Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft system operations

  1. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  2. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  3. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  4. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  5. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  6. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  7. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  8. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  9. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  10. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  11. Recent developments in aircraft protection systems for laser guide star operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Murphy, Thomas W.; Campbell, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The astronomical community's use of high power laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) systems presents a potential hazard to aviation. Historically, the most common and trusted means of protecting aircraft and their occupants has been the use of safety observers (aka spotters) armed with shut-off switches. These safety observers watch for aircraft at risk and terminate laser propagation before the aircraft can be adversely affected by the laser. Efforts to develop safer and more cost-effective automated aircraft protection systems for use by the astronomical community have been inhibited by both technological and regulatory challenges. This paper discusses recent developments in these two areas. Specifically, with regard to regulation and guidance we discuss the 2011 release of AS-6029 by the SAE as well as the potential impact of RTCA DO-278A. With regard to the recent developments in the technology used to protect aircraft from laser illumination, we discuss the novel Transponder Based Aircraft Detection (TBAD) system being installed at W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO). Finally, we discuss our strategy for evaluating TBAD compliance with the regulations and for seeking appropriate approvals for LGS operations at WMKO using a fully automated, flexibly configured, multi-tier aircraft protection system incorporating this new technology.

  12. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  13. Demonstration of Four Operating Capabilities to Enable a Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project has been a five-year effort fostering research and development that could lead to the transformation of our country s air transportation system. It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand keeps steadily increasing. The SATS vision is to increase mobility in our nation s transportation system by expanding access to more than 3400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized. The SATS project has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies and procedures to pave the way for a new way of air travel. The four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. These four capabilities are key to enabling low-cost, on-demand, point-to-point transportation of goods and passengers utilizing small aircraft operating from small airports. The focus of this paper is to discuss the technical and operational feasibility of the four operating capabilities and demonstrate how they can enable a small aircraft transportation system.

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  15. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  16. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  17. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  19. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  20. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1992-01-01

    This research project addresses the need to provide an efficient and safe mechanism to investigate the effects and requirements of the tiltrotor aircraft's commercial operations on air transportation infrastructures, particularly air traffic control. The mechanism of choice is computer simulation. Unfortunately, the fundamental paradigms of the current air traffic control simulation models do not directly support the broad range of operational options and environments necessary to study tiltrotor operations. Modification of current air traffic simulation models to meet these requirements does not appear viable given the range and complexity of issues needing resolution. As a result, the investigation of systemic, infrastructure issues surrounding the effects of tiltrotor commercial operations requires new approaches to simulation modeling. These models should be based on perspectives and ideas closer to those associated with tiltrotor air traffic operations.

  1. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  2. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  3. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  4. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  5. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  6. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  7. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  8. Exploring Operational Test and Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Qualitative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliceti, Jose A.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore and identify strategies that may potentially remedy operational test and evaluation procedures used to evaluate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology. The sample for analysis consisted of organizations testing and evaluating UASs (e.g., U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and Customs Border Protection). A purposeful sampling technique was used to select 15 subject matter experts in the field of operational test and evaluation of UASs. A questionnaire was provided to participants to construct a descriptive and robust research. Analysis of responses revealed themes related to each research question. Findings revealed operational testers utilized requirements documents to extrapolate measures for testing UAS technology and develop critical operational issues. The requirements documents were (a) developed without the contribution of stakeholders and operational testers, (b) developed with vague or unrealistic measures, and (c) developed without a systematic method to derive requirements from mission tasks. Four approaches are recommended to develop testable operational requirements and assist operational testers: (a) use a mission task analysis tool to derive requirements for mission essential tasks for the system, (b) exercise collaboration among stakeholders and testers to ensure testable operational requirements based on mission tasks, (c) ensure testable measures are used in requirements documents, and (d) create a repository list of critical operational issues by mission areas. The preparation of operational test and evaluation processes for UAS technology is not uniform across testers. The processes in place are not standardized, thus test plan preparation and reporting are different among participants. A standard method to prepare and report UAS technology should be used when preparing and reporting on UAS technology. Using a systematic process, such as mission

  9. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  10. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  11. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1998-01-01

    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  12. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  13. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Automation Impacts of ROA's in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the impact of Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) operations on current and planned Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation systems in the En Route, Terminal, and Traffic Flow Management domains. The operational aspects of ROA flight, while similar, are not entirely identical to their manned counterparts and may not have been considered within the time-horizons of the automation tools. This analysis was performed to determine if flight characteristics of ROAs would be compatible with current and future NAS automation tools. Improvements to existing systems / processes are recommended that would give Air Traffic Controllers an indication that a particular aircraft is an ROA and modifications to IFR flight plan processing algorithms and / or designation of airspace where an ROA will be operating for long periods of time.

  14. Operational considerations for laminar flow aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of laminar flow technology for commercial transports during the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) laminar flow program. Practical, operational laminar flow control (LFC) systems have been designed, fabricated, and are undergoing flight testing. New materials, fabrication methods, analysis techniques, and design concepts were developed and show much promise. The laminar flow control systems now being flight tested on the NASA Jetstar aircraft are complemented by natural laminar flow flight tests to be accomplished with the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment. An overview of some operational aspects of this exciting program is given.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  16. Considerations in the Integration of Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATSHVO) in the National Airspace System (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Dan; Abbott, Terence; Baxley, Brian; Greco, Adam; Ridgway, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept holds the promise for increased efficiency and throughput at many of the nations under-used airports. This concept allows for concurrent operations at uncontrolled airports that under today s procedures are restricted to one arrival or one departure operation at a time, when current-day IFR separation standards are applied. To allow for concurrent operations, SATS HVO proposes several fundamental changes to today's system. These changes include: creation of dedicated airspace, development of new procedures and communications (phraseologies), and assignment of roles and responsibilities for pilots and controllers, among others. These changes would affect operations on the airborne side (pilot) as well as the groundside (controller and air traffic flow process). The focus of this paper is to discuss some of the issues and potential problems that have been considered in the development of the SATS HVO concept, in particular from the ground side perspective. Reasonable solutions to the issues raised here have been proposed by the SATS HVO team, and are discussed in this paper.

  17. Large Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in the National Airspace System - the NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Ikhana (ee-kah-nah) project executed the 2007 Western States Fire Missions over several of the western United States using an MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in partnership with the NASA Ames Research Center, the United States Forest Service, and the National Interagency Fire Center. The missions were intended to supply infrared imagery of wildfires to firefighters on the ground within 10 minutes of data acquisition. For each of the eight missions, the NASA DFRC notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of specific flight plans within three or fewer days of the flight. The FAA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (commonly referred to as a COA ) process was used to obtain access to the United States National Airspace System. Significant time and resources were necessary to develop the COA application, perform mission planning, and define and approve emergency landing sites. Unique aspects of flying unmanned aircraft created challenges to mission operations. Close coordination with FAA headquarters and air traffic control resulted in safe and successful missions that assisted firefighters by providing near-real-time imagery of selected wildfires.

  18. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  19. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  20. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  1. Optimizing Airspace System Capacity Through a Small Aircraft Transportation System: An Analysis of Economic and Operational Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.

    2001-01-01

    America's air transport system is currently faced with two equally important dilemmas. First, congestion and delays associated with the overburdened hub and spoke system will continue to worsen unless dramatic changes are made in the way air transportation services are provided. Second, many communities and various regions of the country have not benefited from the air transport system, which tends to focus its attention on major population centers. An emerging solution to both problems is a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), which will utilize a new generation of advanced small aircraft to provide air transport services to those citizens who are poorly served by the hub and spoke system and those citizens who are not served at all. Using new innovations in navigation, communication, and propulsion technologies, these aircraft will enable users to safely and reliably access the over 5,000 general aviation landing facilities around the United States. A small aircraft transportation system holds the potential to revolutionize the way Americans travel and to greatly enhance the use of air transport as an economic development tool in rural and isolated communities across the nation.

  2. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    To provide a background for evaluating advanced STOL systems concepts, a number of short haul and STOL airline operations in the United States and one operation in Canada were studied. A study of flight director operational procedures for an advanced STOL research airplane, the Augmented Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane, was conducted using the STOLAND simulation facility located at the Ames Changes to the advanced digital flight control system (STOLAND) installed in the Augmentor Wing Airplane are proposed to improve the mode sequencing to simplify pilot procedures and reduce pilot workload.

  3. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  4. Detection of the Impact of Ice Crystal Accretion in an Aircraft Engine Compression System During Dynamic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation community. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. Here a detection algorithm is developed which has the capability to detect the impact of ice accretion in the Low Pressure Compressor of an aircraft engine during steady flight as well as during changes in altitude. Unfortunately, the algorithm as implemented was not able to distinguish throttle changes from ice accretion and thus more work remains to be done.

  5. Use of a Prototype Airborne Separation Assurance System for Resolving Near-Term Conflicts During Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAGTM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. In order to perform these tasks, pilots use prototype conflict detection, prevention, and resolution tools, collectively known as an Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS). While ASAS would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley's Air Traffic Operations Lab to evaluate the prototype ASAS for enabling pilots to resolve near-term conflicts and examine possible operational effects associated with the use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. In an effort to improve compliance rate, ASAS design changes are currently under consideration. Further studies will of evaluate these design changes and consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).

  6. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  7. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  8. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  9. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Challenge (AOC) AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-110). ACTION... Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC) is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may now... of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2014 UAS AOC is a prize competition designed...

  10. Sense and Avoid Safety Analysis for Remotely Operated Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace System. Version 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor

    2006-01-01

    This document describes a method to demonstrate that a UAS, operating in the NAS, can avoid collisions with an equivalent level of safety compared to a manned aircraft. The method is based on the calculation of a collision probability for a UAS , the calculation of a collision probability for a base line manned aircraft, and the calculation of a risk ratio given by: Risk Ratio = P(collision_UAS)/P(collision_manned). A UAS will achieve an equivalent level of safety for collision risk if the Risk Ratio is less than or equal to one. Calculation of the probability of collision for UAS and manned aircraft is accomplished through event/fault trees.

  11. Aircraft Photovoltaic Power-Generating System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet -engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are--in themselves --favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project. This new electrical power-generating system offers solid-state reliability with electrical power-output capability comparable to that of existing aircraft electromechanical power-generating systems (alternators and generators). In addition to improvements in aircraft performance, significant aircraft fuel- and weight-saving advantages are projected.

  12. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  13. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  14. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  15. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  17. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  18. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  19. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  1. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  2. Study of aircraft centered navigation, guidance, and traffic situation system concept for terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Will, R. W.; Grantham, C.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for automating the control of air traffic in the terminal area in which the primary man-machine interface is the cockpit is described. The ground and airborne inputs required for implementing this concept are discussed. Digital data link requirements of 10,000 bits per second are explained. A particular implementation of this concept including a sequencing and separation algorithm which generates flight paths and implements a natural order landing sequence is presented. Onboard computer/display avionics utilizing a traffic situation display is described. A preliminary simulation of this concept has been developed which includes a simple, efficient sequencing algorithm and a complete aircraft dynamics model. This simulated jet transport was flown through automated terminal-area traffic situations by pilots using relatively sophisticated displays, and pilot performance and observations are discussed.

  3. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... taking off from the airport shall execute a departure turn to the north as soon as practicable after take-off. ....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  4. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... taking off from the airport shall execute a departure turn to the north as soon as practicable after take-off. ....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  5. Conduct overall test operations and evaluate two Doppler systems to detect, track and measure velocities in aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A program plan for system evaluation of the two-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) is presented. In order to meet system evaluation and optimization objectives the following tests were conducted: (1) noise tests; (2) wind tests; (3) blower flowfield tests; (4) single unit (1-D) flyby tests; and (5) dual unit (2-D) flyby tests. Test results are reported. The final phase of the program included logistics preparation, equipment interface checkouts, and data processing. It is concluded that the SLDS is capable of accurately tracking aircraft wake vortices from small or large aircraft, and in any type of weather.

  6. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The {open_quotes}building in{close_quotes} of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  8. Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

  9. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operational procedures for use in an assumed short haul transport route were evaluated. The curved path approaches in airline use by large jet airplanes were studied. The characteristics of these approaches were included in development of operational procedures for transitions and approaches by a jet STOL transport. These procedures were used in a simulation experiment and were satisfactory for autoflight operation. A minimum turn radius of 3,000 ft. for a 180 final turn was determined for the wind conditions tested. The accuracy of the approaches was very good.

  10. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  11. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart E). (2) Procedures for disinfection and flushing. The plan... points in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart E). (2) Procedures for disinfection and flushing. The plan... points in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart E). (2) Procedures for disinfection and flushing. The plan... points in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart E). (2) Procedures for disinfection and flushing. The plan... points in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart E). (2) Procedures for disinfection and flushing. The plan... points in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR part 1240, subpart...

  16. System Analysis Applied to Autonomy: Application to High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Maturation of intelligent systems technologies and their incorporation into aerial platforms are dictating the development of new analysis tools and incorporation of such tools into existing system analysis methodologies in order to fully capture the trade-offs of autonomy on vehicle and mission success. A first-order "system analysis of autonomy" methodology is outlined in this paper. Further, this analysis methodology is subsequently applied to notional high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aerial vehicle missions.

  17. Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Sharon Wester

    Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel

  18. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  19. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  20. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  1. A Virtual Audio Guidance and Alert System for Commercial Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Shrum, Richard; Miller, Joel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Our work in virtual reality systems at NASA Ames Research Center includes the area of aurally-guided visual search, using specially-designed audio cues and spatial audio processing (also known as virtual or "3-D audio") techniques (Begault, 1994). Previous studies at Ames had revealed that use of 3-D audio for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) advisories significantly reduced head-down time, compared to a head-down map display (0.5 sec advantage) or no display at all (2.2 sec advantage) (Begault, 1993, 1995; Begault & Pittman, 1994; see Wenzel, 1994, for an audio demo). Since the crew must keep their head up and looking out the window as much as possible when taxiing under low-visibility conditions, and the potential for "blunder" is increased under such conditions, it was sensible to evaluate the audio spatial cueing for a prototype audio ground collision avoidance warning (GCAW) system, and a 3-D audio guidance system. Results were favorable for GCAW, but not for the audio guidance system.

  2. Automated Meta-Aircraft Operations for a More Efficient and Responsive Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2015-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the on-going NASA Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. Current status and upcoming work is previewed. The motivating factors and innovative aspects of ACT are discussed along with technical challenges and the expected system-level impacts if the project is successful. Preliminary results from the NASA G-III hardware in the loop simulation are included.

  3. Aircraft photovoltaic power-generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet-engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are - in themselves - favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project.

  4. Operational Performance of Sensor Systems Used to Determine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Properties as Part of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.; Nolf, Scott; McKissick, Burnell T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the application of remote sensor technology to operational aviation and airport-related activities such as Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), Doppler-acoustic sodars, Ultrahigh Frequencies (UHF) profilers and lidars have many advantages in measuring wind and temperature profiles in the lower atmospheric boundary layer since they can operate more or less continuously and unattended; however, there are limitations in their operational use at airports. For example, profilers deteriorate (limited altitude coverage or missing) in moderate or greater rain and can be affected by airplane targets in their field of view. Sodars can handle precipitation better but are affected by the high noise environments of airports and strong winds. Morning temperature inversions typically limit performance of RASS, sodars and profilers. Fog affects sonic anemometers. Lidars can have difficulties in clouds, fog or heavy precipitation. Despite their limitations these sensors have proven useful to provide wind and temperature profiles for AVOSS. Capabilities and limitations of these and other sensors used in the AVOSS program are discussed, parameter settings for the sensor systems are documented, and recommendations are made for the most cost-effective group of sensors for the future. The potential use of specially tuned dynamic forecast models and measurements from landing and departing aircraft are addressed.

  5. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  6. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  7. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  8. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  9. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  10. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  11. 14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 137.71 Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each holder of a commercial agricultural aircraft operator certificate shall maintain...

  12. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  13. Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

  14. High Altitude Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft - National Airspace System Integration - Simulation IPT: Detailed Airspace Operations Simulation Plan. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of Access 5 is to allow safe, reliable and routine operations of High Altitude-Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft (HALE ROAs) within the National Airspace System (NAS). Step 1 of Access 5 addresses the policies, procedures, technologies and implementation issues of introducing such operations into the NAS above pressure altitude 40,000 ft (Flight Level 400 or FL400). Routine HALE ROA activity within the NAS represents a potentially significant change to the tasks and concerns of NAS users, service providers and other stakeholders. Due to the complexity of the NAS, and the importance of maintaining current high levels of safety in the NAS, any significant changes must be thoroughly evaluated prior to implementation. The Access 5 community has been tasked with performing this detailed evaluation of routine HALE-ROA activities in the NAS, and providing to key NAS stakeholders a set of recommended policies and procedures to achieve this goal. Extensive simulation, in concert with a directed flight demonstration program are intended to provide the required supporting evidence that these recommendations are based on sound methods and offer a clear roadmap to achieving safe, reliable and routine HALE ROA operations in the NAS. Through coordination with NAS service providers and policy makers, and with significant input from HALE-ROA manufacturers, operators and pilots, this document presents the detailed simulation plan for Step 1 of Access 5. A brief background of the Access 5 project will be presented with focus on Steps 1 and 2, concerning HALE-ROA operations above FL400 and FL180 respectively. An overview of project management structure follows with particular emphasis on the role of the Simulation IPT and its relationships to other project entities. This discussion will include a description of work packages assigned to the Simulation IPT, and present the specific goals to be achieved for each simulation work package, along with the associated

  15. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  16. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  17. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  18. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South Corridor... from the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC facility; and (2) That person maintains two-way radio communication with the Eglin Radar Control Facility or an appropriate FAA ATC...

  19. Internal-flow systems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, F M

    1941-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.

  20. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  1. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  2. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  3. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  4. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile, air-to-base... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a)...

  5. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  6. IAGOS : operational start of atmospheric measurements on commercial Airbus aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, P.

    2011-12-01

    AUTHORS : Philippe Nedelec 1, Jean-Pierre Cammas 1, Gilles Athier 1, Damien Boulanger 1, Jean-Marc Cousin 1., Andreas Volz-Thomas 2. 1. Laboratoire d' Aerologie, CNRS and University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 2. FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany The MOZAIC program (http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr) measures atmospheric parameters since August 1994, on board 5 commercial Airbus A340 aircraft operated by European airlines, with about 33 000 flights up to present. Three aircraft are still in operation and a new project has been sponsored by the European Community, and French and German national budgets. This project is called IAGOS for "In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing system" and can be considered as an update of Mozaic systems, increasing the performances and the measuring capacity. Plans are to equip 10-20 aircraft in the coming years to ensure a global coverage of the observations. Instrumentation has been developed by the participating partners and has been certified for installation on commercial passenger aircraft. The basic instrumentation includes O3, CO, H2O and clouds sensors, as well as the position and meteorological parameters acquired by the aircraft. One of the optional equipment can also be installed: NOx or NOy or CO2/CH4 or Aerosols. Data measured during flight are automatically transmitted after aircraft landing to CNRS reception centre in Toulouse, France, and made available to scientist some days later. The installation on a Lufthansa Airbus A340 has been finalised and certified by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) on July 7th, 2011 and operations started the following day, with data transmitted every landing to the CNRS centre. We will present technical details of the IAGOS aeronautic installation, measuring instruments of the basic system and some results of the first months of IAGOS operation.

  7. The implementation and operation of a variable-response electronic throttle control system for a TF-104G aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Bradford; Sengupta, Upal

    1989-01-01

    During some flight programs, researchers have encountered problems in the throttle response characteristics of high-performance aircraft. To study and to help solve these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden) conducted a study using a TF-104G airplane modified with a variable-response electronic throttle control system. Ames-Dryden investigated the effects of different variables on engine response and handling qualities. The system provided transport delay, lead and lag filters, second-order lags, command rate and position limits, and variable gain between the pilot's throttle command and the engine fuel controller. These variables could be tested individually or in combination. Ten research flights were flown to gather data on engine response and to obtain pilot ratings of the various system configurations. The results should provide design criteria for engine-response characteristics. The variable-response throttle components and how they were installed in the TF-104G aircraft are described. How the variable-response throttle was used in flight and some of the results of using this system are discussed.

  8. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  10. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  11. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  12. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  13. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  14. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  15. Flight study of a vehicle operational status and monitoring system. [applied to systems on YF-12 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, J. E.; Fox, W. J.; Wicklund, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    An analog onboard monitoring system was installed on a YF-12 airplane as the first phase of a program to monitor the engine inlet and portions of the airplane's electrical and fuel management subsystems in flight. The system provided data which were considered to form a suitable base for diagnostic test logic and decision criteria for the rest of the program. The data were also adequate for the purpose of maintaining the engine inlet and identifying malfunctions within it. The investigation showed that the requirements of an onboard monitoring system should be considered during the original design of the system to be monitored.

  16. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  17. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... sections of this part with respect to operation on specific frequencies, mobile stations first...

  18. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  20. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  1. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1976-01-01

    A learning control system is developed which blends the gain scheduling and adaptive control into a single learning system that has the advantages of both. An important feature of the developed learning control system is its capability to adjust the gain schedule in a prescribed manner to account for changing aircraft operating characteristics. Furthermore, if tests performed by the criteria of the learning system preclude any possible change in the gain schedule, then the overall system becomes an ordinary gain scheduling system. Examples are discussed.

  2. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  3. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  4. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  5. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package, 2005: Composite Report on FAA Flight Plan and Operational Evaluation Plan. Version 7.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the findings that resulted from a high-level analysis and evaluation of the following documents: (1) The OEP (Operational Evolution Plan) Version 7 -- a 10-year plan for operational improvements to increase capacity and efficiency in U.S. air travel and transport and other use of domestic airspace. The OEP is the FAA commitment to operational improvements. It is outcome driven, with clear lines of accountability within FAA organizations. The OEP concentrates on operational solutions and integrates safety, certification, procedures, staffing, equipment, avionics and research; (2) The Draft Flight Plan 2006 through 2010 -- a multi-year strategic effort, setting a course for the FAA through 2001, to provide the safest and most efficient air transportation system in the world; (3) The NAS System Architecture Version 5 -- a blueprint for modernizing the NAS and improving NAS services and capabilities through the year 2015; and (4) The NAS-SR-1000 System Requirements Specification (NASSRS) -- a compilation of requirements which describe the operational capabilities for the NAS. The analysis is particularly focused on examining the documents for relevance to existing and/or planned future UAV operations. The evaluation specifically focuses on potential factors that could materially affect the development of a commercial ROA industry, such as: (1) Design limitations of the CNS/ATM system, (2) Human limitations, The information presented was taken from program specifications or program office lead personnel.

  6. NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation: A Compilation of the Papers Presented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    This volume contains copies of the technical papers presented at the NACA Conference on Some Problems of Aircraft Operation on October 9 and 10, 1950 at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. This conference was attended by members of the aircraft industry and military services. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee's system of complete and formal reports. A list of the conferees is included. [Contents include four subject areas: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Effect on Aircraft Operation; Some Aspects of Aircraft Safety - Icing, Ditching and Fire; Aerodynamic Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes; Propulsion Considerations for High-Speed Transport Airplanes.

  7. Improvement in aircraft performance reduces operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The escalation of jet transport fuel prices has altered traditional economic formulas for commercial airplane operators. This economic change has provided the impetus to develop improvements for existing production run transports such as the Boeing 727, 737, and 747 airplanes. Improvements have been made in drag reduction, propulsion system, weight reduction, and operation.

  8. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  9. NASA/JPL aircraft SAR operations for 1984 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/JPL aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was used to conduct major data acquisition expeditions in 1983 through 1985. Substantial improvements to the aircraft SAR were incorporated in 1981 through 1984 resulting in an imaging radar that could simultaneously record all four combinations of linear horizontal and vertical polarization (HH, HV, VH, VV) using computer control of the radar logic, gain setting, and other functions. Data were recorded on high-density digital tapes and processed on a general-purpose computer to produce 10-km square images with 10-m resolution. These digital images yield both the amplitude and phase of the four polarizations. All of the digital images produced so far are archived at the JPL Radar Data Center and are accessible via the Reference Notebook System of that facility. Sites observed in 1984 and 1985 included geological targets in the western United States, as well as agricultural and forestry sites in the Midwest and along the eastern coast. This aircraft radar was destroyed in the CV-990 fire at March Air Force Base on 17 July 1985. It is being rebuilt for flights in l987 and will likely be operated in a mode similar to that described here. The data from 1984 and 1985 as well as those from future expeditions in 1987 and beyond will provide users with a valuable data base for the multifrequency, multipolarization Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) scheduled for orbital operations in the early 1990's.

  10. The rotor systems research aircraft - A flying wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Hellyar, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Aircraft Corporation is constructing two uniquely designed Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). These aircraft will be used through the 1980's to comparatively test many different types of rotors - articulated, hingeless, teetering, and gimballed, as well as advanced rotor concepts, such as reverse velocity and variable diameter rotors. The RSRA combines a new airframe with existing Sikorsky H-3 (S-61) dynamic components. A force measurement system is incorporated to permit accurate evaluation of significant rotor characteristics. Both rotor and fixed-wing control systems are provided, appropriately integrated for operation in the pure helicopter mode, compound helicopter mode, and fixed-wing mode. The RSRA is the first rotary wing aircraft designed with a crew escape system, including a pyrotechnic system to sever the main rotor blades.

  11. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1978-01-01

    A learning control system and its utilization as a flight control system for F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) research aircraft is studied. The system has the ability to adjust a gain schedule to account for changing plant characteristics and to improve its performance and the plant's performance in the course of its own operation. Three subsystems are detailed: (1) the information acquisition subsystem which identifies the plant's parameters at a given operating condition; (2) the learning algorithm subsystem which relates the identified parameters to predetermined analytical expressions describing the behavior of the parameters over a range of operating conditions; and (3) the memory and control process subsystem which consists of the collection of updated coefficients (memory) and the derived control laws. Simulation experiments indicate that the learning control system is effective in compensating for parameter variations caused by changes in flight conditions.

  12. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  13. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  14. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... activation devices, lighting equipment, oxygen cylinders, flotation devices, smoke grenades, flares, or... aircraft. (4) Hazardous materials are carried and used during dedicated air ambulance, fire fighting,...

  15. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  16. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  17. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  18. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  19. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban... Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban...

  20. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  1. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  2. Power system characteristics for more electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1993-01-01

    It should not be suprising that more electric aircraft must meet significantly more difficult electrical power system requirements than were considereed when today's power distribution systems were being developed. Electric power, no longer a secondary system, will become a critical element of the primary control system. Functional reliability requiirements will be extremely stringent and can only be met by controlling element redundancy within a distributed power system. Existing electrical systems were not developed to have both the power system and the control/sensing elements distributed and yet meet the requirements of lighting tolerance and high intensity radio frequency (HIRF). In addition, the operation of electric actuators involves high transient loading and reverse energy flows. Such phenomena were also not anticipated when power quality was specified for either 270 vdc or 400 Hertz ac power systems. This paper will expand upon the issues and discuss some of the technologies involved in their resolution.

  3. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  4. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  5. Operations management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  6. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  7. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  8. Metal matrix composites for aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of advanced aircraft propulsion systems have indicated that performance gains and operating costs are possible through the application of metal matrix composites. Compressor fan blades and turbine blades have been identified as components with high payoff potential as a result of these studies. This paper will present the current status of development of five candidate materials for such applications. Boron fiber/aluminum, boron fiber/titanium, and silicon carbide fiber/titanium composites are considered for lightweight compressor fan blades. Directionally solidified eutectic superalloy and tungsten wire/superalloy composites are considered for application to turbine blades for use temperatures to 1100 C (2000 F).

  9. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  10. Systems and Methods for Collaboratively Controlling at Least One Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estkowski, Regina I. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An unmanned vehicle management system includes an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control station controlling one or more unmanned vehicles (UV), a collaborative routing system, and a communication network connecting the UAS and the collaborative routing system. The collaborative routing system being configured to receive flight parameters from an operator of the UAS control station and, based on the received flight parameters, automatically present the UAS control station with flight plan options to enable the operator to operate the UV in a defined airspace.

  11. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  12. Effectiveness evaluation of STOL transport operations (phase 2). [computer simulation program of commercial short haul aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welp, D. W.; Brown, R. A.; Ullman, D. G.; Kuhner, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation program which models a commercial short-haul aircraft operating in the civil air system was developed. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the effect of a given aircraft avionics capability on the ability of the aircraft to perform on-time carrier operations. The program outputs consist primarily of those quantities which can be used to determine direct operating costs. These include: (1) schedule reliability or delays, (2) repairs/replacements, (3) fuel consumption, and (4) cancellations. More comprehensive models of the terminal area environment were added and a simulation of an existing airline operation was conducted to obtain a form of model verification. The capability of the program to provide comparative results (sensitivity analysis) was then demonstrated by modifying the aircraft avionics capability for additional computer simulations.

  13. Internal-flow systems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, F M

    1940-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of a problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing. When an internal-flow system tends to decrease the final velocity of it's wake, the results showed that it should be arranged in series with the propulsive system; the inlet opening should be located at a forward stagnation point; and the outlet opening should be so shaped and located as to recover the kinetic energy of the jet without increasing the drag of other portions of the aircraft. When an internal-flow system tends to increase the final velocity new b's wake, as does a propeller, location of the inlet opening in the boundary layer or in the wake of the wing or in the fuselage may be desirable.

  14. Computer simulation of aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics for the YF-12 aircraft at supersonic cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer simulation of the YF-12 aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics is presented. The propulsion system was represented in sufficient detail so that interactions between aircraft motions and the propulsion system dynamics could be investigated. Six degree-of-freedom aircraft motions together with the three-axis stability augmentation system were represented. The mixed compression inlets and their controls were represented in the started mode for a range of flow conditions up to the inlet unstart boundary. Effects of inlet moving geometry on aircraft forces and movements as well as effects of aircraft motions on the inlet behavior were simulated. The engines, which are straight subjects, were represented in the afterburning mode, with effects of changes in aircraft flight conditions included. The simulation was capable of operating in real time.

  15. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  16. Piloting considerations for terminal area operations of civil tiltwing and tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Tucker, George E.; Decker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing body of research to investigate airworthiness, performance, handling, and operational requirements for STOL and V/STOL aircraft was reviewed for its applicability to the tiltrotor and tiltwing design concepts. The objective of this study was to help determine the needs for developing civil certification criteria for these aircraft concepts. Piloting tasks that were considered included configuration and thrust vector management, glidepath control, deceleration to hover, and engine failure procedures. Flight control and cockpit display systems that have been found necessary to exploit the low-speed operating characteristics of these aircraft are described, and beneficial future developments are proposed.

  17. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  18. Canada's first fixed-site aircraft noise monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Standen, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of aircraft noise management in Canada as it is presently evolving is discussed. The population of aircraft operating in Canada is similar to most western nations with regard to aircraft type. Canada's airport system includes major airports owned and operated by the federal Department of Transport (Transport Canada), airports owned and operated by provinces, municipalities or local commissions, and privately owned and operated airports, largely catering to general aviation. In addition, there are airports which are owned by Transport Canada, but operated by another agency. The consequence of this arrangement is that the major jet transport traffic is handled by airports which are owned and operated by either Transport Canada or another government agency.

  19. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  20. Use of eternal flight unmanned aircraft in military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, Zafer

    2014-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), are planned to use solar energy, are being more common and interesting gradually. Today, these systems are very promising while fossil fuels are diminishing rapidly. Academic research is still being conducted to develop unmanned aerial systems which will store energy during day time and use it during night time. Development of unmanned aerial systems, which have eternal flight or very long loiter periods, could be possible by such an energy management. A UAV, which can fly very long time, could provide many advantages that cannot be obtained by conventional aircrafts and satellites. Such systems can be operated as fixed satellites on missions with very low cost in circumstances that require continuous intelligence. By improving automation systems these vehicles could be settled on operation area autonomously and can be grounded easily in case of necessities and maintenance. In this article, the effect of solar powered UAV on operation area has been done a literature review, to be used in surveillance and reconnaissance missions.

  1. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  2. System level airworthiness tool: A comprehensive approach to small unmanned aircraft system airworthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, David A.

    One of the pillars of aviation safety is assuring sound engineering practices through airworthiness certification. As Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) grow in popularity, the need for airworthiness standards and verification methods tailored for UAS becomes critical. While airworthiness practices for large UAS may be similar to manned aircraft, it is clear that small UAS require a paradigm shift from the airworthiness practices of manned aircraft. Although small in comparison to manned aircraft these aircraft are not merely remote controlled toys. Small UAS may be complex aircraft flying in the National Airspace System (NAS) over populated areas for extended durations and beyond line of sight of the operators. A comprehensive systems engineering framework for certifying small UAS at the system level is needed. This work presents a point based tool that evaluates small UAS by rewarding good engineering practices in design, analysis, and testing. The airworthiness requirements scale with vehicle size and operational area, while allowing flexibility for new technologies and unique configurations.

  3. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  4. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  5. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  6. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  7. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    It is difficult to categorize aircraft operating problems, human factors and safety. Much of NASA's research involves all three and considers the important inter-relationships between man, the machine and the environment, whether the environment be man-made or natural. Topics covered in 20 papers include terminal-area operations; avionics and human factors; and the atmospheric environment.

  10. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operator's security program as described in 49 CFR part 1544, subpart B, or 49 CFR part 1546, subpart B, as...) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan....

  11. Effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, A. J.; Hoffman, D. J.; Hodges, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Long term effects of commercial aircraft operating environment on the properties and durability of composite materials are being systematically explored. Composite specimens configured for various mechanical property tests are exposed to environmental conditions on aircraft in scheduled airline service, on racks at major airports, and to controlled environmental conditions in the laboratory. Results of tests following these exposures will identify critical parameters affecting composite durability, and correlation of the data will aid in developing methods for predicting durability. Interim results of these studies show that mass change of composite specimens on commercial aircraft depends upon the regional climate and season, and that mass loss from composite surfaces due to ultraviolet radiation can be largely prevented by aircraft paint.

  12. Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Concept and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The AVOSS goal is to: (1) Support TAP goal of improving instrument operations capacity 12-15% while maintaining safety; (2) Provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to ATC systems at capacity limited facilities with required lead time and stability for use in establishing aircraft arrival scheduling; and (3) System development and concept demonstration. The AVOSS system concept is to separate aircraft from encounters with wake vortices of an operationally unacceptable strength. In doing so, define protected corridor from outer marker to runway and predict time for vortex to clear ("Transport Time"), define operationally unacceptable wake strength and predict time to decay ("Decay Time"), combine and provide to ATC automation ("Residence Time"), and monitor safety and provide predictor feedback with wake vortex detection subsystem.

  13. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  14. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  15. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  16. Flying qualities and control system characteristics for superaugmented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft-alone dynamics and superaugmented control system fundamental regulatory properties including stability and regulatory responses of the basic closed-loop systems; fundamental high and low frequency margins and governing factors; and sensitivity to aircraft and controller parameters are addressed. Alternative FCS mechanizations, and mechanizational side effects are also discussed. An overview of flying qualities considerations encompasses general pilot operations as a controller in unattended, intermittent and trim, and full-attention regulatory or command control; effective vehicle primary and secondary response properties to pilot inputs and disturbances; pilot control architectural possibilities; and comparison of superaugmented and conventional aircraft path responses for different forms of pilot control. Results of a simple experimental investigation into pilot dynamic behavior in attitude control of superaugmented aircraft configurations with high frequency time laps and time delays are presented.

  17. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  18. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat; Barmore, Bryan; Swieringa, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the wind information used to generate trajectories for aircraft performing Interval Management (IM) operations is critical to the success of an IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather provider. The second is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment, resulting in loss of additional information. This study focuses on what subset of forecast data, such as the number and location of the points where the wind is sampled should be made available to uplink to the aircraft.

  19. Experimental investigations of thrust vectoring systems for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolls, L. S.; Aoyagi, K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of two technology programs sponsored by NASA to investigate the characteristics of two thrust vectoring schemes for V/STOL aircraft. The operational capability of the VTOL aircraft is dependent on maximum utilization of the installed thrust in both the cruise and powered lift modes of flight. An effective thrust vectoring system on the cruise propulsion unit is therefore essential to provide maximum payload in hover and STOL plus minimum specific fuel consumption in loiter and cruise. Introducing a high by-pass ratio fan system, augmenting the gas generator thrust, as the propulsion system for VTOL aircraft places increased significance on the performance of the relatively short coupled thrust vectoring systems. The two programs discussed herein include both large-scale and small-scale tests of a vectoring hood system with a vented, internal-lip and swivel nozzle systems. These tests indicated that a satisfactory thrust vectoring system can be developed.

  20. New design and operating techniques and requirements for improved aircraft terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Taylor, R. T.; Walsh, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The Microwave Landing System (MLS) under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. The development of the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve terminal area problems are discussed. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices were explored. Flight procedures for avoiding the hazard were investigated. Terminal configured vehicles and their flight test development are discussed.

  1. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  2. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  3. Noise Considerations in the Design and Operation of V/STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Hilton, David A.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1961-01-01

    Available propulsion-system noise data have been applied to the In particular, problems of design and operation of V/STOL aircraft. considerations have been given to minimizing adverse community reaction for operations between airports and to minimizing detection due to noise for special missions.

  4. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of an effective short range, high density computer transportation system for intraurban systems is presented. The seven county Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area, was chosen as the scenario for the analysis. The study consisted of an analysis and forecast of the Detroit market through 1985, a parametric analysis of appropriate short haul aircraft concepts and associated ground systems, and a preliminary overall economic analysis of a simplified total system designed to evaluate the candidate vehicles and select the most promising VTOL and STOL aircraft. Data are also included on the impact of advanced technology on the system, the sensitivity of mission performance to changes in aircraft characteristics and system operations, and identification of key problem areas that may be improved by additional research. The approach, logic, and computer models used are adaptable to other intraurban or interurban areas.

  5. 49 CFR 1560.109 - Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft Operator Implementation Plan. 1560.109... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.109...

  6. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  7. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... preservation and protection, fire fighting and prevention, flood control, or avalanche control purposes, when... detonators and detonator assemblies) and detonators or detonator assemblies are carried for avalanche...

  8. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  9. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  10. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  11. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flightcrew member of an aircraft, as defined in 49 CFR 1540.5, operating into or out of DCA: (1) Must undergo... designated under 14 CFR part 73; (ii) A flight restriction established under 14 CFR 91.141; (iii) Special security instructions issued under 14 CFR 99.7; (iv) A restricted area designated under 14 CFR part 73;...

  12. 77 FR 7656 - Advisory Circular: Public Aircraft Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Aircraft Operations) (76 FR 16349). This advisory circular provides additional information on the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a proposed revision to Advisory Circular...

  13. Propulsion system study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Warren, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion system technologies applicable to the generation of commuter airline aircraft expected to enter service in the 1990's are identified and evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. The most promising technologies in the areas of engine, propeller, gearbox, and nacelle design are recommended for future research. Each item under consideration is evaluated relative to a modern baseline engine, the General Electric CT7-5, in a current technology aircraft flying a fixed range and payload. The analysis is presented for two aircraft sizes (30 and 50 passenger), over a range of mission lengths (100 to 1100 km) and fuel costs ($264 to $396 per cu m).

  14. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  15. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  16. Overview of Propulsion Systems for a Mars Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.

  17. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  18. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  19. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  20. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the control tower of the experimental nature of the aircraft when operating the aircraft into or out... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft having experimental certificates... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates:...

  1. Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.

  2. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  3. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  4. Enhanced Airport Capacity Through Safe, Dynamic Reductions in Aircraft Separation: NASA's Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Cornelius J.; Rutishauser, David K.

    2001-01-01

    An aspect of airport terminal operations that holds potential for efficiency improvements is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria evolved to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards, and are consequently overly conservative during a significant portion of operations. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully operated in a real-time field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. Gains in airport throughput using AVOSS spacing as compared to the current criteria averaged 6%, with peak values approaching the theoretical maximum of 16%. The average throughput gain translates to 15-40% reductions in delay when applied to realistic capacity ratios at major airports.

  5. Coordinated crew performance in commercial aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A specific methodology is proposed for an improved system of coding and analyzing crew member interaction. The complexity and lack of precision of many crew and task variables suggest the usefulness of fuzzy linguistic techniques for modeling and computer simulation of the crew performance process. Other research methodologies and concepts that have promise for increasing the effectiveness of research on crew performance are identified.

  6. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  7. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  8. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  9. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  10. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  11. 14 CFR 91.315 - Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited category civil aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. No person may operate a limited category civil aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire....

  12. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  13. The development of a parachute system for aerial delivery from high speed cargo aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, V.L.

    1992-12-31

    Supply of military personnel on the ground with cargo has long been accomplished with parachute delivery systems from aircraft. Structural limits of aircraft have typically limited these operations to no more than 150 KCAS. A desire for increased survivability of cargo delivery aircraft has led to the development and fielding of aircraft capable of delivering cargo at substantially higher speeds. This paper describes efforts undertaken to design develop and test a cargo delivery system for use at speeds compatible with those high speed cargo aircraft.

  14. The development of a parachute system for aerial delivery from high speed cargo aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Supply of military personnel on the ground with cargo has long been accomplished with parachute delivery systems from aircraft. Structural limits of aircraft have typically limited these operations to no more than 150 KCAS. A desire for increased survivability of cargo delivery aircraft has led to the development and fielding of aircraft capable of delivering cargo at substantially higher speeds. This paper describes efforts undertaken to design develop and test a cargo delivery system for use at speeds compatible with those high speed cargo aircraft.

  15. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,

    2013-01-01

    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  16. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  17. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  18. Aircraft sensor analysis package system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the Aircraft Sensor Analysis Package (ASAP) is presented. The approach is non-technical, and several output products are illustrated. The major features of the system are described in more detail than is found in the User's Guide to a potential user, or to a user looking for a specific capability to be incorporated in another system.

  19. STDN network operations procedure for Apollo range instrumentation aircraft, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, A. R.; Pfeiffer, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo range instrumentation aircraft (ARIA) fleet which consists of four EC-135N aircraft used for Apollo communication support is discussed. The ARIA aircraft are used to provide coverage of lunar missions, earth orbit missions, command module/service module separation to spacecraft landing, and assist in recovery operations. Descriptions of ARIA aircraft, capabilities, and instrumentation are included.

  20. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  1. Reconfiguration control system for an aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakayama, Sean R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Independently deflectable control surfaces are located on the trailing edge of the wing of a blended wing-body aircraft. The reconfiguration control system of the present invention controls the deflection of each control surface to optimize the spanwise lift distribution across the wing for each of several flight conditions, e.g., cruise, pitch maneuver, and high lift at low speed. The control surfaces are deflected and reconfigured to their predetermined optimal positions when the aircraft is in each of the aforementioned flight conditions. With respect to cruise, the reconfiguration control system will maximize the lift to drag ratio and keep the aircraft trimmed at a stable angle of attack. In a pitch maneuver, the control surfaces are deflected to pitch the aircraft and increase lift. Moreover, this increased lift has its spanwise center of pressure shifted inboard relative to its location for cruise. This inboard shifting reduces the increased bending moment about the aircraft's x-axis occasioned by the increased pitch force acting normal to the wing. To optimize high lift at low speed, during take-off and landing for example, the control surfaces are reconfigured to increase the local maximum coefficient of lift at stall-critical spanwise locations while providing pitch trim with control surfaces that are not stall critical.

  2. Automatic Aircraft Collision Avoidance System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor); McWherter, Shaun (Inventor); Willhite, Jaimie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a system and method of compressing a DTM to be used in an Auto-GCAS system using a semi-regular geometric compression algorithm. In general, the invention operates by first selecting the boundaries of the three dimensional map to be compressed and dividing the three dimensional map data into regular areas. Next, a type of free-edged, flat geometric surface is selected which will be used to approximate terrain data of the three dimensional map data. The flat geometric surface is used to approximate terrain data for each regular area. The approximations are checked to determine if they fall within selected tolerances. If the approximation for a specific regular area is within specified tolerance, the data is saved for that specific regular area. If the approximation for a specific area falls outside the specified tolerances, the regular area is divided and a flat geometric surface approximation is made for each of the divided areas. This process is recursively repeated until all of the regular areas are approximated by flat geometric surfaces. Finally, the compressed three dimensional map data is provided to the automatic ground collision system for an aircraft.

  3. Review of the FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) program. [applications in aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A joint NASA/NAVY program, called FOCSI, is reviewed which is aimed at designing optical sensor systems to fit the installation and environmentally test passive optical sensors and electrooptic architectures. These optical sensor systems will be flown on an F18 aircraft to collect data on the operability and maintainability of these systems in a flight environment. The NASA F-18 aircraft will be equipped with a 1773 optical databus to transfer the optical sensor information to the aircraft data collection location.

  4. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  5. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  6. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  7. 26 CFR 521.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 521... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. The income derived from the operation of ships or aircraft registered in Denmark by a nonresident alien...

  8. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. An aircraft operation is eligible for insurance if— (a) The President of the United States...

  9. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. An aircraft operation is eligible for insurance if— (a) The President of the United States...

  10. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  11. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  12. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  13. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a provisionally certificated civil aircraft unless that person...

  14. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Project: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.

    2006-01-01

    To all peoples in all parts of the world throughout history, the ability to move about easily is a fundamental element of freedom. The American people have charged NASA to increase their freedom and that of their children knowing that their quality of life will improve as our nation s transportation systems improve. In pursuit of this safe, reliable, and affordable personalized air transportation option, in 2000 NASA established the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. As the name suggests personalized air transportation would be built on smaller aircraft than those used by the airlines. Of course, smaller aircraft can operate from smaller airports and 96% of the American population is within thirty miles of a high-quality, underutilized community airport as are the vast majority of their customers, family members, and favorite vacation destinations.

  15. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft? 102-33.200 Section 102-33.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft? 102-33.200 Section 102-33.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF...

  18. Demand for large freighter aircraft as projected by the NASA cargo/logistics airlift systems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the market conditions up through the year 2008 to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for and the characteristics of an advanced, all-cargo transport aircraft. Any new freighter must compete with current wide-body aircraft and their derivatives. Aircraft larger than the wide-bodies may incur economic penalties and operational problems. A lower direct operating cost is not a sufficient criterion to base a decision for the initiation of a new aircraft development or to select aircraft characteristics. Other factors of equal importance that are reviewed in this paper include considerations of the system infrastructure, the economics of the airlines, and the aircraft manufacturer return on investment. The results of the market forecast and a computer simulation show that an advanced long range aircraft with a payload between 68 to 181 tonnes (75 to 200 tons) could generate a solid foothold beginning around 1994.

  19. Demand for large freighter aircraft as projected by the NASA cargo/logistics airlift system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The market conditions are examined up through the year 2008 to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for and the characteristics of an advanced, all-cargo transport aircraft. Any new freighter must compete with current wide-body aircraft and their derivatives. Aircraft larger than the wide-bodies may incur economic penalties and operational problems. A lower direct operating cost is not a sufficient criterion to base a decision for the initiation of a new aircraft development or to select aircraft characteristics. Other factors of equal importance that are reviewed in this paper include considerations of the system infrastructure, the economics of the airlines, and the aircraft manufacturer return on investment. The results of the market forecast and a computer simulation show that an advanced long range aircraft with a payload between 68 to 181 tonnes (75 to 200 tons) could generate a solid foothold beginning around 1994.

  20. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  1. Sense and avoid technology for unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalmont, John; Utt, James; Deschenes, Michael; Taylor, Michael; Sanderson, Richard; Montgomery, Joel; Johnson, Randal S.; McDermott, David

    2007-04-01

    The Sensors Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in conjunction with the Global Hawk Systems Group, the J-UCAS System Program Office and contractor Defense Research Associates, Inc. (DRA) is conducting an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) of a sense-and-avoid capability with the potential to satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) requirement for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to provide "an equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft". This FAA requirement must be satisfied for UAS operations within the national airspace. The Sense-and-Avoid, Phase I (Man-in-the-Loop) and Phase II (Autonomous Maneuver) ATD demonstrated an on-board, wide field of regard, multi-sensor visible imaging system operating in real time and capable of passively detecting approaching aircraft, declaring potential collision threats in a timely manner and alerting the human pilot located in the remote ground control station or autonomously maneuvered the aircraft. Intruder declaration data was collected during the SAA I & II Advanced Technology Demonstration flights conducted during December 2006. A total of 27 collision scenario flights were conducted and analyzed. The average detection range was 6.3 NM and the mean declaration range was 4.3 NM. The number of false alarms per engagement has been reduced to approximately 3 per engagement.

  2. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules designed for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Learning modules consist of some or all of the following materials: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, workbooks, self-tests with answers, review…

  3. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  4. Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

  5. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation.

    PubMed

    Nish, W A; Walsh, W F; Land, P; Swedenburg, M

    1989-06-01

    The number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States has been steadily increasing. The quantity and sophistication of electronic equipment used during neonatal transport have also increased. All medical equipment generates some electromagnetic interference (EMI). Excessive EMI can interfere with any of an aircraft's electrical systems, including navigation and communications. The United States military has strict standards for maximum EMI in transport equipment. Over the past 15 years, approximately 70% of neonatal transport monitors, ventilators, and incubators have failed testing due to excessive EMI. As neonatal transport equipment becomes more sophisticated, EMI is increased, and there is greater potential for aircraft malfunction. The Federal Aviation Administration should develop civilian standards for acceptable EMI, civilian aircraft operators must be aware of the possible dangers of excessive EMI, and equipment which does not meet future FAA standards should not be purchased. PMID:2751593

  7. Soil runway friction evaluation in support of USAF C-17 transport aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of NASA Diagonal-Braked Vehicle (DBV) test runs were performed on the soil runway 7/25 at Holland landing zone, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, near Pope Air Force Base in March 1995 at the request of the Air Force C-17 System Program Office. These ground vehicle test results indicated that the dry runway friction level was suitable for planned C-17 transport aircraft landing and take-off operations at various gross weights. These aircraft operations were successfully carried out. On-board aircraft deceleration measurements were comparable to NASA DBV measurements. Additional tests conducted with an Army High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle equipped with a portable decelerometer, showed good agreement with NASA DBV data.

  8. Utilization of separate surface control systems on general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1977-01-01

    The application of separate surface control systems to general aviation aircraft is discussed. Block diagrams of a conventional control system with autopilot tie-in and of a separate surface control system are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems are compared. Theoretical descriptions of pilot-in-the-loop operation and operation in the autopilot mode are presented. The application of separate surface stability augmentation in yaw dampers, wing levelers, and static longitudinal stability augmentation is examined. The state-of-the-art of separate control surface technology is summarized.

  9. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  10. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  11. Analysis and testing of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of a stability augmentation system for aircraft flight control were performed. The flutter suppression system and synthesis conducted on a scale model of a supersonic wing for a transport aircraft are discussed. Mechanization and testing of the leading and trailing edge surface actuation systems are described. The ride control system analyses for a 375,000 pound gross weight B-52E aircraft are presented. Analyses of the B-52E aircraft maneuver load control system are included.

  12. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  13. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  14. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  15. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  16. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  17. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  18. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  19. 14 CFR 137.55 - Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.55 Business name: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. No person may operate under a business name that is not shown on his commercial... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business name: Commercial...

  20. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  1. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, D. E.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of three aircraft concepts, deflected slipstream STOL, helicopter VTOL, and fixed wing STOL, is presented. An attempt was made to determine the best concept for the intraurban transportation system. Desirability of the concept was based on ease of maintenance, development timing, reliability, operating costs, and the noise produced. Indications are that the deflected slipstream STOL is best suited for intraurban transportation. Tables and graphs are included.

  2. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  3. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  4. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three

  5. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  6. A Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Demand Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) demand modeling is a tool that will be useful for decision-makers to analyze SATS demands in both airport and airspace. We constructed a series of models following the general top-down, modular principles in systems engineering. There are three principal models, SATS Airport Demand Model (SATS-ADM), SATS Flight Demand Model (SATS-FDM), and LMINET-SATS. SATS-ADM models SATS operations, by aircraft type, from the forecasts in fleet, configuration and performance, utilization, and traffic mixture. Given the SATS airport operations such as the ones generated by SATS-ADM, SATS-FDM constructs the SATS origin and destination (O&D) traffic flow based on the solution of the gravity model, from which it then generates SATS flights using the Monte Carlo simulation based on the departure time-of-day profile. LMINET-SATS, an extension of LMINET, models SATS demands at airspace and airport by all aircraft operations in US The models use parameters to provide the user with flexibility and ease of use to generate SATS demand for different scenarios. Several case studies are included to illustrate the use of the models, which are useful to identify the need for a new air traffic management system to cope with SATS.

  7. Control and Non-Payload Communications Links for Integrated Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Griner, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for unmanned aircraft has advanced so rapidly in recent years that many new applications to public and commercial use are being proposed and implemented. In many countries, emphasis is now being placed on developing the means to allow unmanned aircraft to operate within non-segregated airspace along with commercial, cargo and other piloted and passenger-carrying aircraft.In the U.S., Congress has mandated that the Federal Aviation Administration reduce and remove restrictions on unmanned aircraft operations in a relatively short time frame. To accomplish this, a number of technical and regulatory hurdles must be overcome. A key hurdle involve the communications link connecting the remote pilot located at a ground control station with the aircraft in the airspace, referred to as the Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. This link represents a safety critical communications link, and thus requires dedicated and protected aviation spectrum as well as national and international standards defining the operational requirements the CNPC system. The CNPC link must provide line-of-site (LOS) communications, primarily through a ground-based communication system, and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) communication achieved using satellite communications. In the U.S., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is charged with providing the technical body of evidence to support spectrum allocation requirements and national and international standards development for the CNPC link. This paper provides a description of the CNPC system, an overview of NASA's CNPC project, and current results in technology assessment, air-ground propagation characterization, and supporting system studies and analyses will be presented.

  8. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  9. Information for Lateral Aircraft Spacing Enabling Closely-Spaced Runway Operations During Instrument-Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrush, Trent; Pritchett, Amy; Johnson, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport capacity, the U.S. plans on investing nearly $6 billion a year to properly maintain and improve the nation's major airports. Current FAA standards however, require a reduction in terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions at many airports, causing delays and reducing airport capacity. NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, has developed the Terminal Area Productivity Program to achieve clear-weather capacity in instrument- weather conditions for all phases of flight. This paper describes a series of experiments planned to investigate the conceptual design of different systems that provide information to flight crews regarding nearby traffic during the approach phase of flight. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate different display and auditory interfaces to the crew for use in closely-spaced parallel runway operations. Three separate experiments are planned for the investigation. The first two experiments will be conducted using part-task flight simulators located at the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory and at NASA Ames. The third experiment will be conducted in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator, a generic "glass-cockpit" simulator at NASA Ames. Subjects for each experiment will be current glass-cockpit pilots from major U.S. air carriers. Subject crews will fly several experimental scenarios in which pseudo-aircraft are "blundered" into the subject aircraft simulation. Runway spacing, longitudinal aircraft separation, aircraft performance and traffic information will be varied. Analyses of the subject reaction times in evading the blundering aircraft and the resulting closest points of approach will be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the data recorded during the part-task experiments. The impact of traffic information on closely-spaced parallel runway operations is discussed, cockpit displays to aid these operations are examined, and topics for future research

  10. 49 CFR 1550.7 - Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more... UNDER GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES § 1550.7 Operations in aircraft of 12,500 pounds or more. (a... maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or more except for those operations specified...

  11. An investigation of separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The status of a project to develop and evaluate separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft is discussed. The electrical design, roll heading hold is described and schematic diagrams and an operational description are provided. The flight tests program is explained. Various failure conditions are proposed and the effects on the stability of the aircraft are analyzed.

  12. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  13. Secondary Wing System for Use on an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A secondary wing system for use on an aircraft augments the lift, stability, and control of the aircraft at subsonic speeds. The secondary wing system includes a mechanism that allows the canard to be retracted within the contour of the aircraft fuselage from an operational position to a stowed position. The top surface of the canard is exposed to air flow in the stowed position, and is contoured to integrate aerodynamically and smoothly within the contour of the fuselage when the canard is retracted for high speed flight. The bottom portion of the canard is substantially flat for rotation into a storage recess within the fuselage. The single canard rotates about a vertical axis at its spanwise midpoint. The canard can be positioned between a range of sweep angles during flight and a stowed position in which its span is substantially parallel to the aircraft fuselage. The canard can be deployed and retracted during flight. The deployment mechanism includes a circular mounting ring and drive mechanism that connects the canard with the fuselage and permits it to rotate and to change incidence. The deployment mechanism further includes retractable fairings which serve to streamline the wing when it is retracted into the top of the fuselage.

  14. A system approach to aircraft optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1991-01-01

    Mutual couplings among the mathematical models of physical phenomena and parts of a system such as an aircraft complicate the design process because each contemplated design change may have a far reaching consequence throughout the system. Techniques are outlined for computing these influences as system design derivatives useful for both judgemental and formal optimization purposes. The techniques facilitate decomposition of the design process into smaller, more manageable tasks and they form a methodology that can easily fit into existing engineering organizations and incorporate their design tools.

  15. Analysis of cooling systems for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program has been written to analyze cooling systems of hypersonic aircraft. This computer program called NASP/SINDA is written into the SINDA'85 command structure and uses the SINDA'85 finite difference subroutines. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer must be analyzed, because increased heating causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. Also local hot spots will cause a redistribution of the coolant in the system. Both steady state and transient analyses have been performed. Details of empirical correlations are presented. Results for two cooling system applications are given.

  16. Fires in P-3 Aircraft Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Fires in three P3 aircraft oxygen systems have occurred: one in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in 1984 and two in the U.S. Navy in 1998 and 2003. All three fires started in the aluminum manifold and check valve (MCV) assembly and produced similar damages to the aircraft in which they occurred. This paper discusses a failure analysis conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Oxygen Hazards and Testing Team on the 2003 U.S. Navy VP62 fire. It was surmised that the fire started due to heat generated by an oxygen leak past a silicone check valve seal or possibly because of particle impact near the seat of one of the MCV assembly check valves. An additional analysis of fires in several check valve poppet seals from other aircraft is discussed. These burned poppet seals came from P3 oxygen systems that had been serviced at the Naval Air Station (NAS) in Jacksonville following standard fill procedures. It was concluded that these seal fires occurred due to the heat from compression heating, particle impact, or the heat generated by an oxygen leak past the silicone check valve seal. The fact that catastrophic fires did not occur in the case of each check valve seal fire was attributed to the protective nature of the aluminum oxide layer on the check valve poppets. To prevent future fires of this nature, the U.S. and Canadian fleets of P3 aircraft have been retrofitted with MCV assemblies with an upgraded design and more burn-resistant materials.

  17. Loss-of-Control-Inhibitor Systems for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AHarrah, Ralph C.

    2007-01-01

    Systems to provide improved tactile feedback to aircraft pilots are being developed to help the pilots maintain harmony between their control actions and the positions of aircraft control surfaces, thereby helping to prevent loss of control. A system of this type, denoted a loss-of-control-inhibitor system (LOCIS) can be implemented as a relatively simple addition to almost any pre-existing flight-control system. The LOCIS concept offers at least a partial solution to the problem of (1) keeping a pilot aware of the state of the control system and the aircraft and (2) maintaining sufficient control under conditions that, as described below, have been known to lead to loss of control. Current commercial aircraft exhibit uneven responses of primary flight-control surfaces to aggressive pilot control commands, leading to deterioration of pilots ability to control their aircraft. In severe cases, this phenomenon can result in loss of control and consequent loss of aircraft. For an older aircraft equipped with a purely mechanical control system, the loss of harmony between a pilot s command action and the control- surface response can be attributed to compliance in the control system (caused, for example, by stretching of control cables, flexing of push rods, or servo-valve distortion). In a newer aircraft equipped with a fly-by-wire control system, the major contributions to loss of harmony between the pilot and the control surfaces are delays attributable to computer cycle time, control shaping, filtering, aliasing, servo-valve distortion, and actuator rate limiting. In addition, a fly-by-wire control system provides no tactile feedback that would enable the pilot to sense such features of the control state as surface flutter, surface jam, position limiting, actuator rate limiting, and control limiting imposed by the aircraft operational envelope. Hence, for example, when a pilot is involved in aggressive closed-loop maneuvering, as when encountering a wake

  18. 78 FR 18932 - Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12259), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061. In that document... operation of unmanned aircraft systems within the test site program (78 FR 12259). The proposed...

  19. A local authority aircraft noise monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulkan, G.; Hyde, J.

    1981-06-01

    Aircraft noise exposure levels recorded at London's Heathrow airport are analyzed for the purpose of noise abatement policy-making. The basic equipment consisted of a data logger capable of recording an eight-bit phase encoded binary signal at 0.5 second intervals on standard audio cassettes. The mean peak landing noise for a month was 85 dB(A) by day, increasing to 85.4 dB(A) by night, while take-off noise dropped from 87.7 dB(A) by day to 82.8 dB(A) at night. Although it had been anticipated that noise from landing aircraft would generally be less than that from departing aircraft, results so far indicate little difference. It is concluded that selection of groups of data based on time period, runway in use and weather conditions parameters can be provided by the system, enabling thus assessments to be made in planning and designing of buildings.

  20. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  1. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Palmer, J.; Bertola, L.; Miller, Paul; Dodds, Graham

    2015-12-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution.

  2. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  3. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  4. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  5. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  6. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  7. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  8. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  9. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  10. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  11. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  12. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  13. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  14. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  15. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  16. 14 CFR 103.13 - Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 103.13 Section 103.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. (a) Each person operating an ultralight vehicle shall...

  17. 14 CFR 121.685 - Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft record: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.685 Aircraft record: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  18. 14 CFR 121.395 - Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.395 Aircraft dispatcher: Domestic and flag operations. Each certificate holder conducting domestic...

  19. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  20. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  1. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  2. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft... RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a restricted category civil aircraft— (1) For other than the special...

  3. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  4. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  5. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  6. Two and three dimensional systems for computer aided geometric design of aircraft surface and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryeh, F.

    1982-01-01

    Three interactive software systems dealing with the computerized definition, storage and handling of aircraft geometric shapes and entities in a multidisciplinary design environment are presented. The systems are operated in an interactive fashion via use of low cost graphic display terminals driven by a remote computer in a time sharing mode. GEODEF is a system for interactive definition of complex aircraft surfaces, GEOBASE is a system for interrogation and manipulation of a computerized aircraft geometry data base, and DOG is a 3-D detailed structural and mechanical part definition system.

  7. Data acquisition/reduction system for flight testing general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummer, D. I.; Mosser, M. A.; Renz, R. R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition/reduction system for use in the flight testing of general aviation aircraft is described. Design objectives for the system are adequate accuracy, ease of installation and removal from aircraft, simplicity of operation, and low cost. A 16-channel working system has been constructed, and tested in the collection of flight test data from a Cessna 172 aircraft, which uses as the basis of its design an AIM65 microcomputer. Data is reduced with a MINC minicomputer system. Attention is given to the onboard installation of computer, battery and transducer modules incorporated by the system.

  8. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  9. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  10. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  11. Optimization of the terrain following radar flight cues in special operations aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Patrick J.; Trang, Jeff A.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past 18 months the Army has been developing a terrain following capability in it's next generation special operations aircraft (SOA), the MH-60K and the MH-47E. As two experimental test pilots assigned to the Army's Airworthiness Qualification Test Directorate of the US Army Aviation Technical Test Center, we would like to convey the role that human factors has played in the development of the MMR for terrain following operations in the SOA. In the MH-60K, the pilot remains the interface between the aircraft, via the flight controls and the processed radar data, and the flight director cues. The presentation of the processed radar data to the pilot significantly affects the overall system performance, and is directly driven by the way humans see, process, and react to stimuli. Our development has been centered around the optimization of this man-machine interface.

  12. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  13. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objectives. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Because of the number of systems involved and the variety of engineering disciplines, systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control system is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary objective is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs are reviewed: the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating anomalies and the design errors which cause them, are examined to help identify what functions a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  14. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  15. Real-Time Minimization of Tracking Error for Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha; Kaneshige, John T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Kulkarni, Nilesh V.; Burken, John

    2013-01-01

    This technology presents a novel, stable, discrete-time adaptive law for flight control in a Direct adaptive control (DAC) framework. Where errors are not present, the original control design has been tuned for optimal performance. Adaptive control works towards achieving nominal performance whenever the design has modeling uncertainties/errors or when the vehicle suffers substantial flight configuration change. The baseline controller uses dynamic inversion with proportional-integral augmentation. On-line adaptation of this control law is achieved by providing a parameterized augmentation signal to a dynamic inversion block. The parameters of this augmentation signal are updated to achieve the nominal desired error dynamics. If the system senses that at least one aircraft component is experiencing an excursion and the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, then the neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft operation may be changed.

  16. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  17. A Consideration of Constraints on Aircraft Departure Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Morello, Samuel A.; Shay, Richard F.; Lemos, Katherine A.; Jacobsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a system-level perspective on the operational issues and constraints that limit departure capacity at large metropolitan airports in today's air transportation system. It examines the influence of constraints evident in en route airspace, in metroplex operations, and at individual airports from today's perspective and with a view toward future gate-to-cruise operations. Cross cutting organizational and technological challenges are discussed in relation to their importance in addressing the constraints.

  18. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  19. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  20. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  1. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  2. 14 CFR 198.1 - Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility of aircraft operation for insurance. 198.1 Section 198.1 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.1 Eligibility of aircraft operation...

  3. 76 FR 16349 - Notice of Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... operator with a written declaration (from the contracting officer or higher- level official) of public... statute; and The declaration is made in advance of the proposed public aircraft flight. To implement this... is a declaration of public aircraft status, all operations must be conducted in accordance with...

  4. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft operator... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by...

  5. Future of V/STOL aircraft systems: A survey of opinions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Lampkin, B. A.; Andrews, H.

    1985-01-01

    The recent success of the British Harriers in the Falkland Islands conflict vividly underscored the potential of V/STOL aircraft in military operations in a difficult environment. Despite this apparent success of the Harrier, there has been a major decline of V/STOL funding in the research and development budgets of the U.S. government and industry. The recent funding history of V/STOL systems is examined. Responses to a questionnaire which asked the question, Should there be an operational V/STOL aircraft other than the AV-8A and AV-8B in the military aircraft fleet of the U.S.A.? are presented and discussed.

  6. RSRA flight control and stabilization. [Rotor Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Handling qualities of the RSRA (rotor systems research aircraft), a special test vehicle with optional configurations (forewings, removable horizontal tailplanes, main rotor, tail rotor, and twin engines for forward flight all removable), are described. The aircraft can be fitted to fly as a conventional rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, or compound helicopter, and is designed for testing existing and future rotor systems in flight. Controls include full-authority fly-by-wire controls and mechanical controls for rotary wing and for fixed wing. Stability augmentation, rotor test measurement systems, variable center of gravity capability, and rotor loading potential of the RSRA are also described.

  7. Overview of Aircraft Operations during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seinfeld, J. H.; Huebert, B.

    2001-12-01

    The NSF/NCAR C-130 flew 19 flights out of Iwakuni, Japan between March 31 and May 4, 2001, and data were collected on 7 ferry flights crossing the Pacific. Many of the instruments derived their air from low-turbulence inlets, which enabled studies of supermicron particles vs altitude. Several flights sampled two heavy dust outbreaks, where the aerosol mass concentration exceeded 1000 †g/m3. Size-dependent chemical measurements indicated that this dust did not dramatically change the sulfate size distribution (by causing SO2 to convert to sulfate on its alkaline surfaces), since the vast majority of the sulfate was still in a submicron accumulation mode. Similarly, while the scattering in dust was dominated by large particles, the particle absorption was almost exclusively submicron. We found extensive layering, with as many as 6 distinct dust layers (and clean layers between them) in one profile to 6 km. During ACE-Asia research missions were also conducted using a modified De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft operated by the California Institute of Technology and the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft studies (CIRPAS). A total of 19 research flights were conducted between March 31 and May 1, 2001 from the base of operations at the MCAS Iwakuni, Japan. The sampling area included portions of the Sea of Japan south and east of the Korean Peninsula, the East China Sea between China, Japan and Korea, and the Philippine Sea south of Japan. Collected aerosols were analyzed to determine their chemical composition and physical properties such as size distribution, hygroscopic growth, light scattering and absorption properties. Simultaneous radiative measurements were also made using the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), which measured solar beam transmission at 14 wavelengths (353-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol

  8. Mobile HTS SQUID System for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hohmann, Rainer; Grueneklee, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Braginski, Alex I.

    1997-03-01

    For the detection of deep-lying flaws in aircraft structures, a mobile eddy-current system is being developed in conjunction with a high-temperature superconductor (Yba_2Cu_3O_7) thin-film HTS SQUID gradiometer. The challenge is to operate the SQUID sensor during movement in strong ambient fields, independent of orientation. A planar rf double hole gradiometer with a gradient sensitivity of 500 fT/(cm √Hz) was designed for that purpose. Two different cooling concepts were successfully implemented: the SQUID operation in the vacuum region of a lightweight nitrogen cryostat, constructed for operation in any orientation, and the use of a commercial Joule-Thomson cryocooler for liquid-nitrogen-free SQUID cooling. With a SQUID integration scheme using a sapphire cold finger, motion-related additional noise is nearly eliminated. Using a system equipped with a differential eddy current excitation, two-dimensional scans were performed to find fatigue cracks and corrosion pits hidden below several layers of aluminum. For demonstration in the Lufthansa maintenance facility at Frankfurt Airport, the system was used to detect flaws in aircraft wheels. Work in progress includes developing longer base gradiometers for detection of deep flaws.

  9. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System...

  10. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA is... carriage of noise certification documents on board aircraft that leave the United States (73 FR 63098). A... mandatory, the FAA had published a draft Advisory Circular (AC) (70 FR 60127, October 14, 2005)...

  11. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  12. Integration of Satellite-Derived Cloud Phase, Cloud Top Height, and Liquid Water Path into an Operational Aircraft Icing Nowcasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Julie; McDonough, Frank; Black, Jennifer; Landott, Scott; Wolff, Cory; Mueller, Steven; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Operational products used by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to alert pilots of hazardous icing provide nowcast and short-term forecast estimates of the potential for the presence of supercooled liquid water and supercooled large droplets. The Current Icing Product (CIP) system employs basic satellite-derived information, including a cloud mask and cloud top temperature estimates, together with multiple other data sources to produce a gridded, three-dimensional, hourly depiction of icing probability and severity. Advanced satellite-derived cloud products developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provide a more detailed description of cloud properties (primarily at cloud top) compared to the basic satellite-derived information used currently in CIP. Cloud hydrometeor phase, liquid water path, cloud effective temperature, and cloud top height as estimated by the LaRC algorithms are into the CIP fuzzy logic scheme and a confidence value is determined. Examples of CIP products before and after the integration of the LaRC satellite-derived products will be presented at the conference.

  13. Conflict Prevention and Separation Assurance Method in the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Carreno, Victor A.; Williams, Daniel M.; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A multilayer approach to the prevention of conflicts due to the loss of aircraft-to-aircraft separation which relies on procedures and on-board automation was implemented as part of the SATS HVO Concept of Operations. The multilayer system gives pilots support and guidance during the execution of normal operations and advance warning for procedure deviations or off-nominal operations. This paper describes the major concept elements of this multilayer approach to separation assurance and conflict prevention and provides the rationale for its design. All the algorithms and functionality described in this paper have been implemented in an aircraft simulation in the NASA Langley Research Center s Air Traffic Operation Lab and on the NASA Cirrus SR22 research aircraft.

  14. Aircraft voice intercommunications system design for Project Oculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, James E.

    2006-05-01

    Project Oculus, an ongoing research platform for deploying airborne sensors on a C-130 aircraft, is currently in its pre-flight testing phase. The sensor platform is divided into two systems that rest on standard 463L pallets; a sensor deployment pallet and an operator station. The sensor pallet consists of a deployment arm and a pod, which can contain various sensors. The operator station houses power control equipment, data acquisition, and operators who control the sensors. Oculus is designed to fly on a C-130 aircraft, which has very high internal audible noise. Although Oculus' operator station contains noise-deadening material, a headset intercommunication system needs to be designed. This system must comply with different headset standards, communicate with the C-130 intercom, and be expandable to accommodate various audio sources like radios and satellites receivers. Throughout the years, intercom systems and headsets have evolved from the original standard consisting of an impedance rating of a speaker and a microphone. Early intercom systems were highly limited in functionality and quality due to simple electronics and common grounding. Advances in electronics allowed for the evolution of headset standards and intercom equipment, which permitted a multitude of new configurations and improved sound quality. With these advances, multiple headset standards and intercom interfaces have become popular among the military and civilian aviation. Due to the different standards for headsets, impedance matching plays a major role in the design of an intercom system. Oculus is a multi-mission platform and therefore must be designed to support a variety of standards including civilian and military headsets. This paper outlines the intercom units and parts considered for use in Oculus, and a design criteria for an extendable intercom system for Oculus.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  16. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  17. Advanced U. S. military aircraft battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flake, R.A.; Eskra, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    While most USAF aircraft currently use vented Ni-Cd for dc electrical power and emergency power, as well as the powering of lights and instruments prior to engine starting, these batteries have high maintenance requirements, low reliability, and no built-in testing capability with which to check battery health prior to flight. The USAF Wright R D Center accordingly initiated its Advanced Maintenance-Free NiCd Battery System development program in 1986, in order to develop a sealed Ni-Cd battery which would remain maintenance-free over a period of three years. Attention is being given to a high power bipolar battery design in which there are no individual cell cases or cell interconnects.

  18. Analysis of Small Aircraft as a Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to examine the market viability of small aircraft as a transportation mode in competition with automobile and scheduled commercial air travel by estimating the pool of users that would potentially switch to on-demand air travel due to cost/time savings. The basis for the analysis model was the Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool (IATSET) which was developed under contract to NASA by the Logistics Management Institute. IATSET is a macroeconomic model that predicts at a National level the mode choice between automobile, scheduled air, and on-demand air travel based on the value of a travelers time and monetary cost of the trip. A number of modifications are detailed to the original IATSET to better model the changing small aircraft environment. The potential trip market was modeled for the Eclipse 500 operated as a corporate jet and as an air taxi for the business travel market. The Cirrus 20R and a $80K single engine piston aircraft (based on automobile manufacturing technology) are evaluated in the pleasure and personal business travel market.

  19. Propulsion System for Very High Altitude Subsonic Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Harp, James L., Jr.; King, Joseph F.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains why a spark ignited gasoline engine, intake pressurized with three cascaded stages of turbocharging, was selected to power NASA's contemplated next generation of high altitude atmospheric science aircraft. Beginning with the most urgent science needs (the atmospheric sampling mission) and tracing through the mission requirements which dictate the unique flight regime in which this aircraft has to operate (subsonic flight at greater then 80 kft) we briefly explore the physical problems and constraints, the available technology options and the cost drivers associated with developing a viable propulsion system for this highly specialized aircraft. The paper presents the two available options (the turbojet and the turbocharged spark ignited engine) which are discussed and compared in the context of the flight regime. We then show how the unique nature of the sampling mission, coupled with the economic considerations pursuant to aero engine development, point to the spark ignited engine as the only cost effective solution available. Surprisingly, this solution compares favorably with the turbojet in the flight regime of interest. Finally, some remarks are made about NASA's present state of development, and future plans to flight demonstrate the three stage turbocharged powerplant.

  20. 75 FR 41986 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Sport Pilot Rating'' was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 5204). In that rule, the FAA amended... Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating; OMB Approval of Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  1. 75 FR 5203 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Sport Pilot Rating'' (73 FR 20181). The NPRM proposed to address airman certification issues that have... Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 20 / Monday,...

  2. 75 FR 15609 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating'' (75 FR 5204). In that... of the final rule. Corrections In final rule FR Doc. 2010-2056, beginning on page 5204 in the Federal... Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With...

  3. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  4. Evaluation of laminar flow control systems concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings and reduced direct operating cost benefits would result from using LFC.

  5. Comparison of piezoelectric systems and aerodynamic systems for aircraft vibration alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Luber, Wolfgang G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of active smart structure - piezoelectric control system and aerodynamic active systems for vibration alleviation and elastic mode damping of a military aircraft structure is presented. The vibration alleviation systems which are operative at flight in turbulence or during maneuvers at high incidence corresponding to severe buffeting conditions are under investigation by DASA as a part of research study on advanced aircraft structures. The active systems for elastic mode damping are designed as digital systems to provide vibration alleviation and have an interface to the flight control system (FCS) or are directly part of the FCS. The sensor concept of all different systems is the same as the sensor concept used for the FCS with the corresponding benefits of redundancy and safety. The design of systems and the comparisons of system properties are based on open and closed loop response calculations, performed with the dynamic model of the total aircraft including coupling of flight mechanics, structural dynamics, FCS dynamics and hydraulic actuator or piezo-actuator dynamics. Aerodynamic systems, like active foreplane and flap concepts, rudder and auxiliary rudder concepts, and piezoelectric systems, like piezo interface at the interconnection fin to rear fuselage and integrated piezo concepts are compared. Besides the essential effects on flexible aircraft mode stability and vibration alleviation factors system complexity and safety aspects are described.

  6. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  7. Variable Geometry Aircraft Pylon Structure and Related Operation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Parthiv N. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft control structure can be utilized for purposes of drag management, noise control, or aircraft flight maneuvering. The control structure includes a high pressure engine nozzle, such as a bypass nozzle or a core nozzle of a turbofan engine. The nozzle exhausts a high pressure fluid stream, which can be swirled using a deployable swirl vane architecture. The control structure also includes a variable geometry pylon configured to be coupled between the nozzle and the aircraft. The variable geometry pylon has a moveable pylon section that can be deployed into a deflected state to maintain or alter a swirling fluid stream (when the swirl vane architecture is deployed) for drag management purposes, or to assist in the performance of aircraft flight maneuvers.

  8. Aircraft Wake Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Performance Update and Validation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis has been performed on data generated from the two most recent field deployments of the Aircraft Wake VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). The AVOSS provides reduced aircraft spacing criteria for wake vortex avoidance as compared to the FAA spacing applied under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Several field deployments culminating in a system demonstration at Dallas Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport in the summer of 2000 were successful in showing a sound operational concept and the system's potential to provide a significant benefit to airport operations. For DFW, a predicted average throughput increase of 6% was observed. This increase implies 6 or 7 more aircraft on the ground in a one-hour period for DFW operations. Several studies of performance correlations to system configuration options, design options, and system inputs are also reported. The studies focus on the validation performance of the system.

  9. Pneumatic system structure for circulation control aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Timothy A. (Inventor); Roman, Stephan (Inventor); Beurer, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A plenum for a circulation control rotor aircraft which surrounds the rotor drive shaft (18) and is so constructed that the top (32), outer (38) and bottom (36) walls through compressed air is admitted are fixed to aircraft structure and the inner wall (34) through which air passes to rotor blades (14) rotates with the drive shaft and rotor blades.

  10. V/STOL Aircraft Operation in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P.

    1965-01-01

    Some aspects of V/STOL operation in a terminal area have been presented. A V/STOL instrument approach with present-day displays and guidance systems requires about 5 minutes at low speeds, but this time could be cut to 1 1/2 to 2 minutes if the displays and guidance systems were improved. In order to keep approach-pattern time to a minimum, the conversion process should be simplified by interconnecting as many operations as possible with one control. Adequate vectoring for the lifting system, attitude stabilization to prevent excessive wandering, and automatic glide-path control for approaches over 6 deg. will also be required.

  11. Regaining Lost Separation in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. While Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) tools would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. If an acceptable safety level can be demonstrated in these situations, then operations may be conducted with lower separation minimums. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley s Air Traffic Operations Lab to address issues associated with resolving near-term conflicts and the potential use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. As air-air separation concepts are evolved, further studies will consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).These types of non-normal events will require the ASAS to provide effective alerts and resolutions prior to the time that an Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) would give a Resolution Advisory (RA). When an RA is issued, a

  12. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  13. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  14. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  15. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  16. 14 CFR 91.319 - Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establishes a level of safety equivalent to that provided under the regulations for the deviation requested... repairman (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating, an appropriately rated mechanic, or an... limitations. (a) No person may operate an aircraft that has an experimental certificate— (1) For other...

  17. 75 FR 29568 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aircraft Operator Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... comments, of the following collection of information on March 16, 2010. 75 FR 12559. The collection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... provided by the aircraft operator against acts of criminal violence, aircraft piracy, and the...

  18. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. 91.317 Section 91.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... type or supplemental type certification of that aircraft; (2) For training flight crews,...

  19. 78 FR 38076 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee... meeting includes the following topics: ] Review of NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration...

  20. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  1. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  3. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.190 - What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account? 102-33.190 Section 102-33.190 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.190 - What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account? 102-33.190 Section 102-33.190 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT...

  6. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 6: Systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems analysis of the quiet turbofan aircraft for short-haul transportation was conducted. The purpose of the study was to integrate the representative data generated by aircraft, market, and economic analyses. Activities of the study were to develop the approach and to refine the methodologies for analytic tradeoff, and sensitivity studies of propulsive lift conceptual aircraft and their performance in simulated regional airlines. The operations of appropriate airlines in each of six geographic regions of the United States were simulated. The offshore domestic regions were evaluated to provide a complete domestic evaluation of the STOL concept applicability.

  7. Operation Ice Bridge overview and results from aircraft laser altimetry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Thomas, R. H.; Sonntag, J. G.; Manizade, S.; Fredrick, E.; Yungel, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Ice Mapping group (Project AIM) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility has been conducting systematic topographic surveys of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) since 1993, using scanning airborne laser altimeters (NASA ATM) combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. In 2009, with ICESat I nearing its operational end, and a replacement not due for at least 5 years, NASA HQ decided to expand the aircraft remote sensing of ice sheets and sea ice to provide the cryospheric science community with interim data sets to monitor changes in Polar Regions. The first of these surveys took place in the spring of 2009, in which numerous segments of ICESat ground tracks in critical areas in Greenland were resurveyed along with many of the previously surveyed aircraft lines. Planned for fall 2009 is a deployment to Punta Arenas, Chile, using NASA’s DC8 long-range aircraft to survey critical sites in Antarctica. Results from these new data sets will be presented. William B. Krabill Project Scientist for Arctic Ice Mapping Cryospheric Sciences Branch, Code 614.1 NASA/GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility, Building N-159, Room E201 Wallops Island, Virginia 23337 USA Tel 757 824 1417 Fax 757 824 1036 e-mail: William.B.Krabill@nasa.gov

  8. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  9. A conceptual study of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical comparison of the two candidate Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) configurations selected by the Government at the completion of Part 1 of the RSRA Conceptual Predesign Study is presented. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the relative suitability of both vehicles for the RSRA missions described in the Government Statement of Work, and to assess their versatility in the testing of new rotor concepts. The analytical comparison was performed primarily with regard to performance and stability and control. A weights, center-of-gravity, and inertia computation was performed for each iteration in the analysis process. The dynamics investigation was not concerned so much with a comparison of the two vehicles, but explored the dynamic problems attending operation of any RSRA operating with large rotor RPM and diameter ranges over large forward speed ranges. Several means of isolating in- and out-of-plane rotor vibrations were analyzed. An optimum isolation scheme was selected.

  10. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  11. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  12. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... operated over water. No person may operate a land aircraft carrying passengers over water unless— (a) It is operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary...

  13. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING...

  14. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  15. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  16. Application of Active Controls Technology to Aircraft Ride Smoothing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, Maris; Jacobson, Ira D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade-offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL-class aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically-predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  17. Application of active controls technology to aircraft bide smoothing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort, and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  18. Atmospheric Observations from Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) provide a new and exciting avenue for atmospheric observations. NASA has a number of UASs. Amongst these are the Ikhana (24 hrs., 7000 km), the Altair (120 hrs., 6500 km), the Aerosonde (30 hrs., 3000 km), and the Global Hawk (30 hrs., 22,000 km). This presentation provides a brief history of UASs which is followed by a description of their capabilities. The presentation concludes by describing an example mission - the UAS Aura Validation Experiment (UAS-AVE). This mission will be flown on the NASA Global Hawk in the Spring/Summer of 2009. The goals fo the mission are to: 1) provide Aura validation observations, 2) sample the break up of the Arctic polar vortex, 3) observed cross-Pacific transport of aerosols and pollutants such as ozone, and 4) sample intense water advective events that impact the U.S. west coast (atmospheric rivers). Because of their range and duration, UASs provide new and exciting opportunities for atmospheric science.

  19. The cost of noise reduction for departure and arrival operations of commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.; Swan, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and noise annoyance due to a departure and an arrival operation was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various noise goals at minimum DOC. These vehicles ranged across the spectrum of possible noise levels from completely unconstrained to the quietest vehicles that could be designed within the study ground rules. Optimization parameters were varied to find the minimum DOC. This basic variation was then extended to different aircraft sizes and technology time frames.

  20. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  1. Description of a landing site indicator (LASI) for light aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H. V.; Outlaw, B. K. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental cockpit mounted head-up type display system was developed and evaluated by LaRC pilots during the landing phase of light aircraft operations. The Landing Site Indicator (LASI) system display consists of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and indicated airspeed images superimposed on the pilot's view through the windshield. The information is made visible to the pilot by means of a partially reflective viewing screen which is suspended directly in frot of the pilot's eyes. Synchro transmitters are operated by vanes, located at the left wing tip, which sense angle of attack and sideslip angle. Information is presented near the center of the display in the form of a moving index on a fixed grid. The airspeed is sensed by a pitot-static pressure transducer and is presented in numerical form at the top center of the display.

  2. An Evidenced-Based Approach for Estimating Decompression Sickness Risk in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ronald R.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Conkin, Johnny

    1999-01-01

    Estimating the risk of decompression Sickness (DCS) in aircraft operations remains a challenge, making the reduction of this risk through the development of operationally acceptable denitrogenation schedules difficult. In addition, the medical recommendations which are promulgated are often not supported by rigorous evaluation of the available data, but are instead arrived at by negotiation with the aircraft operations community, are adapted from other similar aircraft operations, or are based upon the opinion of the local medical community. We present a systematic approach for defining DCS risk in aircraft operations by analyzing the data available for a specific aircraft, flight profile, and aviator population. Once the risk of DCS in a particular aircraft operation is known, appropriate steps can be taken to reduce this risk to a level acceptable to the applicable aviation community. Using this technique will allow any aviation medical community to arrive at the best estimate of DCS risk for its specific mission and aviator population and will allow systematic reevaluation of the decisions regarding DCS risk reduction when additional data are available.

  3. Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.

  4. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  5. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  6. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased... pilot duties— (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is leased to a person who is not a...

  7. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  8. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  9. Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Trapp, D. L.; Kimoto, B. W.; Marsh, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information.

  10. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  11. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  12. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificated air carrier shall file BTS Form 298-C, Schedule F-2 “Report of Aircraft Operating Expenses and..., which is available from the BTS' Office of Airline Information. In the space provided for “Aircraft...

  13. Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

  14. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  15. Aircraft systems design studies employing advanced transport technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, B.; Pearce, C.; Quartero, C.; Taylor, A.

    1972-01-01

    System and design integration studies are presented to define and assess the application of the advanced technology most likely to result in a superior next generation, high subsonic/sonic conventional takeoff and landing transport aircraft system. It is concluded that the new technologies can be directed toward the achievement of improved economy and performance. These benefits may be used to compensate for the penalties associated with reduced noise requirements anticipated to make future aircraft ecologically acceptable.

  16. 14 CFR 61.319 - Can I operate a make and model of aircraft other than the make and model aircraft for which I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.319 Can I operate a make and... you hold a sport pilot certificate you may operate any make and model of light-sport aircraft in...

  17. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from desi gn requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, flight dynamics and control, and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system design integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2) significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  18. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  19. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  20. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  1. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or... a Swiss enterprise as consists of earnings derived from the operation of ships or...

  2. 78 FR 75453 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Isolation or Protection From Internal Access AGENCY: Federal... control and navigation systems, 2. Operator business and administrative support, and 3....

  3. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  4. ANOPP programmer's reference manual for the executive System. [aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.; Brown, C. G.; Bartlett, R. W.; Baucom, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program as of release level 01/00/00 is presented in a manual designed for programmers having a need for understanding the internal design and logical concepts of the executive system software. Emphasis is placed on providing sufficient information to modify the system for enhancements or error correction. The ANOPP executive system includes software related to operating system interface, executive control, and data base management for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. It is written in Fortran IV for use on CDC Cyber series of computers.

  5. Neural networks for aircraft system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks offer some interesting possibilities for use in control. Our current research is on the use of neural networks on an aircraft model. The model can then be used in a nonlinear control scheme. The effectiveness of network training is demonstrated.

  6. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  7. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  8. CID-720 aircraft high-environment flight instrumentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The high-environment flight instrumentation system was designed to acquire Langley's structural response data during the full scale transport-controlled impact demonstration test. There was only one opportunity for data acquisition. Thus, a high reliability and crashworthy design approach was implemented. The approach featured multi-level redundancy and a vigorous quality assurance testing program. Complying with an accelerated schedule, the instrumentation system was developed, tested and shipped within 18 months to Dryden Flight Research Facility. The flight instrumentation system consists of two autonomous data systems, DAS #1 and #2, and an excellent checkout subsystem. Each data system is partitioned into four pallets. The system was designed to operate on manned and unmanned flights. There are 176 data channels per data system. These channels are sequentially sampled and encoded into 1 megabit/sec pulse code modulation (PCM) data signal. To increase the probability of success, a special PCM distribution subsystem was developed. This subsystem distributes the PCM signal to two transmitters, one delay memory, and eight recorder tracks. The data on four of these trackes was digitally delayed approximately 300 msec to maximize data acquisition during impact. Therefore each data system's data is redundantly recorded onboard and on the ground. There are two time code generators. Parallel time from each is encoded into both data systems. Serial time from each is redundantly recorded on both onboard recorders. Instrumentation power is independent of aircraft power and self-contained.

  9. Evaluation of Head-Worn Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  10. Evaluation of head-worn display concepts for commercial aircraft taxi operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lance, III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O'Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  11. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  12. Evaluation Of An Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes study of pilots' use of traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated airplane flights. Gives alert by light and sound when another aircraft within 40 s of passing very closely. If other aircraft still poses threat 15 to 20 s later, TCAS II advises pilot to maneuver vertically or to continue on same flightpath but alter rate of ascent or descent. Report describes methodology, summarizes results, and presents conclusions.

  13. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Terminal area operations, avionics and human factors, atmospheric environment, and operating problems and potential solutions are discussed. Other topics include flight experiences, ground operations, and acoustics and noise reduction.

  14. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  15. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  16. Some wear studies on aircraft brake systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    An initial investigation of worn surfaces in friction pads and steel rotors used in current aircraft brakes was carried out using electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis. It consists of the topographical study and the analysis of chemical element distribution. Based upon this initial examination, two approaches, microscopic and macroscopic have been conducted to interpret and formulate the wear mechanism of the aircraft brake materials. Microscopically, the wear particles were examined. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. Macroscopically, it has been found that, for the current copper based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS steel in a caliper brake, the surface temperature raised due to frictional heat is nonlinearly proportional to the load applied and slide time with speed at 1750 rpm. The wear of brake materials is then proportional to this temperature and is also a function of the melting temperature for copper.

  17. Littoral environmental reconnaissance using tactical imagery from unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, K. Todd; Lalejini, David M.; Spansel, Steven D.; Holman, Robert A.

    2010-04-01

    The dynamic nature of littoral regions requires a reconnaissance approach that can rapidly quantify environmental conditions. Inadequate estimation of these conditions can have substantial impacts on the performance of Naval systems. Given that expeditionary warfare operations can occur over timescales on the order of hours, exploitation of video imagery from tactical vehicles such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has proved to be a reliable and adaptive solution. Tactical littoral products that can be created by exploiting UAS imagery include estimates of surf conditions, dominant wave period, wave direction, nearshore currents, and bathymetry. These vehicles can fly for durations of 1-2 hours at altitudes of less than 1000 m (beneath typical cloud cover) to obtain imagery at pixel resolutions better than 1 m. The main advantage of using imaging sensors carried by these vehicles is that the data is available in the region of operational interest where other data collection approaches would be difficult or impossible to employ. The through-the-sensor exploitation technique we have developed operates in two phases. The first step is to align individual image frames to a common reference and then georegister the alignment into a mapped image sequence. The second phase involves signal processing of pixel intensity time series (virtual sensors) to determine spatial relationships over time. Geophysical relationships, such as linear wave dispersion, can then be applied to these processed data to invert for environmental parameters such as bathymetry.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  19. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  20. Aircraft System Analysis of Technology Benefits to Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Joseph B.; Smith, Roger L.

    2008-01-01

    An aircraft systems analysis was conducted to evaluate the net benefits of advanced technologies on two conceptual civil transport rotorcraft, to quantify the potential of future civil rotorcraft to become operationally viable and economically competitive, with the ultimate goal of alleviating congestion in our airways, runways and terminals. These questions are three of many that must be resolved for the successful introduction of civil transport rotorcraft: 1) Can civil transport rotorcraft actually relieve current airport congestion and improve overall air traffic and passenger throughput at busy hub airports? What is that operational scenario? 2) Can advanced technology make future civil rotorcraft economically competitive in scheduled passenger transport? What are those enabling technologies? 3) What level of investment is necessary to mature the key enabling technologies? This study addresses the first two questions, and several others, by applying a systems analysis approach to a broad spectrum of potential advanced technologies at a conceptual level of design. The method was to identify those advanced technologies that showed the most promise and to quantify their benefits to the design, development, production, and operation of future civil rotorcraft. Adjustments are made to sizing data by subject matter experts to reflect the introduction of new technologies that offer improved performance, reduced weight, reduced maintenance, or reduced cost. This study used projected benefits from new, advanced technologies, generally based on research results, analysis, or small-scale test data. The technologies are identified, categorized and quantified in the report. The net benefit of selected advanced technologies is quantified for two civil transport rotorcraft concepts, a Single Main Rotor Compound (SMRC) helicopter designed for 250 ktas cruise airspeed and a Civil Tilt Rotor (CTR) designed for 350 ktas cruise airspeed. A baseline design of each concept was

  1. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  2. Evaluation of Equivalent Vision Technologies for Supersonic Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Wilz, Susan P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four air transport-rated pilots participated as subjects in a fixed-based simulation experiment to evaluate the use of Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) and eXternal Vision System (XVS) technologies as enabling technologies for future all-weather operations. Three head-up flight display concepts were evaluated a monochromatic, collimated Head-up Display (HUD) and a color, non-collimated XVS display with a field-of-view (FOV) equal to and also, one significantly larger than the collimated HUD. Approach, landing, departure, and surface operations were conducted. Additionally, the apparent angle-of-attack (AOA) was varied (high/low) to investigate the vertical field-of-view display requirements and peripheral, side window visibility was experimentally varied. The data showed that lateral approach tracking performance and lateral landing position were excellent regardless of the display type and AOA condition being evaluated or whether or not there were peripheral cues in the side windows. Longitudinal touchdown and glideslope tracking were affected by the display concepts. Larger FOV display concepts showed improved longitudinal touchdown control, superior glideslope tracking, significant situation awareness improvements and workload reductions compared to smaller FOV display concepts.

  3. Prototype Development of an Operational Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.

    2009-12-01

    A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead mass shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. We also discuss issues encounter thus far as well as anticipated hurdles in the research to operations transition process.

  4. 14 CFR 121.465 - Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher duty time limitations: Domestic and flag operations. 121.465 Section 121.465 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications and Duty Time Limitations: Domestic and Flag Operations; Flight Attendant Duty Period...

  5. Evaluation of a Trainer for Sensor Operators on Gunship II Aircraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cream, Bertram W.

    This report describes the design, development, and evaluation of a training device intended to enable ground-based practice of equipment operation and target-tracking skills that are required by the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Low Light Level TV (LLLTV) sensor operators assigned to Gunship II aircraft. This trainer makes use of a…

  6. Personal Electronic Devices and Their Interference with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Elden; Ely, Jay J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A compilation of data on personal electronic devices (PEDs) attributed to having created anomalies with aircraft systems. Charts and tables display 14 years of incidents reported by pilots to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Affected systems, incident severity, sources of anomaly detection, and the most frequently identified PEDs are some of the more significant data. Several reports contain incidents of aircraft off course when all systems indicated on course and of critical events that occurred during landings and takeoffs. Additionally, PEDs that should receive priority in testing are identified.

  7. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  8. Irrigation Systems Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective operation of an irrigation system requires matching the operational characteristics of a system to the soil, crop, field, and water supply. Each of these components will affect the quality of the irrigation system performance. The performance measures used to characterize the irrigation sy...

  9. Trajectory-Based Complexity (TBX): A Modified Aircraft Count to Predict Sector Complexity During Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Lee, Paul U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new complexity metric to predict -in real-time- sector complexity for trajectory-based operations (TBO). TBO will be implemented in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Trajectory-Based Complexity (TBX) is a modified aircraft count that can easily be computed and communicated in a TBO environment based upon predictions of aircraft and weather trajectories. TBX is scaled to aircraft count and represents an alternate and additional means to manage air traffic demand and capacity with more consideration of dynamic factors such as weather, aircraft equipage or predicted separation violations, as well as static factors such as sector size. We have developed and evaluated TBX in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center during human-in-the-loop studies of trajectory-based concepts since 2009. In this paper we will describe the TBX computation in detail and present the underlying algorithm. Next, we will describe the specific TBX used in an experiment at NASA's AOL. We will evaluate the performance of this metric using data collected during a controller-inthe- loop study on trajectory-based operations at different equipage levels. In this study controllers were prompted at regular intervals to rate their current workload on a numeric scale. When comparing this real-time workload rating to the TBX values predicted for these time periods we demonstrate that TBX is a better predictor of workload than aircraft count. Furthermore we demonstrate that TBX is well suited to be used for complexity management in TBO and can easily be adjusted to future operational concepts.

  10. Search and Rescue Operations of Aircraft in Africa: Some Compelling Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I. R.

    2002-01-01

    The world aviation community has felt the compelling need for a well-coordinated global programme for search and rescue operations of aircraft ever since commercial aviation was regulated in 1944. Guidelines and plans of action for search and rescue have therefore been considered critical in the event of an aircraft accident. This fact is eminently brought to bear in the continental regions of Africa and South America in particular, where vast expanses of land are still uninhabited or sparsely populated and controlled flight into terrain (CFIT-where an aircraft may crash on land while still under the control of technical crew) is a common occurrence. There are numerous guidelines that have been adopted under the umbrella of the International Civil Aviation Organization which are already in place for the provision of search and rescue operations pertaining to aircraft. However, when an accident occurs in the territory of a State, there are sensitivities involving the State in which the aircraft concerned was registered and issues of sovereignty which have to be considered. Additionally. issues such as the voluntary nature of the search and rescue services offered. confidentiality, timeliness of such operations, fairness and uniformity all play a critical role. This article addresses the issue of search and rescue operations in Africa and examines in some detail where the world aviation community is right now and where it is headed in this important field of human endeavour.

  11. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  12. Network operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  13. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  14. A Radio System for Avoiding Illuminating Aircraft with a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, W. A.; Murphy, T. W.; Melser, J. F.; Tu, J. K.; White, G. A.; Kassabian, K. H.; Bales, K.; Baumgartner, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    When scientific experiments require transmission of powerful laser or radio beams through the atmosphere, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that precautions be taken to avoid inadvertent illumination of aircraft. At present, the FAA requires that laser operators use human spotters to protect against accidental illumination. Here, we describe a simple, inexpensive, and highly reliable electronic system for detecting aircraft entering the vicinity of a laser beam that makes use of the air traffic control (ATC) radio transponders required on most aircraft. The radio system uses two antennas, both aligned with the laser beam. One antenna has a broad beam and the other has a narrow beam. The ratio of the transponder power received in the narrow beam to that received in the broad beam gives a measure of the angular distance of the aircraft from the axis that is independent of the range or the transmitter power. This ratio is easily measured and can be used to shutter the laser when the aircraft is too close to the beam. Comparisons of prototype systems operating at both the Apache Point and W. M. Keck Observatory with an FAA database indicate successful identification of commercial airplanes passing near the telescope boresight.

  15. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

  16. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  17. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  18. Man-vehicle systems research facility advanced aircraft flight simulator throttle mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurasaki, S. S.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Aircraft Flight Simulator is equipped with a motorized mechanism that simulates a two engine throttle control system that can be operated via a computer driven performance management system or manually by the pilots. The throttle control system incorporates features to simulate normal engine operations and thrust reverse and vary the force feel to meet a variety of research needs. While additional testing to integrate the work required is principally now in software design, since the mechanical aspects function correctly. The mechanism is an important part of the flight control system and provides the capability to conduct human factors research of flight crews with advanced aircraft systems under various flight conditions such as go arounds, coupled instrument flight rule approaches, normal and ground operations and emergencies that would or would not normally be experienced in actual flight.

  19. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  20. Sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft is described. The system is characterized by a disk shaped body mounted for rotation aboard the aircraft in exposed relation to solar radiation. The system also has a plurality of mutually isolated chambers; each chamber being characterized by an opening having a photosensor disposed therein and arranged in facing relation with the opening for receiving incident solar radiation and responsively providing a voltage output. Photosensors are connected in paired relation through a bridge circuit for providing heading error signals in response to detected imbalances in intensities of solar radiation.

  1. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  2. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  3. Flight Testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Merrill, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    In the late 1960s, efforts to advance the state-of-the-art in rotor systems technology indicated a significant gap existed between our ability to accurately predict the characteristics of a complex rotor system and the results obtained through flight verification. Even full scale wind tunnel efforts proved inaccurate because of the complex nature of a rotating, maneuvering rotor system. The key element missing, which prevented significant advances, was our inability to precisely measure the exact rotor state as a function of time and flight condition. Two Rotor Research Aircraft (RSRA) were designed as pure research aircraft and dedicated rotor test vehicles whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel testing, and flight verification. The two aircraft, the development of the piloting techniques required to safely fly the compound helicopter, the government flight testing accomplished to date, and proposed future research programs.

  4. Design and flight test of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system on the NASA F-15 test aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.

  5. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  6. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  7. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  8. Comparing the performance of expert user heuristics and an integer linear program in aircraft carrier deck operations.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative. PMID:23934675

  9. The NASA Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS): Concept Demonstration Results and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the national airspace system has been recognized as approaching a capacity crisis. In the light of this condition, industry, government, user organizations, and educational institutions have been working on procedural and technological solutions to the problem. One aspect of system operations that holds potential for improvement is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria, applied when operations are conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR), were designed to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards. It is well understood that wake behavior is dependent on meteorological conditions as well as the physical parameters of the generating aircraft. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully demonstrated in a realtime field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW), AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. AVOSS provides dynamic wake separation criteria that are a function of the ambient weather conditions for a particular airport, and the predicted wake behavior under those conditions. Wake sensing subsystems provide safety checks and validation for the predictions. The AVOSS was demonstrated in shadow mode; no actual spacing changes were applied to aircraft. This paper briefly reviews the system architecture and operation, reports the latest performance results from the DFW deployment, and describes the future direction of the project.

  10. Aircraft Detection System Ensures Free-Space Laser Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, Brian; Wilson, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists continue to explore our solar system, there are increasing demands to return greater volumes of data from smaller deep-space probes. Accordingly, NASA is studying advanced strategies based on free-space laser transmissions, which offer secure, high-bandwidth communications using smaller subsystems of much lower power and mass than existing ones. These approaches, however, can pose a danger to pilots in the beam path because the lasers may illuminate aircraft and blind them. Researchers thus are investigating systems that will monitor the surrounding airspace for aircraft that could be affected. This paper presents current methods for safe free space laser propagation.

  11. Linear tracking systems with applications to aircraft control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. H.; Athans, M.; Castanon, D.; Bacchioloni, F.

    1977-01-01

    A class of optimal linear time invariant tracking systems, both in continuous time and discrete time, of which the number of inputs (which are restricted to be step functions) is equal to the number of system outputs, is studied. Along with derivation of equations and design procedures, two discretization schemes are presented, constraining either the control or its time derivative, to be a constant over each sampling period. Descriptions are given for the linearized model of the F-8C aircraft longitudinal dynamics, and the C* handling qualities criterion, which then serve as an illustration of the applications of these linear tracking designs. A suboptimal reduced state design is also presented. Numerical results are given for both the continuous time and discrete time designs.

  12. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  13. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  14. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  15. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  16. 14 CFR 61.303 - If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this...

  17. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  18. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  19. New Mobile Lidar Systems Aboard Ultra-Light Aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Shang, Xiaoxia; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Two lidar systems embedded on ultra light aircraft (ULA) flew over the Rhone valley, south-east of France, to characterize the vertical extend of pollution aerosols in this area influenced by large industrial sites. The main industrial source is the Etang de Berre (43°28' N, 5°01' E), close to Marseille city. The emissions are mainly due to metallurgy and petrochemical factories. Traffic related to Marseille's area contribute to pollution with its ~1500000 inhabitants. Note that the maritime traffic close to Marseille may play an important role due to its position as the leading French harbor . For the previous scientific purpose and for the first time on ULA, we flew a mini-N2 Raman lidar system to help the assessment of the aerosol optical properties. Another Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard a second ULA. The lidars are compact and eye safe instruments. They operate at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight of 0.75 m. Different flights plans were tested to use the two lidars in synergy. We will present the different approaches and discuss both their advantages and limitations. Acknowledgements: the lidar systems have been developed by CEA. They have been deployed with the support of FERRING France. We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint, François Bernard and José Coutet, and the Air Creation ULA Company for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  20. Exploring Science Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Aboard UNOLS Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R.; Lachenmeier, T.; Hatfield, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks has been expanding the use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for science support from a variety of ships for several years. The ease and safety of flying from research vessels offers the science community lower cost access to overhead surveys of marine mammals without impact on sensitive populations, monitoring of AUV operations and collection of transmitted data, extensive surveys of sea ice during formation, melt, and sea temperatures through multiple seasons. As FAA expands access to the Arctic airspace over the Chukchi, Beaufort, and Bering Seas, the opportunities to employ UAS in science applications will become easier to exploit. This presentation describes the changes coming through new FAA rules, through the Alaska FAA Test Site, the Pan-Pacific UAS Test Range Complex which includes Oregon and Hawaii, and even Iceland. Airspace access advances associated with recent operations including the NASA-sponsored MIZOPEX, whale detection, and forming sea ice work in October will be presented, as well as a glider UAS connected to very high altitude balloons collecting atmospheric data. Development of safety procedures for use of UAS on UNOLS ships will be discussed.

  1. Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology: NOAA's Application of the Global Hawk Aircraft for High Impact Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Dunion, J. P.; Black, M. L.; Kenul, P.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program has begun the project Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) to evaluate the potential of high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft like the Global Hawk to improve forecasts of high-impact weather events and mitigate any degradations in the forecasts that might occur if there were a gap in satellite coverage. The first phase of the project is occurring this August and September using the NASA Global Hawk to study the impact of targeted observations of hurricanes and tropical cyclones. This follows several successful research missions conducted by both NASA and NOAA. Instruments on the aircraft for SHOUT include the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS or dropsondes), the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR, a microwave sounder), the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP, a scanning Doppler precipitation radar), and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP). The observations are being utilized for real-time forecasting, ingestion into operational weather models, and in post mission impact studies. Data impact is being evaluated through a combination of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) and Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). This presentation describes observations collected during this year's campaign, utilization of the data at the National Hurricane Center, and the results of preliminary data impact assessments of the data from SHOUT and previous experiments.

  2. Aircraft operator - Would you buy higher DOC to lower noise and fuel use. [Direct Operating Cost tradeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corning, G.; Hall, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method of optimization of the direct operating cost (DOC) and the effective perceived noise (in units of EPNdB) in aircraft is proposed. A computer program was used to generate a variety of aircraft designs meeting certain specifications, where wing loading, aspect ratio, cruise altitude, wing sweepback, and speed was varied, and DOC for each case was calculated. The higher aspect ratio, in combination with the appropriate wing loadings, cruise altitudes and wing sweep, is found to reduce the noise and the fuel used.

  3. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  4. Covert penetration systems: future strategic aircraft missions will require a new sensor system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Peter A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses past, present and future strategic aircraft requirements for ingress and egress, then focuses on the tech-nologies of the CO2 Laser Radar and the Automatic Target Recognizer. Present systems currently consist of a mix of various sensors which are not correlated until each is presented to the operator. Additionally, active sensors are highly detectable by threat warning systems, while passive sensors do not provide critical range information. CO2 Laser and AIR tech-nologies will significantly contribute to the resolution of these issues.

  5. On the use of a compact optical fiber sensor system in aircraft structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Nezih; Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Rocha, Bruno; Sun, Zhigang

    2012-06-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been identified as an area of significant potential for advanced aircraft maintenance programs that ensure continued airworthiness, enhanced operational safety and reduced life cycle cost. Several sensors and sensory systems have been developed for the implementation of such health monitoring capability. Among a wide range of developed technologies, fiber optic sensor technology, in particular fiber Bragg grating based emerged as one of the most promising for aircraft structural applications. This paper is set to explore the suitability of using a new Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBG) system developed for operation in two modes, low and high speed sensing modes, respectively. The suitability of the system for potential use in aircraft load monitoring and damage detection applications has been demonstrated. Results from FBG sensor system were in good agreement with results from conventional resistive strain gauges, validating this capability for load monitoring. For damage detection, the FBG sensor system was able to detect acoustic waves generated 52 inches (1.32 m) away. The initial results, obtained in a full stale experimentation, demonstrate the potential of using FBG sensors for both load monitoring and damage detection in aircraft environment.

  6. NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems: A Compilation of the Papers Presented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This compilation includes papers presented at the NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems held at the Langley Research Center on May 10 - 12, 1965. Contributions were made by representatives of the Ames Research Center, the Flight Research Center, end the Langley Research Center of NASA, as well as by representatives of the Federal Aviation Agency.

  7. 32 CFR 700.857 - Safe navigation and regulations governing operation of ships and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe navigation and regulations governing operation of ships and aircraft. 700.857 Section 700.857 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The...

  8. Aircraft noise synthesis system: Version 4 user instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A modified version of the Aircraft Noise Synthesis System with improved directivity and tonal content modeling has been developed. The synthesis system is used to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics such as duration or tonal content are independently varied while the remaining characteristics such as broadband content are held constant. The modified version of the system provides improved modeling of noise directivity patterns and an increased number of pure tone components. User instructions for the modified version of the synthesis system are provided.

  9. Application of dynamical systems theory to nonlinear aircraft dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, Fred E. C.; Jahnke, Craig C.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamical systems theory has been used to study nonlinear aircraft dynamics. A six degree of freedom model that neglects gravity has been analyzed. The aerodynamic model, supplied by NASA, is for a generic swept wing fighter and includes nonlinearities as functions of the angle of attack. A continuation method was used to calculate the steady states of the aircraft, and bifurcations of these steady states, as functions of the control deflections. Bifurcations were used to predict jump phenomena and the onset of periodic motion for roll coupling instabilities and high angle of attack maneuvers. The predictions were verified with numerical simulations.

  10. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  11. The Development of an Uninhabited Aircraft System for Remote Sensing in the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, W. R.; Hale, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    The use of autonomous aircraft in Cryospheric research is expected to lead to increases in the rate of data collection as well as decreases in both acquisition and operational costs associated with the implementation of aircraft in remote sensing. The University of Kansas is developing a robust, high-performance, autonomous platform capable of carrying up to eight wing-mounted antennas and 75 kg of payload over a distance of 1,700 km at speeds ranging from 150 300 km/hr. This aircraft, named the Meridian, is designed to carry a ground- penetrating radar system, currently under development at the University of Kansas, to measure ice thickness, snow accumulation, and basal conditions in support of the NSF funded Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS). In addition, this vehicle is also designed to be a robust science test bed that can be used for a wide variety of missions related to Cryospheric research. This will offer the geophysical science community opportunities to utilize an uninhabited aircraft that has been designed specifically for remote sensing in extreme conditions. The key design parameters of the Meridian include a turbopropeller engine, which offers logistical benefits as it operates on heavy fuels that are commonly available in the Cryosphere; retractable landing gear with skis for operation from snow runways; anti-icing; and over-the-horizon operational capability

  12. Acoustic measurements of F-4E aircraft operating in hush house, NSN 4920-02-070-2721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V. R.; Plzak, G. A.; Chinn, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the acoustic environment in the hush house facility located at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, during operation of the F-4E aircraft to ensure that aircraft structural acoustic design limits were not exceeded. The acoustic measurements showed that sonic fatigue problems are anticipated with the F-4E aircraft aft fuselage structure during operation in the hush house. The measured acoustic levels were less than those measured in an F-4E aircraft water cooled hush house at Hill AFB in the lower frequencies, but were increased over that measured during ground run up on some areas of the aircraft. It was recommended that the acoustic loads measured in this program should be specified in the structural design criteria for aircraft which will be subjected to hush house operation or defining requirements for associated equipment. Recommendations were also made to increase the fatigue life of the aft fuselage.

  13. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  14. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  15. A practical scheme for adaptive aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Willner, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight control system design is presented, that can be implemented by analog hardware, to be used to control an aircraft with uncertain parameters. The design is based upon the use of modern control theory. The ideas are illustrated by considering control of STOL longitudinal dynamics.

  16. 78 FR 68360 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... comments published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12259), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061... (78 FR 18932), Docket No. FAA-2013-0061- 0050. In addition, this document publishes the FAA's Final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY:...

  17. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  18. Detection of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes using unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. We set up a nitrogen rate experiment in 2013 with ‘Ranger Russet’ potatoes by applying four rates of nitrogen fertilizer (112, 224, 337, and 449 kg N/ha) in a randomized...

  19. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  20. Obstacle detection and warning system for aircraft navigation at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Laurent

    2000-06-01

    This paper speaks about work conducted in 1998 and 1999 by AEROSPATIALE MATRA in development of an obstacle detection system, which has been tested on a demonstrator aircraft in Toulouse. The purpose of this mock- up was to verify the feasibility of a passive technology, and to consider the limits of its use.

  1. 26 CFR 1.883-1T - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of income from the international... § 1.883-1T Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary). (a... the ship or aircraft of another corporation engaged in the international operation of ships...

  2. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Scheduled international air services in airplanes of U.S. registry having a configuration of more than nine...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

  3. 14 CFR 61.77 - Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Scheduled international air services in airplanes of U.S. registry having a configuration of more than nine...: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen. 61.77 Section 61.77....77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and...

  4. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  5. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  6. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  7. 14 CFR 61.327 - Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? 61.327 Section 61.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH? (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section,...

  8. Evaluating the compliance of Keck's LGSAO automated aircraft protection system with FAA adopted criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Campbell, Randy; Murphy, Thomas W.

    2014-07-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) applied for and received a determination of no-objection from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) operations using an automated aircraft protection system (APS) in late 2013. WMKO's APS, named AIRSAFE, uses transponder based aircraft detection (TBAD) to replace human aircraft spotters. The FAA required WMKO to self-certify AIRSAFE compliance with SAE Aerospace Standard 6029A: "Performance Criteria for Laser Control Measures Used for Aviation Safety"[1] (AS- 6029A). AS-6029A prescribes performance and administrative criteria for an APS; essentially, requiring AIRSAFE to adequately protect all types of aircraft, traveling at any speed, altitude, distance and direction reasonably expected in the operating environment. A description of the analysis that comprises this compliance evaluation is the main focus of this paper. Also discussed is the AIRSAFE compliance with AS-6029A administrative criteria that includes characterization of site specific air traffic, failure modes, limitations, operating procedures, preventative maintenance procedures, and periodic system test procedures.

  9. Operational Weight Estimations of Commercial Jet Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1972-01-01

    In evaluating current or proposed commercial transport airplanes, there has not been available a ready means to determine weights so as to compare airplanes within this particular class. This paper describes the development of and presents such comparative tools. The major design characteristics of current American jet transport airplanes were collected, and these data were correlated by means of regression analysis to develop weight relationships for these airplanes as functions of their operational requirements. The characteristics for 23 airplanes were assembled and examined in terms of the effects of the number of people carried, the cargo load, and the operating range. These airplane characteristics were correlated for the airplanes as one of three subclasses, namely the small, twin-engine jet transport, the conventional three- and four-engine jets, and the new wide-body jets.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  11. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  12. Aircraft operating efficiency on the North Atlantic, a challenge for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    A number of changes are expected to occur in the near future which could have important consequences for Atlantic flight operations for the next decade. These changes are identified and their impact on aircraft operating efficiency is discussed. Possible alternatives for North Atlantic air carriers are reviewed and strategies and actions are suggested which may give a considerable impact on fuel savings for years to come.

  13. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  14. A 94/183 GHz aircraft radiometer system for Project Storm Fury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliano, J. A.; Stratigos, J. A.; Forsythe, R. E.; Schuchardt, J. M.; Welch, J. M.; Gallentine, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometer design suitable for use in NASA's WB-57F aircraft to collect data from severe storm regions was developed. The design recommended was a 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer with 3 IF channels on either side of the 183.3 GHz water vapor line and a single IF channel for a low loss atmospheric window channel at 94 GHz. The development and construction of the 94/183 GHz scanning radiometer known as the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS) is presented. The radiometer scans the scene below the aircraft over an angle of + or - 45 degrees with the beamwidth of the scene viewed of approximately 2 degrees at 94 GHz and 1 degree at 183 GHz. The AMMS data collection system consists of a microcomputer used to store the radiometer data on the flight cartridge recorder, operate the stepper motor driven scanner, and collect housekeeping data such as thermistor temperature readings and aircraft time code.

  15. An evaluation of a real-time fault diagnosis expert system for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Palmer, Michael T.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    1987-01-01

    A fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system called Faultfinder was conceived and developed to detect and diagnose in-flight failures in an aircraft. Faultfinder is an automated intelligent aid whose purpose is to assist the flight crew in fault monitoring, fault diagnosis, and recovery planning. The present implementation of this concept performs monitoring and diagnosis for a generic aircraft's propulsion and hydraulic subsystems. This implementation is capable of detecting and diagnosing failures of known and unknown (i.e., unforseeable) type in a real-time environment. Faultfinder uses both rule-based and model-based reasoning strategies which operate on causal, temporal, and qualitative information. A preliminary evaluation is made of the diagnostic concepts implemented in Faultfinder. The evaluation used actual aircraft accident and incident cases which were simulated to assess the effectiveness of Faultfinder in detecting and diagnosing failures. Results of this evaluation, together with the description of the current Faultfinder implementation, are presented.

  16. Microwave and infrared simulations of an intense convective system and comparison with aircraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, N.; Yeh, Hwa-Young M.; Adler, Robert F.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional cloud model, radiative transfer model-based simulation system is tested and validated against the aircraft-based radiance observations of an intense convective system in southeastern Virginia on 29 June 1986 during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. NASA's ER-2, a high-altitude research aircraft with a complement of radiometers operating at 11-micrometer infrared channel and 18-, 37-, 92-, and 183-GHz microwave channels provided data for this study. The cloud model successfully simulated the cloud system with regard to aircraft- and radar-observed cloud-top heights and diameters and with regard to radar-observed reflectivity structure. For the simulation time found to correspond best with the aircraft- and radar-observed structure, brightness temperatures T(sub b) are simulated and compared with observations for all the microwave frequencies along with the 11-micrometer infrared channel. Radiance calculations at the various frequencies correspond well with the aircraft observations in the areas of deep convection. The clustering of 37-147-GHz T(sub b) observations and the isolation of the 18-GHz values over the convective cores are well simulated by the model. The radiative transfer model, in general, is able to simulate the observations reasonably well from 18 GHz through 174 GHz within all convective areas of the cloud system. When the aircraft-observed 18- and 37-GHz, and 90- and 174-GHz T(sub b) are plotted against each other, the relationships have a gradual difference in the slope due to the differences in the ice particle size in the convective and more stratiform areas of the cloud. The model is able to capture these differences observed by the aircraft. Brightness temperature-rain rate relationships compare reasonably well with the aircraft observations in terms of the slope of the relationship. The model calculations are also extended to select high-frequency channels at 220, 340, and 400 GHz to simulate the

  17. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  18. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase. PMID:25440950

  19. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future

  20. Modeling Aircraft Position and Conservatively Calculating Airspace Violations for an Autonomous Collision Awareness System for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueunten, Kevin K.

    With the scheduled 30 September 2015 integration of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) into the national airspace, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned with UAS capabilities to sense and avoid conflicts. Since the operator is outside the cockpit, the proposed collision awareness plugin (CAPlugin), based on probability and error propagation, conservatively predicts potential conflicts with other aircraft and airspaces, thus increasing the operator's situational awareness. The conflict predictions are calculated using a forward state estimator (FSE) and a conflict calculator. Predicting an aircraft's position, modeled as a mixed Gaussian distribution, is the FSE's responsibility. Furthermore, the FSE supports aircraft engaged in the following three flight modes: free flight, flight path following and orbits. The conflict calculator uses the FSE result to calculate the conflict probability between an aircraft and airspace or another aircraft. Finally, the CAPlugin determines the highest conflict probability and warns the operator. In addition to discussing the FSE free flight, FSE orbit and the airspace conflict calculator, this thesis describes how each algorithm is implemented and tested. Lastly two simulations demonstrates the CAPlugin's capabilities.