tube (CRT) to give the pilot an integrated picture of the aircraft situation. The display is unique in that it presents the information on a CRT and gives quasi-command signals to the pilot. The particular display investigated was a preproduction version of the Kaiser Model FP-50 flight director. Approaches made with visual references only, with a conventional ILS displacement instrument, and with the CRT display were compared in terms of tracking performance and pilot workload. Tracking performance of three research pilots using the CRT display was superior to that using the conventional ILS instrument and comparable to that under VFR conditions. Pilot workload (based on pilot comments) was not clearly decreased.

  14. Review of the evolution of display technologies for next-generation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchon, Joseph L.; Barnidge, Tracy J.

    2015-05-01

    Advancements in electronic display technologies have provided many benefits for military avionics. The modernization of legacy tanker transport aircraft along with the development of next-generation platforms, such as the KC-46 aerial refueling tanker, offers a timeline of the evolution of avionics display approaches. The adaptation of advanced flight displays from the Boeing 787 for the KC-46 flight deck also provides examples of how avionics display solutions may be leveraged across commercial and military flight decks to realize greater situational awareness and improve overall mission effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the display technology advancements that have led to today's advanced avionics displays for the next-generation KC-46 tanker aircraft. In particular, progress in display operating modes, backlighting, packaging, and ruggedization will be discussed along with display certification considerations across military and civilian platforms.

  15. Large 15-in. flat-panel display glass cockpit for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Lyle H.

    2002-08-01

    The large format Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) brings new possibilities to the aircraft cockpit environment. Broad-based format flexibility, enhanced situational awareness, sharp contrast and brilliant chromaticity are all features inherent in this product. This paper reviews cockpit instrument design, traces the evolution of electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and describes an optimized format of a large format cockpit display from an engineering test pilot's perspective. Additional potential uses for the large format display are described.

  16. Flight Envelope Information-Augmented Display for Enhanced Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Kasey A.; Seefeldt, Benjamin D.; Xargay, Enric; Talleur, Donald A.; Carbonari, Ronald S.; Kirlik, Alex; Hovakimyan, Naira; Trujillo, Anna C.; Belcastro, Christine M.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system display which is conceived to improve pilot situation awareness with respect to a flight envelope protection system developed for a mid-sized transport aircraft. The new display is designed to complement existing cockpit displays, and to augment them with information that relates to both aircraft state and the control automation itself. In particular, the proposed display provides cues about the state of automation directly in terms of pilot control actions, in addition to flight parameters. The paper also describes a forthcoming evaluation test plan that is intended to validate the developed interface by assessing the relevance of the displayed information, as well as the adequacy of the display layout.

  17. LED display for solo aircraft instrument navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., VI; Lina, L. J.; Meredith, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Solo pilot's task is made easier through convenient display of landing and navigation data. Use of display shows promise as more efficient means of presenting sequential instructions and data, such as course heading, altitude, and radio frequency, to minimize pilot's workload during solo instrument flight.

  18. Advanced electronic displays and their potential in future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that electronic displays represent one of the keys to continued integration and improvement of the effectiveness of avionic systems in future transport aircraft. An employment of modern electronic display media and generation has become vital in connection with the increases in modes and functions of modern aircraft. Requirements for electronic systems of future transports are examined, and a description is provided of the tools which are available for cockpit integration, taking into account trends in information processing and presentation, trends in integrated display devices, and trends concerning input/output devices. Developments related to display media, display generation, and I/O devices are considered, giving attention to a comparison of CRT and flat-panel display technology, advanced HUD technology and multifunction controls. Integrated display formats are discussed along with integrated systems and cockpit configurations.

  19. Perception of horizontal aircraft separation on a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E. A.; Jago, S. J.; Baty, D. L.; Oconnor, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of various display symbologies in a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) on pilot perception of horizontal aircraft separation is investigated. In a series of nine experiments using different combinations of display symbology, information update rate, display viewing time and encounter geometry, subjects were asked to predict whether an intruder aircraft would pass in front of or behind their own aircraft. It is found that displayed history did not improve task performance, although it was desired by the pilots when no other display of aircraft turn rate was available, and that pilots made fewer errors when they had predictive information. Variations in the rate of updating information from 0.1 to 4 sec and viewing times from 1 to 16 sec are not observed to affect performance. It is concluded that the present task, which may arise in a collision avoidance situation, would require an onboard computer to make a prediction of relative aircraft position and display it on the CDTI.

  20. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Helmet-mounted display accuracy in the aircraft cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Fred F.

    2002-08-01

    When a Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) system is used in an aircraft cockpit, the usual intent is to overlay symbols or images in the display on their real-world object counterparts. The HMD system determines a pointing angle (in aircraft coordinates) to the real-world object. This pointing angle is sent to the Mission Computer (MC) for use by other aircraft systems and is used by the HMD to position symbology in the HMD image. The accuracy of the HMD is defined as the error of the pointing angle sent to the MC versus the real-world angle to the object. This error is usually given in terms of milli-radians (mrad). Note that having the symbol in the HMD image overlay the corresponding object in the real world does not necessarily ensure an accurate pointing angle. One example of HMD use is to position an aiming cross in the display over an aircraft in the sky. The pointing angle to that aircraft is sent via the MC to another sensor (radar, missile, targeting pod) which then locks onto that aircraft or object. The accuracy requirement is to get the other sensor pointed at an angle to detect the same aircraft. There are aircraft integration issues to ensure target acquisition, but these will not be covered in this paper. One component of the HMD system is a tracker system, and the tracker system's accuracy is often looked at as the HMD accuracy. However, the accuracy of the tracker system is only one piece of the total HMD system accuracy, and as trackers get better, they may not even be the largest error component. This paper identifies the various error components of the HMD system installed in the aircraft cockpit and discusses the techniques used for minimizing errors and improving accuracy.

  2. A study on aircraft map display location and orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, D. L.; Wempe, T.; Huff, E.

    1973-01-01

    Six airline pilots participated in a fixed-based simulator study to determine the effects of two horizontal situation display (HSD/map) panel locations relative to the vertical situation display (VSD), and of three map orientations on manual piloting performance. Pilot comments and opinions were formally obtained. Significant performance differences were found between wind conditions and among pilots but not between map locations and orientations. The results also illustrate the potential tracking accuracy of such a display. Recommendations concerning display location and map orientation are made.

  3. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Environmental fog/rain visual display system for aircraft simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An environmental fog/rain visual display system for aircraft simulators is described. The electronic elements of the system include a real time digital computer, a caligraphic color display which simulates landing lights of selective intensity, and a color television camera for producing a moving color display of the airport runway as depicted on a model terrain board. The mechanical simulation elements of the system include an environmental chamber which can produce natural fog, nonhomogeneous fog, rain and fog combined, or rain only. A pilot looking through the aircraft wind screen will look through the fog and/or rain generated in the environmental chamber onto a viewing screen with the simulated color image of the airport runway thereon, and observe a very real simulation of actual conditions of a runway as it would appear through actual fog and/or rain.

  5. Display-based communications for advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    The next generation of civil transport aircraft will depend increasingly upon ground-air-ground and satellite data link for information critical to safe and efficient air transportation. Previous studies which examined the concept of display-based communications in addition to, or in lieu of, conventional voice transmissions are reviewed. A full-mission flight simulation comparing voice and display-based communication modes in an advanced transport aircraft is also described. The results indicate that a display-based mode of information transfer does not result in significantly increased aircrew workload, but does result in substantially increased message acknowledgment times when compared to conventional voice transmissions. User acceptance of the display-based communication system was generally high, replicating the findings of previous studies. However, most pilots tested expressed concern over the potential loss of information available from frequency monitoring which might result from the introduction of discrete address communications. Concern was expressed by some pilots for the reduced time available to search for conflicting traffic when using the communications display system. The implications of the findings for the design of display-based communications are discussed.

  6. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  7. Status of display systems in the A-10A aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodke, Kenneth E.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2001-09-01

    The report scope covers the displays and controls at the pilot's crewstation on the current model Air Force A-10A and OA-10A aircraft. A description of an electronic display and an electronic control panel that have come to be of concern to the Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) are included in the Funded Display Replacement Programs discussion. The display, which is a monochrome cathode ray tube (CRT), and the control panel were designed some 30 years ago. Thus, it is necessary to insert new technologies to maintain the capability heretofore provided by those now out of favor with the commercial sector. With this paper we begin a look at the status of displays in the A-10, which may remain in inventory until about 2030 according to current plans. From a component electronics technology perspective, such as displays, the A-10 provides several 10-year life cycle cost (LCC) planning cycles to consider multiple upgrades. Lessons learned from these projects can be applied both to other displays in the A-10 and other aging Department of Defense (DoD) weapon systems.

  8. Display/control requirements for automated VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Kleinman, D. L.; Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic design methodology for pilot displays in advanced commercial VTOL aircraft was developed and refined. The analyst is provided with a step-by-step procedure for conducting conceptual display/control configurations evaluations for simultaneous monitoring and control pilot tasks. The approach consists of three phases: formulation of information requirements, configuration evaluation, and system selection. Both the monitoring and control performance models are based upon the optimal control model of the human operator. Extensions to the conventional optimal control model required in the display design methodology include explicit optimization of control/monitoring attention; simultaneous monitoring and control performance predictions; and indifference threshold effects. The methodology was applied to NASA's experimental CH-47 helicopter in support of the VALT program. The CH-47 application examined the system performance of six flight conditions. Four candidate configurations are suggested for evaluation in pilot-in-the-loop simulations and eventual flight tests.

  9. Peripheral vision horizon display testing in RF-4C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, L. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A test program to assess the capability of the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD) to provide peripheral attitude cues to the pilot is described. The system was installed in the rear cockpit of a RF-4C aircraft, selected because its poor instrument crosscheck conditions. The PVHD test plan was designed to assess three primary areas: (1) ability of the system to reduce spatial disorientation; (2) ability of the system to aid the pilot in recovering from unusual attitudes; and (3) improvement in pilot performance during instrument landing system (ILS) approaches. Results of preliminary test flights are summarized. The major problem areas concern the distinction of the display itself and the capability of the display to provide pitch motion cues.

  10. Study of aircraft centered navigation, guidance, and traffic situation system concept for terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Will, R. W.; Grantham, C.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for automating the control of air traffic in the terminal area in which the primary man-machine interface is the cockpit is described. The ground and airborne inputs required for implementing this concept are discussed. Digital data link requirements of 10,000 bits per second are explained. A particular implementation of this concept including a sequencing and separation algorithm which generates flight paths and implements a natural order landing sequence is presented. Onboard computer/display avionics utilizing a traffic situation display is described. A preliminary simulation of this concept has been developed which includes a simple, efficient sequencing algorithm and a complete aircraft dynamics model. This simulated jet transport was flown through automated terminal-area traffic situations by pilots using relatively sophisticated displays, and pilot performance and observations are discussed.

  11. A head up display format for application to V/STOL aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.; Farris, Glenn G.; Vanags, Andrejs A.

    1990-01-01

    A head up display (HUD) format developed at NASA Ames Research Center to provide pilots of V/STOL aircraft with complete flight guidance and control information for category-3C terminal-area flight operations, is described in detail. These flight operations cover a large spectrum, from STOL operations on land-based runways to VTOL operations on small ships in high seas. Included in this description is a complete geometrical specification of the HUD elements and their drive laws. The principal features of this display format are the integration of the flightpath and pursuit guidance information into a narrow field of view, easily assimilated by the pilot with a single glance, and the superposition of vertical and horizontal situation information. The display is a derivative of a successful design developed for conventional transport aircraft. The design is the outcome of many piloted simulations conducted over a four-year period. Whereas the concepts on which the display format rests could not be fully exploited because of field-of-view restrictions, and some reservations remain about the acceptability of superimposing vertical and horizontal situation information, the design successfully fulfilled its intended objectives.

  12. Real Time Analysis and Display of Aircraft Approach Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and comparing, in real time, performance of an aircraft during an approach to touchdown along a conventional approach path and along a contemplated modified approach path to touchdown. In a first procedure, a flight parameter value at a selected location is compared and displayed, for the planned path and for the modified path. In a second procedure, flight parameter values FP(t(sub m)) at a sequence (t(sub n)}n, of measurement times is compared and displayed, for the planned path and for a contemplated or presently-executed modified path. If the flight parameter for the planned path and for the modified path differ too much from each other, the pilot in command has an option of terminating the approach along the modified path.

  13. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  14. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  15. Full color hybrid display for aircraft simulators. [landing aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A full spectrum color monitor, connected to the camera and lens system of a television camera supported by a gantry frame over a terrain model simulating an aircraft landing zone, projects the monitor image onto a lens or screen visually accessible to a trainee in the simulator. A digital computer produces a pattern corresponding to the lights associated with the landing strip onto a monochromatic display, and an optical system projects the calligraphic image onto the same lens so that it is superposed on the video representation of the landing field. The optical system includes a four-color wheel which is rotated between the calligraphic display and the lens, and an apparatus for synchronizing the generation of a calligraphic pattern with the color segments on the color wheel. A servo feedback system responsive to the servo motors on the gantry frame produces an input to the computer so that the calligraphically generated signal corresponds in shape, size and location to the video signal.

  16. A head-up display format for application to transport aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    A head up display (HUD) format used in simulator studies of the application of HUD to the landing of civil transport aircraft is described in detail. The display features an indication of the aircraft's instantaneous flightpath that constitutes the primary controlled element. Discrete ILS error and altitude signals are scaled and positioned to provide precise guidance modes when tracked with the flightpath symbol. Consideration is given to both the availability and nonavailability of inertial velocity information in the aircraft.

  17. Cost of ownership for military cargo aircraft using a common versus disparate display configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Most, Marvin C.

    2010-04-01

    A 2009 paper considered possibilities for applying a common display suite to various front-line bubble canopy fighters, whereas further research suggests the cost savings, post Milestone C production/deployment, might not be advantageous. The situation for military cargo and tanker aircraft, may offer a different paradigm. The primary objective of Defense acquisition is to acquire quality products that satisfy user needs with measurable improvements to mission capability and operational support, in a timely manner, and at a fair and reasonable price. DODD 5000.01 specifies that all participants in the acquisition system shall recognize the reality of fiscal constraints, viewing cost as an independent variable. DoD Components must therefore plan programs based on realistic projections of the dollars and manpower likely to be available in future years and also identify the total costs of ownership, as well as the major drivers of total ownership costs. In theory, therefore, this has already been done for existing cargo/tanker aircraft programs accommodating independent, disparate display suites. This paper goes beyond that stage by exploring total costs of ownership for a hypothetical common approach to cargo/tanker display avionics, bounded by looking at a limited number of such aircraft, e.g., C-5, C-17, C-130H (variants), and C-130J. It is the purpose of this paper to reveal whether there are total cost of ownership advantages for a common approach over and above the existing disparate approach. Aside from cost issues, other considerations, i.e., availability and supportability, may also be analyzed.

  18. The effect of communications and traffic situation displays on pilots awareness of traffic in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melanson, D.; Curry, R. E.; Howell, J. D.; Connelly, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Air Traffic Control (ATC) system is evolving under a general plan specified by the Federal Aviation Administration. Among the developments being considered is the Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS). The use of this system, although relieving congestion on the communications frequencies, would eliminate information about other aircraft because the party line communications now in use would be lost. One alternative to restore this lost information is an Airborne Traffic Situation Display (TSD). Experienced airline and military pilots participated in a factorial design to evaluate two types of communication (discrete address, party line) and two types of displays (TSD, no TSD). A stop-action quiz was used to evaluate their knowledge of other aircrafts' position, altitude, speed, heading, rate of climb, identity, and landing sequence number. Significant differences between conditions were detected, primarily in the position variables. Workload, as measured by a spare capacity side-task, showed a main effect of displays and a significant interaction between displays and communications. The data are summarized by plotting each display/communication condition configuration in the plane defined by information and workload index. A limited number of blunders by other aircraft were included in the simulations with a significant, but not entirely satisfactory, improvement in blunder detection attributed to the TSD.

  19. Rationale and description of a coordinated cockpit display for aircraft flight management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design for aircraft cockpit display systems is discussed in detail. The system consists of a set of three beam penetration color cathode ray tubes (CRT). One of three orthogonal projects of the aircraft's state appears on each CRT which displays different views of the same information. The color feature is included to obtain visual separation of information elements. The colors of red, green and yellow are used to differentiate control, performance and navigation information. Displays are coordinated in information and color.

  20. Head-Worn Display Concepts for Surface Operations for Commerical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging with Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized. The results of three ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to improve transport aircraft surface operations. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater pilot performance with respect to staying on the path compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when comparing the HWD with the HUD concept, there were no differences in path performance. In addition, the HWD and HUD concepts were rated via paired-comparisons the same in terms of situation awareness and workload.

  1. Spatial displays as a means to increase pilot situational awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadden, Delmar M.; Braune, Rolf; Wiedemann, John

    1989-01-01

    Experiences raise a number of concerns for future spatial-display developers. While the promise of spatial displays is great, the cost of their development will be correspondingly large. The knowledge and skills which must be coordinated to ensure successful results is unprecedent. From the viewpoint of the designer, basic knowledge of how human beings perceive and process complex displays appears fragmented and largely unquantified. Methodologies for display development require prototyping and testing with subject pilots for even small changes. Useful characterizations of the range of differences between individual users is nonexistent or at best poorly understood. The nature, significance, and frequency of interpretation errors associated with complex integrated displays is unexplored and undocumented territory. Graphic displays have intuitive appeal and can achieve face validity much more readily than earlier symbolic displays. The risk of misleading the pilot is correspondingly greater. Thus while some in the research community are developing the tools and techniques necessary for effective spatial-display development, potential users must be educated about the issues so that informed choices can be made. The scope of the task facing all is great. The task is challenging and the potential for meaningful contributions at all levels is high indeed.

  2. Compatibility of motion information in two aircraft attitude displays for a tracking task.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Proctor, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    In a conventional aircraft attitude indicator, the artificial horizon moves in the direction opposite to the pilot's hands and the movement of the aircraft. This horizon-moving format is believed to be response-effect (R-E) incompatible. An alternative format, aircraft-moving, presents movement of the aircraft symbol that is compatible with both the pilot's hand movements and the movement of the aircraft. In the present study, nonpilot participants performed an attitude tracking task with a horizon-moving or aircraft-moving display for 6 training sessions and 1 transfer session in which the display was switched to the other format. The participants performed the task equally well and showed similar rates of improvement with the 2 displays. However, a switch of display format degraded tracking performance, indicating that learned skills did not transfer between formats. The results of a secondary choice reaction task, performed concurrently during tracking, suggested that attention can be divided between visual and auditory modalities better with the horizon-moving display than with the aircraft-moving display. We argue that the horizon-moving format is R-E compatible, as far as the tracking task is concerned, and that the effects of display format on the secondary task may be due to different modes of spatial representation being used to monitor the formats. PMID:20377128

  3. Incorporating Data Link Messaging into a Multi-function Display for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  4. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance. PMID:24422345

  5. Developing an obstacle display for helicopter brownout situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinecke, Niklas; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Schmerwitz, Sven; Döhler, Hans-Ullrich

    2012-06-01

    Project ALLFlight is DLR's initiative to diminish the problem of piloting helicopters in degraded visual conditions. The problem arises whenever dust or snow is stirred up during landing (brownout/whiteout), eectively blocking the crew's vision of the landing site. A possible solution comprises the use of sensors that are able to look through the dust cloud. As part of the project display symbologies are being developed to enable the pilot to make use of the rather abstract and noisy sensor data. In a rst stage sensor data from very dierent sensors is fused. This step contains a classication of points into ground points and obstacle points. In a second step the result is augmented with ground data bases and depicted in a synthetic head-down display. Regarding the design, several variations in symbology are considered, including variations in color coding, continuous or non-continuous terrain displays and dierent obstacle representations. In this paper we present the basic techniques used for obstacle and ground separation. We choose a set of possibilities for the pilot display and detail the implementation. Furthermore, we present a pilot study, including human factors assessment with focus on usability and pilot acceptance.

  6. Simulator study of pilot-aircraft-display system response obtained with a three-dimensional-box pictorial display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varying the two important display parameters of a pictorial display on pilot opinion performance, and pilot aircraft display system servomechanism response is examined. The display presents a picture of a three dimensional box that moves along the desired path ahead of the aircraft. The two display parameters examined are the field of view of the picture (from + or - 5 deg to + or - 45 deg) and the distance to the box (from 92 m (300 ft) to 6100 m (20 000 ft)). The results show that the pilots prefer a distance to the box of 915 m (3000 ft) and a field of view of + or - 30 deg. The best performance, both in the sense of quickness of error correction and lowest standard deviation, is obtained with a distance to the box of 92 m (300 ft) and a field of view of + or - 15 deg. A pilot model analysis is used to determine the gains used by the pilots and the servomechanism response characteristics of the pilot aircraft display system.

  7. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  8. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  9. A head-up display format for transport aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.; Scott, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic flight-guidance display format was designed for use in evaluations of the collimated head-up display concept applied to transport aircraft landing. In the design process of iterative evaluation and modification, some general principles, or guidelines, applicable to electronic flight displays were suggested. The usefulness of an indication of instantaneous inertial flightpath was clearly demonstrated. Evaluator pilot acceptance of the unfamiliar display concepts was very positive when careful attention was given to indoctrination and training.

  10. A knowledge based application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Larson, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    A family of multiple-processor ground support test equipment was used to test digital flight-control systems on high-performance research aircraft. A unit recently built for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle project is the latest model in a series called the extended aircraft interrogation and display system. The primary feature emphasized monitors the aircraft MIL-STD-1553B data buses and provides real-time engineering units displays of flight-control parameters. A customized software package was developed to provide real-time data interpretation based on rules embodied in a highly structured knowledge database. The configuration of this extended aircraft interrogation and display system is briefly described, and the evolution of the rule based package and its application to failure modes and effects testing on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle is discussed.

  11. Situational awareness in the commercial aircraft cockpit - A cognitive perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marilyn J.; Pew, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A cognitive theory is presented that has relevance for the definition and assessment of situational awareness in the cockpit. The theory asserts that maintenance of situation awareness is a constructive process that demands mental resources in competition with ongoing task performance. Implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situational awareness are discussed. It is concluded that the goal of inserting advanced technology into any system is that it results in an increase in the effectiveness, timeliness, and safety with which the system's activities can be accomplished. The inherent difficulties of the multitask situation are very often compounded by the introduction of automation. To maximize situational awareness, the dynamics and capabilities of such technologies must be designed with thorough respect for the dynamics and capabilities of human information-processing.

  12. Comparison of Pilots' Situational Awareness While Monitoring Autoland Approaches Using Conventional and Advanced Flight Display Formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation experiment was performed to assess situation awareness (SA) and workload of pilots while monitoring simulated autoland operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions with three advanced display concepts: two enhanced electronic flight information system (EFIS)-type display concepts and one totally synthetic, integrated pictorial display concept. Each concept incorporated sensor-derived wireframe runway and iconic depictions of sensor-detected traffic in different locations on the display media. Various scenarios, involving conflicting traffic situation assessments, main display failures, and navigation/autopilot system errors, were used to assess the pilots' SA and workload during autoland approaches with the display concepts. From the results, for each scenario, the integrated pictorial display concept provided the pilots with statistically equivalent or substantially improved SA over the other display concepts. In addition to increased SA, subjective rankings indicated that the pictorial concept offered reductions in overall pilot workload (in both mean ranking and spread) over the two enhanced EFIS-type display concepts. Out of the display concepts flown, the pilots ranked the pictorial concept as the display that was easiest to use to maintain situational awareness, to monitor an autoland approach, to interpret information from the runway and obstacle detecting sensor systems, and to make the decision to go around.

  13. 8x10 Advanced Multipurpose Display: lessons learned from integrating a large-area display into a fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Rickie V.; Warden, Ron

    2004-09-01

    As part of the Advanced Mission Computer and Displays program, Boeing was tasked with developing and incorporating an 8x10 Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) into the Aft Crew Station of the F/A-18 F Aircraft. In order to meet cost and technical requirements, a commercial AMLCD panel was selected and ruggedized to meet the F/A-18 war fighter environment. The 8x10 AMPD was subjected to Military Standard Environmental testing as well as Optical testing to requirements based on lessons learned from previous display activities and has subsequently passed those tests. Developmental Flight Testing of the 8x10 AMPD was an unprecedented success and resulted in numerous compliments from F/A-18F Aircrew. The display is currently transitioning from Engineering, Manufacturing and Development to Low Rate Initial Production.

  14. Investigation of display issues relevant to the presentation of aircraft fault information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.

  15. Low-cost approach of a 3D display for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman; Karl, Wunibald

    2001-08-01

    A low cost 3D-display and navigation system is described which presents guidance information in a 3-dimensional format to the pilot. For achieving the low cost goal, Commercial-off-the-Shelf components are used. The visual information provided by the 3D-display includes a presentation of the future flight path and other guidance elements as well as an image of the outside world. For generating the displayed information, a PC will be used. An appropriate computer software is available to generate the displayed information in real-time with an adequately high update rate. Precision navigation data which is required for accurately adjusting the displayed guidance information are provided by an integrated low cost navigation system. This navigation system consists of a differential global positioning system and an inertial measurement unit. Data from the navigation system is fed into an onboard-computer, using terrain elevation and feature analysis data to generate a synthetic image of the outside world. The system is intended to contribute to the safety of General Aviation aircraft, providing an affordable guidance and navigation aid for this type of aircraft. The low cost 3D display and navigation system will be installed in a two-seat Grob 109B aircraft which is operated by the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Flight Control of the Technische Universitchen as a research vehicle.

  16. Advanced crew station concepts, displays, and input/output technology for civil aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. J.; Robertson, J. B.; Batson, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    Current efforts on a new Cockpit Avionics Research program are described. The major thrusts of the program presented include: a comparative analysis of advanced display media and development of promising selected media, development of flight display generation techniques, and identification and development of promising I/O technology. In addition, the advanced integrated display concepts described include a 'tunnel in the sky' display and a traffic situation display with associated keyboard. Finally, the Cockpit Avionics Research program is summarized, future research plans are presented, and the need for an expanded program is discussed.

  17. Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas and the recreationists' noise situation at home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. Most studies concentrate on one setting of the everyday life of a noise-exposed population, which mainly has been the residential setting. This article relates annoyance with aircraft noise in outdoor recreational areas to the recreationists' noise situation at home. In conjunction with the relocation of the main airport of Norway in 1998, field studies were conducted before and after the change in one area near the old airport (1930 survey respondents), and one area near the new airport (1001 survey respondents). Multivariate linear regression analyses of the relationship between annoyance and aircraft noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events) in the recreational areas were conducted, controlled for noise annoyance at home, or aircraft noise exposure at home, the situation (before/after the change), context- and demographic variables. People more highly annoyed at home tended to be more annoyed than others while in the recreational areas. A significant effect of aircraft noise exposure at home on annoyance in the recreational setting was not found. More research is warranted regarding the relationship between noise exposure at home and outdoor recreational demands. .

  18. Effects of Perceptual Augmentation Of Visual Displays: Dissociation of Performance and Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Goodman, Allen D.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It is intuitive that good performance is associated with, if not caused by, good situational awareness. There are, however, some situations in which these two concepts diverge. There are some trivial examples that have been identified, such as auto-pilots. However, it is also possible that these concepts diverge in a much more subtle manner. This research is focused on investigating those more subtle situations. Specifically, this research addresses the effects of perceptual display enhancement based upon Ecological Task Analysis (ETA) on performance and situational awareness. A perceptually augmented display was designed based upon ETA. Globally, performance advantages were found for the group with the enhanced display. Further, the findings demonstrate a dissociation of sub-task performance and operators' knowledge of the system subtask. The mechanisms involved in this dissociation are related to the characteristics of the display augmentation that led to the increased performance. The level of processing, and presence of feedback seem to play an important mediating role. These findings have important implications for both designers and researchers.

  19. Common software and interface for different helmet-mounted display (HMD) aircraft symbology sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Fred F.

    2000-06-01

    Different aircraft in different services and countries have their own set of symbology they want displayed on their HMD. Even as flight symbolgy is standardized, there will still be some differences for types of aircraft, different weapons, different sensors, and different countries. As an HMD supplier, we want to provide a system that can be used across all these applications with no changes in the system, including no changes in the software. This HMD system must also provide the flexibility to accommodate new symbology as it is developed over the years, again, with no change in the HMD software. VSI has developed their HMD software to accommodate F-15, F- 16, F-18, and F-22 symbology sets for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System. It also has the flexibility to accommodate the aircraft types and services of the Joint Strike Fighter: Conventional Takeoff and Landing variant for the USAF, Carrier-based Variant for the USN, and the Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing variant for the USMC and U.K. Royal Navy and Air Force. The key to this flexibility is the interface definition. The interface parameters are established at power-on with the download of an interface definition data set. This data set is used to interpret symbology commands from the aircraft OFP during operation and provide graphic commands to the HMD software. This presentation will define the graphics commands, provide an example of how the interface definition data set is defined, and then show how symbology commands produce a display.

  20. The P/POD project: Programmable/Pilot Oriented Display. [general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pilot orientated display system was developed for general aviation aircraft in order to reduce cockpit workloads. Emphasis was placed on the optimization of flight procedural aspects (i.e., interpretation of Loran data). Low cost hardware/software were utilized in the system to reduce developmental costs. Parallel development and testing were conducted on the ground (simulator) and in the air using the same hardware.

  1. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  2. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  3. Perception of aircraft separation with pilot-preferred symbology on a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, S.; Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Palmer, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) was developed for use in later full mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Pilots chose their preferred method of displaying air traffic information for several variables. Variables included: type of background, update rate, update type, predictor type, and history type. Each pilot designed a display he felt would be most useful in flight operations. After a series of test trials, each pilot was given the opportunity to modify the display for the experimental task. For a second day of testing, they repeated the experimental task using their display as well as displays chosen by other pilots. Results indicated a variety of individual preferences in symbology and differences in the accuracy of judgments. Pilots indicated concern for clutter of the display, relationship of the displayed symbology to physical reality, and a need to perceive the relative motion of the intruder aircraft. Analysis of data indicated that pilots were able to improve their performance with practice.

  4. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  5. Evaluation of Head-Worn Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  6. Evaluation of head-worn display concepts for commercial aircraft taxi operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lance, III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O'Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  7. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  8. Evaluation of HiMAT aircraft landing approach lateral control gearing using simulation and a visual display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafian, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of a visual display when studying the influence of changes in lateral stick gearing gains on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) vehicle handling qualities during simulated approaches and landings is investigated. The visual display improved the validity of the simulation and provided improved roll response cues for the HiMAT aircraft landing approach. A range of acceptable constant lateral stick gearing gains is found that provides adequate maneuverability and allows for precision moments.

  9. CODAC (Cockpit Oriented Display of Aircraft Configurations) version 1.4 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Wilson, Erma L.; Hollis, Michelle S.

    1988-01-01

    The Cockpit Oriented Display of Aircraft Configurations (CODAC) package is an interactive FORTRAN 77 graphics program which produces high quality publication grade hidden line images of three dimensional wireframe objects. The term, Cockpit Oriented, is used because CODAC rotates objects relative to the changing aircraft axis system (rather than about a fixed global axis system) and uses the more familiar directions of yaw, roll, and pitch. In addition, CODAC accepts geometry data in a variety of formats (LaWGS, Craidon, Hess, and FVS data check), and automatically selects the appropriate panel driver. Finally, CODAC makes full use of the Precision Visuals' DI-3000 metafile option, allowing users to save, edit, and print images for group presentations or research publications.

  10. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid (DAA) Displays for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Pack, Jessica S.; Shively, R. Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of government, industry and academia is currently working to establish minimum operational performance standards for Detect and Avoid (DAA) and Control and Communications (C2) systems in order to enable broader integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One subset of these performance standards will need to address the DAA display requirements that support an acceptable level of pilot performance. From a pilot's perspective, the DAA task is the maintenance of self separation and collision avoidance from other aircraft, utilizing the available information and controls within the Ground Control Station (GCS), including the DAA display. The pilot-in-the-loop DAA task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots' ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The authors propose an eight-stage pilot-DAA interaction timeline from which several pilot response time metrics can be extracted. These metrics were compared across the four display conditions. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays. Implications of the findings on understanding pilot performance on the DAA task, the

  11. Development of an algorithm to model an aircraft equipped with a generic CDTI display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, W. C.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of human pilot performance of a tracking task using a generic Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) display is developed from experimental data. The tracking task is to use CDTI in tracking a leading aircraft at a nominal separation of three nautical miles over a prescribed trajectory in space. The analysis of the data resulting from a factorial design of experiments reveals that the tracking task performance depends on the pilot and his experience at performing the task. Performance was not strongly affected by the type of control system used (velocity vector control wheel steering versus 3D automatic flight path guidance and control). The model that is developed and verified results in state trajectories whose difference from the experimental state trajectories is small compared to the variation due to the pilot and experience factors.

  12. Simulation evaluation of combined 4D RNAV and airborne traffic situation displays and procedures applied to terminal aerial maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Connelly, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Simulation scenarios were developed in which subject pilots must simultaneously follow a 3D terminal airspace structure and arrive at fixed waypoints within the structure precisely at pre-scheduled times in the presence of a full range of wind conditions aloft, and monitor nearby traffic on an airborne traffic situation display, especially during merging and spacing operations, and detect blunders and resolve conflicts in a safe manner. Open-loop simulator tests of the single-stage 4D RNAV algorithm indicate that a descending pilot can comply quite closely with an assigned time of arrival at a 3D waypoint simply by tracking a pre-calculated speed profile. Initial experiments show that the aircraft arrives at the 3D waypoint within a few seconds of the anticipated time. The presence of headwinds or tailwinds does not affect the arrival time error as long as the wind is accurately modeled in the descent algorithm. Results all but quarantee that a 5 second standard deviation in arrival time error can be realized in closed-loop descents at very moderate pilot workload levels.

  13. Moving-Base Simulation Evaluation of Control/Display Integration Issues for ASTOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A moving-base simulation has been conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center using a model of an advanced, short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) lift fan fighter aircraft. This experiment expanded on investigations during previous simulations with this STOVL configuration with the objective of evaluating (1) control law modifications over the low speed flight envelope, (2) integration of the throttle inceptor with flight control laws that provide direct thrust command for conventional flight, vertical and short takeoff, and flightpath or vertical velocity command for transition, hover, and vertical landing, (3) control mode blending for pitch, roll, yaw, and flightpath control during transition from wing-borne to jet-borne flight, and (4) effects of conformal versus nonconformal presentation of flightpath and pursuit guidance symbology on the out-the-window display for low speed STOVL operations. Assessments were made for takeoff, transition, hover, and landing, including precision hover and landing aboard an LPH-type amphibious assault ship in the presence of winds and rough seas. Results yielded Level 1 pilot ratings for the flightpath and vertical velocity command modes for a range of land-based and shipboard operation and were consistent with previous experience with earlier control laws and displays for this STOVL concept. Control mode blending was performed over speed ranges in accord with the pilot's tasks and with the change of the basic aircraft's characteristics between wing-borne and hover flight. Blending of yaw control from heading command in hover to sideslip command in wing-borne flight performed over a broad speed range helped reduce yaw transients during acceleration through the low speed regime. Although the pilots appreciated conformality of flightpath and guidance symbols with the external scene during the approach, increased sensitivity of the symbols for lateral path tracking elevated the pilots' control activity

  14. A neuroergonomic quasi-experiment: Predictors of situation awareness and display usability while performing complex tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-05-01

    Situation awareness (SA) is the ability and capacity to perceive information and act on it acceptably. Head Up Display (HUD) versus Head Down Display (HDD) manipulation induced variation in task difficulty. HUD and HDD cockpit displays or display designs promoted or impaired SA. The quantitative research presented in this paper examines basic neurocognitive factors in order to identify their specific contributions to the formation of SA, while studying display usability and the effects on SA. Visual attentiveness (Va), perceptiveness (Vp), and spatial working memory (Vswm) were assessed as predictors of SA under varying task difficulty. The study participants were 19 tactical airlift pilots, selected from the Ohio Air National Guard. Neurocognitive tests were administered to the participants prior to flight. In-flight SA was objectively and subjectively assessed for 24 flights. At the completion of this field experiment, the data were analyzed and the tests were statistically significant for the three predictor visual abilities Vp, Va, and Vswm as task difficulty was varied, F(3,11) = 8.125, p = .008. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual abilities together predicted a majority of the variance in SA, R2 = 0.753, p = .008. As validated and verified by ECG and EEG data, the HUD yielded a full ability and capacity to anticipate and accommodate trends were as the HDD yielded a saturated ability to anticipate and accommodate trends. Post-hoc tests revealed a Cohen's f2 = 3.05 yielding statistical power to be 0.98. This work results in a significant contribution to the field by providing an improved understanding of SA and path to safer travel for society worldwide. PA 88ABW-2015-1282.

  15. A spatial disorientation predictor device to enhance pilot situational awareness regarding aircraft attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelette, T. L.; Repperger, Daniel W.; Albery, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was initiated at the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) to investigate the improvement of the situational awareness of a pilot with respect to his aircraft's spatial orientation. The end product of this study is a device to alert a pilot to potentially disorienting situations. Much like a ground collision avoidance system (GCAS) is used in fighter aircraft to alert the pilot to 'pull up' when dangerous flight paths are predicted, this device warns the pilot to put a higher priority on attention to the orientation instrument. A Kalman filter was developed which estimates the pilot's perceived position and orientation. The input to the Kalman filter consists of two classes of data. The first class of data consists of noise parameters (indicating parameter uncertainty), conflict signals (e.g. vestibular and kinesthetic signal disagreement), and some nonlinear effects. The Kalman filter's perceived estimates are now the sum of both Class 1 data (good information) and Class 2 data (distorted information). When the estimated perceived position or orientation is significantly different from the actual position or orientation, the pilot is alerted.

  16. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  17. Effect of lead-aircraft ground-speed on self-spacing performance using a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A simulator investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the lead-aircraft ground-speed quantization level on self-spacing performance using a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). The study utilized a simulator employing cathode-ray tubes for the primary flight and navigation displays and highly augmented flight control modes. The pilot's task was to follow, and self-space on, a lead aircraft which was performing an idle-thrust profile descent to an instrument landing system (ILS) approach and landing. The spacing requirement was specified in terms of both a minimum distance and a time interval. The results indicate that the ground-speed quantization level, lead-aircraft scenario, and pilot technique had a significant effect on self-spacing performance. However, the ground-speed quantization level only had a significant effect on the performance when the lead aircraft flew a fast final approach.

  18. A safety margin and flight reference system and display for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hardy, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin and flight reference system for those powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The main objective was to display multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked both manually and automatically and which could be monitored in order to derive safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several system concepts and a simulator experiment to evaluate those concepts showing promise. A system was ultimately configured which yielded reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate safety margins at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  19. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Objective Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Materials and Methods Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Results Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Discussion Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Conclusion Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future. PMID:22437074

  20. Simulation study of traffic-sensor noise effects on utilization of traffic situation display for self-spacing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Moen, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of traffic sensor noise on the ability of a pilot to perform an intrail spacing task was determined. The tests were conducted in a fixed base cockpit simulator configured as a current generation transport aircraft, with an electronic traffic display provided in the weather radarscope location. The true positions of the traffic were perturbed in both relative range and azimuth by random errors to simulate traffic sensor noise associated with an onboard sensor. The evaluation task involved simulated instrument approaches into a terminal area while maintaining self separation on a lead aircraft. Separation performance data and pilot subjective ratings and comments were obtained. The results of the separation data indicate that displayed traffic position errors, having standard deviation values up to 0.3-n.mi. range and 8 deg azimuth, had negligible effect on the spacing performance achieved by the pilots. Speed profiles of the lead aircraft, display of the lead aircraft groundspeed, and individual pilot techniques were found to significantly affect the mean spacing performance.

  1. Real-time flight test analysis and display techniques for the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Petersen, Kevin L.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator flight envelope expansion program and the subsequent flight research phase gave impetus to the development of several innovative real-time analysis and display techniques. These new techniques produced significant improvements in flight test productivity, flight research capabilities, and flight safety. These techniques include real-time measurement and display of in-flight structural loads, dynamic structural mode frequency and damping, flight control system dynamic stability and control response, aeroperformance drag polars, and aircraft specific excess power. Several of these analysis techniques also provided for direct comparisons of flight-measured results with analytical predictions. The aeroperformance technique was made possible by the concurrent development of a new simplified in-flight net thrust computation method. To achieve these levels of on-line flight test analysis, integration of ground and airborne systems was required. The capability of NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility's Western Aeronautical Test Range was a key factor in enabling implementation of these methods.

  2. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations With Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that airport surface operations can be enhanced by using synthetic vision and associated technologies, employed on a Head-Up Display (HUD) and head-down display electronic moving maps (EMM). Although HUD applications have shown the greatest potential operational improvements, the research noted that two major limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations may be the application of advanced Head Worn Displays (HWDs) particularly during low-visibility operations wherein surface movement is substantially limited because of the impaired vision of pilots and air traffic controllers. The paper describes the results of ground simulation experiments conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD concept provided significantly improved path performance compared to using paper charts alone. When comparing the HWD and HUD concepts, there were no statistically-significant differences in path performance or subjective ratings of situation awareness and workload. Implications and directions for future research are described.

  3. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  4. 76 FR 12209 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Transportation's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR 19,477-78 (Apr. 11, 2000..., a recent history of violent terrorist activity in the geographic area in which the transportation is... threat of death, kidnapping or serious bodily harm against an individual, a recent history of...

  5. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  6. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  7. Flight Test Evaluation of Situation Awareness Benefits of Integrated Synthetic Vision System Technology f or Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2005-01-01

    Research was conducted onboard a Gulfstream G-V aircraft to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts during flight tests over a 6-week period at the Wallops Flight Facility and Reno/Tahoe International Airport. The NASA Synthetic Vision System incorporates database integrity monitoring, runway incursion prevention alerting, surface maps, enhanced vision sensors, and advanced pathway guidance and synthetic terrain presentation. The paper details the goals and objectives of the flight test with a focus on the situation awareness benefits of integrating synthetic vision system enabling technologies for commercial aircraft.

  8. Control and display requirements for decelerating approach and landing of fixed- and rotary-wing VSTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Merrick, V. K.; Franklin, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of several simulation investigations of rotary-wing and fixed-wing VSTOL aircraft performing terminal-area operations that include decelerating approaches under instrument conditions and recovery to either fixed landing pads or a ship. By concentrating on instrument decelerating approaches and the hover and landing, it is possible to compare directly the control and display requirements for similar tasks for aircraft with and without vectored thrust capability. Collectively, the results from these experiments, together with other simulator and flight experiments and operational experience, provide a consistent view of control and display complexity required for similar operational capability in adverse weather for the two types of VSTOL configurations. Some initial data showing influence of the transition corridor on flying qualities during transition are pesented and lead to a general discussion of the problem of operating margin definition.

  9. Design and initial application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system: Multiprocessing ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    A pipelined, multiprocessor, general-purpose ground support equipment for digital flight systems has been developed and placed in service at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The design is an outgrowth of the earlier aircraft interrogation and display system (AIDS) used in support of several research projects to provide engineering-units display of internal control system parameters during development and qualification testing activities. The new system, incorporating multiple 16-bit processors, is called extended AIDS (XAIDS) and is now supporting the X-29A forward-swept-wing aircraft project. This report describes the design and mechanization of XAIDS and shows the steps whereby a typical user may take advantage of its high throughput and flexible features.

  10. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  11. Display Rule Application in a Disappointing Situation and Children's Emotional Reactivity: Relations with Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; O'Neil, Robin; Parke, Ross D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations among emotion display rule use, negative emotional reactivity, and fourth-graders' social competence. Found negative relation between self-reported negative emotional coping strategies and observed measures of display rule use. Found children who reported using more effective coping strategies for managing negative emotions…

  12. Heads up display for the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.; Ganzler, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    A heads-up flight director display designed for a V/STOL lift-fan transport simulation study is described. The pilot's visual flight scene had the heads-up display optically superimposed over the usual out-the-window, video flight scene. The flight director display required the development and integration of a flexible, programmable display generator, graphics assembler, display driver, computer interface system, and special collimating optics for the pilot's flight scene. The optical overlay was realistic because both scenes appeared at optical infinity, and the flexibility of this display device establishes its value as a research tool for use in future flight simulation programs.

  13. Design and testing of an unlimited field-of-regard synthetic vision head-worn display for commercial aircraft surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence, III; Shelton, Kevin; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2007-04-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down, electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were their monochrome form and limited, fixed field of regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small, lightweight full color display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized for commercial aviation applications. In the proposed paper, the results of two ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations. The two studies tested a combined six display concepts: (1) paper charts with existing cockpit displays, (2) baseline consisting of existing cockpit displays including a Class III electronic flight bag display of the airport surface; (3) an advanced baseline that also included displayed traffic and routing information, (4) a modified version of a HUD and EMM display demonstrated in previous research; (5) an unlimited field-of-regard, full color, head-tracked HWD with a conformal 3-D synthetic vision surface view; and (6) a fully integrated HWD concept. The fully integrated HWD concept is a head-tracked, color, unlimited field-of-regard concept that provides a 3-D conformal synthetic view of the airport surface integrated with advanced taxi route clearance, taxi precision guidance, and data-link capability. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater path performance compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when

  14. Design and Testing of an Unlimited Field-of-regard Synthetic Vision Head-worn Display for Commercial Aircraft Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down, electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were their monochrome form and limited, fixed field of regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small, lightweight full color display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized for commercial aviation applications. In the proposed paper, the results of two ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations. The two studies tested a combined six display concepts: (1) paper charts with existing cockpit displays, (2) baseline consisting of existing cockpit displays including a Class III electronic flight bag display of the airport surface; (3) an advanced baseline that also included displayed traffic and routing information, (4) a modified version of a HUD and EMM display demonstrated in previous research; (5) an unlimited field-of-regard, full color, head-tracked HWD with a conformal 3-D synthetic vision surface view; and (6) a fully integrated HWD concept. The fully integrated HWD concept is a head-tracked, color, unlimited field-of-regard concept that provides a 3-D conformal synthetic view of the airport surface integrated with advanced taxi route clearance, taxi precision guidance, and data-link capability. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater path performance compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when

  15. Revised Simulation Model of the Control System, Displays, and Propulsion System for a ASTOVL Lift Fan Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes revisions to a simulation model that was developed for use in piloted evaluations of takeoff, transition, hover, and landing characteristics of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing lift fan fighter aircraft. These revisions have been made to the flight/propulsion control system, head-up display, and propulsion system to reflect recent flight and simulation experience with short takeoff and vertical landing operations. They include nonlinear inverse control laws in all axes (eliminating earlier versions with state rate feedback), throttle scaling laws for flightpath and thrust command, control selector commands apportioned based on relative effectiveness of the individual controls, lateral guidance algorithms that provide more flexibility for terminal area operations, and a simpler representation of the propulsion system. The model includes modes tailored to the phases of the aircraft's operation, with several response types which are coupled to the aircraft's aerodynamic and propulsion system effectors through a control selector tailored to the propulsion system. Head-up display modes for approach and hover are integrated with the corresponding control modes. Propulsion system components modeled include a remote lift fan and a lift-cruise engine. Their static performance and dynamic responses are represented by the model. A separate report describes the subsonic, power-off aerodynamics and jet induced aerodynamics in hover and forward flight, including ground effects.

  16. Simulation model of the integrated flight/propulsion control system, displays, and propulsion system for ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Y. William; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for use in piloted evaluations of takeoff, transition, hover, and landing characteristics of an advanced, short takeoff, vertical landing lift fan fighter aircraft. The flight/propulsion control system includes modes for several response types which are coupled to the aircraft's aerodynamic and propulsion system effectors through a control selector tailored to the lift fan propulsion system. Head-up display modes for approach and hover, tailored to their corresponding control modes are provided in the simulation. Propulsion system components modeled include a remote lift and a lift/cruise engine. Their static performance and dynamic response are represented by the model. A separate report describes the subsonic, power-off aerodynamics and jet induced aerodynamics in hover and forward flight, including ground effects.

  17. A computer graphics display technique for the examination of aircraft design data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique has been developed for quickly sorting and interpreting large amounts of aerodynamic data. It utilizes a graphic representation rather than numbers. The geometry package represents the vehicle as a set of panels. These panels are ordered in groups of ascending values (e.g., equilibrium temperatures). The groups are then displayed successively on a CRT building up to the complete vehicle. A zoom feature allows for displaying only the panels with values between certain limits. The addition of color allows a one-time display thus eliminating the need for a display build up.

  18. The effect of viewing time, time to encounter, and practice on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E. A.; Baty, D.; Jago, S.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Two studies were conducted to develop a clear and concise display format for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Subjects were required to monitor a CDTI for specified periods of time and to make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft. Experimental variables included: type of predictor information displayed on the two aircraft symbols; time to encounter point; length of time subjects viewed the display; amount of practice; and type of encounter (straight or turning). Results show that length of viewing time had little or no effect on performance; time to encounter influenced performance with the straight predictor but did not with the curved predictor; and that learning occurred under all conditions.

  19. Effects of expected-value information and display format on recognition of aircraft subsystem abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Abbott, Kathy H.

    1994-01-01

    This study identifies improved methods to present system parameter information for detecting abnormal conditions and to identify system status. Two workstation experiments were conducted. The first experiment determined if including expected-value-range information in traditional parameter display formats affected subject performance. The second experiment determined if using a nontraditional parameter display format, which presented relative deviation from expected value, was better than traditional formats with expected-value ranges included. The inclusion of expected-value-range information onto traditional parameter formats was found to have essentially no effect. However, subjective results indicated support for including this information. The nontraditional column deviation parameter display format resulted in significantly fewer errors compared with traditional formats with expected-value-ranges included. In addition, error rates for the column deviation parameter display format remained stable as the scenario complexity increased, whereas error rates for the traditional parameter display formats with expected-value ranges increased. Subjective results also indicated that the subjects preferred this new format and thought that their performance was better with it. The column deviation parameter display format is recommended for display applications that require rapid recognition of out-of-tolerance conditions, especially for a large number of parameters.

  20. The Primary Flight Display and Its Pathway Guidance: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.; Hardy, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments carried out in a high fidelity general aviation flight simulator, 42 instrument rated pilots flew a pathway-in-the-sky (tunnel) display through a series of multi-leg curved stepdown approaches through mountainous terrain. Both experiments examined how properties of the tunnel influenced flight path tracking performance, traffic awareness, terrain awareness and workload (assessed both by subjective and secondary task performance measures). Experiment 1, flown in simulated VMC, compared high and low intensity tunnels, with a less cluttered follow-me-airplane (FMA). The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flight path tracking than the FMA, because of the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity, while reducing subjective workload, had no benefit on tracking, and degraded traffic detection performance. In Experiment 2, flown mostly in IMC, the low intensity tunnel was flown with a large (10 inch x 8 inch) and small (8 inch x 6.5 inch) display, representing a geometric field of view (GFOV) of either 30 degrees or 60 degrees. Most measures of flight path tracking performance favored the smaller display, and particularly the 60 degree GFOV, which presented a smaller appearing tunnel, and a wider range of terrain depiction. The larger GFOV also supported better terrain awareness, and yielded a lower secondary task assessment of workload. In both experiments, the final landing approach was terminated by a runway obstruction, and the tunnel guided pilots on a missed approach. In nearly all cases, pilots failed to notice an air hazard that lay in the missed approach path, but was only depicted in the outside view.

  1. Compatibility and consistency in display-control systems - Implications for aircraft decision aid design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we contrast display-control movement relations defined in terms of stimulus-response (physical) compatibility with those defined by stimulus-cognitive compatibility, and we relate these findings to the issue of command versus status levels of decision aid support. A second issue addressed is the cost of inconsistency across multiple display-control mappings. Subjects performed a flight control task while responding to one to four analog indicators, formatted as either command or status displays. The results suggest that there is an advantage for the status format when subjects are required to verbally report the state of the indicator(s), but no advantage was found for either format when subjects were required to manually correct the indicated state. The data point to the importance of display-control consistency and suggest that it may even outweigh that of compatibility.

  2. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  3. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  4. A Sensitivity Study of Commercial Aircraft Engine Response for Emergency Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the details of a sensitivity study in which the variation in a commercial aircraft engine's outputs is observed for perturbations in its operating condition inputs or control parameters. This study seeks to determine the extent to which various controller limits can be modified to improve engine performance, while capturing the increased risk that results from the changes. In an emergency, the engine may be required to produce additional thrust, respond faster, or both, to improve the survivability of the aircraft. The objective of this paper is to propose changes to the engine controller and determine the costs and benefits of the additional capabilities produced by the engine. This study indicates that the aircraft engine is capable of producing additional thrust, but at the cost of an increased risk of an engine failure due to higher turbine temperatures and rotor speeds. The engine can also respond more quickly to transient commands, but this action reduces the remaining stall margin to possibly dangerous levels. To improve transient response in landing scenarios, a control mode known as High Speed Idle is proposed that increases the responsiveness of the engine and conserves stall margin

  5. Development and test of a low-cost 3D display for small aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman; Nothnagel, Klaus

    2002-07-01

    A low-cost 3D-display and navigation system providing guidance information in a 3-dimensional format is described. The system including a LC display, a PC based computer for generating the 3-dimensional guidance information, a navigation system providing D/GPS and inertial sensor based position and attitude data was realized using Commercial-off-the-Shelf components. An efficient computer software has been developed to generate the 3-dimensional guidance information with a high update rate. The guidance concept comprises an image of the outside world as well as a presentation of the command flight path, a predictor and other guidance elements in a 3-dimensional format.

  6. Accounting for human neurocognitive function in the design and evaluation of 360 degree situational awareness display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Jason S.; Mikulski, Thomas; Dittman, Scott

    2011-06-01

    The current state and trajectory of development for display technologies supporting information acquisition, analysis and dissemination lends a broad informational infrastructure to operators of complex systems. The amount of information available threatens to outstrip the perceptual-cognitive capacities of operators, thus limiting their ability to effectively interact with targeted technologies. Therefore, a critical step in designing complex display systems is to find an appropriate match between capabilities, operational needs, and human ability to utilize complex information. The present work examines a set of evaluation parameters that were developed to facilitate the design of systems to support a specific military need; that is, the capacity to support the achievement and maintenance of real-time 360° situational awareness (SA) across a range of complex military environments. The focal point of this evaluation is on the reciprocity native to advanced engineering and human factors practices, with a specific emphasis on aligning the operator-systemenvironment fit. That is, the objective is to assess parameters for evaluation of 360° SA display systems that are suitable for military operations in tactical platforms across a broad range of current and potential operational environments. The approach is centered on five "families" of parameters, including vehicle sensors, data transmission, in-vehicle displays, intelligent automation, and neuroergonomic considerations. Parameters are examined under the assumption that displays designed to conform to natural neurocognitive processing will enhance and stabilize Soldier-system performance and, ultimately, unleash the human's potential to actively achieve and maintain the awareness necessary to enhance lethality and survivability within modern and future operational contexts.

  7. Human factors issues in the development of helmet-mounted displays for tactical fixed-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, James M.

    1997-06-01

    There are many human factors issues that should be considered when designing a helmet mounted display for use in high speed aircraft with ejection seats. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System Program Office, with support from the Armstrong Laboratory and the Naval Air Warfare Center, has been studying many of these issues and is able to report several findings in the areas of anthropometry, limitations in head movement, helmet stability under high gravity forces and mass properties. This paper serves to summarize the findings of the program office in these areas. The paper will include highlights of several studies that have involved anthropometric data manipulation, 3D head scans, and testing of manikin and human subjects in static and dynamic cockpit environment simulations.

  8. Application of new GPS aircraft control/display system to topographic mapping of the Greenland ice cap

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Swift, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    NASA has completed an accurate baseline map of the elevation of the Greenland ice sheet using a scanning airborne lidar in combination with differential kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques. The present plan is to reoccupy these survey lines which are spread over the major regions of the ice sheet beginning in 1997. The results are expected to provide a quantitative answer on how the ice sheet is responding to regional climatic changes. Navigation to within +-100 m of the desired track over lengths of up to 1,000 km are a requirement for the success of the program. To meet this navigational requirement, NASA developed the GPS Flight Management System (GFMS). GFMS is a PC based system that uses the real-time position update from a single GPS receiver located on the aircraft to calculate a cross-track error and generates aircraft steering commands which are converted into analog Instrument Landing System (OM) signals using an RF generator. TU GFMS also updates a cockpit display. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  10. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

    2009-05-01

    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  11. Vista Sabre II: integration of helmet-mounted tracker/display and high off-boresight missile seeker into F-15 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merryman, Ron F. K.

    1994-06-01

    Future air battles will increasingly rely on aircraft capable of directing their advanced weapons with greater accuracy and at larger off-boresight angles. Analysis of current threats indicate that potential adversaries include this enhanced technology in their aircraft today. Helmet-mounted Tracker/Displays (HMT/D) provide a ready and capable response to that threat. These pilot- friendly systems allow the pilot to lock-on to targets and fire missiles at much greater angles than normally allowed in the head up display (HUD). Vista Sabre II is a congressionally mandated special project to evaluate a helmet-mounted display in an operational environment. The program effort involves the installation of two helmet-mounted tracker/display systems on two operational F-15C aircraft for demonstrating the capabilities of this technology in air-to-air combat. The system will provide the pilot with weapon status, targeting information, and other important, time critical, information necessary for effective air-to-air engagements at any head orientation without having to look into the cockpit or through the head up display (HUD). Also integrated into the system is a Navy high off-boresight missile seeker (HOBS) with extended range capability to track targets at high angles off the aircraft's boresight. The helmet display and HOBS will help the pilot lock a missile faster and simulate the missile launch. During the period of demonstration flights, the system will be evaluated through all aspects of the close-in, visual air-to-air combat arena, as well as investigating the human factors issues unique to helmet-mounted systems.

  12. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  13. Flight evaluation of stabilization and command augmentation system concepts and cockpit displays during approach and landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the effectiveness of manual control concepts and various cockpit displays in improving altitude (pitch, roll, and yaw) and longitudinal path control during short takeoff aircraft approaches and landings. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrared to minimum decision heights of 30 m (100 ft) for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. Precise landings at low touchdown sink rates were achieved with a gentle flare maneuver.

  14. Performance specification for control tower display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise L.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    Personnel in airport control towers monitor and direct the takeoff of outgoing aircraft, landing of incoming aircraft and all movements of aircraft on the ground. Although the primary source of information for the Local Controller, Assistant Local Controller and the Ground Controller is the real world viewed through the windows of the control tower, electronic displays are also used to provide situation awareness. Due to the criticality of the work to be performed by the controllers and the rather unique environment of the air traffic control tower, display hardware standards, which have been developed for general use, are not directly applicable. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested assistance of Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate in producing a document which can be adopted as a Tower Display Standard usable by display engineers, human factors practitioners and system integrators. Particular emphasis was placed on human factors issues applicable to the control tower environment and controller task demands.

  15. A comparison of kinesthetic-tactual and visual displays via a critical tracking task. [for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagacinski, R. J.; Miller, D. P.; Gilson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using the critical tracking task to evaluate kinesthetic-tactual displays was examined. The test subjects were asked to control a first-order unstable system with a continuously decreasing time constant by using either visual or tactual unidimensional displays. The results indicate that the critical tracking task is both a feasible and a reliable methodology for assessing tactual tracking. Further, that the critical tracking methodology is as sensitive and valid a measure of tactual tracking as visual tracking is demonstrated by the approximately equal effects of quickening for the tactual and visual displays.

  16. Initial Development of a Metric to Describe the Level of Safety Associated with Piloting an Aircraft with Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glabb, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. A combination of subjective and objective data measures were used to quantify the relationship between selected components of safety that are associated with flying an approach. Four information display methods ranging from a "round dials" baseline through a fully integrated SVS package that includes terrain, pathway based guidance, and a strategic navigation display, were investigated in this high fidelity simulation experiment. In addition, a broad spectrum of pilots, representative of the GA population, were employed for testing in an attempt to enable greater application of the results and

  17. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  18. Initial development of a metric to describe the level of safety associated with piloting an aircraft with synthetic vision systems (SVS) displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Throughout the course of recent SVS research, significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. The previous piloted simulations and flight tests have shown better SA and path precision is achievable with SVS displays without causing an increase in workload, however none of the previous SVS research attempted to fully capture the significance of SVS displays in terms of their contribution to safety or operational benefits. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. Such a comparison was the focus of the SVS-ES experiment conducted under the Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) GA Element of the SVS Project at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A combination of

  19. Display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, A. W. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A situational display and a means for creating the display are disclosed. The display comprises a moving line or raster, on a cathode ray tube, which is disposed intermediate of two columns of lamps or intensifications on the cathode ray tube. The raster and lights are controlled in such a manner that pairs of lights define a line which is either tracked or chased by the raster in accordance with the relationship between the optimum and actual values of a monitored parameter.

  20. Multi-Dimensionality of Synthetic Vision Cockpit Displays: Prevention of Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results showed the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  1. An Evaluation Methodology for Traffic Awareness Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Dearing, Munro

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation methodology for traffic awareness displays for helicopters and other vertical/short takeoff aircraft was developed. Pilots of vertical/short takeoff aircraft wil1 require more traffic information than would pilots of conventional aircraft to avoid both other vertical/short takeoff traffic and conventional traffic. The BF Goodrich Skywatch traffic advisory display was used as a candidate display to develop a procedure for evaluating the usefulness of such displays. Four high-time helicopter pilots participated in a 16-hour flight evaluation. They flew a closed circuit in the San Francisco Bay Area. In one-half of the flights the evaluation pilot had the traffic advisory display as an aid in detecting and locating traffic. In the other half of the flights the traffic advisory display was not available to the evaluation pilot. Data examined include measures of traffic advisory display performance and pilot performance in detecting traffic, as well as subjective workload and situation awareness data. The traffic advisory system did not help the pilots to detect more traffic. The importance of detection to traffic awareness is discussed.

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. Display technology - Human factors concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Alan; Wickens, Christopher; Kite, Kirsten

    1990-03-01

    Recent advances in the design of aircraft cockpit displays are reviewed, with an emphasis on their applicability to automobiles. The fundamental principles of display technology are introduced, and individual chapters are devoted to selective visual attention, command and status displays, foveal and peripheral displays, navigational displays, auditory displays, color and pictorial displays, head-up displays, automated systems, and dual-task performance and pilot workload. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs of typical displays are provided.

  4. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  6. Introducing large color displays in the Gripen fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundgren, Mats; Brandtberg, Hans

    1998-09-01

    Cockpit design is about communication between the aircraft system and the pilot. The information available on-board is very large and increases with on-going development of the systems. New functions for integration and fusion will, together with decision support and automation, set requirements on the displays to transfer information to the pilot. Information overload, mental workload and flight safety are always important areas to put efforts in. The present version of the Swedish JAS 39 Gripen aircraft has three monochrome multi-function displays. The displays are fairly large for a small aircraft, 5' X 6', giving a good situation awareness for the pilot. A new version of the Gripen cockpit featuring large color displays is now under development and will be introduced to the Swedish air force and ready for export market in the end of 2001. Display size, resolution, graphics capability and color have great impact on the pilots ability to acquire and understand the presented information. These factors are very important when designing an improved cockpit. By utilizing the most modern flat panel AMLCD techniques we have succeeded in integrating three 6.2' X 8.3' full-color multi-function displays in the Gripen aircraft.

  7. Can Effective Synthetic Vision System Displays be Implemented on Limited Size Display Spaces?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Glaab, Lou J.; Prinzel, Lance J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents, and to enhance operational capabilities of all types or aircraft. To accomplish these safety and situation awareness improvements, the SVS concepts are designed to provide a clear view of the world ahead through the display of computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle and airport information. An important issue for the SVS concept is whether useful and effective Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displays can be implemented on limited size display spaces as would be required to implement this technology on older aircraft with physically smaller instrument spaces. In this study, prototype SVS displays were put on the following display sizes: (a) size "A' (e.g. 757 EADI), (b) form factor "D" (e.g. 777 PFD), and (c) new size "X" (Rectangular flat-panel, approximately 20 x 25 cm). Testing was conducted in a high-resolution graphics simulation facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific issues under test included the display size as noted above, the field-of-view (FOV) to be shown on the display and directly related to FOV is the degree of minification of the displayed image or picture. Using simulated approaches with display size and FOV conditions held constant no significant differences by these factors were found. Preferred FOV based on performance was determined by using approaches during which pilots could select FOV. Mean preference ratings for FOV were in the following order: (1) 30 deg., (2) Unity, (3) 60 deg., and (4) 90 deg., and held true for all display sizes tested. Limitations of the present study and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Horizontal Conflict Resolution Maneuvers with a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Jago, S.; Dubord, M.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot resolution of potential conflicts in the horizontal plane when the only information available on the other aircraft was presented on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is investigated. The pilot's task was to assess the situation and if necessary maneuver so as to avoid the other aircraft. No instructions were given on evasive strategy or on what was considered to be an acceptable minimum separation. The results indicate that pilots had a strong bias of turning toward the intruder aircraft in order to pass behind it. In more than 50% of the encounters with a 90 degree crossing angle in which the intruder aircraft was programmed to pass behind the aircraft, the pilots maneuvered so as to pass behind the intruder. This bias was not as strong with the display which showed a prediction of the intruder's relative velocity. The average miss distance for all encounters was about 4500 feet.

  9. Tactile displays for enhanced performance and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Heidi; Dobbins, Trevor D.

    2004-09-01

    Platform performance and safety are dependent on operator situational awareness. This is traditionally achieved via visual and audio displays but an intuitive alternative is the tactile display. A familiar tactile display is the vibrating alert function of the mobile telephone but more complex tactile display applications have been demonstrated in a number of scenarios, including fixed and rotary wing aircraft, high-speed boats, diving, and assisting the visually impaired. The major applications include orientation, navigation, and communication. A recent NATO Research & Technology Organisation symposium on spatial disorientation (La Coruna, Spain, 2002) stated that; 'The most important advance of recent years with the potential to combat spatial disorientation has been the use of tactile stimuli to give information on spatial orientation'.

  10. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  11. Visual-conformal display format for helicopter guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehler, H.-U.; Schmerwitz, Sven; Lueken, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Helicopter guidance in situations where natural vision is reduced is still a challenging task. Beside new available sensors, which are able to "see" through darkness, fog and dust, display technology remains one of the key issues of pilot assistance systems. As long as we have pilots within aircraft cockpits, we have to keep them informed about the outside situation. "Situational awareness" of humans is mainly powered by their visual channel. Therefore, display systems which are able to cross-fade seamless from natural vision to artificial computer vision and vice versa, are of greatest interest within this context. Helmet-mounted displays (HMD) have this property when they apply a head-tracker for measuring the pilot's head orientation relative to the aircraft reference frame. Together with the aircraft's position and orientation relative to the world's reference frame, the on-board graphics computer can generate images which are perfectly aligned with the outside world. We call image elements which match the outside world, "visual-conformal". Published display formats for helicopter guidance in degraded visual environment apply mostly 2D-symbologies which stay far behind from what is possible. We propose a perspective 3D-symbology for a head-tracked HMD which shows as much as possible visual-conformal elements. We implemented and tested our proposal within our fixed based cockpit simulator as well as in our flying helicopter simulator (FHS). Recently conducted simulation trials with experienced helicopter pilots give some first evaluation results of our proposal.

  12. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  13. Simulation of a cockpit-display concept for executing a wake-vortex avoidance procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been undertaken to determine the feasibility and potential benefits of utilizing a forward-looking display to provide information that would enable aircraft to reduce their in-trail separation, and hence increase runway capacity, through the application of multiple glide-path approach techniques. This portion of the study was an initial exploration into a concept in which traffic information was added to a head-up display (HUD) format to allow the pilot to monitor the traffic situation and to self-space on a lead aircraft during a single glide-path approach task. The tests were conducted in a motion-base cockpit simulator configured as a current-generation transport aircraft and include the dynamic effects of the vortices generated by the lead aircraft. The information provided on the HUD included typical aircraft-guidance information and the current and past positions of the lead aircraft. Additionally, the displayed information provided self-separation cues which allowed the pilot to maintain separation on the lead aircraft. The results of this study indicate that the display concept could provide sufficient information to the pilot for traffic monitoring and self-separation.

  14. Predictive nosepointing and flightpath displays for air-to-air combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-10-01

    As part of the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), two integrated pictorial displays have been developed for piloted simulation evaluations and, ultimately, for flight testing on board the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The first concept is a nosepointing display which illustrates the range of control the pilot has over the aircraft nose. The second concept is a predictive flightpath display that allows the pilot to see how his current control inputs will affect his aircraft's future position and orientation. The development of both display concepts will be discussed, as well as the results from a piloted simulation experiment in which pilots viewed the flightpath display in a wide-field-of-view Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) while engaged in an air-combat situation.

  15. Early flight test experience with Cockpit Displayed Traffic Information (CDTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coded symbology, based on the results of early human factors studies, was displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator and flight tested on an advanced research aircraft in order to subject the coded traffic symbology to a realistic flight environment and to assess its value by means of a direct comparison with simple, uncoded traffic symbology. The tests consisted of 28 curved, decelerating approaches, flown by research-pilot flight crews. The traffic scenarios involved both conflict-free and blunder situations. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefing sessions. The results of these debriefing sessions group conveniently under either of two categories: display factors or task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few aircraft. In terms of task performance, the cockpit displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness.

  16. Pathway Concepts Experiment for Head-Down Synthetic Vision Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow s feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow s feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  17. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Shaver, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    A very recent FCC Final Rule now permits marketing and operation of new products that incorporate Ultrawideband (UWB) technology into handheld devices. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This paper provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  18. Pathway Design Effects on Synthetic Vision Head-Up Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different tunnel and guidance concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two tunnel formats (dynamic, minimal) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated IMC approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence on the tunnel formats. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  19. Situated University, Situated Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  20. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  1. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  2. Potential interactions of collision avoidance advisories and cockpit displays of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Ellis, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Future aircraft cockpits may be equipped with both collision avoidance systems and cockpit traffic situation displays. This paper summarizes a series of experiments investigating a pilot's ability to make a variety of traffic related decisions with a traffic display. Some of the key findings were: Pilots were not able to accurately judge the future position of an aircraft unless the display contained predictor symbols. Pilots' subjective judgements of threat were inversely proportional to time to closest approach but generally were not sensitive to small changes of other parameters of the encounter. When pilots were asked to make avoidance maneuvers based solely on the traffic display, they began their maneuvers well before a CAS advisory would have been triggered. Provided sufficient time was available, pilots preferred horizontal avoidance maneuvers.

  3. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  4. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, A.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator was successfully used to evaluate graphical microbursts alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  5. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  6. Conflict resolution maneuvers during near miss encounters with cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The benefits and liabilities associated with pilots' use of a cockpit traffic display to assess the threat posed by air traffic and to make small maneuvers to avoid situations which would result in collision avoidance advisories are experimentally studied. The crew's task was to fly a simulated wide-body aircraft along a straight course at constant altitude while intruder aircraft appeared on a variety of converging trajectories. The main experimental variables were the amount and quality of the information displayed on the intruder aircraft's estimated future position. Pilots were to maintain a horizontal separation of at least 1.5 nautical miles or a vertical separation of 500 ft, so that collision avoidance advisories would not be triggered. The results show that pilots could usually maneuver to provide the specified separation but often made course deviations greater than 1.5 nm or 500 ft.

  7. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  8. Flight Test of a Head-Worn Display as an Equivalent-HUD for Terminal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, L. J., III; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  9. Flight test of a head-worn display as an equivalent-HUD for terminal operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J.; Prinzel, L. J.; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-05-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  10. Improved full-color F-16A/B and F-16C/D multifunction display using a ruggedized COTS active matrix color liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orkis, Randall E.

    1995-06-01

    The Improved F-16 Display Unit (DU) is the first use of a ruggedized COTS LCD in a high performance fighter application and is the first color LCD to fly in an F-16 aircraft. The Display Unit (DU) is one of two LRUs that make up the Improved Radar Electro-Optical (REO) Display Set. The second LRU is called the Electronics Unit (EU). The Improved REO Display Set flew for the first time in August of 1994 and will continue flight testing through 1995. In addition to the improved R&M features of the design, the new system provides the capability for increased performance and growth through an open systems modular architecture. This will be demonstrated during testing this year in which the improved REO Display Set will be a key component in the Air Force Reserves Integrated Electronic Combat Feasibility Assessment Project for the F-16C aircraft, by providing a consolidated color situation awareness display. The current EC LRUs are not integrated, and each EC element has its own controls and displays which are dispersed throughout the cockpit. This puts a significant burden on the pilot and limits his ability to react to various threats. The Improved REO Display Set distributed processing capabilities and color displays allow the EC horizontal situation awareness formats to be generated and consolidated on one of the REO system color LCDs through bezel switch selection of available displays. This paper presents the latest performance characteristics of the Improved Display Unit, testing results, and the design trade-offs that lead to the use of a ruggedized COTS LCD rather than a custom military LCD. Following flight testing and pilot evaluation, a decision will be made to proceed with production refinement of the ruggedized design or to transition to a custom LCD designed specifically for military use.

  11. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  12. A comparison of communication modes for delivery of air traffic control clearance amendments in transport category aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, D.; Bussolari, S. R.; Hansman, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    A user centered evaluation is performed on the use of flight deck automation for display and control of aircraft horizontal flight path. A survey was distributed to pilots with a wide range of experience with the use of flight management computers in transport category aircraft to determine the acceptability and use patterns as reflected by the need for information displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator. A summary of survey results and planned part-task simulation to compare three communication modes (verbal, alphanumeric, graphic) are presented.

  13. Alaskan flight trials of a synthetic vision system for instrument landings of a piston twin aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Andrew K.; Alter, Keith W.; Jennings, Chad W.; Powell, J. D.

    1999-07-01

    Stanford University has developed a low-cost prototype synthetic vision system and flight tested it onboard general aviation aircraft. The display aids pilots by providing an 'out the window' view, making visualization of the desired flight path a simple task. Predictor symbology provides guidance on straight and curved paths presented in a 'tunnel- in-the-sky' format. Based on commodity PC hardware to achieve low cost, the Tunnel Display system uses differential GPS (typically from Stanford prototype Wide Area Augmentation System hardware) for positioning and GPS-aided inertial sensors for attitude determination. The display has been flown onboard Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft at several different locations. This paper describes the system, its development, and flight trials culminating with tests in Alaska during the summer of 1998. Operational experience demonstrated the Tunnel Display's ability to increase flight- path following accuracy and situational awareness while easing the task instrument flying.

  14. 4D flight guidance displays: an approach to flight safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Below, Christian; von Viebahn, Harro; Hammer, Matthias

    1995-06-01

    The pilot's achievement of situation awareness (SA) remains a challenge for cockpit designers. Various mainly technology driven solutions were suggested to improve SA. Another approach is the integration of data and the presentation of predictive data. This approach was pursued by the development of a perspective, pictorial display format for transport aircraft. The 4D- Display and the accompanying Navigation-Display greatly enhance pilots' awareness regarding their situation relative to terrain, obstacles, aircraft in the vicinity and virtual elements. Since most of the information is contained in a graphical way, it can intuitively be seized by the observer. Especially in phases of high workload, the highly pre-processed information and its redundant and predictive presentation will significantly contribute to pilots' situation awareness. The displays were integrated into a fixed based flight simulator. Experiments with airline pilots showed that the perspective symbology reduced the pilot's workload and at the same time, improved the tracking of the demanded flight path. In order to provide the required graphics processing power for complex pictorial displays VDO-L develops a high performance symbol generator which meets the demands of prospective applications. The multi-processor system has been designed for modular avionics architectures and it provides full 2D and 3D capabilities.

  15. Simulator study of a flight director display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A six degree of freedom, fixed base simulation study of the use of a flight director by general aviation pilots in an instrument landing system approach was conducted. An autopilot command law was used to drive the flight director needles. Time histories of the pilot aircraft display system responses and standard deviations and means of the glide slope and localizer errors were obtained. The pilot aircraft display system responses with the flight director were very similar to the autopilot aircraft responses. Without the flight director, the pilot aircraft display system exhibited less damping than with the flight director. The sensitivity of the flight director command laws was judged to be about as high as it could be by the test subjects. Thus, further improvement in the pilot aircraft display system performance by increasing the gains in the command laws was precluded.

  16. Operational utility evaluation of helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Randall W.; Franck, Douglas L.

    1998-08-01

    Current Air Force aircraft, such as the F-15 and F-16, and future aircraft, have a need to leverage improving technologies such as helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds) to maintain superior air combat capability in future conflicts. HMT/Ds can allow the pilot to point weapons and to quickly slew sensors at short visual range targets in either an air-to-air or air-to-ground environment. Flight and weapons parameters commonly displayed on ahead-up display can be provided on HMT/Ds, allowing the pilot to remain 'head out' of the cockpit for longer time periods while maintaining better situational awareness. If the hMT/D systems are designed and then tested early, the result can then be used to transfer technology, and reduce risk, for follow-on programs such as the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System.

  17. Advanced Pathway Guidance Evaluations on a Synthetic Vision Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to potentially eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced guidance for commercial and business aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different pathway and guidance display concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two pathway formats (dynamic and minimal tunnel presentations) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated instrument meteorological conditions approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  18. Test techniques for evaluating flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Newman, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of graphics technology allows for greater flexibility in aircraft displays, but display evaluation techniques have not kept pace. Historically, display evaluation has been based on subjective opinion and not on the actual aircraft/pilot performance. Existing electronic display specifications and evaluation techniques are reviewed. A display rating technique analogous to handling qualities ratings was developed and is recommended for future evaluations. The choice of evaluation pilots is also discussed and the use of a limited number of trained evaluators is recommended over the use of a large number of operational pilots.

  19. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft must display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital...

  20. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft shall display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman...

  1. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft shall display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman...

  2. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft must display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital...

  3. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft must display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital...

  4. Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Free Flight Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne; Holland, Sheila; Belcher, Sean; Jordan, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Two versions of a prototype Free Flight cockpit situational display (Basic and Enhanced) were examined in a simulation at the NASA Ames Research Center. Both displays presented a display of traffic out to a range of 120 NM, and an alert when the automation detected a substantial danger of losing separation with another aircraft. The task for the crews was to detect and resolve threats to separation posed by intruder aircraft. An Enhanced version of the display was also examined. It incorporated two additional conflict alerting levels and tools to aid in trajectory prediction and path planning. Ten crews from a major airline participated in the study. Performance analyses and pilot debriefings showed that the Enhanced display was preferred, and that minimal separation between the intruder and the ownship was larger with the Enhanced display. In addition, the additional information on the Enhanced display did not lead crews to engage in more maneuvering. Instead an opposite trend was indicated. Finally, crews using the Enhanced display responded more proactively, tending to resolve alerts earlier.

  5. Avoidance maneuevers selected while viewing cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Ellis, S. R.; Lee, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ten airline pilots rates the collision danger of air traffic presented on cockpit displays of traffic information while they monitored simulated departures from Denver. They selected avoidance maneuvers when necessary for separation. Most evasive maneuvers were turns rather than vertical maneuvers. Evasive maneuvers chosen for encounters with low or moderate collision danger were generally toward the intruding aircraft. This tendency lessened as the perceived threat level increased. In the highest threst situations pilots turned toward the intruder only at chance levels. Intruders coming from positions in front of the pilot's own ship were more frequently avoided by turns toward than when intruders approached laterally or from behind. Some of the implications of the pilots' turning-toward tendencies are discussed with respect to automatic collision avoidance systems and coordination of avoidance maneuvers of conflicting aircraft.

  6. Pilot performance during a simulated standard instrument procedure turn with and without a predictor display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of predictor information incorporated into a CRT display of a computer simulated aircraft's horizontal and vertical situation. Professional pilots served as subjects for the task of executing a standard instrument procedure turn at constant altitude in constant crosswinds with and without their predicted ground track displayed. The results showed that the display with the predicted ground track was markedly and significantly superior to the display without this information and that the subjects were generally satisfied with this type of information. Mean rms lateral path error was independent of the crosswind velocity with the predictor information, and increased without it and with increasing wind velocity. Rms stick activity decreased with the predictor display which also uncoupled aileron and elevator activity.

  7. Synthetic Vision Enhances Situation Awareness and RNP Capabilities for Terrain-Challenged Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2003-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project of Aviation Safety Program is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents as well as enhance operational capabilities of all aircraft through the display of computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information. To achieve these objectives, NASA 757 flight test research was conducted at the Eagle-Vail, Colorado airport to evaluate three SVS display types (Head-Up Display, Head-Down Size A, Head-Down Size X) and two terrain texture methods (photo-realistic, generic) in comparison to the simulated Baseline Boeing-757 Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator and Navigation / Terrain Awareness and Warning System displays. These independent variables were evaluated for situation awareness, path error, and workload while making approaches to Runway 25 and 07 and during simulated engine-out Cottonwood 2 and KREMM departures. The results of the experiment showed significantly improved situation awareness, performance, and workload for SVS concepts compared to the Baseline displays and confirmed the retrofit capability of the Head-Up Display and Size A SVS concepts. The research also demonstrated that the pathway and pursuit guidance used within the SVS concepts achieved required navigation performance (RNP) criteria.

  8. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  9. Motion-Base Simulator Evaluation of an Aircraft Using an External Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, J. J.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.; Harrison, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Twelve air transport-rated pilots participated as subjects in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of eXternal Vision Systems (XVS) as enabling technologies for future supersonic aircraft without forward facing windows. Three head-up flight display concepts were evaluated -a monochromatic, collimated Head-up Display (HUD) and a color, non-collimated XVS display with a field-of-view (FOV) equal to and also, one significantly larger than the collimated HUD. Approach, landing, departure, and surface operations were conducted. Additionally, the apparent angle-of-attack (AOA) was varied (high/low) to investigate the vertical field-of-view display requirements and peripheral, side window visibility was experimentally varied. The data showed that lateral approach tracking performance and lateral landing position were excellent regardless of AOA, display FOV, display collimation or whether peripheral cues were present. However, the data showed glide slope approach tracking appears to be affected by display size (i.e., FOV) and collimation. The monochrome, collimated HUD and color, uncollimated XVS with Full FOV display had (statistically equivalent) glide path performance improvements over the XVS with HUD FOV display. Approach path performance results indicated that collimation may not be a requirement for an XVS display if the XVS display is large enough and employs color. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness also indicated that an uncollimated XVS display may be feasible. Motion cueing appears to have improved localizer tracking and touchdown sink rate across all displays.

  10. Global positioning system supported pilot's display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

  11. Formal tests for LLM approaches using refined cockpit display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Wilt, Dennis W.; Henion, James; Alter, Keith; Snow, Paul; Deaton, John E.

    2005-05-01

    Results are presented from formal flight and simulation experiments to test a new primary flight display (PFD)/refined multifunction display (MFD) system, with a computer generated dynamic pathway, as a viable means for a pilot to accurately and efficiently control and navigate an aircraft. For flight control, the PFD uses a computer generated highway-in-the-sky (HITS) pathway and a synthetic vision terrain image of the view outside the aircraft, with an overlay of all the essential flight technical data. For navigation, the MFD provides a moving map with a dynamic pathway to aid the pilot. The total PFD/MFD system provides a predictive method for flying an aircraft, as opposed to the reactive method associated with conventional needle and dial instruments. Fifteen low-to-average-experience subject pilots were selected to compare the PFD instrumentation system to a conventional instrumentation system. A non-precision global positioning system (GPS) area navigation (RNAV) approach to runway 20 at Wakefield Municipal Airport, VA, (AKQ) was used. The hypothesis was that the intuitive nature of the PFD instrumentation system will provide greater situational awareness, improved accuracy, and less pilot workload during flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) compared to using conventional round dial instrumentation.

  12. Display Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Display took a wide variety of forms ranging from students presenting their initial planning and thought processes, to displays of their finished work, and their suggestions for extending the task should they, or others, have time to return to it in the future. A variety of different media were used from traditional posters in many shapes and…

  13. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  14. Projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  15. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  17. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  18. GPS 3-D cockpit displays: Sensors, algorithms, and flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Andrew Kevin

    Tunnel-in-the-Sky 3-D flight displays have been investigated for several decades as a means of enhancing aircraft safety and utility. However, high costs have prevented commercial development and seriously hindered research into their operational benefits. The rapid development of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS), inexpensive computing power, and ruggedized displays is now changing this situation. A low-cost prototype system was built and flight tested to investigate implementation and operational issues. The display provided an "out the window" 3-D perspective view of the world, letting the pilot see the horizon, runway, and desired flight path even in instrument flight conditions. The flight path was depicted as a tunnel through which the pilot flew the airplane, while predictor symbology provided guidance to minimize path-following errors. Positioning data was supplied, by various DGPS sources including the Stanford Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) testbed. A combination of GPS and low-cost inertial sensors provided vehicle heading, pitch, and roll information. Architectural and sensor fusion tradeoffs made during system implementation are discussed. Computational algorithms used to provide guidance on curved paths over the earth geoid are outlined along with display system design issues. It was found that current technology enables low-cost Tunnel-in-the-Sky display systems with a target cost of $20,000 for large-scale commercialization. Extensive testing on Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft demonstrated enhanced accuracy and operational flexibility on a variety of complex flight trajectories. These included curved and segmented approaches, traffic patterns flown on instruments, and skywriting by instrument reference. Overlays to existing instrument approaches at airports in California and Alaska were flown and compared with current instrument procedures. These overlays demonstrated improved utility and situational awareness for

  19. Situational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Helmersberg, Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    Situational Consultation (SC) is presented as a framework for flexible integration of several models and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. In SC, models and their characteristic role positions are considered interchangeable tools with qualitative differences in strengths and…

  20. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  1. Handling qualities effects of display latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Display latency is the time delay between aircraft response and the corresponding response of the cockpit displays. Currently, there is no explicit specification for allowable display lags to ensure acceptable aircraft handling qualities in instrument flight conditions. This paper examines the handling qualities effects of display latency between 70 and 400 milliseconds for precision instrument flight tasks of the V-22 Tiltrotor aircraft. Display delay effects on the pilot control loop are analytically predicted through a second order pilot crossover model of the V-22 lateral axis, and handling qualities trends are evaluated through a series of fixed-base piloted simulation tests. The results show that the effects of display latency for flight path tracking tasks are driven by the stability characteristics of the attitude control loop. The data indicate that the loss of control damping due to latency can be simply predicted from knowledge of the aircraft's stability margins, control system lags, and required control bandwidths. Based on the relationship between attitude control damping and handling qualities ratings, latency design guidelines are presented. In addition, this paper presents a design philosophy, supported by simulation data, for using flight director display augmentation to suppress the effects of display latency for delays up to 300 milliseconds.

  2. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  3. The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) subelement is to improve the efficiency of airport surface operations for commercial aircraft operating in weather conditions to Category IIIB while maintaining a high degree of safety. Currently, surface operations are one of the least technologically sophisticated components of the air transport system, being conducted in the 1990's with the same basic technology as in the 1930's. Pilots are given little or no explicit information about their current position, and routing information is limited to ATC communications and airport charts. In TAP/LVLASO, advanced technologies such as satellite navigation systems, digital data communications, advanced information presentation technology, and ground surveillance systems will be integrated into flight deck displays to enable expeditious and safe traffic movement on the airport surface. The cockpit display suite is called the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness) System. This system has three integrated components: 1) Moving Map track-up airport surface display with own-ship, traffic and graphical route guidance 2) Scene-Linked Symbology - route/taxi information virtually projected via a Head-up Display (HUD) onto the forward scene; and, 3) 3-D Audio Ground Collision Avoidance and Navigation system - spatially-localized auditory traffic and navigation alerts. In the current paper, the design philosophy of the T-NASA system will be presented, and the T-NASA system display components described.

  4. Pilot performance with a simulated ILS independence pictorial display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Wempe, T.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of the effectiveness of pictorial displays for manual control and monitoring of aircraft approaches and landings, a simulator study was conducted in which pilot performance with three pictorial displays was evaluated. These displays differed in the type of guidance symbology added to the basic perspective runway display. The effect of decreased resolution and update rate of the runway image on pilot performance was also determined. The results indicate that for pictorial displays with added guidance symbology, there was a marked improvement in pilot performance compared to results of a previous study in which the display consisted of only a runway image and aircraft attitude.

  5. Military display market segment: helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  6. Beyond traffic depiction: conformally integrating the conflict space to support Level 3 situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Kirk, Kevin M.

    2010-04-01

    The research described in this paper explores the addition of conformally integrated traffic probes into an egocentric Synthetic Vision (SV) Primary Flight Display (PFD). The underlying thought is that, although the traffic that is predicted to cause a future loss of separation may not lie within the field of view of the display, the location where the loss of separation is predicted to occur always will. Hence, rather than focusing on the depiction of traffic, which contributes to level 2 Situation Awareness (SA), the concept pursues spatially integrated depiction of the airspace where a loss of separation is predicted. This provides readily actionable conflict information, relieving pilots from the traffic position and conflict estimation task and contributing to level 3 SA. The paper describes the integration of the data from the traffic probe into an SV PFD. The advantages of the concept will be illustrated using several traffic conflict scenarios, including an overtaking scenario involving unmanned aircraft. Given that unmanned aircraft may be markedly slower than manned aircraft which operate within the same airspace, a spatially integrated depiction of airspace where a future loss of separation is predicted, can help to preserve safety in classes of airspace that accommodate both manned and unmanned aircraft. Additionally, examples are provided illustrating how traffic probes can support pilots in monitoring the conformance of traffic to the priority rules of 14 CFR 91.113.

  7. Visually Coupled Systems (VCS): The Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1992-01-01

    The development and impact is described of new visually coupled system (VCS) equipment designed to support engineering and human factors research in the military aircraft cockpit environment. VCS represents an advanced man-machine interface (MMI). Its potential to improve aircrew situational awareness seems enormous, but its superiority over the conventional cockpit MMI has not been established in a conclusive and rigorous fashion. What has been missing is a 'systems' approach to technology advancement that is comprehensive enough to produce conclusive results concerning the operational viability of the VCS concept and verify any risk factors that might be involved with its general use in the cockpit. The advanced VCS configuration described here, was ruggedized for use in military aircraft environments and was dubbed the Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD). It was designed to answer the VCS portion of the systems problem, and is implemented as a modular system whose performance can be tailored to specific application requirements. The overall system concept and the design of the two most important electronic subsystems that support the helmet mounted parts, a new militarized version of the magnetic helmet mounted sight and correspondingly similar helmet display electronics, are discussed in detail. Significant emphasis is given to illustrating how particular design features in the hardware improve overall system performance and support research activities.

  8. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Visual-Line-of-Sight Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Mcadaragh, Raymon; Burdette, Daniel W.; Comstock, James R.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Fan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) project, research on integrating small UAS (sUAS) into the NAS was underway by a human-systems integration (HSI) team at the NASA Langley Research Center. Minimal to no research has been conducted on the safe, effective, and efficient manner in which to integrate these aircraft into the NAS. sUAS are defined as aircraft weighing 55 pounds or less. The objective of this human system integration team was to build a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) and to develop a research test-bed and database that provides data, proof of concept, and human factors guidelines for GCS operations in the NAS. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flying sUAS in Class D and Class G airspace utilizing manual control inputs and voice radio communications between the pilot, mission control, and air traffic control. The design of the experiment included three sets of GCS display configurations, in addition to a hand-held control unit. The three different display configurations were VLOS, VLOS + Primary Flight Display (PFD), and VLOS + PFD + Moving Map (Map). Test subject pilots had better situation awareness of their vehicle position, altitude, airspeed, location over the ground, and mission track using the Map display configuration. This configuration allowed the pilots to complete the mission objectives with less workload, at the expense of having better situation awareness of other aircraft. The subjects were better able to see other aircraft when using the VLOS display configuration. However, their mission performance, as well as their ability to aviate and navigate, was reduced compared to runs that included the PFD and Map displays.

  9. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  10. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) System for Ownership and Traffic Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention proposes an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) architecture and process, in which priority aircraft and ADS-B IN traffic information are included in the transmission of data through the telemetry communications to a remote ground control station. The present invention further proposes methods for displaying general aviation traffic information in three and/or four dimension trajectories using an industry standard Earth browser for increased situation awareness and enhanced visual acquisition of traffic for conflict detection. The present invention enable the applications of enhanced visual acquisition of traffic, traffic alerts, and en-route and terminal surveillance used to augment pilot situational awareness through ADS-B IN display and information in three or four dimensions for self-separation awareness.

  11. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  12. Head Up Displays. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Head Up Displays. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Flight Simulator Visual-Display Delay Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis

    1981-01-01

    A piloted aircraft can be viewed as a closed-loop man-machine control system. When a simulator pilot is performing a precision maneuver, a delay in the visual display of aircraft response to pilot-control input decreases the stability of the pilot-aircraft system. The less stable system is more difficult to control precisely. Pilot dynamic response and performance change as the pilot attempts to compensate for the decrease in system stability. The changes in pilot dynamic response and performance bias the simulation results by influencing the pilot's rating of the handling qualities of the simulated aircraft. The study reported here evaluated an approach to visual-display delay compensation. The objective of the compensation was to minimize delay-induced change in pilot performance and workload, The compensation was effective. Because the compensation design approach is based on well-established control-system design principles, prospects are favorable for successful application of the approach in other simulations.

  15. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  16. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  17. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  18. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  19. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  20. Display research: Pilot response with the ""follow-me'' box display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of display configurations and their effect on pilot-aircraft system response was undertaken. An examination of conventional displays was done to provide a set of data that can be used for comparison with advanced displays. An examination of an advanced display design that includes the use of a digital computer and a cathode ray tube to provide a drawing of a three dimensional box is done. The results show the improvement in system performance that can be obtained with the advanced display. Studies were conducted using the General Aviation Simulator, but verification of the results with the advanced display was also obtained from flight tests.

  1. A principled approach to the measurement of situation awareness in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Pew, Richard W.; Huggins, A. W. F.; Rogers, William H.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of how to support situation awareness among crews of modern commercial aircraft is becoming especially important with the introduction of automation in the form of sophisticated flight management computers and expert systems designed to assist the crew. In this paper, cognitive theories are discussed that have relevance for the definition and measurement of situation awareness. These theories suggest that comprehension of the flow of events is an active process that is limited by the modularity of attention and memory constraints, but can be enhanced by expert knowledge and strategies. Three implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situation awareness are considered: (1) Scenario variations are proposed that tax awareness by placing demands on attention; (2) Experimental tasks and probes are described for assessing the cognitive processes that underlie situation awareness; and (3) The use of computer-based human performance models to augment the measures of situation awareness derived from performance data is explored. Finally, two potential example applications of the proposed assessment techniques are described, one concerning spatial awareness using wide field of view displays and the other emphasizing fault management in aircraft systems.

  2. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  3. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  4. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  5. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  6. Dimensions of air traffic control tower information needs: from information requests to display design.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Johnson, Brian R; Crutchfield, Jerry M

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead, controllers were required to ask for precisely the information they needed during the scenarios. The information requests were classified using an elaboration of Zwaan and Radvansky's (1998) dimensions of situation models. The vast majority of requests were about three of the dimensions originally developed for reading comprehension: the protagonist, intentionality, and space. The information requests were also classified into 28 operational categories (e.g., aircraft identification, destination). From these results, the data were summarized, not just statistically, but by the creation of display-hypotheses. The display-hypotheses were organized according to the situation-model dimensions. Controllers preferred data blocks organized by the situation-model principle over those that violated this organization. The summary display-hypotheses were quite simple and accounted for the vast majority of the information requests controllers made. The display-hypotheses accounted for the information needs of controllers during routine as well as off-nominal events. PMID:20853983

  7. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  8. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  9. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  10. Preliminary design of a family of close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuschhoff, Jeff; Bartel, Rudy; Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Drake, TY; Hendrich, Louis; Hicks, Robin; Holt, Mark; Hoyle, Mark; Kerns, Brian

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  11. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  12. Multi-Agent Flight Simulation with Robust Situation Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A robust situation generation architecture has been developed that generates multi-agent situations for human subjects. An implementation of this architecture was developed to support flight simulation tests of air transport cockpit systems. This system maneuvers pseudo-aircraft relative to the human subject's aircraft, generating specific situations for the subject to respond to. These pseudo-aircraft maneuver within reasonable performance constraints, interact in a realistic manner, and make pre-recorded voice radio communications. Use of this system minimizes the need for human experimenters to control the pseudo-agents and provides consistent interactions between the subject and the pseudo-agents. The achieved robustness of this system to typical variations in the subject's flight path was explored. It was found to successfully generate specific situations within the performance limitations of the subject-aircraft, pseudo-aircraft, and the script used.

  13. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  14. Effects of combining vertical and horizontal information into a primary flight display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Nataupsky, Mark; Steinmetz, George G.

    1987-01-01

    A ground-based aircraft simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of combining vertical and horizontal flight information into a single display. Two display configurations were used in this study. The first configuration consisted of a Primary Flight Display (PFD) format and a Horizontal Situation Display (HSD) with the PFD displayed conventionally above the HSD. For the second display configuration, the HSD format was combined with the PFD format. Four subjects participated in this study. Data were collected on performance parameters, pilot-control inputs, auditory evoked response parameters (AEP), oculometer measurements (eye-scan), and heart rate. Subjective pilot opinion was gathered through questionnaire data and scorings for both the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). The results of this study showed that, from a performance and subjective standpoint, the combined configuration was better than the separate configuration. Additionally, both the eye-transition and eye-dwell times for the separate HSD were notably higher than expected, with a 46% increase in available visual time when going from double to single display configuration.

  15. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  16. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel remove protective covers from the newly arrived NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft. It arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1

  17. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine

  18. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams

  19. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  20. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige

    2002-07-01

    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  1. Evaluation of Perspective and Coplanar Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwin, David H.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the cockpit display representation of traffic, to support the pilot in tactical planning and conflict avoidance. Such displays may support the "free flight" concept, but can also support greater situation awareness in a non-free flight environment. Two perspective views and a coplanar display were contrasted in scenarios in which pilots needed to navigate around conflicting traffic, either in the absence (low workload) or presence (high workload) of a second intruder aircraft. All three formats were configured with predictive aiding vectors that explicitly represented the predicted point of closest pass, and predicted penetration of an alert zone around ownship. Ten pilots were assigned to each of the display conditions, and each flew a series of 60 conflict maneuvers that varied in their workload and the complexity of the conflict geometry. Results indicated a tendency to choose vertical over lateral maneuvers, a tendency which was amplified with the coplanar display. Vertical maneuvers by the intruder produced an added source of workload. Importantly, the coplanar display supported performance in all measures that was equal to or greater than either of the perspective displays (i.e., fewer predicted and actual conflicts, less extreme maneuvers). Previous studies that have indicated perspective superiority have only contrasted these with UNIplanar displays rather than the coplanar display used here.

  2. Rain, fog, and clouds for aircraft simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental chamber creates realistic fog and rain effects in aircraft simulator. It reproduces clouds, homogeneous fog, patches of fog, rain and fog, and rain only. It is used with real time digital computer, color computer generated image display that simulates airport lights, or color television camera that produces moving display of airport runway as depicted on model terrain board.

  3. Design and Evaluation of Nextgen Aircraft Separation Assurance Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut; Arutyunov, Vladimir; Laue, John-Luke; Wilmoth, Ian

    2012-01-01

    To support the development and evaluation of future function allocation concepts for separation assurance systems for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, this paper presents the design and human-in-the-loop evaluation of three feasible function allocation concepts that allocate primary aircraft separation assurance responsibilities and workload to: 1) pilots; 2) air traffic controllers (ATC); and 3) automation. The design of these concepts also included rules of the road, separation assurance burdens for aircraft of different equipage levels, and utilization of advanced weather displays paired with advanced conflict detection and resolution automation. Results of the human-in-the-loop simulation show that: a) all the concepts are robust with respect to weather perturbation; b) concept 1 (pilots) had highest throughput, closest to assigned spacing, and fewest violations of speed and altitude restrictions; c) the energy of the aircraft during the descent phase was better managed in concepts 1 and 2 (pilots and ATC) than in concept 3 (automation), in which the situation awareness of pilots and controllers was lowest, and workload of pilots was highest. The paper also discusses further development of these concepts and their augmentation and integration with future air traffic management tools and systems that are being considered for NextGen.

  4. Virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  5. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  6. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Takallu, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study has been conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. This paper focuses on the experimental set-up and preliminary qualitative results of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. In this experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels

  7. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  8. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, D.G.; Black, B.D.

    1991-12-17

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed. 6 figures.

  9. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  10. A piloted simulator investigation of stability and control, display and crew-loading requirements for helicopter instrument approach. Part 1: Technical discussion and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Forrest, R. D.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    A ground-simulation experiment was conducted to investigate the influence and interaction of flight-control system, fight-director display, and crew-loading situation on helicopter flying qualities during terminal area operations in instrument conditions. The experiment was conducted on the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft at Ames Research Center. Six levels of control complexity, ranging from angular rate damping to velocity augmented longitudinal and vertical axes, were implemented on a representative helicopter model. The six levels of augmentation were examined with display variations consisting of raw elevation and azimuth data only, and of raw data plus one-, two-, and three-cue flight directors. Crew-loading situations simulated for the control-display combinations were dual-pilot operation (representative auxiliary tasks of navigation, communications, and decision-making). Four pilots performed a total of 150 evaluations of combinations of these parameters for a representative microwave landing system (MLS) approach task.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) performing delegated separation in the national airspace system (NAS). Delegated separation is the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from air navigation service providers to the relevant pilot or flight operator. The effects of delegated separation and traffic display information level were collected through performance, workload, and situation awareness measures. The results of this study show benefits related to the use of conflict detection alerts being shown on the UAS operator's cockpit situation display (CSD), and to the use of full delegation. Overall, changing the level of separation responsibility and adding conflict detection alerts on the CSD was not found to have an adverse effect on performance as shown by the low amounts of losses of separation. The use of conflict detection alerts on the CSD and full delegation responsibilities given to the UAS operator were found to create significantly reduced workload, significantly increased situation awareness and significantly easier communications between the UAS operator and air traffic controller without significantly increasing the amount of losses of separation.

  12. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  13. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  14. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  15. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  16. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  17. AMLCD obsolescence and the impact on military aircraft programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Wilkins, Donald F.

    2000-08-01

    When current domestic Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD) sources became unavailable, prime contractors for military aircraft faced a severe problem with the sudden obsolescence of these assemblies. AMLCDs had become central to crew station design, but the only qualified North American source had failed. The problem was further complicated as several programs were beginning production, and supplies of existing, useable AMLCDs were rapidly being depleted. Solutions to the availability of AMLCDs had to be found quickly. The F/A - 18E/F program faced a unique situation in that three different displays, manufactured by two different suppliers, were affected by the loss of the AMLCD source. Both of the suppliers, for various technical and programmatic reasons, chose different approaches to the crisis. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are examined in this paper. In addition, Boeing has formed a Displays Process Action Team (DPAT) to examine whether or not it is possible to use common displays across the Company's diverse product lines.

  18. Flying Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pioneering various Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) technologies and procedures which may enable routine access to the National Airspace System (NAS), with an aim for Next Gen NAS. These tools will aid in the development of technologies and integrated capabilities that will enable high value missions for science, security, and defense, and open the door to low-cost, extreme-duration, stratospheric flight. A century of aviation evolution has resulted in accepted standards and best practices in the design of human-machine interfaces, the displays and controls of which serve to optimize safe and efficient flight operations and situational awareness. The current proliferation of non-standard, aircraft-specific flight crew interfaces in UAS, coupled with the inherent limitations of operating UAS without in-situ sensory input and feedback (aural, visual, and vestibular cues), has increased the risk of mishaps associated with the design of the "cockpit." The examples of current non- or sub- standard design features range from "annoying" and "inefficient", to those that are difficult to manipulate or interpret in a timely manner, as well as to those that are "burdensome" and "unsafe." A concerted effort is required to establish best practices and standards for the human-machine interfaces, for the pilot as well as the air traffic controller. In addition, roles, responsibilities, knowledge, and skill sets are subject to redefining the terms, "pilot" and "air traffic controller", with respect to operating UAS, especially in the Next-Gen NAS. The knowledge, skill sets, training, and qualification standards for UAS operations must be established, and reflect the aircraft-specific human-machine interfaces and control methods. NASA s recent experiences flying its MQ-9 Ikhana in the NAS for extended duration, has enabled both NASA and the FAA to realize the full potential for UAS, as well as understand the implications of

  19. Utility of an airframe referenced spatial auditory display for general aviation operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, M. Hassan; Wigdahl, Alan J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off, and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.

  20. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  1. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  2. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  3. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  4. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  5. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  6. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  7. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  8. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  9. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  10. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  11. Threat displays for final approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Chad Warren

    During periods of good visibility, airports can conduct Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (CSPA) and simultaneously operate parallel runways separated by more than 750 feet. When visibility degrades to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and pilots must fly exclusively by the instruments, the runway separation required to operate parallel runways increases to 3400 feet or more. For many airports around the country and the world this means the second runway must be closed and the airport operates at half capacity. To alleviate the delays caused by this capacity reduction many airports worldwide are planning to expand and build new runways. The projected cost of the ten largest airport projects in the United States is $8-16 Billion. Perhaps a less expensive solution can be found with innovative technology rather than real estate? This research presents the first ever design, implementation, and characterization of a synthetic vision display and the supporting flight system to attempt to achieve this solution. The display uses 3D graphics and an air to air datalink called Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast to present the pilot with the information necessary to aviate, navigate and monitor traffic. This thesis also documents the first series of flight experiments to test the applicability of synthetic vision displays to both runway incursion avoidance and CSPA. Finally, utilizing the results from the flight testing in a Monte Carlo analysis, the effect of deploying this display on minimum safe runway separation is calculated. It has been found that the minimum safe runway separation for IMC operation can safely be reduced to 1900 feet. If, in addition, significant changes are made in Air Traffic Control procedures for longitudinal aircraft spacing, the analysis shows that the display system presented herein will allow for runway separation of 1400 feet with no new restrictions on aircraft size or crosswind. Furthermore, with certain restrictions on

  12. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  13. Inductive Learning Approaches for Improving Pilot Awareness of Aircraft Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spikovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Poll, Scott; Pryor, anna

    2005-01-01

    Neural network flight controllers are able to accommodate a variety of aircraft control surface faults without detectable degradation of aircraft handling qualities. Under some faults, however, the effective flight envelope is reduced; this can lead to unexpected behavior if a pilot performs an action that exceeds the remaining control authority of the damaged aircraft. The goal of our work is to increase the pilot s situational awareness by informing him of the type of damage and resulting reduction in flight envelope. Our methodology integrates two inductive learning systems with novel visualization techniques. One learning system, the Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), learns to detect when a simulation includes faulty controls, while two others, Inductive Classification System (INCLASS) and multiple binary decision tree system (utilizing C4.5), determine the type of fault. In off-line training using only non-failure data, IMS constructs a characterization of nominal flight control performance based on control signals issued by the neural net flight controller. This characterization can be used to determine the degree of control augmentation required in the pitch, roll, and yaw command channels to counteract control surface failures. This derived information is typically sufficient to distinguish between the various control surface failures and is used to train both INCLASS and C4.5. Using data from failed control surface flight simulations, INCLASS and C4.5 independently discover and amplify features in IMS results that can be used to differentiate each distinct control surface failure situation. In real-time flight simulations, distinguishing features learned during training are used to classify control surface failures. Knowledge about the type of failure can be used by an additional automated system to alter its approach for planning tactical and strategic maneuvers. The knowledge can also be used directly to increase the pilot s situational awareness and

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrared Signature Suppression of Aircraft Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Qiang; Kwon, Oh Joon

    During typical supersonic cruising, the temperature of the aircraft skin rises above 300 K due to aerodynamic heating. In this situation, aircraft-skin infrared (IR) suppression, used to minimize the radiation contrast from the background is a crucial survival technology. In the present study, a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of IR suppression of aircraft skin is proposed. For this purpose, a synthetic procedure based on numerical simulations has been developed. In this procedure, the thermal status of aircraft skin is obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for complex aircraft geometries. An IR signature model is proposed using a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The detection range and the IR contrast are adopted as the performance indicators for the evaluation of the aircraft IR suppression. The influence of these factors related to the aircraft-skin radiation, such as aircraft-skin emissivity, surface temperature distribution and flight speed, on the IR contrast and the detection range is also studied. As a test case, the effectiveness of various IR suppression schemes was analyzed for a typical air combat situation. Then, the method is applied to clarify the contribution of each aircraft component to the IR suppression of the overall IR radiation. The results show that aircraft-skin temperature control and emissivity control are effective means to reduce the IR radiation and to achieve lower detection. The results can be used as a practical guide for designing future stealth aircraft.

  15. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  16. A Centralized Display for Mission Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2004-01-01

    Humans traditionally experience a vigilance decrement over extended periods of time on reliable systems. One possible solution to aiding operators in monitoring is to use polar-star displays that will show deviations from normal in a more salient manner. The primary objectives of this experiment were to determine if polar-star displays aid in monitoring and preliminary diagnosis of the aircraft state. This experiment indicated that the polar-star display does indeed aid operators in detecting and diagnosing system events. Subjects were able to notice system events earlier and they subjectively reported the polar-star display helped them in monitoring, noticing an event, and diagnosing an event. Therefore, these results indicate that the polar-star display used for monitoring and preliminary diagnosis improves performance in these areas for system related events.

  17. Enhanced Oceanic Situational Awareness for the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2004-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans, impose a limitation of traffic capacity for a given corridor. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. Traffic loading from a specific day are used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from aircraft to the satellites.

  18. Perceptual limitations of peripherally displayed colors on CRTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancman, Eileen G.

    1991-03-01

    Cathode ray tubes are currently used in aircraft cockpits to relay important color coded information necessary for mission completion and pilot survival. Color CRT's presently used are as large as 6 x 6 inch, but are projected to increase in size until the all glass cockpit is achieved. As the display gets larger, peripheral vision may be relied upon even more heavily. Peripheral vision is also important in present situations involving more than one CRT display used in a row, and especially when the pilot is in a head-up mode. The research in this report dealt with a subject's ability to recognize in their peripheral vision the three primary colors, blue, green, and red, on a cathode ray tube (CRT) with all three guns adjusted to achieve equal luminance. Data for various subject psychological states (normal, stressed, and relaxed) was collected. Percent error (e.g., how many times red was perceived as green or blue) was recorded for each state and color. A second performance measure, visual field dimension (e.g., degrees off of fovea where the color of the circle was correctly perceived) along the x-axis, was also collected for each color and psychological state.

  19. 3-dimensional auditory displays: development, applications, and performance.

    PubMed

    McKinley, R L; Erickson, M A; D'Angelo, W R

    1994-05-01

    Virtual or 3-D audio display technology has become a reality. This type of system has the capability of synthesizing signals presented over headphones that give the user the illusion that the sound is emanating from some external location. The development of this technology, its applications, and its performance in both laboratory and flight test situations are presented. Potential fighter aircraft applications include threat location warning, wingman location indication, spatially separated multi-channel communications, and audio target location indications. The laboratory performance data show an average localization error in azimuth of approximately 5 degrees, a minimum audible angle of approximately 5 degrees, and a speech intelligibility improvement of up to 28%. Flight test results demonstrated successful audio cued target acquisition, a subjective decrease in target acquisition times, a subjective improvement in speech intelligibility, a subjective increase in situational awareness, and a subjective decrease in pilot workload. A summary of both laboratory and flight test results is presented in addition to recommendations for future research. PMID:8018076

  20. Visor-display design based on planar holographic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, Y.; Reinhorn, S.; Friesem, A. A.

    1995-03-01

    A compact-mode holographic doublet visor display is designed and recorded. It provides excellent imaging and relatively low chromatic dispersion over a wide field of view. Application of these design and recording procedures to other fields like heads-up displays for aircrafts and cars are indicated.

  1. Intuitive Space Weather Displays to Improve Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.; Reis, G.

    2011-09-01

    Making definitive attributions concerning satellite anomalies proves to be a challenging endeavor given the dynamic space environment, the threat of adversarial actions, and unanticipated system failures. Further, decision makers are usually contending with performance shaping factors such as time pressure and the knowledge that errors can be extremely costly. Significant consequences can emerge with erroneous conclusions, whether it’s failing to thwart an adversary’s attack against our space assets, or misconstruing an environment effect for a hostile action that drives a response. Although accurate and reliable measurements of the disturbances in the earth’s magnetic field and the flux of high energy protons and electrons have been available for decades, it remains challenging to translate these data into actionable information concerning the potential threat to on-orbit assets. Even though satellite operators actively monitor these hazards, until very recently there has been limited statistical relationship between the measured radiation environment and the likelihood of an anomaly to the on-orbit asset [5]. To address this need, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is supporting work to make space environmental effects information more accessible and actionable for users in the operational community. The tool under development leverages O’Brien’s “hazard quotients” (which are derived from historical records of on-orbit anomalies) to relay the potential effect by presenting anomaly likelihood information related to surface charging, internal charging, single event effects, and the total accumulated particle dose.

  2. Computer based human-centered display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, David L. (Inventor); Temme, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A human centered informational display is disclosed that can be used with vehicles (e.g. aircraft) and in other operational environments where rapid human centered comprehension of an operational environment is required. The informational display integrates all cockpit information into a single display in such a way that the pilot can clearly understand with a glance, his or her spatial orientation, flight performance, engine status and power management issues, radio aids, and the location of other air traffic, runways, weather, and terrain features. With OZ the information is presented as an integrated whole, the pilot instantaneously recognizes flight path deviations, and is instinctively drawn to the corrective maneuvers. Our laboratory studies indicate that OZ transfers to the pilot all of the integrated display information in less than 200 milliseconds. The reacquisition of scan can be accomplished just as quickly. Thus, the time constants for forming a mental model are near instantaneous. The pilot's ability to keep up with rapidly changing and threatening environments is tremendously enhanced. OZ is most easily compatible with aircraft that has flight path information coded electronically. With the correct sensors (which are currently available) OZ can be installed in essentially all current aircraft.

  3. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  4. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  5. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  6. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  7. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  8. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  9. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  10. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  11. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  12. T-38 Primary Flight Display Prototyping and HIVE Support Abstract & Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boniface, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This fall I worked in EV3 within NASA's Johnson Space Center in The HIVE (Human Integrated Vehicles & Environments). The HIVE is responsible for human in the loop testing, getting new technologies in front of astronauts, operators, and users early in the development cycle to make the interfaces more human friendly. Some projects the HIVE is working on includes user interfaces for future spacecraft, wearables to alert astronauts about important information, and test beds to simulate mock missions. During my internship I created a prototype for T-38 aircraft displays using LabVIEW, learned how to use microcontrollers, and helped out with other small tasks in the HIVE. The purpose of developing a prototype for T-38 Displays in LabVIEW is to analyze functions of the display such as navigation in a cost and time effective manner. The LabVIEW prototypes allow Ellington Field AOD to easily make adjustments to the display before hardcoding the final product. LabVIEW was used to create a user interface for simulation almost identical to the real aircraft display. Goals to begin the T-38 PFD (Primary Flight Display) prototype included creating a T-38 PFD hardware display in a software environment, designing navigation for the menu's, incorporating vertical and horizontal navigation bars, and to add a heading bug for compass controls connected to the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). To get started with the project, measurements of the entire display were taken. This enabled an accurate model of the hardware display to be created. Navigation of menu's required some exploration of different buttons on the display. The T-38 simulator and aircraft were used for examining the display. After one piece of the prototype was finished, another trip of to the simulator took place. This was done until all goals for the prototype were complete. Some possible integration ideas for displays in the near future are autopilot selection, touch screen displays, and crew member preferences

  13. Methods and apparatus for graphical display and editing of flight plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael J. (Inventor); Adams, Jr., Mike B. (Inventor); Chase, Karl L. (Inventor); Lewis, Daniel E. (Inventor); McCrobie, Daniel E. (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for an integrated graphical user interface which facilitates the display and editing of aircraft flight-plan data. A user (e.g., a pilot) located within the aircraft provides input to a processor through a cursor control device and receives visual feedback via a display produced by a monitor. The display includes various graphical elements associated with the lateral position, vertical position, flight-plan and/or other indicia of the aircraft's operational state as determined from avionics data and/or various data sources. Through use of the cursor control device, the user may modify the flight-plan and/or other such indicia graphically in accordance with feedback provided by the display. In one embodiment, the display includes a lateral view, a vertical profile view, and a hot-map view configured to simplify the display and editing of the aircraft's flight-plan data.

  14. Facility requirements for cockpit traffic display research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, S. L.; Kreifeldt, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that much research is being conducted regarding the use of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) for safe and efficient air traffic flow. A CDTI is a graphic display which shows the pilot the position of other aircraft relative to his or her aircraft. The present investigation is concerned with the facility requirements for the CDTI research. The facilities currently used for this research vary in fidelity from one CDTI-equipped simulator with computer-generated traffic, to four simulators with autopilot-like controls, all having a CDTI. Three groups of subjects were employed in the conducted study. Each of the groups included one controller, and three airline and four general aviation pilots.

  15. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  16. Simulator evaluation of a display for a Takeoff Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) has been developed to provide the pilot with graphic and numeric information pertinent to his decision to continue or abort a takeoff. The TOPMS information display consists primarily of a runway graphic overlaid with symbolic status, situation, and advisory information including: (1) current position and airspeed; (2) predicted locations for reaching decision speed (V sub 1) and rotation speed (V sub R); (3) groundroll limit for reaching (V sub R); (4) predicted stop point for an aborted takeoff from current conditions; (5) engine-status flags; and (6) an overall situation advisory flag that recommends continuation or rejection of the takeoff. In this study, 32 experienced multi-engine pilots evaluated the TOPMS on the Langley B-737 real-time research simulator. They rated the system satisfactory - good and judged it to be suitable for implementation on an aircraft. The TOPMS, the TOPMS simulation, and the results of the simulator evaluation are described here. Appendices contain the pilot's prebriefing package (written explanation of the TOPMS--sent to the pilots prior to their visit), evaluation instructions, debriefing questions, and rating criteria (organized into a flow diagram similar to the Cooper-Harper diagram for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities).

  17. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  18. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/s(2) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multi-channel task. Utilizing the closed loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  19. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/(s squared) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multichannel task. Utilizing the closed-loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  20. Electromagnetic interference considerations for cockpit AMLCD displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Gary D.; Prache, Olivier

    1994-06-01

    OIS has developed various active matrix liquid crystal displays for the cockpits of several aircraft. Some of these displays have been tested for and are being designed for compliance with the military electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements spelled out in MIL-STD- 461. Detailed analysis has also been performed on the addressed cell assembly and the flex circuitry to provide guidelines for EMI design. This paper presents the results of tests performed, steps which were taken to become EMI compliant and the results of the analysis.

  1. Hover training display: rationale and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, David L.; Temme, Leonard A.

    2008-04-01

    Hover is an essential component of rotary wing aviation but learning to hover is extremely difficult. From the viewpoint inside the cockpit, the beginning student neither sees nor understands what needs to be done to control the aircraft. This is because the out-the-window real world visual cues suffer from two primary shortcomings. First, the real world visual cues are ambiguous. For example, the relative motion of the ground moving under the nose may indicate forward flight, pitching upward, vertical ascent, or any combination of these. Second, human ability to judge aircraft pitch by itself is insufficient to stabilize the aircraft; such other clues as relative motion or parallax are needed to augment pitch judgments to set aircraft attitude adequately. We report a training display (TD) designed to assist training rotary wing hover. The TD is specifically constructed to communicate aircraft performance and attitude to the student pilot and to disambiguate the external world's features and motions cues into symbology that allows each cue independently to support sufficient levels of parameter resolution. Our preliminary observations, based on pilot data collected during the design, parameterization, and calibration of the TD indicate that it meets its goals in a fashion that enables beginning flight students to understand and interpret the motion cues of the real world out-the-window view.

  2. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  3. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  4. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  5. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  6. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  7. Evolution Of Map Display Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Alan

    1983-06-01

    It is now over 20 years since Ferranti plc introduced optically projected map displays into operational aircraft navigation systems. Then, as now, it was the function of the display to present an image of a topographical map to a pilot or navigator with his present position clearly identified. Then, as now, the map image was projected from a reduced image stored on colour micro film. Then, as now, the fundamental design problems are the same.In the exposed environment of an aircraft cockpit where brightness levels may vary from those associated with direct sunlight on the one hand, to starlight on the other, how does one design an optical system with sufficient luminance, contrast and resolution where in the daytime sunlight may fall on the display or in the pilot's eyes, and at night time the display luminance must not detract from the pilot's ability to pick up external clues? This paper traces the development of Ferranti plc optically projected map displays from the early V Bomber and the ill-fated TSR2 displays to the Harrier and Concorde displays. It then goes on to the development of combined map and electronic displays (COMED), showing how an earlier design, as fitted to Tornado, has been developed into the current COMED design which is fitted to the F-18 and Jaguar aircraft. In each of the above display systems particular features of optical design interest are identified and their impact on the design as a whole are discussed. The use of prisms both for optical rotation and translation, techniques for the maximisation of luminance, the problems associated with contrast enhancement, particularly with polarising filters in the presence of optically active materials, the use of aerial image combining systems and the impact of the pilot interface on the system parameter are all included.Perhaps the most interesting result in considering the evolution of map displays has not been so much the designer's solutions in overcoming the various design problems but

  8. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  9. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  10. The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study is being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. In this part of the experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels. Qualitative (questionnaires) and quantitative (pilot performance and physiological) data were collected during

  11. Analytic evaluation of display requirements for approach to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, D. L.; Baron, S.

    1971-01-01

    A computerized analysis procedure, based on a control theoretic model of the human pilot, is used to evaluate display requirements for longitudinal control in the landing approach. The display employed a digitally generated, perspective runway image with a superimposed artificial horizon for pitch indication. System performance measures are obtained for the approach phase of a light aircraft and a DC-8; predictions are made as to the effects of several display modifications. It is found that augmenting the basic display with glide slope reference bars and a velocity aim point yields adequate performance in calm air. Under moderate turbulence, the augmented display appears to be adequate for a DC-8 approach but not for a light aircraft.

  12. Thin optical display panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James Thomas

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

  13. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  14. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  15. Preliminary design of a family of three close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Lussier, Wayne; Mills, Nikos

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  16. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios: Results of Limited Functional Testing With United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated, in Victorville, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.

    2002-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, the FCC adopted a FIRST REPORT AND ORDER, released it on April 22, 2002, and on May 16, 2002 published in the Federal Register a Final Rule, permitting marketing and operation of new products incorporating UWB technology. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This report provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  17. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  18. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  19. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  20. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  1. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  2. Emergence of solid state helmet-mounted displays in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    2002-08-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) are used to provide pilots with out-the-window capabilities for engaging tactical threats. The first modern system to be employed was the Apache Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS). Using an optical tracker and multiple sensors, the pilot is able to navigate and engage the enemy with his weapons systems cued by the HMD in day and night conditions. Over the next several years HMDs were tested on tactical jet aircraft. The tactical fighter environment - high G maneuvering and the possibility of ejection - created several problems regarding integration and head-borne weight. However, these problems were soon solved by American, British, Israeli, and Russian companies and are employed or in the process of employment aboard the respective countries' tactical aircraft. It is noteworthy that the current configuration employs both the Heads-Up Display (HUD) as well as the HMD. The new Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), however, will become the first tactical jet to employ only a HMD. HMDs have increasingly become part of the avionics and weapons systems of new aircraft and helicopter platforms. Their use however, is migrating to other military applications. They are currently under evaluation on Combat Vehicle platforms for driving tasks to target acquisition and designation tasks under near-all weather, 24-hour conditions. Their use also has penetrated the individual application such as providing data and situational awareness to the individual soldier; the U.S. Army's Land Warrior Program is an example of this technology being applied. Current HMD systems are CRT-based and have many short-comings, including weight, reliability. The emergence of new microelectronics and solid state image sources - Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) - however, has expanded the application of vision devices across all facets of military applications. Some of the greatest contributions are derived from the following Enabling Technologies, and it is upon those

  3. Preliminary Effect of Synthetic Vision Systems Displays to Reduce Low-Visibility Loss of Control and Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) flight displays as a means of eliminating Low Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) and Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents by low time general aviation (GA) pilots. A series of basic maneuvers were performed by 18 subject pilots during transition from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), with continued flight into IMC, employing a fixed-based flight simulator. A total of three display concepts were employed for this evaluation. One display concept, referred to as the Attitude Indicator (AI) replicated instrumentation common in today's General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The second display concept, referred to as the Electronic Attitude Indicator (EAI), featured an enlarged attitude indicator that was more representative of a glass display that also included advanced flight symbology, such as a velocity vector. The third concept, referred to as the SVS display, was identical to the EAI except that computer-generated terrain imagery replaced the conventional blue-sky/brown-ground of the EAI. Pilot performance parameters, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded for post-test analysis. Situation awareness (SA) and qualitative pilot comments were obtained through questionnaires and free-form interviews administered immediately after the experimental session. Initial pilot performance data were obtained by instructor pilot observations. Physiological data (skin temperature, heart rate, and muscle flexure) were also recorded. Preliminary results indicate that far less errors were committed when using the EAI and SVS displays than when using conventional instruments. The specific data example examined in this report illustrates the benefit from SVS displays to avoid massive loss of SA conditions. All pilots acknowledged the enhanced situation awareness provided by the SVS display concept. Levels of

  4. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  5. Cockpit Interfaces, Displays, and Alerting Messages for the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Palmer, Michael T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the IM cockpit interfaces, displays, and alerting capabilities that were developed for and used in the IMAC experiment, which was conducted at NASA Langley in the summer of 2015. Specifically, this document includes: (1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; (2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification and input error correction; (3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; (4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and (5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft. The controller displays for IM will be described in a separate document.

  6. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  7. Screens and Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Malin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of different computer screen technologies including the possible harmful effects on health of cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals. CRT's are compared to other technologies including liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, electroluminiscence displays, and light emitting diodes. A chart comparing the different…

  8. XVD Image Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Andres, Paul M.; Mortensen, Helen B.; Parizher, Vadim; McAuley, Myche; Bartholomew, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The XVD [X-Windows VICAR (video image communication and retrieval) Display] computer program offers an interactive display of VICAR and PDS (planetary data systems) images. It is designed to efficiently display multiple-GB images and runs on Solaris, Linux, or Mac OS X systems using X-Windows.

  9. Flight tests of advanced 3D-PFD with commercial flat-panel avionics displays and EGPWS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Gannon, Aaron; Wilson, Blake; Schmitt, John; Wyatt, Sandy; Engels, Jary

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes flight trials of Honeywell Advanced 3D Primary Flight Display System. The system employs a large-format flat-panel avionics display presently used in Honeywell PRIMUS EPIC flight-deck products and is coupled to an on-board EGPWS system. The heads-down primary flight display consists of dynamic primary-flight attitude information, flight-path and approach symbology similar to Honeywell HUD2020 heads-up displays, and a synthetic 3D perspective-view terrain environment generated with Honeywell"s EGPWS terrain data. Numerous flights are conducted on-board Honeywell Citation V aircraft and significant amount of pilot feedback are collected with portion of the data summarized in this paper. The system development is aimed at leveraging several well-established avionics components (HUD, EGPWS, large-format displays) in order to produce an integrated system that significantly reduces pilot workload, increases overall situation awareness, and is more beneficial to flight operations than achievable with separated systems.

  10. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  11. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  12. Evaluating Peripheral Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tara; Hsieh, Gary; Mankoff, Jennifer

    Although peripheral displays have been a domain of inquiry for over a decade now, evaluation criteria and techniques for this area are still being created. Peripheral display evaluation is an acknowledged challenge in a field setting. This chapter first describes models and methods that have been tailored specifically to evaluating peripheral displays (measuring how well they achieve their goals). Then, we present evaluation criteria used in past evaluations of peripheral displays, ranging from issues such as learnability to distraction. After explaining how these criteria have been assessed in the past, we present a case study evaluation of two e-mail peripheral displays that demonstrates the pros and cons of various evaluation techniques.

  13. Display interface concepts for automated fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.

    1989-01-01

    An effort which investigated concepts for displaying dynamic system status and fault history (propagation) information to the flight crew is described. This investigation was performed by developing several candidate display formats and then conducting comprehension tests to determine those characteristics that made one format preferable to another for presenting this type of information. Twelve subjects participated. Flash tests, or limited time exposure tests, were used to determine the subjects' comprehension of the information presented in the display formats. It was concluded from the results of the comprehension tests that pictographs were more comprehensible than both block diagrams and text for presenting dynamic system status and fault history information, and that pictographs were preferred over both block diagrams and text. It was also concluded that the addition of this type of information in the cockpit would help the crew remain aware of the status of their aircraft.

  14. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  15. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  16. Generating Animated Displays of Spacecraft Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Candey, Robert M.; Chimiak, Reine A.; Harris, Bernard T.

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Interactive Plotting, Sonification, and 3D Orbit Display (TIPSOD) is a computer program for generating interactive, animated, four-dimensional (space and time) displays of spacecraft orbits. TIPSOD utilizes the programming interface of the Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb) services to communicate with the SSC logic and database by use of the open protocols of the Internet. TIPSOD is implemented in Java 3D and effects an extension of the preexisting SSCWeb two-dimensional static graphical displays of orbits. Orbits can be displayed in any or all of the following seven reference systems: true-of-date (an inertial system), J2000 (another inertial system), geographic, geomagnetic, geocentric solar ecliptic, geocentric solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic. In addition to orbits, TIPSOD computes and displays Sibeck's magnetopause and Fairfield's bow-shock surfaces. TIPSOD can be used by the scientific community as a means of projection or interpretation. It also has potential as an educational tool.

  17. The Challenge of Aviation Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Barshi, Immanuel; Dismukes, Key

    2005-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations occur on flights everyday around the world. They range from minor situations readily managed to extremely serious and highly time-critical situations that deeply challenge the skills of even the most effective crews. How well crews respond to these situations is a function of several interacting sets of issues: (1) the design of non-normal procedures and checklists, (2) design of aircraft systems and automation, (3) specific aspects of the non-normal situation, such as time criticality and complexity of the situation, (4) human performance capabilities and cognitive limitations under high workload and stress, (5) design of training for non-normal situations, (6) philosophies, policies and practices within the industry, and (7) economic and regulatory constraints. Researchers and pilots working on NASA's Emergency and Abnormal Situations project are addressing these issues in a long-range study. In this paper we discuss these issues and illustrate them with examples from recent incidents and accidents.

  18. Effects of Symbol Brightness Cueing on Attention During a Visual Search of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Granada, Stacie

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated visual search performance for target aircraft symbols on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). Of primary interest was the influence of target brightness (intensity) and highlighting validity (search directions) on the ability to detect a target aircraft among distractor aircraft. Target aircraft were distinguished by an airspace course that conflicted with Ownship (that is, the participant's aircraft). The display could present all (homogeneous) bright aircraft, all (homogeneous) dim aircraft, or mixed bright and dim aircraft, with the target aircraft being either bright or dim. In the mixed intensity condition, participants may or may not have been instructed whether the target was bright or dim. Results indicated that highlighting validity facilitated better detection times. However, instead of bright targets being detected faster, dim targets were found to be detected more slowly in the mixed intensity display than in the homogeneous display. This relative slowness may be due to a delay in confirming the dim aircraft to be a target when it it was among brighter distractor aircraft. This hypothesis will be tested in future research. Funding for this work was provided by the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project of NASA's Airspace Operation Systems Program.

  19. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  20. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology have significantly changed the cockpit environment in current 'glass cockpit' aircraft. Recent developments in display technology, on-board processing, data storage, and datalinked communications are likely to further alter the environment in second and third generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft. The interaction of advanced cockpit technology with human cognitive performance has been a major area of activity within the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the MIT Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility. Several recent research projects are briefly reviewed and the most important results are summarized.

  1. Three-dimensional audio versus head-down traffic alert and collision avoidance system displays.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Pittman, M T

    1996-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display for situational awareness was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: standard head-down Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System display and three-dimensional (3-D) audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System presentation. (The technology used for 3-D audio presentation allows a stereo headphone user to potentially localize a sound at any externalized position in 3-D auditory space). Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full-mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft that activated a 3-D aural advisory (the head-up auditory condition) or a standard, visual-audio TCAS advisory (map display with monaural audio alert). Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System condition by 500 ms. PMID:11539173

  2. Evaluation of Fused Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Display Concepts for Low-Visibility Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wilz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. Improvements in lateral path control performance were realized when the Head-Up Display concepts included a tunnel, independent of the imagery (enhanced vision or fusion of enhanced and synthetic vision) presented with it. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, of itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application.

  3. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  4. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  5. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  6. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  7. Displaying Data As Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  8. Interactive holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Beam-Ryeol; Kim, Jin-Woong; Chernyshov, Oleksii O.; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    A holographic display which is capable of displaying floating holographic images is introduced. The display is for user interaction with the image on the display. It consists of two parts; multiplexed holographic image generation and a spherical mirror. The time multiplexed image from 2 X 10 DMD frames appeared on PDLC screen is imaged by the spherical mirror and becomes a floating image. This image is combined spatially with two layered TV images appearing behind. Since the floating holographic image has a real spatial position and depth, it allows a user to interact with the image.

  9. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  10. Data processing and display of laser Doppler experimental results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashmore, B. R.; Kimura, A.; Skeith, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Contract activities performed in developing a laser Doppler system for detecting, tracking, and measuring aircraft wake vortices are summarized. The computer program for processing and displaying the Dust Devil experimental data is presented. Program listings are included in the appendix.

  11. Prospective Memory and Task Interference in a Continuous Monitoring Dynamic Display Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Theories and methods from the prospective memory literature were used to anticipate how individuals would maintain and retrieve intentions in a continuous monitoring dynamic display task. Participants accepted aircraft into sectors and detected aircraft conflicts during an air traffic control simulation. They were sometimes required to substitute…

  12. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  13. A new method of accelerated graph display in primary flight display based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Quancun; Li, Chenggui; Zhang, Fengqing

    2006-11-01

    With the development of avionic technology, there is the increasing amount of information to be displayed on Primary Flight Display (PFD) of the cockpit. Beside the higher requirement of accuracy, reliability and the real-time property of information should be met in some emergency situations. Therefore, it is rather important to make further improvement on speeding up graph generation and display. This paper, based on hardware acceleration, describes a designated method to satisfy the higher requirement of PFD for graph display. The new method is characterized with graphic layering double frame buffer alternation and graphic synthesis, which to a great extent, reduces the job of a processor and speeds up the graphic generation and display, hence solving the speed bottleneck in PFD graphic display.

  14. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  15. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  16. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  17. The effects of angle-of-attack indication on aircraft control in the event of an airspeed indicator malfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesser, Claas Tido

    Analysis of accident data by the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other sources show that loss of control is the leading cause of aircraft accidents. Further evaluation of the data indicates that the majority of loss of control accidents are caused by the aircraft stalling. In response to these data, the Federal Aviation Administration and the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee emphasize the importance of stall and angle-of-attack awareness during flight. The high-profile crash of Air France Flight 447, in which pilots failed to recover from a self-induced stall, reinforced concerns over the need for improved stall and angle-of-attack awareness and reinvigorated interest in the debate over the effectiveness of angle-of-attack information displays. Further support for aerodynamic information in the form of an angle-of-attack indicator comes from core cognitive engineering principles. These principles argue for the provision of information about system functioning and dynamics as a means to ensure a human is always in position to recover a system when technology is unable. The purpose of this research was to empirically evaluate the importance of providing pilots with feedback about fundamental aircraft aerodynamics, especially during non-standard situations and unexpected disturbances. An experiment was conducted using a flight simulator to test the effects of in-cockpit angle-of-attack indication on aircraft control following an airspeed indicator malfunction on final approach. Participants flew a final approach with a target airspeed range of 60 to 65 knots. Once participants slowed the aircraft for final approach, the airspeed indicator needle would be stuck at an indication of 70 knots. One group of participants flew the final approach with an angle-of-attack indicator while the other group lacked such an instrument. Examination of aircraft performance data along the final approach showed that, when confronted

  18. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  19. High-definition displays for realistic simulator and trainer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Reginald; Hopper, Darrel G.; Beyer, Steve; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1998-09-01

    Current flight simulators and trainers do not provide acceptable levels of visual display performance (performance that would allow ground based trainers to economically replace aircraft flying training) for many air-to-air and air-to- ground training scenarios. Ground training for pilots could be made significantly more realistic, allowing the ground-based curricula to be enlarged. The enhanced ground based training could then more readily augment actual aircraft flying (training) time. This paper presents the technology need and opportunity to create a new class of immersive simulator- trainer systems having some 210 million pixels characterized especially by a 20-20 visual acuity synthetic vision system having some 150 million pixels. The same new display technology base is needed for planned crew stations for uninhabited combat air vehicles (UCAV), advanced aircraft cockpits and mission crewstations, and for the space plane.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1311 - Electronic display instrument systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electronic display instrument systems. 23.1311 Section 23.1311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation §...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1311 - Electronic display instrument systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic display instrument systems. 23.1311 Section 23.1311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation §...

  2. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  3. Development of visual-display aid to air navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matcovich, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    The developments are discussed in the design of a liquid-crystal, visual display, air navigation aid, which uses two VOR signals to locate the aircraft. The system concepts, liquid crystal materials, stability tests, and the electronic system are described. It is concluded that a navigational aid of this type is technically feasible, but not at the projected low cost.

  4. Effects of critical information saliency on task performance: Application of ecological information augmentation in a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knecht, William Robert

    2001-12-01

    This thesis reports the examination, implementation, and evaluation of a case study in Ecological Information Augmentation (EIA). EIA is a heuristic encompassing the method and practice of enhancing the perceptual/cognitive salience of task-critical display information. Three experiments were conducted in which the EIA heuristic was used to identify task-specific, pertinent information in a visual display, augment that information, and compare operator performance before augmentation with performance after augmentation. Specifically a self-navigation task was given to commercial airline pilots. This task involved flying through simulated traffic conflict situations in a flight simulator equipped with two variants of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). One variant contained enhanced time-to-contact information, the other did not. The control variant merely presented simple map views of simulated air traffic surrounding the pilot's own aircraft. The experimental variant was identical except for displaying aircraft traffic symbols color-coded according to their estimated time-to-contact with the pilot's own ship. Experiment One was a between-Ss study designed to facilitate familiarity with the experimental equipment and allow refinement of the research design and data analysis techniques. Multiple measures of aircraft proximity and response time were compared across the two display conditions. Two dependent measures were developed specifically for these studies. Results of Experiment One indicated trends toward superior performance with the augmented CDTL Experiment Two incorporated several research design refinements motivated by the need for increased experimental power. Results of Experiment Two indicated statistically significant superiority for the augmented CDTI in both speed and accuracy based measures. Experiment Three replicated Experiment Two but with non-pilots. This was to check the generalizability of results to non-expert population. Results

  5. An aircraft noise study in Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gjestland, Truls T.; Liasjo, Kare H.; Bohn, Hans Einar

    1990-01-01

    An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled flights with intermediate and large size aircraft, the bulk being DC9 and Boeing 737. The total traffic during the summer of 1989 was expected to resemble the maximum level to which the regular traffic will increase before the new airport can be put into operation. The situation therefore represented a possibility to study the noise impact on the communities around Fornebu. A comprehensive social survey was designed, including questions on both aircraft and road traffic noise. A random sample of 1650 respondents in 15 study areas were contacted for an interview. These areas represent different noise levels and different locations relative to the flight paths. The interviews were conducted in a 2 week period just prior to the transfer of charter traffic from Gardemoen to Fornebu. In the same period the aircraft noise was monitored in all 15 areas. In addition the airport is equipped with a permanent flight track and noise monitoring system. The noise situation both in the study period and on an average basis can therefore be accurately described. In August a group of 1800 new respondents were subjected to identical interviews in the same 15 areas, and the noise measurement program was repeated. Results of the study are discussed.

  6. Display and Presentation Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Thomas Keith

    The use of display and presentation boards as tools to help teachers/trainers convey messages more clearly is briefly discussed, and 24 different types of display and presentation boards are described and illustrated; i.e., chalk, paste-up, hook-n-loop, electric, flannel, scroll, communication planning, acetate pocket, slot, pin-tack, preview,…

  7. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  8. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  9. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  10. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  11. Realistic localizer courses for aircraft instrument landing simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The realistic instrument landing simulator (ILS) course structures for use in aircraft simulators are described. Software developed for data conversion and translation of ILS course structure measurements and calcomp plots of the courses provided are described. A method of implementing the ILS course structure data in existing aircraft simulators is outlined. A cockpit used in the lab to review the digitized ILS course structures is displayed.

  12. Flight director design for a STOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, W. R.; Goodson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The study described here was intended to explore some ways of giving the pilot the information necessary to perform as well as an autopilot. A fixed-base flight simulator was built to study pilot/director/aircraft performance. Instrument rated pilots used the different director-displays in an approach down to touchdown, including a flare and decrab maneuver. Two well established areas of control theory are combined in the design of the cockpit display. Optimal control theory and the theory of manual control are used to find the feedback gains required to drive the display symbols. Conclusions based on the simulator are presented. The results show that the director display developed in the work provides more than adequate information for simulated landing in highly turbulent conditions.

  13. Experimental Studies of Intent Information on Cockpit Traffic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Intent information provides knowledge of another aircraft's current and future trajectory states. Prototype traffic displays were designed for four different levels of intent: No Intent, Rate, Commanded State, and Flight Management System (FMS)-Path. The TCAS Display was used as a baseline and represents the No Intent Level. The Rate, Commanded State, and FMS-Path Displays show increasing levels of intent information using TCAS-like symbology in addition to incorporating a conflict probe and profile view display. An experiment was run on the MIT Part Task Flight Simulator in which eight airline pilots flew five traffic scenarios with each of the four displays. Results show that pilots had fewer separation violations and maneuvered earlier with the three intent displays. Separation violations were reduced when pilots maneuvered earlier. A second experiment was run to compare performance between displaying intent information directly and incorporating it into a conflict probe. A different set of eight airline pilots flew four traffic scenarios with the TCAS and Commanded State Displays with and without the conflict probe. Conflict probes with two minute and long range look-ahead times were tested. Displaying conflict bands or showing intent information directly both led to fewer separation violations and earlier avoidance maneuvers than the base TCAS Display. Performance was similar between the two minute and long range look-ahead conflict probes. Pilots preferred all intent displays over the TCAS Display.

  14. Aircraft performance and control in downburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    The methods developed for analyses of the winds and of aircraft performance during an investigation of a downburst wind-shear-induced accident have been utilized in a more general study of aircraft performance in such encounters. The computed responses of a generic, large transport aircraft to take-off and approach encounters with a downburst wind field were used in examining the effects of performance factors and control procedures on the ability of the aircraft to survive. Obvious benefits are seen for higher initial encounter speeds, maximum thrust-weight values typical of two-engined aircraft, and immediacy of pilot response. The results of controlling to a constant, predetermined, pitch attitude are demonstrated. Control algorithms that sacrifice altitude for speed appear to provide a higher level of survivability, but guidance displays more explicitly defining flightpath than those commonly in use might be required.

  15. Defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  16. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  17. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  18. Peripheral Vision Horizon Display (PVHD). Corrected Copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A Canadian invention, the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD), shows promise in alleviating vertigo or disorientation in pilots flying under instrument conditions and easing the piloting task when flying in weather or other conditions requiring close attention to aircraft attitude instruments. A diversity of research and applied work was being done to investigate and validate the benefits of the PVHD during the years immediately preceding this conference. Organizers of the conference were able to assemble a group of outstanding presenters representing academic, industrial, and military. The theoretical foundation and applied use of the PVHD are discussed, and results from operational tests are presented.

  19. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  20. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  1. Figures of merit for airfoil/aircraft design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Because the airfoil can so strongly impact other aspects of an aircraft configuration, it is important that the airfoil design process be integrated with that of the aircraft to achieve the best possible performance of a new flight vehicle. To aid in preliminary design efforts, several aerodynamic figures of merit are presented which facilitate the matching of the airfoil performance characteristics to those of the aircraft. These figures of merit are fairly general and can assist the airfoil design process for flight vehicles designed for maximum endurance, range, or ceiling. Although specifically applicable to vehicles for which the wing area is sized by some required minimum airspeed, the discussion is pertinent to all airfoil/aircraft matching situations and points the way for developing similar figures of merit to aid the airfoil/aircraft design process for any flight vehicle.

  2. The community response to aircraft noise around six Spanish airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Faus, L. J.; Garcia, A. M.

    1993-06-01

    The community response to aircraft noise has been studied through a social survey. A total of 1800 persons living in the vicinity of six major Spanish airports have been interviewed at their homes concerning the environmental quality of the area, dissatisfaction with road traffic noise and aircraft noise, activities interfered with by noise, most disturbing aircraft types, and subjective evaluation of airport impact. All the responses obtained in this survey have been compared with aircraft noise levels corresponding to the residence locations of the people interviewed (values of NEF levels were calculated with the INM model). The results obtained in this work allow one to evaluate the impact of aircraft noise under a wide range of different situations.

  3. On the dependence of information display quality requirements upon human characteristics and pilot/automatics relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilckens, V.

    1972-01-01

    Present information display concepts for pilot landing guidance are outlined considering manual control as well as substitution of man by fully competent automatics. Display improvements are achieved by compressing the distributed indicators into an accumulative display and thus reducing information scanning. Complete integration of quantitative indications, outer loop information, and real world display in a pictorial information channel geometry constitutes an interface with human ability to differentiate and integrate for optimal manual control of the aircraft.

  4. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  5. Improvements in antenna coupling path algorithms for aircraft EMC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Michael; Kibina, Stanley J.

    The algorithms to calculate and display the path of maximum electromagnetic interference coupling along the perfectly conducting surface of a frustrum cone model of an aircraft nose are developed and revised for the Aircraft Inter-Antenna Propagation with Graphics (AAPG) electromagnetic compatibility analysis code. Analysis of the coupling problem geometry on the frustrum cone model and representative numerical test cases reveal how the revised algorithms are more accurate than their predecessors. These improvements in accuracy and their impact on realistic aircraft electromagnetic compatibility problems are outlined.

  6. Recent progress of flexible AMOLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala; Silvernail, Jeff; Mandlik, Prashant; Ma, Ruiqing; Hack, Mike; Brown, Julie J.; Yoo, Juhn S.; Jung, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Byun, Seung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Moo; Yoon, Soo-Young; Kim, Chang-Dong; Hwang, Yong-Kee; Chung, In-Jae; Fletcher, Mark; Green, Derek; Pangle, Mike; McIntyre, Jim; Smith, Randal D.

    2011-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in flexible AMOLED displays and numerous prototypes have been demonstrated. Replacing rigid glass with flexible substrates and thin-film encapsulation makes displays thinner, lighter, and non-breakable - all attractive features for portable applications. Flexible AMOLEDs equipped with phosphorescent OLEDs are considered one of the best candidates for low-power, rugged, full-color video applications. Recently, we have demonstrated a portable communication display device, built upon a full-color 4.3-inch HVGA foil display with a resolution of 134 dpi using an all-phosphorescent OLED frontplane. The prototype is shaped into a thin and rugged housing that will fit over a user's wrist, providing situational awareness and enabling the wearer to see real-time video and graphics information.

  7. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  8. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  9. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  10. Microlaser-based displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  11. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  12. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life

  13. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  14. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  15. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  16. Novice Situation Cards: The Scripted Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests that to better prepare students for the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) oral proficiency interview, it is up to instructors to see that these students are better prepared in oral, creative speech. Bridging exercises between dialogue memorization and personalized situations can be used to help…

  17. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  18. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  19. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Gulf of Mexico. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Gulf of Mexico to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  20. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Western Atlantic Track Routing System (WATRS). The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the WATRS corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  1. Oceanic Situational Awareness over the North Atlantic Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the oceanic domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North Atlantic Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  2. Pilot/Vehicle display development from simulation to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dare, Alan R.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-01-01

    The Pilot Vehicle Interface Group, Cockpit Technology Branch, Flight Management Division, at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing display concepts for air combat in the next generation of highly maneuverable aircraft. The High-Alpha Technology Program, under which the research is being done, is involved in flight tests of many new control and display concepts on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle, a highly modified F-18 aircraft. In order to support display concept development through flight testing, a software/hardware system is being developed which will support each phase of the project with little or no software modifications, thus saving thousands of manhours in software development time. Simulation experiments are in progress now and flight tests are slated to begin in FY1994.

  3. Stainless steel display evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  4. Map display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive model of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a visual momentum map display to the traditional track-up and north-up approaches. The data show the advantage to a track-up map is its congruence with the ego-centered forward view; however, the development of survey knowledge is hindered by the inconsistency of the rotating display. The stable alignment of a north-up map aids the acquisition of survey knowledge, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for ego-centered tasks. The results also show that visual momentum can be used to reduce the mental rotation costs of a north-up display.

  5. Situational reaction and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in designing an autonomous mobile robot system is that there are many parameters of the system to define and optimize. While these parameters can be obtained for any given situation determining what the parameters should be in all situations is difficult. The usual solution is to give the system general parameters that work in all situations, but this does not help the robot to perform its best in a dynamic environment. Our approach is to develop a higher level situation analysis module that adjusts the parameters by analyzing the goals and history of sensor readings. By allowing the robot to change the system parameters based on its judgement of the situation, the robot will be able to better adapt to a wider set of possible situations. We use fuzzy logic in our implementation to reduce the number of basic situations the controller has to recognize. For example, a situation may be 60 percent open and 40 percent corridor, causing the optimal parameters to be somewhere between the optimal settings for the two extreme situations.

  6. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  7. Raster graphics display library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  8. Real-time planning/replanning of ongoing operations in a crisis situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, David A.; Smith, Gregory M.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to examine the planned position and movement of police vehicles, personnel, weapons, and status of police assets is an implied requirement in the conduct of police activities. Displays showing the time police vehicles leave on assignment, stops along their route, time of return to station, quantity of vehicles, types of weapons, radio frequencies, and other pertinent information could help in crisis situations. It would be especially helpful if it were easily accessible and simple to understand. Rome Laboratory developed a system for monitoring interrelated planned events and for changing these events to correct for deviations in the plan. The system is called force level execution (FLEX), and it displays information on timing charts, tables, and a geographic map background. The FLEX graphics enhance the military commander's ability to grasp the tactical situation which typically includes 2000 to 3000 air sorties per day. A sortie is a single flight of a single aircraft. Because the 'fog of war' causes unexpected events, status reports are needed, replanning options are generated, and new plans are issued to correct for these unexpected events. The authors believe there are law enforcement and other crisis situations that are analogous to some military scenarios. These may include state police operating over large geographical areas, coordination with county police operating over somewhat smaller areas, coordination with the county sheriff's office and city police, not only for criminal apprehension, but for disaster relief. Other participants in a crisis situation may include fire departments, ambulances, emergency medical vehicles, hospitals, rescue operations, etc. The position of police vehicles, foot patrolman, helicopters and emergency vehicles can all be superimposed upon a map background, with appropriate cultural features such as roads, rivers, bridges, state and country boundaries, etc. When police vehicles incorporate the global positioning

  9. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  10. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  11. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J.; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is presented. Though detailed results depend on the specific application, graphical presentation of flight control and alert information has generally been found to be effective for situational awareness and subjectively selected by flight crews. Graphical display is most effective when it is consistent with the pilots cognitive map of the process being displayed or of the situation.

  12. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  13. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  14. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  15. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  16. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  17. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  18. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  19. Separation Monitoring with Four Types of Predictors on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Palmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    A clear and concise display format for use in later full mission simulator evaluation of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) concept was studied. This experiment required airline pilots to monitor a CDTI and make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft (ownship). The main experimental variable was the type of predictor used to display future position of each aircraft. Predictors were referenced to the ground or to ownship and they either included turn rate information or did not. Other variables were the aircraft's separation distance when the judgment was required and the type of encounter (straight or turning). Results indicate that under these experimental conditions fewer errors were made when the predictor included turn rate information. There was little difference in overall error rate for the curved ground referenced and the ownship referenced predictors.

  20. Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugden, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    The ARINC 739 Switch is a computer program that arbitrates control of two multi-function control and display units (MCDUs) between (1) a commercial flight-management computer (FMC) and (2) NASA software used in research on transport aircraft. (MCDUs are the primary interfaces between pilots and FMCs on many commercial aircraft.) This program was recently redesigned into a software library that can be embedded in research application programs. As part of the redesign, this software was combined with software for creating custom pages of information to be displayed on a CDU. This software commands independent switching of the left (pilot s) and right (copilot s) MCDUs. For example, a custom CDU page can control the left CDU while the FMC controls the right CDU. The software uses menu keys to switch control of the CDU between the FMC or a custom CDU page. The software provides an interface that enables custom CDU pages to insert keystrokes into the FMC s CDU input interface. This feature allows the custom CDU pages to manipulate the FMC as if it were a pilot.

  1. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  2. Leprosy situation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane

    2006-09-01

    We present the situation of leprosy in Brazil, reporting about epidemiology, clinical criteria for classification, multidrugtherapy and special situations, as co-infection. This material was presented in the 79th Annual Meeting of Japanese Hansen's Disease Association in May 2006, during a discussion about the Japanese Guidelines for leprosy treatment. PMID:17037380

  3. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  4. Meeting the challenges with the Douglas Aircraft Company Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rommel, Bruce A.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP) at the Douglas Aircraft Company is given. A pilot test program involving the animation of mode shapes with solid rendering as well as wire frame displays, a complete aircraft model of a high-altitude hypersonic aircraft to test ADOP procedures, a flap model, and an aero-mesh modeler for doublet lattice aerodynamics are discussed.

  5. 2006 Gallery: Brilliant display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marris, Emma

    2006-12-01

    From a jewel-like bird, rarer than any diamond, to the delicately poetic swirls generated inside aircraft engines, the pursuit of knowledge turns up its fair share of beauty. This issue, Nature wraps up the year with an arresting series of images from 2006. We've divided them into the art of the natural world, planet-scapes both domestic and extraterrestrial, and the splendour of modern technology. Just because something enhances our knowledge doesn't mean it can't also be bewitching.

  6. A full-color wide-field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    The application of advanced display concepts and helmet-mounted display (HMD) technology to air-to-air combat in highly maneuverable aircraft is discussed. The concepts considered include control authority, aircraft attitude, and energy maneuverability, and an HMD system designed for simulation studies is described. The human factors issues involved are addressed.

  7. FELIX: a volumetric 3D laser display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Detlef; Langhans, Knut; Gerken, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach of a true 3D image presentation in a space filling, volumetric laser display will be described. The introduced prototype system is based on a moving target screen that sweeps the display volume. Net result is the optical equivalent of a 3D array of image points illuminated to form a model of the object which occupies a physical space. Wireframe graphics are presented within the display volume which a group of people can walk around and examine simultaneously from nearly any orientation and without any visual aids. Further to the detailed vector scanning mode, a raster scanned system and a combination of both techniques are under development. The volumetric 3D laser display technology for true reproduction of spatial images can tremendously improve the viewers ability to interpret data and to reliably determine distance, shape and orientation. Possible applications for this development range from air traffic control, where moving blips of light represent individual aircrafts in a true to scale projected airspace of an airport, to various medical applications (e.g. electrocardiography, computer-tomography), to entertainment and education visualization as well as imaging in the field of engineering and Computer Aided Design.

  8. Annoyance by aircraft noise and fear of overflying aircraft in relation to attitudes toward the environment and community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, M.; Moran, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that expressions of annoyance attributable to aircraft noise may reflect in part fear of aircraft overflights and possible crashes. If this is true, then residents of areas where crashes have occurred should express more annoyance. To test this hypothesis, 50 residents of an Albany, New York area where an aircraft crash producing fatalities recently occurred and 50 residents of a comparable nearby area without such a history, were asked to respond to a 'Quality of Life Questionnaire.' Among the items were some designed to test annoyance by noise and fear of aircraft overflights. It was predicted that those in the crash area would express more fear and would more often identify aircraft as a noise source. These hypotheses were sustained. A near-replication was carried out in Louisville, Kentucky; results were much the same. Analyses indicated that for the crash-area groups, there was associating of aircraft fear and noise annoyance responses; this was true to an apparently lesser extent for non-crash groups. The greater annoyance of crash groups by aircraft community noise apparently does not carry over to situations in which aircraft noise is assessed in the laboratory.

  9. Phage and Yeast Display.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jared; Marasco, Wayne A

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of antimicrobial drugs, the continued development of microbial resistance--established through escape mutations and the emergence of resistant strains--limits their clinical utility. The discovery of novel, therapeutic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers viable clinical alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Human mAb-based therapies are typically nontoxic in patients and demonstrate high specificity for the intended microbial target. This specificity prevents negative impacts on the patient microbiome and avoids driving the resistance of nontarget species. The in vitro selection of human antibody fragment libraries displayed on phage or yeast surfaces represents a group of well-established technologies capable of generating human mAbs. The advantage of these forms of microbial display is the large repertoire of human antibody fragments present during a single selection campaign. Furthermore, the in vitro selection environments of microbial surface display allow for the rapid isolation of antibodies--and their encoding genes--against infectious pathogens and their toxins that are impractical within in vivo systems, such as murine hybridomas. This article focuses on the technologies of phage display and yeast display, as these strategies relate to the discovery of human mAbs for the treatment and vaccine development of infectious diseases. PMID:26104550

  10. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  11. F-18E/F MPCD and UFCD displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miscovich, Adrian; Amarilio, Errikos; Roisman, Levy; Warden, Ron

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents the development, the achievements and the performance of a Multipurpose Color Display (MPCD) and an Up-Front Control Display (UFCD) for the F/A-18 E/F aircraft. Each subassembly of the two displays is described including design trade-offs, problems encountered during the development and selected solutions. Technological achievements are highlighted such as an LED backlight, an infra-red touch panel and the extremely severe environmental conditions we had to meet. The final performance of the two displays significantly exceeds the originally specified requirements. Not less important, the paper describes achievements such as very fast development time, design to cost and the outstanding cooperation between the companies involved in this development. The two displays were flying 18 months after the start of the development at the full satisfaction of the pilots.

  12. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  13. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  14. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  15. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  16. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  18. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  19. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  20. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  1. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  2. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  3. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  4. High-bandwidth remote flat panel display interconnect system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    High performance electronic displays (CRT, AMLCD, TFEL, plasma, etc.) require wide bandwidth electrical drive signals to produce the desired display images. When the image generation and/or image processing circuitry is located within the same line replaceable unit (LRU) as the display media, the transmission of the display drive signals to the display media presents no unusual design problems. However, many aircraft cockpits are severely constrained for available space behind the instrument panel. This often forces the system designer to specify that only the display media and its immediate support circuitry are to be mounted in the instrument panel. A wide bandwidth interconnect system is then required to transfer image data from the display generation circuitry to the display unit. Image data transfer rates of nearly 1.5 Gbits/second may be required when displaying full motion video at a 60 Hz field rate. In addition to wide bandwidth, this interconnect system must exhibit several additional key characteristics: (1) Lossless transmission of image data; (2) High reliability and high integrity; (3) Ease of installation and field maintenance; (4) High immunity to HIRF and electrical noise; (5) Low EMI emissions; (6) Long term supportability; and (7) Low acquisition and maintenance cost. Rockwell Collins has developed an avionics grade remote display interconnect system based on the American National Standards Institute Fibre Channel standard which meets these requirements. Readily available low cost commercial off the shelf (COTS) components are utilized, and qualification tests have confirmed system performance.

  5. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  6. Aspects of Synthetic Vision Display Systems and the Best Practices of the NASA's SVS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Glaab, Louis J.; Harrah, Steven D.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project conducted research aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as causal factors in civil aircraft accidents while enabling the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of actual outside visibility. SVS takes advantage of many enabling technologies to achieve this capability including, for example, the Global Positioning System (GPS), data links, radar, imaging sensors, geospatial databases, advanced display media and three dimensional video graphics processors. Integration of these technologies to achieve the SVS concept provides pilots with high-integrity information that improves situational awareness with respect to terrain, obstacles, traffic, and flight path. This paper attempts to emphasize the system aspects of SVS - true systems, rather than just terrain on a flight display - and to document from an historical viewpoint many of the best practices that evolved during the SVS Project from the perspective of some of the NASA researchers most heavily involved in its execution. The Integrated SVS Concepts are envisagements of what production-grade Synthetic Vision systems might, or perhaps should, be in order to provide the desired functional capabilities that eliminate low visibility as a causal factor to accidents and enable clear-day operational benefits regardless of visibility conditions.

  7. EKG and ultrasonoscope display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is disclosed which permits simultaneous display of an EKG waveform in real time in conjunction with a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the heart, so that the EKG waveform can be directly compared with dimensional changes in the heart. The apparatus of the invention includes an ultrasonoscope for producing a C-scan cross-sectional image of the heart. An EKG monitor circuit along with EKG logic circuitry is combined with the ultrasonoscope circuitry to produce on the same oscilloscope screen a continuous vertical trace showing the EKG waveform simultaneously with the heart image. The logic circuitry controls the oscilloscope display such that the display of both heart and EKG waveforms occurs on a real time basis.

  8. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  9. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  10. Roll-Out and Turn-Off Display Software for Integrated Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Edward J., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the software products, system architectures and operational procedures developed by Lockheed-Martin in support of the Roll-Out and Turn-Off (ROTO) sub-element of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ROTO portion of this program focuses on developing technologies that aid pilots in the task of managing the deceleration of an aircraft to a pre-selected exit taxiway. This report focuses on software that produces a system of redundant deceleration cues for a pilot during the landing roll-out, and presents these cues on a head up display (HUD). The software also produces symbology for aircraft operational phases involving cruise flight, approach, takeoff, and go-around. The algorithms and data sources used to compute the deceleration guidance and generate the displays are discussed. Examples of the display formats and symbology options are presented. Logic diagrams describing the design of the ROTO software module are also given.

  11. The Design and Implementation of Aircraft Maintenance On-site Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guilin; Zhang, Huawei

    Based on the desire of aircraft maintenance, combined with the situation in work, this paper present the design and implementation of aircraft maintenance system based dot Net. For a partial page refresh object, AJAX is used through the system. New technology is used in a creative way and will promote innovation and transformation of the business.

  12. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  13. Thin display optical projector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system (20) projects light into a planar optical display (10). The display includes laminated optical waveguides (12) defining an inlet face (14) at one end and an outlet screen (16) at an opposite end. A first mirror (26) collimates light from a light source (18) along a first axis, and distributes the light along a second axis. A second mirror (28) collimates the light from the first mirror along the second axis to illuminate the inlet face and produce an image on the screen.

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.275 - Are there restrictions on replacing aircraft by exchange or sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). In your letter of request to GSA, you must include the full details of your situation and the... request and justify a waiver from GSA, Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA), 1800 F Street,...

  15. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  16. Modeling the situation awareness by the analysis of cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2014-01-01

    To predict changes of situation awareness (SA) for pilot operating with different display interfaces and tasks, a qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation joint SA model was proposed. Based on the situational awareness model according to the attention allocation built previously, the pilot cognitive process for the situation elements was analyzed according to the ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) theory, which explained how the SA was produced. To verify the validity of this model, 28 subjects performed an instrument supervision task under different experiment conditions. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 10-dimensional Situational Awareness Rating Technique (10-D SART), performance measure and eye movement measure were adopted for evaluating SAs under different conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the changing trend of SA calculated by this model was highly correlated with the experimental results. Therefore the situational awareness model can provide a reference for designing new cockpit display interfaces and help reducing human errors. PMID:25226931

  17. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  18. Applying an AR Technique to Enhance Situated Heritage Learning in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi Hsing; Liu, Jen-ch'iang

    2013-01-01

    Since AR can display 3D materials and learner motivation is enhanced in a situated learning environment, this study explores the learning effectiveness of learners when combining AR technology and the situation learning theory. Based on the concept of embedding the characteristics of augmented reality and situated learning into a real situation to…

  19. An autorotation flight display/director for helicopter training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    2003-09-01

    Rotorcraft autorotation is a particularly challenging and hazardous maneuver. Reasons for this include: 1) Highly coupled aircraft dynamics, 2) Highly non-linear aircraft dynamics, 3) Critical aircraft states must be extracted from various sources that are not co-located, making pilot synthesis difficult, 4) Instrument scales and depiction methods make integration of state information difficult, 5) Pilot unfamiliarity with entry conditions/terminal constraints, and 6) A pilot's scanning strategy must usually undergo rapid and unnatural transitions during the maneuver. This paper puts forward a novel training display and methodology that takes advantage of automation's potential as a high-speed decision aid and the strengths of human pattern recognition and conditioning. The methodology applies optimal control theory to solve for a helicopter's trajectory and the required control inputs. A preview of the commanded input suite is displayed to the pilot, which will dynamically update as the vehicle state changes in time. Using this the pilot should be able to execute numerous autorotation maneuvers previously considered outside the operational envelope, in addition to performing 'standard' autorotations with a high degree of control consistency and accuracy. The preview display's function can also be extended to serve as an on-board pilot cueing aid. An autorotation cue set developed from functional requirements is presented, along with results of a preliminary experiment incorporating the display.

  20. Millimeter-Wave Localizers for Aircraft-to-Aircraft Approach Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian J.

    2013-01-01

    its ability to operate beyond the 1-to-2-meter precisions associated with commercial runway width. A prototype ILS-type system operates at millimeter-wave frequencies to provide automatic and robust approach control for aerial refueling. The system allows for the coupling process to remain completely autonomous, as a boom operator is no longer required. Operating beyond 100 GHz provides enough resolution and a narrow enough beamwidth that an approach corridor of centimeter scales can be maintained. Two modules were used to accomplish this task. The first module is a localizer/glide-slope module that can be fitted on a refueling aircraft. This module provides the navigation beams for aligning the approaching aircraft. The second module is navigational receiver fitted onto the approaching aircraft to be re fueled that can detect the approach beams. Since unmanned aircraft have a limited payload size and limited electrical power, the receiver portion was implemented in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology based on a super-regenerative receiver (SRR) architecture. The SRR achieves mW-level power consumption and chip sizes less than l mm2. While super-regenerative techniques have small bandwidths that limit use in communication systems, their advantages of high sensitivity, low complexity, and low power make them ideal in this situation where modulating tones of less than 1 kHz are used.

  1. Cockpit display of ground-based weather data during thunderstorm research flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Brown, Philip W.; Wunschel, Alfred J., Jr.; Stickle, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated system for providing ground-based cockpit display, transmitting to an aircraft, upon request via VHF radio, important ground-based thunderstorm data such as radar precipitation reflectivity contours, aircraft ground track, and cloud-to-ground lightning locations. Examples of the airborne X-band weather radar display and the ground-based display are presented for two different missions during the NASA Storm Hazards Program. In spite of some limitation, the system was found to be helpful in the selection of the route of flight, the general ground track to be used, and, occasionally, in clarifying the location of a specific cell of interest.

  2. Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

  3. Situation assessment in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Paladin is a real-time tactical decision generator for air combat engagements. Paladin uses specialized knowledge-based systems and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to address the modern air combat environment and agile aircraft in a clear and concise manner. Paladin is designed to provide insight into both the tactical benefits and the costs of enhanced agility. The system was developed using the Lisp programming language on a specialized AI workstation. Paladin utilizes a set of air combat rules, an active throttle controller, and a situation assessment module that have been implemented as a set of highly specialized knowledge-based systems. The situation assessment module was developed to determine the tactical mode of operation (aggressive, defensive, neutral, evasive, or disengagement) used by Paladin at each decision point in the air combat engagement. Paladin uses the situation assessment module; the situationally dependent modes of operation to more accurately represent the complex decision-making process of human pilots. This allows Paladin to adapt its tactics to the current situation and improves system performance. Discussed here are the details of Paladin's situation assessment and modes of operation. The results of simulation testing showing the error introduced into the situation assessment module due to estimation errors in positional and geometric data for the opponent aircraft are presented. Implementation issues for real-time performance are discussed and several solutions are presented, including Paladin's use of an inference engine designed for real-time execution.

  4. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  5. Document Management on Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

  6. Christmas Light Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Arthur; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The Digital Electronics class at McMurry University created a Christmas light display that toggles the power of different strands of lights, according to what frequencies are played in a song, as an example of an analog to digital circuit. This was accomplished using a BA3830S IC six-band audio filter and six solid-state relays.

  7. A Plasma Display Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    A graphics terminal designed for use as a remote computer input/output terminal is described. Although the terminal is intended for use in teaching applications, it has several features which make it useful in many other computer terminal applications. These features include: a 10-inch square plasma display panel, permanent storage of information…

  8. Digital holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Chia, Yong Poo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, A.; Khoo, Xuan Jie; Tay, Kiat Long; Zhou, Junxiang

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes how a Digital Holographic Projector is designed and implemented to project two-dimension virtual images onto the volumetric display media. In this research, we focus on the method to create 3D models, diffractive algorithm and the display media. A 3D model is generated based on the 360° view with views at every 10° interval from a 3D perspective view software. The hologram interference fringes are re-producing from the Fraunhofer algorithm. In order to make more flexible and portable, a Compact Vision System is introduced to storage multiply interference fringes. At the same time, the fringes are sent out at 30 Hz frame by frame continually to the digital micro-mirror1. With the presence of Nd: YVO4 green laser and various optical components, the 3D 360° hologram images are dynamically reconstructed and projected onto the high speed rotating diffuser forming a 3D model at any viewing angle on the volumetric display media. Both volumetric display media, wet and dry methods are demonstrated to show their feasibility and convenience. Finally, the dry volumetric technique with vertical projection mounting is adopted and as the result shown that the speckle noise is significance reduced.

  9. Digital holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Chia, Yong Poo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, A.; Khoo, Xuan Jie; Tay, Kiat Long; Zhou, Junxiang

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes how a Digital Holographic Projector is designed and implemented to project two-dimension virtual images onto the volumetric display media. In this research, we focus on the method to create 3D models, diffractive algorithm and the display media. A 3D model is generated based on the 360° view with views at every 10° interval from a 3D perspective view software. The hologram interference fringes are re-producing from the Fraunhofer algorithm. In order to make more flexible and portable, a Compact Vision System is introduced to storage multiply interference fringes. At the same time, the fringes are sent out at 30 Hz frame by frame continually to the digital micro-mirror1. With the presence of Nd: YVO4 green laser and various optical components, the 3D 360° hologram images are dynamically reconstructed and projected onto the high speed rotating diffuser forming a 3D model at any viewing angle on the volumetric display media. Both volumetric display media, wet and dry methods are demonstrated to show their feasibility and convenience. Finally, the dry volumetric technique with vertical projection mounting is adopted and as the result shown that the speckle noise is significance reduced.

  10. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading. PMID:25879973

  11. Creative Display & Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret

    This book builds a case for the importance of the learning environment as functional, inviting, and enabling for children. Chapter 1, "A pressing need: why display and environment for learning matter," introduces the book, discusses a strategy for staff development, suggests points to consider when surveying the school, and talks about involving…

  12. Real-time fault monitoring for aircraft applications using quantitative simulation and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A fault monitoring concept called MONITAUR, which has been developed for aircraft applications at NASA-Langley, is described. MONITAUR was designed to provide a high-quality situational assessment of aircraft subsystems to other onboard software systems in abnormal situations. A nonreal-time implementation of MONITAUR was developed on a Symbolics 3650 Lisp Machine. Issues which must be addressed in the further development of MONITAUR are discussed.

  13. F-8 SCW on display stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing (SCW) in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In the photograph the TF-8A Crusader with the Supercritical Wing is shown on static display in front of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-8 SCW aircraft, along with the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft were placed on display on May 27, 1992, at a conference marking the 20th anniversary of the start of the two programs. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every modern subsonic commercial transport. Results of the NASA project showed the SCW had increased the transonic efficiency of the F-8 as much as 15 percent and proved that passenger transports with supercritical wings, versus conventional wings, could save $78 million (in 1974 dollars) per year for a fleet of 280 200-passenger

  14. Digital Holography Display (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Asundi, A.; Yu, Yang; Xiao, Zhen Zhong

    This paper describes the extension work from the last Digital Holography Projector System. From the developed works shows that, some unforeseen factors have created the difficulties for the system alignment. Such factors are the DMD frame rate, light source and diffractive zero order. It is really the challenging development works to achieve the virtual 3D model display on the high speed rotation screen. The three most key factors are emphasizing: 1) The display device's frame rate; 2) The light source orientation angle; and 3) The zero order filtering optic. 1) This device's is the digital micro mirror, in short is DMD. It is the high speed switching device has developed by the most recent technology. The switching frame rate can go up as high as 291fps. At first, the 8 bits depth file must be digitalized and stored for DMD onboard Ram. The digitalized data are transmitting from the PC USB to DMD onboard Ram. Instead of the data are downloading directly from the PC to DVI or VGA during display, this downloading method cause slower down the display speed, which is the common frame rate of 30 Hz. Next, the onboard Ram data then transfer to the DMD mirror's for display, at the 8 bits 291 fps speed. At this frame rate, the display 2D image can almost cover for 10 of out of the 360 0 in 1 revolution. 2) This laser light source must be installed such that free for orientated in any arbitrary angle from 220 to 450. Which is normalized to the DMD mirrors and the brief sketch show on figure (a). The purpose of orientated the light source is ensure that multi diffractive order would be reflected straight from the mirrors. (This multi diffractive order is the phenomenon of the digital micro mirror's characteristic). This mean, the reconstruct images would be followed the DMD normalized direction reflected up to fibre conduit. Moreover, this orientated method install of the laser light source is making space for other optical lenses or device driver/controller. Because, all

  15. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  16. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  17. Situation analysis at a digital situation table with Fovea-Tablett

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Eck, Ralf; Rehfeld, Nils; Geisler, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A digital situation table which allows a team of experts to cooperatively analyze a situation has been developed. It is based on a horizontal work table providing a general overview of the situation. Tablet PCs referenced precisely to the scene image using a digital image processing algorithm display a detailed view of a local area of the image. In this way a see-through effect providing high local resolution at the position of the tablet PC is established. Additional information not fitting the bird's eye view of the work table can be displayed on a vertical screen. All output devices can be controlled using tablet PCs where each team member has his own tablet PC. An interaction paradigm has been developed allowing each team member to interact with a high degree of freedom and ensuring cooperative teamwork.

  18. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  19. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  20. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  1. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  2. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  4. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  5. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  6. Spatial awareness comparisons between large-screen, integrated pictorial displays and conventional EFIS displays during simulated landing approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Nold, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive simulation study was performed to determine and compare the spatial awareness of commercial airline pilots on simulated landing approaches using conventional flight displays with their awareness using advanced pictorial 'pathway in the sky' displays. Sixteen commercial airline pilots repeatedly made simulated complex microwave landing system approaches to closely spaced parallel runways with an extremely short final segment. Scenarios involving conflicting traffic situation assessments and recoveries from flight path offset conditions were used to assess spatial awareness (own ship position relative the the desired flight route, the runway, and other traffic) with the various display formats. The situation assessment tools are presented, as well as the experimental designs and the results. The results demonstrate that the integrated pictorial displays substantially increase spatial awareness over conventional electronic flight information systems display formats.

  7. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  8. Enhancing Displays by Blurring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiana, C.; Pavel, M.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some Enhanced Vision cockpit displays consist of synthetic imagery superimposed on a real image. The high spatial frequency components of the synthetic imagery can mislead an operator by masking features of the real image. We demonstrate that blurring the synthetic image prior to superposition reduces its masking effect in high- contrast regions of the real image, while maintaining its enhancing properties in regions of the real image where visibility is low.

  9. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  10. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    PubMed

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  11. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  12. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  13. Phage display of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kościelska, K; Kiczak, L; Kasztura, M; Wesołowska, O; Otlewski, J

    1998-01-01

    In recent years the phage display approach has become an increasingly popular method in protein research. This method enables the presentation of large peptide and protein libraries on the surface of phage particles from which molecules of desired functional property(ies) can be rapidly selected. The great advantage of this method is a direct linkage between an observed phenotype and encapsulated genotype, which allows fast determination of selected sequences. The phage display approach is a powerful tool in generating highly potent biomolecules, including: search for specific antibodies, determining enzyme specificity, exploring protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, minimizing proteins, introducing new functions into different protein scaffolds, and searching sequence space of protein folding. In this article many examples are given to illustrate that this technique can be used in different fields of protein science. The phage display has a potential of the natural evolution and its possibilities are far beyond rational prediction. Assuming that we can design the selection agents and conditions we should be able to engineer any desired protein function or feature. PMID:9918498

  14. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  15. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  16. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  17. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  18. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  19. Head-Mounted and Head-Up Display Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Allen, J. Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the problems in head-up and helmet-mounted display (HMD) literature has been a lack of standardization of words and abbreviations. Several different words have been used for the same concept; for example, flight path angle, flight path marker, velocity vector, and total velocity vector all refer to the same thing. In other cases, the same term has been used with two different meanings, such as binocular field-of-view which means the field-of-view visible to both left and right eyes according to some or the field-of-view visible to either the left or right eye or both according to others. Many of the terms used in HMD studies have not been well-defined. We need to have a common language to ensure that system descriptions are communicated. As an example, the term 'stabilized' has been widely used with two meanings. 'Roll-stabilized' has been used to mean a symbol which rotates to indicate the roll or bank of the aircraft. 'World-stabilized' and 'head-stabilized' have both been used to indicate symbols which move to remain fixed with respect to external objects. HMDs present unique symbology problems not found in HUDs. Foremost among these is the issue of maintaining spatial orientation of the symbols. All previous flight displays, round dial instruments, HDDs, and HUDs have been fixed in the cockpit. With the HMD, the flight display can move through a large angle. The coordinates use in transforming from the real-world to the aircraft to the HMD have not been consistently defined. This glossary contains terms relating to optics and vision, displays, and flight information, weapons and aircraft systems. Some definitions, such as Navigation Display, have been added to clarify the definitions for Primary Flight Display and Primary Flight Reference. A list of HUD/HMD related abbreviations is also included.

  20. Ubiquitous Displays: A Distributed Network of Active Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Aditi

    In this chapter we present our work-in-progress on developing a new display paradigm where displays are not mere carriers of information, but active members of the workspace interacting with data, user, environment and other displays. The goal is to integrate such active displays seamlessly with the environment making them ubiquitous to multiple users and data. Such ubiquitous display can be a critical component of the future collaborative workspace.

  1. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  2. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  3. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  4. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  5. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  6. Sound propagation elements in evaluation of en route noise of advanced turbofan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Louis C.; Wesler, John

    1990-01-01

    Cruise noise from an advanced turboprop aircraft is reviewed on the basis of available wind tunnel data to estimate the aircraft noise signature at the source. Available analytical models are used to evaluate the sound levels at the ground. The analysis allows reasonable estimates to be made of the community noise levels that might be generated during cruise by such aircraft, provides the basis for preliminary comparisons with available data on noise of existing aircraft during climb and helps to identify the dominant elements of the sound propagation models applicable to this situation.

  7. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  8. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  9. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:2589352

  11. Research On Controls And Displays For V/STOL Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes continuing research into electronic control and display systems for vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft. Objective of research to develop advanced digital control systems ("fly-by-wire" systems) integrating flight and propulsion controls. Intended to enable pilots to perform complicated landing maneuvers, including transitions from horizontal to vertical flight under visual and instrument flight conditions and landing in bad weather on decks of heaving ships, in confined spaces, and at ill-prepared sites.

  12. AMOEBA clustering revisited. [cluster analysis, classification, and image display program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Jack

    1990-01-01

    A description of the clustering, classification, and image display program AMOEBA is presented. Using a difficult high resolution aircraft-acquired MSS image, the steps the program takes in forming clusters are traced. A number of new features are described here for the first time. Usage of the program is discussed. The theoretical foundation (the underlying mathematical model) is briefly presented. The program can handle images of any size and dimensionality.

  13. Design principle of the peripheral vision display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaowei; Wang, Yuefeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Yu, Lishen; Liu, Shen H.

    1996-09-01

    The peripheral vision display system (PVDS) presents the pilot with a gyro stabilized artificial horizon projected onto the instrument panel by means of a red laser light source. The pilot can detect changes to aircraft attitude without continuously referring back to his flight instruments. The PVDS effectively applies the peripheral vision of the pilot to overcome disorientation. This paper gives the principles of the PVDS, according to which, we have designed the PVDS and used it for aviation medicine.

  14. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  15. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  17. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  19. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  20. 3D display considerations for rugged airborne environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnidge, Tracy J.; Tchon, Joseph L.

    2015-05-01

    The KC-46 is the next generation, multi-role, aerial refueling tanker aircraft being developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force. Rockwell Collins has developed the Remote Vision System (RVS) that supports aerial refueling operations under a variety of conditions. The system utilizes large-area, high-resolution 3D displays linked with remote sensors to enhance the operator's visual acuity for precise aerial refueling control. This paper reviews the design considerations, trade-offs, and other factors related to the selection and ruggedization of the 3D display technology for this military application.