Hodograph analysis in aircraft trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cliff, Eugene M.; Seywald, Hans; Bless, Robert R.
1993-01-01
An account is given of key geometrical concepts involved in the use of a hodograph as an optimal control theory resource which furnishes a framework for geometrical interpretation of the minimum principle. Attention is given to the effects of different convexity properties on the hodograph, which bear on the existence of solutions and such types of controls as chattering controls, 'bang-bang' control, and/or singular control. Illustrative aircraft trajectory optimization problems are examined in view of this use of the hodograph.
Programs To Optimize Spacecraft And Aircraft Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, G. L.; Petersen, F. M.; Cornick, D.E.; Stevenson, R.; Olson, D. W.
1994-01-01
POST/6D POST is set of two computer programs providing ability to target and optimize trajectories of powered or unpowered spacecraft or aircraft operating at or near rotating planet. POST treats point-mass, three-degree-of-freedom case. 6D POST treats more-general rigid-body, six-degree-of-freedom (with point masses) case. Used to solve variety of performance, guidance, and flight-control problems for atmospheric and orbital vehicles. Applications include computation of performance or capability of vehicle in ascent, or orbit, and during entry into atmosphere, simulation and analysis of guidance and flight-control systems, dispersion-type analyses and analyses of loads, general-purpose six-degree-of-freedom simulation of controlled and uncontrolled vehicles, and validation of performance in six degrees of freedom. Written in FORTRAN 77 and C language. Two machine versions available: one for SUN-series computers running SunOS(TM) (LAR-14871) and one for Silicon Graphics IRIS computers running IRIX(TM) operating system (LAR-14869).
Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.
1979-01-01
This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.
Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and Potential Climate Impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil; Ng, Hok
2011-01-01
Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flightplan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135
Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and Contrails Avoidance in the Presence of Winds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.
2010-01-01
There are indications that persistent contrails can lead to adverse climate change, although the complete effect on climate forcing is still uncertain. A flight trajectory optimization algorithm with fuel and contrails models, which develops alternative flight paths, provides policy makers the necessary data to make tradeoffs between persistent contrails mitigation and aircraft fuel consumption. This study develops an algorithm that calculates wind-optimal trajectories for cruising aircraft while avoiding the regions of airspace prone to persistent contrails formation. The optimal trajectories are developed by solving a non-linear optimal control problem with path constraints. The regions of airspace favorable to persistent contrails formation are modeled as penalty areas that aircraft should avoid and are adjustable. The tradeoff between persistent contrails formation and additional fuel consumption is investigated, with and without altitude optimization, for 12 city-pairs in the continental United States. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a two percent increase in total fuel consumption can reduce the total travel times through contrail regions by more than six times. Allowing further increase in fuel consumption does not seem to result in proportionate decrease in contrail travel times.
The evaluation of several agility metrics for fighter aircraft using optimal trajectory analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, George W., III; Downing, David R.
1993-01-01
Several functional agility metrics, including the combat cycle time metric, dynamic speed turn plots, and relative energy state metric, are used to compare turning performance for generic F-18, X-29, and X-31-type aircraft models. These three-degree-of-freedom models have characteristics similar to the real aircraft. The performance comparisons are made using data from optimal test trajectories to reduce sensitivities to different pilot input techniques and to reduce the effects of control system limiters. The turn performance for all three aircraft is calculated for simulated minimum time 180 deg heading captures from simulation data. Comparisons of the three aircraft give more insight into turn performance than would be available from traditional measures of performance. Using the optimal test technique yields significant performance improvements as measured by the metrics. These performance improvements were found without significant increases in turn radius.
Singular-Arc Time-Optimal Trajectory of Aircraft in Two-Dimensional Wind Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan
2006-01-01
This paper presents a study of a minimum time-to-climb trajectory analysis for aircraft flying in a two-dimensional altitude dependent wind field. The time optimal control problem possesses a singular control structure when the lift coefficient is taken as a control variable. A singular arc analysis is performed to obtain an optimal control solution on the singular arc. Using a time-scale separation with the flight path angle treated as a fast state, the dimensionality of the optimal control solution is reduced by eliminating the lift coefficient control. A further singular arc analysis is used to decompose the original optimal control solution into the flight path angle solution and a trajectory solution as a function of the airspeed and altitude. The optimal control solutions for the initial and final climb segments are computed using a shooting method with known starting values on the singular arc The numerical results of the shooting method show that the optimal flight path angle on the initial and final climb segments are constant. The analytical approach provides a rapid means for analyzing a time optimal trajectory for aircraft performance.
Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and the Potential Climate Impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Hok K.; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon; Chen, Neil
2011-01-01
Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flight plan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135
Singular perturbation techniques for real time aircraft trajectory optimization and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Moerder, D. D.
1982-01-01
The usefulness of singular perturbation methods for developing real time computer algorithms to control and optimize aircraft flight trajectories is examined. A minimum time intercept problem using F-8 aerodynamic and propulsion data is used as a baseline. This provides a framework within which issues relating to problem formulation, solution methodology and real time implementation are examined. Theoretical questions relating to separability of dynamics are addressed. With respect to implementation, situations leading to numerical singularities are identified, and procedures for dealing with them are outlined. Also, particular attention is given to identifying quantities that can be precomputed and stored, thus greatly reducing the on-board computational load. Numerical results are given to illustrate the minimum time algorithm, and the resulting flight paths. An estimate is given for execution time and storage requirements.
Deconflicting Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodionova, Olga; Delahaye, Daniel; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.
2016-01-01
North Atlantic oceanic airspace accommodates more than 1000 flights daily, and is subjected to very strong winds. Flying wind-optimal trajectories yields time and fuel savings for each individual flight. However, when taken together, these trajectories induce a large amount of potential en-route conflicts. This paper analyses the detected conflicts, figuring out conflict distribution in time and space. It further describes an optimization algorithm aimed at reducing the number of conflicts for a daily set of flights on strategic level. Several trajectory modification strategies are discussed, followed with simulation results. Finally, an algorithm improvement is presented aiming at better preserving the trajectory optimality.
Analytical investigations in aircraft and spacecraft trajectory optimization and optimal guidance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markopoulos, Nikos; Calise, Anthony J.
1995-01-01
A collection of analytical studies is presented related to unconstrained and constrained aircraft (a/c) energy-state modeling and to spacecraft (s/c) motion under continuous thrust. With regard to a/c unconstrained energy-state modeling, the physical origin of the singular perturbation parameter that accounts for the observed 2-time-scale behavior of a/c during energy climbs is identified and explained. With regard to the constrained energy-state modeling, optimal control problems are studied involving active state-variable inequality constraints. Departing from the practical deficiencies of the control programs for such problems that result from the traditional formulations, a complete reformulation is proposed for these problems which, in contrast to the old formulation, will presumably lead to practically useful controllers that can track an inequality constraint boundary asymptotically, and even in the presence of 2-sided perturbations about it. Finally, with regard to s/c motion under continuous thrust, a thrust program is proposed for which the equations of 2-dimensional motion of a space vehicle in orbit, viewed as a point mass, afford an exact analytic solution. The thrust program arises under the assumption of tangential thrust from the costate system corresponding to minimum-fuel, power-limited, coplanar transfers between two arbitrary conics. The thrust program can be used not only with power-limited propulsion systems, but also with any propulsion system capable of generating continuous thrust of controllable magnitude, and, for propulsion types and classes of transfers for which it is sufficiently optimal the results of this report suggest a method of maneuvering during planetocentric or heliocentric orbital operations, requiring a minimum amount of computation; thus uniquely suitable for real-time feedback guidance implementations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, H. G.
1972-01-01
An optimization method has been developed that computes the optimal open loop inputs for a dynamical system by observing only its output. The method reduces to static optimization by expressing the inputs as series of functions with parameters to be optimized. Since the method is not concerned with the details of the dynamical system to be optimized, it works for both linear and nonlinear systems. The method and the application to optimizing longitudinal landing paths for a STOL aircraft with an augmented wing are discussed. Noise, fuel, time, and path deviation minimizations are considered with and without angle of attack, acceleration excursion, flight path, endpoint, and other constraints.
Aircraft flight test trajectory control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
1988-01-01
Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.
1976-01-01
Atmospheric sampling has been carried out by flights using an available high-performance supersonic aircraft. Altitude potential of an off-the-shelf F-15 aircraft is examined. It is shown that the standard F-15 has a maximum altitude capability in excess of 100,000 feet for routine flight operation by NASA personnel. This altitude is well in excess of the minimum altitudes which must be achieved for monitoring the possible growth of suspected aerosol contaminants.
Aircraft flight test trajectory control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
1988-01-01
Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.
Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.
1981-01-01
Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.
Method and Apparatus for Generating Flight-Optimizing Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballin, Mark G. (Inventor); Wing, David J. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An apparatus for generating flight-optimizing trajectories for a first aircraft includes a receiver capable of receiving second trajectory information associated with at least one second aircraft. The apparatus also includes a traffic aware planner (TAP) module operably connected to the receiver to receive the second trajectory information. The apparatus also includes at least one internal input device on board the first aircraft to receive first trajectory information associated with the first aircraft and a TAP application capable of calculating an optimal trajectory for the first aircraft based at least on the first trajectory information and the second trajectory information. The optimal trajectory at least avoids conflicts between the first trajectory information and the second trajectory information.
Optimization of Supersonic Transport Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, Mark D.; Windhorst, Robert; Phillips, James
1998-01-01
This paper develops a near-optimal guidance law for generating minimum fuel, time, or cost fixed-range trajectories for supersonic transport aircraft. The approach uses a choice of new state variables along with singular perturbation techniques to time-scale decouple the dynamic equations into multiple equations of single order (second order for the fast dynamics). Application of the maximum principle to each of the decoupled equations, as opposed to application to the original coupled equations, avoids the two point boundary value problem and transforms the problem from one of a functional optimization to one of multiple function optimizations. It is shown that such an approach produces well known aircraft performance results such as minimizing the Brequet factor for minimum fuel consumption and the energy climb path. Furthermore, the new state variables produce a consistent calculation of flight path angle along the trajectory, eliminating one of the deficiencies in the traditional energy state approximation. In addition, jumps in the energy climb path are smoothed out by integration of the original dynamic equations at constant load factor. Numerical results performed for a supersonic transport design show that a pushover dive followed by a pullout at nominal load factors are sufficient maneuvers to smooth the jump.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, Craig A.
This thesis examines the ability of a small, single-engine airplane to return to the runway following an engine failure shortly after takeoff. Two sets of trajectories are examined. One set of trajectories has the airplane fly a straight climb on the runway heading until engine failure. The other set of trajectories has the airplane perform a 90° turn at an altitude of 500 feet and continue until engine failure. Various combinations of wind speed, wind direction, and engine failure times are examined. The runway length required to complete the entire flight from the beginning of the takeoff roll to wheels stop following the return to the runway after engine failure is calculated for each case. The optimal trajectories following engine failure consist of three distinct segments: a turn back toward the runway using a large bank angle and angle of attack; a straight glide; and a reversal turn to align the airplane with the runway. The 90° turn results in much shorter required runway lengths at lower headwind speeds. At higher headwind speeds, both sets of trajectories are limited by the length of runway required for the landing rollout, but the straight climb cases generally require a lower angle of attack to complete the flight. The glide back to the runway is performed at an airspeed below the best glide speed of the airplane due to the need to conserve potential energy after the completion of the turn back toward the runway. The results are highly dependent on the rate of climb of the airplane during powered flight. The results of this study can aid the pilot in determining whether or not a return to the runway could be performed in the event of an engine failure given the specific wind conditions and runway length at the time of takeoff. The results can also guide the pilot in determining the takeoff profile that would offer the greatest advantage in returning to the runway.
Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.
1988-01-01
A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.
Advanced methods of structural and trajectory analysis for transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, Mark D.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes the efforts in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of trajectory optimization. The majority of the effort was spent in the structural weight area. A draft of 'Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft', resulting from this research, is included as an appendix.
Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.
2010-01-01
The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.
Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System
1996-06-04
TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints,more » and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.« less
Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System
Salguero, David E.
1996-06-04
TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints, and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.
Impact of Airspace Charges on Transatlantic Aircraft Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Linke, Florian; Chen, Neil Y.
2015-01-01
Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an aircraft flies through a controlled airspace without landing or departing from that airspace. It is assumed that the aircraft will fly the trajectory at a constant cruise altitude and constant speed. The computationally efficient optimal trajectory is derived by solving a non-linear optimal control problem. The operational strategies investigated in this study for minimizing aircraft fuel burn and emissions include flying fuel-optimal routes and flying cost-optimal routes that may completely or partially reduce airspace charges en route. The results in this paper use traffic data for transatlantic flights during July 2012. The mean daily savings in over-flight charges, fuel cost and total operation cost during the period are 17.6 percent, 1.6 percent, and 2.4 percent respectively, along the cost- optimal trajectories. The transatlantic flights can potentially save $600,000 in fuel cost plus $360,000 in over-flight charges daily by flying the cost-optimal trajectories. In addition, the aircraft emissions can be potentially reduced by 2,070 metric tons each day. The airport pairs and airspace regions that have the highest potential impacts due to airspace charges are identified for possible reduction of fuel burn and aircraft emissions for the transatlantic flights. The results in the paper show that the impact of the variation in fuel price on the optimal routes is to reduce the difference between wind-optimal and cost-optimal routes as the fuel price increases. The
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.
1975-01-01
Altitude potential of an off-the-shelf F4-C aircraft is examined. It is shown that the standard F4-C has a maximum altitude capability in the region from 85000 to 95000 ft, depending on the minimum dynamic pressures deemed acceptable for adequate flight control. By using engine overspeed capability and by making use of prevailing winds in the stratosphere, it is suggested that the maximum altitude achievable by an F4-C should be in the vicinity of 95000 ft for routine flight operation. This altitude is well in excess of the minimum altitudes which must be achieved for monitoring the possible growth of suspected aerosol contaminants.
Optimal trajectories for hypersonic launch vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, Mark D.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Whittaker, Thomas
1994-01-01
In this paper, we derive a near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a hypersonic, dual-mode propulsion, lifting vehicle. Of interest are both the optical flight path and the optimal operation of the propulsion system. The guidance law is developed from the energy-state approximation of the equations of motion. Because liquid hydrogen fueled hypersonic aircraft are volume sensitive, as well as weight sensitive, the cost functional is a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize gross take-off weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe
2013-01-01
This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Sanghyun
workload while optimally utilizing limited resources, various aircraft rerouting strategies for Air Traffic Management (ATM) have been proposed. However, the number of rerouting tools available to address these issues for the center-level and the National Airspace System (NAS) are relatively less compared with the tools for the sector-level and terminal airspace. Additionally, previous works consider the airspace containing the weather as no-fly zones instead of reduced-traffic zones and do not explicitly consider controller workload when generating aircraft trajectories to avoid the weather-affected airspace, thereby reducing the overall performance of the airspace. In this thesis, a new rerouting algorithm for the center-level airspace is proposed to address these problems by introducing a feedback loop connecting a tactical rerouting algorithm with a strategic rerouting algorithm using dynamic programming and a modified A* algorithm respectively. This helps reduce the computational cost significantly while safely handling a large number of aircraft. In summary, this thesis suggests the ways in which the NAS's performance can be further improved, thereby supporting various concepts envisioned by the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and providing vital information which can be used for suitable economic and environmental advantages.
Optimization of multiple flyby trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Damario, L. A.; Sackett, L. L.; Stanford, R. H.; Byrnes, D. V.
1979-01-01
A procedure has been developed which minimizes total delta-V (instantaneous velocity change) for a multiple flyby trajectory with constraints on flyby altitude and orientation. The solution is found by varying the locations of maneuver points between each flyby to minimize the delta-Vs at the maneuver points. Each trajectory segment connecting consecutive maneuver points is found by solving an N-body analog to Lambert's problem. Multiconic techniques are used for trajectory propagation and for computation of the state transition matrix. The constrained parameter optimization problem is converted to an unconstrained problem by means of penalty functions and then solved with a quasi-Newton algorithm utilizing analytic first derivatives. This procedure has been successfully applied to Galileo satellite tour trajectories.
Techniques for shuttle trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edge, E. R.; Shieh, C. J.; Powers, W. F.
1973-01-01
The application of recently developed function-space Davidon-type techniques to the shuttle ascent trajectory optimization problem is discussed along with an investigation of the recently developed PRAXIS algorithm for parameter optimization. At the outset of this analysis, the major deficiency of the function-space algorithms was their potential storage problems. Since most previous analyses of the methods were with relatively low-dimension problems, no storage problems were encountered. However, in shuttle trajectory optimization, storage is a problem, and this problem was handled efficiently. Topics discussed include: the shuttle ascent model and the development of the particular optimization equations; the function-space algorithms; the operation of the algorithm and typical simulations; variable final-time problem considerations; and a modification of Powell's algorithm.
Intelligent Aircraft Damage Assessment, Trajectory Planning, and Decision-Making under Uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Israel; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin
Situational awareness and learning are necessary to identify and select the optimal set of mutually non-exclusive hypothesis in order to maximize mission performance and adapt system behavior accordingly. This paper presents a hierarchical and decentralized approach for integrated damage assessment and trajectory planning in aircraft with uncertain navigational decision-making. Aircraft navigation can be safely accomplished by properly addressing the following: decision-making, obstacle perception, aircraft state estimation, and aircraft control. When in-flight failures or damage occur, rapid and precise decision-making under imprecise information is required in order to regain and maintain control of the aircraft. To achieve planned aircraft trajectory and complete safe landing, the uncertainties in system dynamics of the damaged aircraft need to be learned and incorporated at the level of motion planning. The damaged aircraft is simulated via a simplified kinematic model. The different sources and perspectives of uncertainties in the damage assessment process and post-failure trajectory planning are presented and classified. The decision-making process for an emergency motion planning and landing is developed via the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The objective of the trajectory planning is to arrive at a target position while maximizing the safety of the aircraft given uncertain conditions. Simulations are presented for an emergency motion planning and landing that takes into account aircraft dynamics, path complexity, distance to landing site, runway characteristics, and subjective human decision.
Probabilistic Modeling of Aircraft Trajectories for Dynamic Separation Volumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Timothy A.
2016-01-01
With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.
An approximate method for calculating aircraft downwash on parachute trajectories
Strickland, J.H.
1989-01-01
An approximate method for calculating velocities induced by aircraft on parachute trajectories is presented herein. A simple system of quadrilateral vortex panels is used to model the aircraft wing and its wake. The purpose of this work is to provide a simple analytical tool which can be used to approximate the effect of aircraft-induced velocities on parachute performance. Performance issues such as turnover and wake recontact may be strongly influenced by velocities induced by the wake of the delivering aircraft, especially if the aircraft is maneuvering at the time of parachute deployment. 7 refs., 9 figs.
Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ping
1993-01-01
The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.
TAOS. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System
Salguero, D.E.
1995-12-09
TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints, and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.
Piloted simulation of an on-board trajectory optimization algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, D. B.; Calise, A. J.; Moerder, D. D.
1981-01-01
This paper will describe a real time piloted simulation of algorithms designed for on-board computation of time-optimal intercept trajectories for an F-8 aircraft. The algorithms, which were derived using singular perturbation theory, generate commands that are displayed to the pilot on flight director needles on the 8-ball. By flying the airplane so as to zero the horizontal and vertical needles, the pilot flies an approximation to a time-optimal intercept trajectory. The various display and computation modes that are available will be described and results will be presented illustrating the performance of the algorithms with a pilot in the loop.
Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.
2012-05-01
Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.
Fixed-range optimum trajectories for short-haul aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.; Barman, J. F.
1975-01-01
An algorithm, based on the energy-state method, is derived for calculating optimum trajectories with a range constraint. The basis of the algorithm is the assumption that optimum trajectories consist of, at most, three segments: an increasing energy segment (climb); a constant energy segment (cruise); and a decreasing energy segment (descent). This assumption allows energy to be used as the independent variable in the increasing and decreasing energy segments, thereby eliminating the integration of a separate adjoint differential equation and simplifying the calculus of variations problem to one requiring only pointwise extremization of algebraic functions. The algorithm is used to compute minimum fuel, minimum time, and minimum direct-operating-cost trajectories, with range as a parameter, for an in-service CTOL aircraft and for an advanced STOL aircraft. For the CTOL aircraft and the minimum-fuel performance function, the optimum controls, consisting of air-speed and engine power setting, are continuous functions of the energy in both climb and descent as well as near the maximum or cruise energy. This is also true for the STOL aircraft except in the descent where at one energy level a nearly constant energy dive segment occurs, yielding a discontinuity in the airspeed at that energy. The reason for this segment appears to be the relatively high fuel flow at idle power of the engines used by this STOL aircraft. Use of a simplified trajectory which eliminates the dive increases the fuel consumption of the total descent trajectory by about 10 percent and the time to fly the descent by about 19 percent compared to the optimum.
Multi-objective trajectory optimization for the space exploration vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhen
2016-07-01
The research determines temperature-constrained optimal trajectory for the space exploration vehicle by developing an optimal control formulation and solving it using a variable order quadrature collocation method with a Non-linear Programming(NLP) solver. The vehicle is assumed to be the space reconnaissance aircraft that has specified takeoff/landing locations, specified no-fly zones, and specified targets for sensor data collections. A three degree of freedom aircraft model is adapted from previous work and includes flight dynamics, and thermal constraints.Vehicle control is accomplished by controlling angle of attack, roll angle, and propellant mass flow rate. This model is incorporated into an optimal control formulation that includes constraints on both the vehicle and mission parameters, such as avoidance of no-fly zones and exploration of space targets. In addition, the vehicle models include the environmental models(gravity and atmosphere). How these models are appropriately employed is key to gaining confidence in the results and conclusions of the research. Optimal trajectories are developed using several performance costs in the optimal control formation,minimum time,minimum time with control penalties,and maximum distance.The resulting analysis demonstrates that optimal trajectories that meet specified mission parameters and constraints can be quickly determined and used for large-scale space exloration.
Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.
1989-01-01
The optimal trajectories of the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) spacecraft are analyzed in a three-dimensional space using the full system of six ODEs describing the atmospheric pass. The optimal trajectories are computed for two possible transfers: indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee and direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee. For each transfer, two cases are investigated: (1) the bank angle is continuously variable, and (2) the trajectory is divided into segments along which the bank angle is constant. It is shown that the optimal trajectories for both cases coalesce into a two subarc trajectory, with the bank angle constant in each subarc. It is also shown that, during the atmospheric pass, the peak values of the changes of the orbital inclination and the longitude of the ascending node are nearly zero.
Fractal Aircraft Trajectories, Scaling Stratification, Nonclassical Turbulent Exponents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Tuck, A.
2004-05-01
The dimension (D) of aircraft trajectories is fundamental in interpretating airborne data. To estimate D, we studied data from 18 trajectories of stratospheric aircraft flights 1600km long taken during a "Mach cruise" (near constant Mach number) autopilot flight mode. Mach cruise implies correlated temperature and wind fluctuations so that ?Z??xHz where Z is the (fluctuating) vertical and x the horizontal coordinate of the aircraft. Over the range ? 3 to 300km, we found Hz? 0.58±0.02 close to the theoretical 5/9=0.56 and implying D=1+Hz = 14/9 i.e. the trajectories are fractal. For distances <3km aircraft inertia smooths the trajectories, for distances > 300km, D=1 again because of a rise of 1m/km due to fuel consumption. In the fractal regime, the horizontal velocity and temperature exponents are close to the nonclassical fractal value HF=1/2 (rather than the Kolmogorov value HK=1/3). Taking into account (multifractal) intermittency corrections, this implies the corresponding spectral slopes =1.9. We also discuss ESS and cross-ESS estaimtes of multfractal exponents. We show that there exists a critical average trajectory slope s=(?x/ls)Hz-1; when the aircraft exceeds this, the velocity, temperature fluctuations are dominated by the vertical rather than horizontal statistics; ls is the scale where average horizontal and vertical temperature and velocity fluctuations are equal, we find it to be ?4cm (although it fluctuates depending on energy and buoyancy force variance fluxes). At this scale, even even small deviations from perfectly flat horizontal trajectories (of the order of 1m/km) will lead to Bolgiano-Obhukov (HBO=3/5)) rather than HF= or HK. We show that this can explain recently published data from MOZAIC; we also review over a dozen other aircraft and radiosonde experiments showing that they are all compatible with the 23/9 dimensional unified scaling model. Finally we compare this with some direct estimates of Hz from passive scalar surrogates (lidar
Direct optimization method for reentry trajectory design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jallade, S.; Huber, P.; Potti, J.; Dutruel-Lecohier, G.
The software package called `Reentry and Atmospheric Transfer Trajectory' (RATT) was developed under ESA contract for the design of atmospheric trajectories. It includes four software TOP (Trajectory OPtimization) programs, which optimize reentry and aeroassisted transfer trajectories. 6FD and 3FD (6 and 3 degrees of freedom Flight Dynamic) are devoted to the simulation of the trajectory. SCA (Sensitivity and Covariance Analysis) performs covariance analysis on a given trajectory with respect to different uncertainties and error sources. TOP provides the optimum guidance law of a three degree of freedom reentry of aeroassisted transfer (AAOT) trajectories. Deorbit and reorbit impulses (if necessary) can be taken into account in the optimization. A wide choice of cost function is available to the user such as the integrated heat flux, or the sum of the velocity impulses, or a linear combination of both of them for trajectory and vehicle design. The crossrange and the downrange can be maximized during reentry trajectory. Path constraints are available on the load factor, the heat flux and the dynamic pressure. Results on these proposed options are presented. TOPPHY is the part of the TOP software corresponding to the definition and the computation of the optimization problemphysics. TOPPHY can interface with several optimizes with dynamic solvers: TOPOP and TROPIC using direct collocation methods and PROMIS using direct multiple shooting method. TOPOP was developed in the frame of this contract, it uses Hermite polynomials for the collocation method and the NPSOL optimizer from the NAG library. Both TROPIC and PROMIS were developed by the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt) and use the SLSQP optimizer. For the dynamic equation resolution, TROPIC uses a collocation method with Splines and PROMIS uses a multiple shooting method with finite differences. The three different optimizers including dynamics were tested on the reentry trajectory of the
System identification and trajectory optimization for guided store separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Ryan E.
Combat aircraft utilize expendable stores such as missiles, bombs, flares, and external tanks to execute their missions. Safe and acceptable separation of these stores from the parent aircraft is essential for meeting the mission objectives. In many cases, the employed missile or bomb includes an onboard guidance and control system to enable precise engagement of the selected target. Due to potential interference, the guidance and control system is usually not activated until the store is sufficiently far away from the aircraft. This delay may result in large perturbations from the desired flight attitude caused by separation transients, significantly reducing the effectiveness of the store and jeopardizing mission objectives. The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of a transitional control system to guide the store during separation. The transitional control system, or "store separation autopilot", explicitly accounts for the nonuniform flow field through characterization of the spatially variant aerodynamics of the store during separation. This approach can be used to mitigate aircraft-store interference and leverage aerodynamic interaction to improve separation characteristics. This investigation proceeds in three phases. First, system identification is used to determine a parametric model for the spatially variant aerodynamics. Second, the store separation problem is recast into a trajectory optimization problem, and optimal control theory is used to establish a framework for designing a suitable reference trajectory with explicit dependence on the spatially variant aerodynamics. Third, neighboring optimal control is used to construct a linear-optimal feedback controller for correcting deviations from the nominal reference trajectory due varying initial conditions, modeling errors, and flowfield perturbations. An extended case study based on actual wind tunnel and flight test measurements is used throughout to illustrate the effectiveness of the
Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ping
1992-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to develop an efficient and robust trajectory optimization tool for the optimal ascent problem of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). This report is organized in the following order to summarize the complete work: Section two states the formulation and models of the trajectory optimization problem. An inverse dynamics approach to the problem is introduced in Section three. Optimal trajectories corresponding to various conditions and performance parameters are presented in Section four. A midcourse nonlinear feedback controller is developed in Section five. Section six demonstrates the performance of the inverse dynamics approach and midcourse controller during disturbances. Section seven discusses rocket assisted ascent which may be beneficial when orbital altitude is high. Finally, Section eight recommends areas of future research.
Generating optimally evasive MaRV trajectories
Gavel, D.T.
1988-10-01
The advent of maneuvering reentry vehicles (MaRV's) has spurred the need to develop evasive maneuver strategies which (1) are within the aerodynamic performance limits of the MaRV, (2) end up at the intended target, and (3) optimize trajectory characteristics which may increase the probability of penetration through an ABM defense. This report presents an algorithmic approach to automatically generating trajectories which meet these criteria.
Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulgund, Sandeep S.
1994-01-01
The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.
Design and Analysis of Optimal Ascent Trajectories for Stratospheric Airships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Joseph Bernard
Stratospheric airships are lighter-than-air vehicles that have the potential to provide a long-duration airborne presence at altitudes of 18-22 km. Designed to operate on solar power in the calm portion of the lower stratosphere and above all regulated air traffic and cloud cover, these vehicles represent an emerging platform that resides between conventional aircraft and satellites. A particular challenge for airship operation is the planning of ascent trajectories, as the slow moving vehicle must traverse the high wind region of the jet stream. Due to large changes in wind speed and direction across altitude and the susceptibility of airship motion to wind, the trajectory must be carefully planned, preferably optimized, in order to ensure that the desired station be reached within acceptable performance bounds of flight time and energy consumption. This thesis develops optimal ascent trajectories for stratospheric airships, examines the structure and sensitivity of these solutions, and presents a strategy for onboard guidance. Optimal ascent trajectories are developed that utilize wind energy to achieve minimum-time and minimum-energy flights. The airship is represented by a three-dimensional point mass model, and the equations of motion include aerodynamic lift and drag, vectored thrust, added mass effects, and accelerations due to mass flow rate, wind rates, and Earth rotation. A representative wind profile is developed based on historical meteorological data and measurements. Trajectory optimization is performed by first defining an optimal control problem with both terminal and path constraints, then using direct transcription to develop an approximate nonlinear parameter optimization problem of finite dimension. Optimal ascent trajectories are determined using SNOPT for a variety of upwind, downwind, and crosswind launch locations. Results of extensive optimization solutions illustrate definitive patterns in the ascent path for minimum time flights across
Real-time terminal area trajectory planning for runway independent aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Min
The increasing demand for commercial air transportation results in delays due to traffic queues that form bottlenecks along final approach and departure corridors. In urban areas, it is often infeasible to build new runways, and regardless of automation upgrades traffic must remain separated to avoid the wakes of previous aircraft. Vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft as Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) can increase passenger throughput at major urban airports via the use of vertiports or stub runways. The concept of simultaneous non-interfering (SNI) operations has been proposed to reduce traffic delays by creating approach and departure corridors that do not intersect existing fixed-wing routes. However, SNI trajectories open new routes that may overfly noise-sensitive areas, and RIA may generate more noise than traditional jet aircraft, particularly on approach. In this dissertation, we develop efficient SNI noise abatement procedures applicable to RIA. First, we introduce a methodology based on modified approximated cell-decomposition and Dijkstra's search algorithm to optimize longitudinal plane (2-D) RIA trajectories over a cost function that minimizes noise, time, and fuel use. Then, we extend the trajectory optimization model to 3-D with a k-ary tree as the discrete search space. We incorporate geography information system (GIS) data, specifically population, into our objective function, and focus on a practical case study: the design of SNI RIA approach procedures to Baltimore-Washington International airport. Because solutions were represented as trim state sequences, we incorporated smooth transition between segments to enable more realistic cost estimates. Due to the significant computational complexity, we investigated alternative more efficient optimization techniques applicable to our nonlinear, non-convex, heavily constrained, and discontinuous objective function. Comparing genetic algorithm (GA) and adaptive simulated annealing (ASA
Optimal trajectory for the basketball free throw.
Hamilton, G R; Reinschmidt, C
1997-10-01
Using a theoretical approach, we studied the basketball free throw as a function of angle, speed and spin at release. The ball was constrained to the sagittal plane bisecting the hoop and normal to the backboard, and was permitted to bounce and change spin on both backboard and hoop. Combinations of angle, speed and spin resulting in a successful shot were calculated analytically. Standard deviations for a shooter's angle and speed were used to predict the optimal trajectory for a specific position of release. An optimal trajectory was predicted which had an initial angle and speed of approximately 60 degrees and 7.3 m s(-1) respectively over the domain of spins (-2 to +2 m s(-1) surface speed; -16 to +16 rad s[1]). The effect of air resistance and the sagittal plane constraint on the predicted optimal trajectory were discussed and quantified. The optimal trajectory depended on both the anthropometric characteristics and accuracy of the shooter, but generally a high backspin with an angle and speed combination which sent the ball closer to the far rim of the basket than the near rim was advantageous. We provide recommendations for shooters as a function of the height of ball release. PMID:9386207
Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.
1989-01-01
The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The intent of this experiment is to simulate a GEO-to-LEO transfer, where GEO denotes a geosynchronous earth orbit and LEO denotes a low earth orbit. The trajectories of an AFE spacecraft are analyzed in a 3D-space, employing the full system of 6 ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the atmospheric pass. The atmospheric entry conditions are given, and the atmospheric exit conditions are adjusted. Two possible transfers are considered: (1) indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee; and (2) direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee.
Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crossley, William A.
2005-01-01
This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.
Trajectory optimization software for planetary mission design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
D'Amario, Louis A.
1989-01-01
The development history and characteristics of the interactive trajectory-optimization programs MOSES (D'Amario et al., 1981) and PLATO (D'Amario et al., 1982) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on their application to the Galileo mission. The requirements imposed by a mission involving flybys of several planetary satellites or planets are discussed; the formulation of the parameter-optimization problem is outlined; and particular attention is given to the use of multiconic methods to model the gravitational attraction of Jupiter in MOSES. Diagrams and tables of numerical data are included.
Development of Advanced Methods of Structural and Trajectory Analysis for Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, Mark D.; Windhorst, Robert; Phillips, James
1998-01-01
This paper develops a near-optimal guidance law for generating minimum fuel, time, or cost fixed-range trajectories for supersonic transport aircraft. The approach uses a choice of new state variables along with singular perturbation techniques to time-scale decouple the dynamic equations into multiple equations of single order (second order for the fast dynamics). Application of the maximum principle to each of the decoupled equations, as opposed to application to the original coupled equations, avoids the two point boundary value problem and transforms the problem from one of a functional optimization to one of multiple function optimizations. It is shown that such an approach produces well known aircraft performance results such as minimizing the Brequet factor for minimum fuel consumption and the energy climb path. Furthermore, the new state variables produce a consistent calculation of flight path angle along the trajectory, eliminating one of the deficiencies in the traditional energy state approximation. In addition, jumps in the energy climb path are smoothed out by integration of the original dynamic equations at constant load factor. Numerical results performed for a supersonic transport design show that a pushover dive followed by a pullout at nominal load factors are sufficient maneuvers to smooth the jump.
Large scale nonlinear programming for the optimization of spacecraft trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrieta-Camacho, Juan Jose
Despite the availability of high fidelity mathematical models, the computation of accurate optimal spacecraft trajectories has never been an easy task. While simplified models of spacecraft motion can provide useful estimates on energy requirements, sizing, and cost; the actual launch window and maneuver scheduling must rely on more accurate representations. We propose an alternative for the computation of optimal transfers that uses an accurate representation of the spacecraft dynamics. Like other methodologies for trajectory optimization, this alternative is able to consider all major disturbances. In contrast, it can handle explicitly equality and inequality constraints throughout the trajectory; it requires neither the derivation of costate equations nor the identification of the constrained arcs. The alternative consist of two steps: (1) discretizing the dynamic model using high-order collocation at Radau points, which displays numerical advantages, and (2) solution to the resulting Nonlinear Programming (NLP) problem using an interior point method, which does not suffer from the performance bottleneck associated with identifying the active set, as required by sequential quadratic programming methods; in this way the methodology exploits the availability of sound numerical methods, and next generation NLP solvers. In practice the methodology is versatile; it can be applied to a variety of aerospace problems like homing, guidance, and aircraft collision avoidance; the methodology is particularly well suited for low-thrust spacecraft trajectory optimization. Examples are presented which consider the optimization of a low-thrust orbit transfer subject to the main disturbances due to Earth's gravity field together with Lunar and Solar attraction. Other example considers the optimization of a multiple asteroid rendezvous problem. In both cases, the ability of our proposed methodology to consider non-standard objective functions and constraints is illustrated
Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.
1996-01-01
A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.
The genetic algorithms for trajectory optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janin, G.; Gomez-Tierno, M. A.
1985-10-01
Possible difficulties encountered when solving space flight trajectory optimization problems are recalled. The need of a global optimization scheme is realized. Nondeterministic methods, called here stochastic methods, seem to be good candidates for solving these types of problems. A particular class of such methods, modelled upon search strategies employed in natural adaptation, is proposed here: the genetic algorithms. Two models, the mutation-selection and the crossover-selection, are discussed and remarks resulting from applications to test problems and space flight problems are made. It is concluded that a considerable effort is still needed for developing efficient schemes using genetic algorithms. However, they appear to offer an entirely original way for solving a large class of global optimization problems and they are particularly well-suited for parallel processing to be used in the fifth generation computers.
Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.
Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C
2016-08-01
We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations. PMID:27627325
Matching trajectory optimization and nonlinear tracking control for HALE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangjong; Jang, Jieun; Ryu, Hyeok; Lee, Kyun Ho
2014-11-01
This paper concerns optimal trajectory generation and nonlinear tracking control for stratospheric airship platform of VIA-200. To compensate for the mismatch between the point-mass model of optimal trajectory and the 6-DOF model of the nonlinear tracking problem, a new matching trajectory optimization approach is proposed. The proposed idea reduces the dissimilarity of both problems and reduces the uncertainties in the nonlinear equations of motion for stratospheric airship. In addition, its refined optimal trajectories yield better results under jet stream conditions during flight. The resultant optimal trajectories of VIA-200 are full three-dimensional ascent flight trajectories reflecting the realistic constraints of flight conditions and airship performance with and without a jet stream. Finally, 6-DOF nonlinear equations of motion are derived, including a moving wind field, and the vectorial backstepping approach is applied. The desirable tracking performance is demonstrated that application of the proposed matching optimization method enables the smooth linkage of trajectory optimization to tracking control problems.
Optimal trajectories based on linear equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Thomas E.
1990-01-01
The Principal results of a recent theory of fuel optimal space trajectories for linear differential equations are presented. Both impulsive and bounded-thrust problems are treated. A new form of the Lawden Primer vector is found that is identical for both problems. For this reason, starting iteratives from the solution of the impulsive problem are highly effective in the solution of the two-point boundary-value problem associated with bounded thrust. These results were applied to the problem of fuel optimal maneuvers of a spacecraft near a satellite in circular orbit using the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. For this case two-point boundary-value problems were solved using a microcomputer, and optimal trajectory shapes displayed. The results of this theory can also be applied if the satellite is in an arbitrary Keplerian orbit through the use of the Tschauner-Hempel equations. A new form of the solution of these equations has been found that is identical for elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits except in the way that a certain integral is evaluated. For elliptical orbits this integral is evaluated through the use of the eccentric anomaly. An analogous evaluation is performed for hyperbolic orbits.
Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, V. K., III
1979-01-01
This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.
Trajectory modeling of emissions from lower stratospheric aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparling, Lynn C.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Newman, Paul A.; Lait, Leslie R.
1995-01-01
A series of isentropic trajectory calculations has been performed for emissions by stratospheric aircraft moving across the northern midlatitude oceanic flight corridors. Emission of exhaust is simulated by the daily initialization of air parcels along a flight path on the 500 K isentropic surface. Parcels are tracked during the first three weeks of each January from 1980 to 1994 in order to determine the interannual variability in the spatial distribution of the exhaust and the likelihood of exposure to cold temperatures. Few parcels emitted along these flight paths at this time of year were found to have experienced nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) formation temperatures, except for the particularly cold Januarys 1986, 1987, and 1992. We also find that large zonal fluctuations in the distribution of the emissions are typical for this time of year and are strongly dependent on flight path. An extended 6-month (January-June) run in which parcels were released daily along the New York-London route shows that emissions in the flight corridor increase at a time-averaged rate which is nearly twice the rate at which the zonal average increases. In addition, local fluctuations of pollutant density can be several times higher than the zonal average and can persist for several weeks. A study of seasonal variability also shows a rapid buildup of emissions during the summer months. These elevated emission levels must be considered in the interpretation of environmental impact assessments based on two-dimensional transport models.
Multi-objective optimisation of aircraft flight trajectories in the ATM and avionics context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian
2016-05-01
The continuous increase of air transport demand worldwide and the push for a more economically viable and environmentally sustainable aviation are driving significant evolutions of aircraft, airspace and airport systems design and operations. Although extensive research has been performed on the optimisation of aircraft trajectories and very efficient algorithms were widely adopted for the optimisation of vertical flight profiles, it is only in the last few years that higher levels of automation were proposed for integrated flight planning and re-routing functionalities of innovative Communication Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. In this context, the implementation of additional environmental targets and of multiple operational constraints introduces the need to efficiently deal with multiple objectives as part of the trajectory optimisation algorithm. This article provides a comprehensive review of Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimisation (MOTO) techniques for transport aircraft flight operations, with a special focus on the recent advances introduced in the CNS+A research context. In the first section, a brief introduction is given, together with an overview of the main international research initiatives where this topic has been studied, and the problem statement is provided. The second section introduces the mathematical formulation and the third section reviews the numerical solution techniques, including discretisation and optimisation methods for the specific problem formulated. The fourth section summarises the strategies to articulate the preferences and to select optimal trajectories when multiple conflicting objectives are introduced. The fifth section introduces a number of models defining the optimality criteria and constraints typically adopted in MOTO studies, including fuel consumption, air pollutant and noise emissions, operational costs, condensation trails, airspace and airport operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, G.; Witt, R. M.
1976-01-01
The following areas related to landing trajectory optimization research were discussed: (1) programming and modifying the steepest descent optimization procedure, (2) successfully iterating toward the optimum for a four-mile trajectory, (3) beginning optimization runs for a twenty-mile trajectory, and (4) adapt wind tunnel data for computer usage. Other related areas were discussed in detail in the two previous annual reports.
Reentry trajectory optimization based on a multistage pseudospectral method.
Zhao, Jiang; Zhou, Rui; Jin, Xuelian
2014-01-01
Of the many direct numerical methods, the pseudospectral method serves as an effective tool to solve the reentry trajectory optimization for hypersonic vehicles. However, the traditional pseudospectral method is time-consuming due to large number of discretization points. For the purpose of autonomous and adaptive reentry guidance, the research herein presents a multistage trajectory control strategy based on the pseudospectral method, capable of dealing with the unexpected situations in reentry flight. The strategy typically includes two subproblems: the trajectory estimation and trajectory refining. In each processing stage, the proposed method generates a specified range of trajectory with the transition of the flight state. The full glide trajectory consists of several optimal trajectory sequences. The newly focused geographic constraints in actual flight are discussed thereafter. Numerical examples of free-space flight, target transition flight, and threat avoidance flight are used to show the feasible application of multistage pseudospectral method in reentry trajectory optimization. PMID:24574929
Reentry Trajectory Optimization Based on a Multistage Pseudospectral Method
Zhou, Rui; Jin, Xuelian
2014-01-01
Of the many direct numerical methods, the pseudospectral method serves as an effective tool to solve the reentry trajectory optimization for hypersonic vehicles. However, the traditional pseudospectral method is time-consuming due to large number of discretization points. For the purpose of autonomous and adaptive reentry guidance, the research herein presents a multistage trajectory control strategy based on the pseudospectral method, capable of dealing with the unexpected situations in reentry flight. The strategy typically includes two subproblems: the trajectory estimation and trajectory refining. In each processing stage, the proposed method generates a specified range of trajectory with the transition of the flight state. The full glide trajectory consists of several optimal trajectory sequences. The newly focused geographic constraints in actual flight are discussed thereafter. Numerical examples of free-space flight, target transition flight, and threat avoidance flight are used to show the feasible application of multistage pseudospectral method in reentry trajectory optimization. PMID:24574929
Optimal lifting ascent trajectories for the space shuttle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rau, T. R.; Elliott, J. R.
1972-01-01
The performance gains which are possible through the use of optimal trajectories for a particular space shuttle configuration are discussed. The spacecraft configurations and aerodynamic characteristics are described. Shuttle mission payload capability is examined with respect to the optimal orbit inclination for unconstrained, constrained, and nonlifting conditions. The effects of velocity loss and heating rate on the optimal ascent trajectory are investigated.
Optimal trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Venkataraman, P.
1983-01-01
Consideration is given to classical and minimax problems involved in aeroassisted transfer from high earth orbit (HEO) to low earth orbit (LEO). The transfer is restricted to coplanar operation, with trajectory control effected by means of lift modulation. The performance of the maneuver is indexed to the energy expenditure or, alternatively, the time integral of the heating rate. Firist-order optimality conditions are defined for the classical approach, as are a sequential gradient-restoration algorithm and a combined gradient-restoration algorithm. Minimization techniques are presented for the aeroassisted transfer energy consumption and time-delay integral of the heating rate, as well as minimization of the pressure. It is shown that the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix of the differential system is both stiff and unstable, implying that the sequential gradient restoration algorithm in its present version is unsuitable. A new method, involving a multipoint approach to the two-poing boundary value problem, is recommended.
A vortex panel method for calculating aircraft downwash on parachute trajectories
Fullerton, T.L.; Strickland, J.H.; Sundberg, W.D.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a discussion of a methodology of the paneled-wing method for calculating aircraft-induced wake velocities. This discussion will include a description of how an aircraft and its wake are represented by finite length vortex filaments, how the strength and location of these filaments are determined based upon aircraft characteristics and trajectory data, and how the induced velocity values are determined once the location and strength of the vortex filaments are known. Examples will be presented showing comparisons between induced velocity values calculated using both the paneled-wing method and Strickland's lifting line method. Comparison is also made between calculated results from the paneled-wing method and wind tunnel data collected in the wake of a scale model aircraft. Additional examples will show the effect of including aircraft downwash calculations in a trajectory analysis for a parachute-retarded store delivered via aircraft. 3 refs., 12 figs.
Aircraft path planning for optimal imaging using dynamic cost functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christie, Gordon; Chaudhry, Haseeb; Kochersberger, Kevin
2015-05-01
Unmanned aircraft development has accelerated with recent technological improvements in sensing and communications, which has resulted in an "applications lag" for how these aircraft can best be utilized. The aircraft are becoming smaller, more maneuverable and have longer endurance to perform sensing and sampling missions, but operating them aggressively to exploit these capabilities has not been a primary focus in unmanned systems development. This paper addresses a means of aerial vehicle path planning to provide a realistic optimal path in acquiring imagery for structure from motion (SfM) reconstructions and performing radiation surveys. This method will allow SfM reconstructions to occur accurately and with minimal flight time so that the reconstructions can be executed efficiently. An assumption is made that we have 3D point cloud data available prior to the flight. A discrete set of scan lines are proposed for the given area that are scored based on visibility of the scene. Our approach finds a time-efficient path and calculates trajectories between scan lines and over obstacles encountered along those scan lines. Aircraft dynamics are incorporated into the path planning algorithm as dynamic cost functions to create optimal imaging paths in minimum time. Simulations of the path planning algorithm are shown for an urban environment. We also present our approach for image-based terrain mapping, which is able to efficiently perform a 3D reconstruction of a large area without the use of GPS data.
Cascaded Optimization for a Persistent Data Ferrying Unmanned Aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carfang, Anthony
This dissertation develops and assesses a cascaded method for designing optimal periodic trajectories and link schedules for an unmanned aircraft to ferry data between stationary ground nodes. This results in a fast solution method without the need to artificially constrain system dynamics. Focusing on a fundamental ferrying problem that involves one source and one destination, but includes complex vehicle and Radio-Frequency (RF) dynamics, a cascaded structure to the system dynamics is uncovered. This structure is exploited by reformulating the nonlinear optimization problem into one that reduces the independent control to the vehicle's motion, while the link scheduling control is folded into the objective function and implemented as an optimal policy that depends on candidate motion control. This formulation is proven to maintain optimality while reducing computation time in comparison to traditional ferry optimization methods. The discrete link scheduling problem takes the form of a combinatorial optimization problem that is known to be NP-Hard. A derived necessary condition for optimality guides the development of several heuristic algorithms, specifically the Most-Data-First Algorithm and the Knapsack Adaptation. These heuristics are extended to larger ferrying scenarios, and assessed analytically and through Monte Carlo simulation, showing better throughput performance in the same order of magnitude of computation time in comparison to other common link scheduling policies. The cascaded optimization method is implemented with a novel embedded software system on a small, unmanned aircraft to validate the simulation results with field experiments. To address the sensitivity of results on trajectory tracking performance, a system that combines motion and link control with waypoint-based navigation is developed and assessed through field experiments. The data ferrying algorithms are further extended by incorporating a Gaussian process to opportunistically learn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prevot, Thomas; Lee, Paul U.
2011-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new complexity metric to predict -in real-time- sector complexity for trajectory-based operations (TBO). TBO will be implemented in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Trajectory-Based Complexity (TBX) is a modified aircraft count that can easily be computed and communicated in a TBO environment based upon predictions of aircraft and weather trajectories. TBX is scaled to aircraft count and represents an alternate and additional means to manage air traffic demand and capacity with more consideration of dynamic factors such as weather, aircraft equipage or predicted separation violations, as well as static factors such as sector size. We have developed and evaluated TBX in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center during human-in-the-loop studies of trajectory-based concepts since 2009. In this paper we will describe the TBX computation in detail and present the underlying algorithm. Next, we will describe the specific TBX used in an experiment at NASA's AOL. We will evaluate the performance of this metric using data collected during a controller-inthe- loop study on trajectory-based operations at different equipage levels. In this study controllers were prompted at regular intervals to rate their current workload on a numeric scale. When comparing this real-time workload rating to the TBX values predicted for these time periods we demonstrate that TBX is a better predictor of workload than aircraft count. Furthermore we demonstrate that TBX is well suited to be used for complexity management in TBO and can easily be adjusted to future operational concepts.
Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.
2001-01-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.
Optimal flight trajectories in the presence of windshear, 1984-86
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.
1986-01-01
Optimal flight trajectories were determined in the presence of windshear and guidance schemes were developed for near optimum flight in a windshear. This is a wind characterized by sharp change in intensity and direction over a relatively small region of space. This problem is important in the takeoff and landing of both civilian airplanes and military airplanes and is key to aircraft saftey. The topics covered in reference to takeoff problems are: equations of motion, problem formulation, algorithms, optimal flight trajectories, advanced guidance schemes, simplified guidance schemes, and piloting strategies.
Optimal singular control with applications to trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinh, N. X.
1977-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of the problem of singular control is presented. Singular control enters an optimal trajectory when the so called switching function vanishes identically over a finite time interval. Using the concept of domain of maneuverability, the problem of optical switching is analyzed. Criteria for the optimal direction of switching are presented. The switching, or junction, between nonsingular and singular subarcs is examined in detail. Several theorems concerning the necessary, and also sufficient conditions for smooth junction are presented. The concepts of quasi-linear control and linearized control are introduced. They are designed for the purpose of obtaining approximate solution for the difficult Euler-Lagrange type of optimal control in the case where the control is nonlinear.
Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Volume 1: Formulation manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Habeger, A. R.; Petersen, F. M.; Stevenson, R.
1975-01-01
A general purpose FORTRAN program for simulating and optimizing point mass trajectories (POST) of aerospace vehicles is described. The equations and the numerical techniques used in the program are documented. Topics discussed include: coordinate systems, planet model, trajectory simulation, auxiliary calculations, and targeting and optimization.
Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Volume 2: Utilization manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Habeger, A. R.; Petersen, F. M.; Stevenson, R.
1975-01-01
Information pertinent to users of the program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is presented. The input required and output available is described for each of the trajectory and targeting/optimization options. A sample input listing and resulting output are given.
An Energy-Aware Trajectory Optimization Layer for sUAS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, William A.
The focus of this work is the implementation of an energy-aware trajectory optimization algorithm that enables small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) to operate in unknown, dynamic severe weather environments. The software is designed as a component of an Energy-Aware Dynamic Data Driven Application System (EA-DDDAS) for sUAS. This work addresses the challenges of integrating and executing an online trajectory optimization algorithm during mission operations in the field. Using simplified aircraft kinematics, the energy-aware algorithm enables extraction of kinetic energy from measured winds to optimize thrust use and endurance during flight. The optimization layer, based upon a nonlinear program formulation, extracts energy by exploiting strong wind velocity gradients in the wind field, a process known as dynamic soaring. The trajectory optimization layer extends the energy-aware path planner developed by Wenceslao Shaw-Cortez te{Shaw-cortez2013} to include additional mission configurations, simulations with a 6-DOF model, and validation of the system with flight testing in June 2015 in Lubbock, Texas. The trajectory optimization layer interfaces with several components within the EA-DDDAS to provide an sUAS with optimal flight trajectories in real-time during severe weather. As a result, execution timing, data transfer, and scalability are considered in the design of the software. Severe weather also poses a measure of unpredictability to the system with respect to communication between systems and available data resources during mission operations. A heuristic mission tree with different cost functions and constraints is implemented to provide a level of adaptability to the optimization layer. Simulations and flight experiments are performed to assess the efficacy of the trajectory optimization layer. The results are used to assess the feasibility of flying dynamic soaring trajectories with existing controllers as well as to verify the interconnections between
Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual
Salguero, D.E.
1995-12-01
The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.
1976-01-01
The computation of composite differential-turn trajectory pairs is studied for 'fast-evader' and 'neutral-evader' idealizations introduced in earlier publications. Transversality and generalized corner conditions are examined and the joining of trajectory segments discussed. A criterion is given for the screening of 'tandem-motion' trajectory segments. Main focus is upon the computation of barrier surfaces. Fortunately, from a computational viewpoint, the trajectory pairs defining these surfaces need not be calculated completely, the final subarc of multiple-subarc pairs not being required. Some calculations for pairs of example aircraft are presented.
Hypersonic Vehicle Trajectory Optimization and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, S. N.; Shen, J.; Grohs, J. R.
1997-01-01
Two classes of neural networks have been developed for the study of hypersonic vehicle trajectory optimization and control. The first one is called an 'adaptive critic'. The uniqueness and main features of this approach are that: (1) they need no external training; (2) they allow variability of initial conditions; and (3) they can serve as feedback control. This is used to solve a 'free final time' two-point boundary value problem that maximizes the mass at the rocket burn-out while satisfying the pre-specified burn-out conditions in velocity, flightpath angle, and altitude. The second neural network is a recurrent network. An interesting feature of this network formulation is that when its inputs are the coefficients of the dynamics and control matrices, the network outputs are the Kalman sequences (with a quadratic cost function); the same network is also used for identifying the coefficients of the dynamics and control matrices. Consequently, we can use it to control a system whose parameters are uncertain. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the potential of these methods.
Application of heuristic optimization in aircraft design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhenning
Genetic algorithms and the related heuristic optimization strategies are introduced and their applications in the aircraft design are developed. Generally speaking, genetic algorithms belong to non-deterministic direct search methods, which are most powerful in finding optimum or near-optimum solutions of a very complex system where a little priori knowledge is known. Therefore they have a wide application in aerospace systems. Two major aircraft optimal design projects are illustrated in this dissertation. The first is the application of material optimization of aligned fiber laminate composites in the presence of stress concentrations. After a large number of tests on laminates with different layers, genetic algorithms find an alignment pattern in a certain range for the Boeing Co. specified material. The second project is the application of piezoelectric actuator placement on a generic tail skins to reduce the 2nd mode vibration caused by buffet, which is part of a Boeing project to control the buffet effect on aircraft. In this project, genetic algorithms are closely involved with vibration analysis and finite element analysis. Actuator optimization strategies are first tested on the theoretical beam models to gain experience, and then the generic tail model is applied. Genetic algorithms achieve a great success in optimizing up to 888 actuator parameters on the tail skins.
Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wu
2012-01-01
A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.
Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, Brian Douglas
Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component
Near-Optimal Re-Entry Trajectories for Reusable Launch Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, H.-C.; Ardema, M. D.; Bowles, J. V.
1997-01-01
A near-optimal guidance law for the descent trajectory for earth orbit re-entry of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit pure rocket launch vehicle is derived. A methodology is developed to investigate using both bank angle and altitude as control variables and selecting parameters that maximize various performance functions. The method is based on the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. The major task of this paper is to obtain optimal re-entry trajectories under a variety of performance goals: minimum time, minimum surface temperature, minimum heating, and maximum heading change; four classes of trajectories were investigated: no banking, optimal left turn banking, optimal right turn banking, and optimal bank chattering. The cost function is in general a weighted sum of all performance goals. In particular, the trade-off between minimizing heat load into the vehicle and maximizing cross range distance is investigated. The results show that the optimization methodology can be used to derive a wide variety of near-optimal trajectories.
Discrete Mechanics and Optimal Control for Space Trajectory Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Ashley
Space trajectory design is often achieved through a combination of dynamical systems theory and optimal control. The union of trajectory design techniques utilizing invariant manifolds of the planar circular restricted three-body problem and the optimal control scheme Discrete Mechanics and Optimal Control (DMOC) facilitates the design of low-energy trajectories in the N-body problem. In particular, DMOC is used to optimize a trajectory from the Earth to the Moon in the 4-body problem, removing the mid-course change in velocity, Delta V, usually necessary for such a trajectory while still exploiting the structure from the invariant manifolds. This thesis also focuses on how to adapt DMOC, a method devised with a constant step size, for the highly nonlinear dynamics involved in trajectory design. Mesh refinement techniques that aim to reduce discretization errors in the solution and energy evolution and their effect on DMOC optimization are explored and compared with trajectories created using time adaptive variational integrators. Furthermore, a time adaptive form of DMOC is developed that allows for a variable step size that is updated throughout the optimization process. Time adapted DMOC is based on a discretization of Hamilton's principle applied to the time adapted Lagrangian of the optimal control problem. Variations of the discrete action of the optimal control Lagrangian lead to discrete Euler-Lagrange equations that can be enforced as constraints for a boundary value problem. This new form of DMOC leads to the accurate and efficient solution of optimal control problems with highly nonlinear dynamics. Time adapted DMOC is tested on several space trajectory problems including the elliptical orbit transfer in the 2-body problem and the reconfiguration of a cubesat.
Programs To Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST\\6DPOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, Garry L.; Olson, David W.; Stevenson, Robert
1993-01-01
Designed for optimizing simulated trajectories, POST is point mass, three degrees-of-freedom program while extended 6DPOST permits rigid-body six degrees-of-freedom models. Handles sophisticated problems such as ascent, orbital maneuvers, and reentry.
Rapid Trajectory Optimization for the ARES I Launch Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dukeman, Greg A.; Hill, Ashley D.
2008-01-01
A simplified ascent trajectory optimization procedure has been developed with application to NASA's proposed Ares I launch vehicle. In the interest of minimizing bending loads and ensuring safe separation of the first-stage solid rocket motor, the vehicle is con- strained to follow a gravity-turn trajectory. This reduces the design space to just two free parameters, the pitch rate after a short vertical rise phase to clear the launch pad, and initial launch azimuth. The pitch rate primarily controls the in-plane parameters (altitude, speed, flight path angle) of the trajectory whereas the launch azimuth primarily controls the out-of-plane portion (velocity heading.) Thus, the optimization can be mechanized as two one-dimensional searches that converge quickly and reliably. The method is compared with POST-optimized trajectories to verify its optimality.
Trajectory Optimization with Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology Architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saranathan, H.; Saikia, S.; Grant, M. J.; Longuski, J. M.
2014-06-01
This paper compares the results of trajectory optimization for Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) using different control methods. ADEPT addresses the limitations of current EDL technology in delivering heavy payloads to Mars.
Integrating the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) in CTAS Trajectory Synthesizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramson, Michael; Ali, Kareem
2012-01-01
The Center-Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Automation System (CTAS), developed at NASA Ames Research Center for assisting controllers in the management and control of air traffic in the extended terminal area, supports the modeling of more than four hundred aircraft types. However, 90% of them are supported indirectly by mapping them to one of a relatively few aircraft types for which CTAS has detailed drag and engine thrust models. On the other hand, the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA), developed and maintained by Eurocontrol, supports more than 300 aircraft types, about one third of which are directly supported, i.e. they have validated performance data. All these data were made available for CTAS by integrating BADA version 3.8 into CTAS Trajectory Synthesizer (TS). Several validation tools were developed and used to validate the integrated code and to evaluate the accuracy of trajectory predictions generated using CTAS "native" and BADA Aircraft Performance Models (APM) comparing them with radar track data. Results of these comparisons indicate that the two models have different strengths and weaknesses. The BADA APM can improve the accuracy of CTAS predictions at least for some aircraft types, especially small aircraft, and for some flight phases, especially climb.
Advanced launch system trajectory optimization using suboptimal control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaver, Douglas A.; Hull, David G.
1993-01-01
The maximum-final mass trajectory of a proposed configuration of the Advanced Launch System is presented. A model for the two-stage rocket is given; the optimal control problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem; and the optimal trajectory is computed using a nonlinear programming code called VF02AD. Numerical results are presented for the controls (angle of attack and velocity roll angle) and the states. After the initial rotation, the angle of attack goes to a positive value to keep the trajectory as high as possible, returns to near zero to pass through the transonic regime and satisfy the dynamic pressure constraint, returns to a positive value to keep the trajectory high and to take advantage of minimum drag at positive angle of attack due to aerodynamic shading of the booster, and then rolls off to negative values to satisfy the constraints. Because the engines cannot be throttled, the maximum dynamic pressure occurs at a single point; there is no maximum dynamic pressure subarc. To test approximations for obtaining analytical solutions for guidance, two additional optimal trajectories are computed: one using untrimmed aerodynamics and one using no atmospheric effects except for the dynamic pressure constraint. It is concluded that untrimmed aerodynamics has a negligible effect on the optimal trajectory and that approximate optimal controls should be able to be obtained by treating atmospheric effects as perturbations.
Optimal helicopter trajectory planning for terrain following flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.
1990-01-01
Helicopters operating in high threat areas have to fly close to the earth surface to minimize the risk of being detected by the adversaries. Techniques are presented for low altitude helicopter trajectory planning. These methods are based on optimal control theory and appear to be implementable onboard in realtime. Second order necessary conditions are obtained to provide a criterion for finding the optimal trajectory when more than one extremal passes through a given point. A second trajectory planning method incorporating a quadratic performance index is also discussed. Trajectory planning problem is formulated as a differential game. The objective is to synthesize optimal trajectories in the presence of an actively maneuvering adversary. Numerical methods for obtaining solutions to these problems are outlined. As an alternative to numerical method, feedback linearizing transformations are combined with the linear quadratic game results to synthesize explicit nonlinear feedback strategies for helicopter pursuit-evasion. Some of the trajectories generated from this research are evaluated on a six-degree-of-freedom helicopter simulation incorporating an advanced autopilot. The optimal trajectory planning methods presented are also useful for autonomous land vehicle guidance.
Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; Russell, Ryan; Terrile, Richard; Petropoulos, Anastassios; vonAllmen, Paul
2007-01-01
A paper describes a computationally efficient method of optimizing trajectories of spacecraft driven by propulsion systems that generate low thrusts and, hence, must be operated for long times. A common goal in trajectory-optimization problems is to find minimum-time, minimum-fuel, or Pareto-optimal trajectories (here, Pareto-optimality signifies that no other solutions are superior with respect to both flight time and fuel consumption). The present method utilizes genetic and simulated-annealing algorithms to search for globally Pareto-optimal solutions. These algorithms are implemented in parallel form to reduce computation time. These algorithms are coupled with either of two traditional trajectory- design approaches called "direct" and "indirect." In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. The indirect approach involves the primer-vector theory (introduced in 1963), in which the thrust control problem is transformed into a co-state control problem and the initial values of the co-state vector are optimized. In application to two example orbit-transfer problems, this method was found to generate solutions comparable to those of other state-of-the-art trajectory-optimization methods while requiring much less computation time.
Optimal trajectories for efficient atomic transport without final excitation
Chen Xi; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Stefanatos, Dionisis; Li, Jr-Shin
2011-10-15
We design optimal harmonic-trap trajectories to transport cold atoms without final excitation, combining an inverse engineering technique based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants with optimal control theory. Since actual traps are not really harmonic, we keep the relative displacement between the center of mass of the transport modes and the trap center bounded. Under this constraint, optimal protocols are found according to different physical criteria. The minimum time solution has a ''bang-bang'' form, and the minimum displacement solution is of ''bang-off-bang'' form. The optimal trajectories for minimizing the transient energy are also discussed.
Trajectory optimization for the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brusch, R. G.
1976-01-01
A state-of-art survey of computational techniques employed in design and optimization of trajectories for the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is presented. Attention is focused on the constrained optimization technique, related to Hestenes' (1969) method of multipliers, with various formulas used in updating the multipliers. Advantages of applying multiplier method to trajectory optimization, with gains in computing speed, are argued, and optimization of the HEAO-A (high energy astronomical observatory) is discussed. Open-loop atmospheric guidance strategy and closed-loop exoatmospheric pitch and yaw guidance equations are dealt with, and the full range of constraints to be observed during the flight is discussed.
Optimal Aircraft Control Upset Recovery With and Without Component Failures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparks, Dean W.; Moerder, Daniel D.
2002-01-01
This paper treats the problem of recovering sustainable nondescending (safe) flight in a transport aircraft after one or more of its control effectors fail. Such recovery can be a challenging goal for many transport aircraft currently in the operational fleet for two reasons. First, they have very little redundancy in their means of generating control forces and moments. These aircraft have, as primary control surfaces, a single rudder and pairwise elevators and aileron/spoiler units that provide yaw, pitch, and roll moments with sufficient bandwidth to be used in stabilizing and maneuvering the airframe. Beyond this, throttling the engines can provide additional moments, but on a much slower time scale. Other aerodynamic surfaces, such as leading and trailing edge flaps, are only intended to be placed in a position and left, and are, hence, very slow-moving. Because of this, loss of a primary control surface strongly degrades the controllability of the vehicle, particularly when the failed effector becomes stuck in a non-neutral position where it exerts a disturbance moment that must be countered by the remaining operating effectors. The second challenge in recovering safe flight is that these vehicles are not agile, nor can they tolerate large accelerations. This is of special importance when, at the outset of the recovery maneuver, the aircraft is flying toward the ground, as is frequently the case when there are major control hardware failures. Recovery of safe flight is examined in this paper in the context of trajectory optimization. For a particular transport aircraft, and a failure scenario inspired by an historical air disaster, recovery scenarios are calculated with and without control surface failures, to bring the aircraft to safe flight from the adverse flight condition that it had assumed, apparently as a result of contact with a vortex from a larger aircraft's wake. An effort has been made to represent relevant airframe dynamics, acceleration limits
Optimizing Mars Airplane Trajectory with the Application Navigation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frumkin, Michael; Riley, Derek
2004-01-01
Planning complex missions requires a number of programs to be executed in concert. The Application Navigation System (ANS), developed in the NAS Division, can execute many interdependent programs in a distributed environment. We show that the ANS simplifies user effort and reduces time in optimization of the trajectory of a martian airplane. We use a software package, Cart3D, to evaluate trajectories and a shortest path algorithm to determine the optimal trajectory. ANS employs the GridScape to represent the dynamic state of the available computer resources. Then, ANS uses a scheduler to dynamically assign ready task to machine resources and the GridScape for tracking available resources and forecasting completion time of running tasks. We demonstrate system capability to schedule and run the trajectory optimization application with efficiency exceeding 60% on 64 processors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masternak, Tadeusz J.
This research determines temperature-constrained optimal trajectories for a scramjet-based hypersonic reconnaissance vehicle by developing an optimal control formulation and solving it using a variable order Gauss-Radau quadrature collocation method with a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) solver. The vehicle is assumed to be an air-breathing reconnaissance aircraft that has specified takeoff/landing locations, airborne refueling constraints, specified no-fly zones, and specified targets for sensor data collections. A three degree of freedom scramjet aircraft model is adapted from previous work and includes flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and thermal constraints. Vehicle control is accomplished by controlling angle of attack, roll angle, and propellant mass flow rate. This model is incorporated into an optimal control formulation that includes constraints on both the vehicle and mission parameters, such as avoidance of no-fly zones and coverage of high-value targets. To solve the optimal control formulation, a MATLAB-based package called General Pseudospectral Optimal Control Software (GPOPS-II) is used, which transcribes continuous time optimal control problems into an NLP problem. In addition, since a mission profile can have varying vehicle dynamics and en-route imposed constraints, the optimal control problem formulation can be broken up into several "phases" with differing dynamics and/or varying initial/final constraints. Optimal trajectories are developed using several different performance costs in the optimal control formulation: minimum time, minimum time with control penalties, and maximum range. The resulting analysis demonstrates that optimal trajectories that meet specified mission parameters and constraints can be quickly determined and used for larger-scale operational and campaign planning and execution.
A system approach to aircraft optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1991-01-01
Mutual couplings among the mathematical models of physical phenomena and parts of a system such as an aircraft complicate the design process because each contemplated design change may have a far reaching consequence throughout the system. Techniques are outlined for computing these influences as system design derivatives useful for both judgemental and formal optimization purposes. The techniques facilitate decomposition of the design process into smaller, more manageable tasks and they form a methodology that can easily fit into existing engineering organizations and incorporate their design tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgakov, V. K.; Strigunov, V. V.
2009-05-01
The Pontryagin maximum principle is used to prove a theorem concerning optimal control in regional macroeconomics. A boundary value problem for optimal trajectories of the state and adjoint variables is formulated, and optimal curves are analyzed. An algorithm is proposed for solving the boundary value problem of optimal control. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by computing an optimal control and the corresponding optimal trajectories.
Rapid indirect trajectory optimization on highly parallel computing architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antony, Thomas
Trajectory optimization is a field which can benefit greatly from the advantages offered by parallel computing. The current state-of-the-art in trajectory optimization focuses on the use of direct optimization methods, such as the pseudo-spectral method. These methods are favored due to their ease of implementation and large convergence regions while indirect methods have largely been ignored in the literature in the past decade except for specific applications in astrodynamics. It has been shown that the shortcomings conventionally associated with indirect methods can be overcome by the use of a continuation method in which complex trajectory solutions are obtained by solving a sequence of progressively difficult optimization problems. High performance computing hardware is trending towards more parallel architectures as opposed to powerful single-core processors. Graphics Processing Units (GPU), which were originally developed for 3D graphics rendering have gained popularity in the past decade as high-performance, programmable parallel processors. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework, a parallel computing architecture and programming model developed by NVIDIA, is one of the most widely used platforms in GPU computing. GPUs have been applied to a wide range of fields that require the solution of complex, computationally demanding problems. A GPU-accelerated indirect trajectory optimization methodology which uses the multiple shooting method and continuation is developed using the CUDA platform. The various algorithmic optimizations used to exploit the parallelism inherent in the indirect shooting method are described. The resulting rapid optimal control framework enables the construction of high quality optimal trajectories that satisfy problem-specific constraints and fully satisfy the necessary conditions of optimality. The benefits of the framework are highlighted by construction of maximum terminal velocity trajectories for a hypothetical
An optimal trajectory design for debris deorbiting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Dong, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yang
2016-01-01
The problem of deorbiting debris is studied in this paper. As a feasible measure, a disposable satellite would be launched, attach to debris, and deorbit the space debris using a technology named electrodynamic tether (EDT). In order to deorbit multiple debris as many as possible, a suboptimal but feasible and efficient trajectory set has been designed to allow a deorbiter satellite tour the LEO small bodies per one mission. Finally a simulation given by this paper showed that a 600 kg satellite is capable of deorbiting 6 debris objects in about 230 days.
Some impulsive rendezvous trajectories and their possible optimality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peltier, J. P.
1972-01-01
Two- and three-impulse trajectories are investigated for fixed-time, fixed-angle rendezvous between vacant circular coplanar orbits, for trip angles less than, or equal to 2 pi in magnitude. For two-impulse trajectories, general features of the characteristic velocity function are outlined. Parameters of the intermediate orbit are reviewed. Attention is given to limiting cases. Computation of the adjoint system helps to define the domain of possible optimality foajectories: it is a closed domain in the trip time, trip angle plane. Waiting periods on terminal orbits are considered. The domain of possible optimality is defined using Lawden's primer vrtory. This domain extends to infinity if the radius ratio of terminal orbits is less than 15.6. Three-impulse trajectories are tried in cases where two-impulse trajectories, with or without cost, have been found nonoptimal. Improvements on the characteristic velocity are thus obtained.
Trajectory planning and optimal tracking for an industrial mobile robot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Huosheng; Brady, J. Michael; Probert, Penelope J.
1994-02-01
This paper introduces a unified approach to trajectory planning and tracking for an industrial mobile robot subject to non-holonomic constraints. We show (1) how a smooth trajectory is generated that takes into account the constraints from the dynamic environment and the robot kinematics; and (2) how a general predictive controller works to provide optimal tracking capability for nonlinear systems. The tracking performance of the proposed guidance system is analyzed by simulation.
Constrained Multi-Level Algorithm for Trajectory Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adimurthy, V.; Tandon, S. R.; Jessy, Antony; Kumar, C. Ravi
The emphasis on low cost access to space inspired many recent developments in the methodology of trajectory optimization. Ref.1 uses a spectral patching method for optimization, where global orthogonal polynomials are used to describe the dynamical constraints. A two-tier approach of optimization is used in Ref.2 for a missile mid-course trajectory optimization. A hybrid analytical/numerical approach is described in Ref.3, where an initial analytical vacuum solution is taken and gradually atmospheric effects are introduced. Ref.4 emphasizes the fact that the nonlinear constraints which occur in the initial and middle portions of the trajectory behave very nonlinearly with respect the variables making the optimization very difficult to solve in the direct and indirect shooting methods. The problem is further made complex when different phases of the trajectory have different objectives of optimization and also have different path constraints. Such problems can be effectively addressed by multi-level optimization. In the multi-level methods reported so far, optimization is first done in identified sub-level problems, where some coordination variables are kept fixed for global iteration. After all the sub optimizations are completed, higher-level optimization iteration with all the coordination and main variables is done. This is followed by further sub system optimizations with new coordination variables. This process is continued until convergence. In this paper we use a multi-level constrained optimization algorithm which avoids the repeated local sub system optimizations and which also removes the problem of non-linear sensitivity inherent in the single step approaches. Fall-zone constraints, structural load constraints and thermal constraints are considered. In this algorithm, there is only a single multi-level sequence of state and multiplier updates in a framework of an augmented Lagrangian. Han Tapia multiplier updates are used in view of their special role in
Exploring the complexity of quantum control optimization trajectories.
Nanduri, Arun; Shir, Ofer M; Donovan, Ashley; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel
2015-01-01
The control of quantum system dynamics is generally performed by seeking a suitable applied field. The physical objective as a functional of the field forms the quantum control landscape, whose topology, under certain conditions, has been shown to contain no critical point suboptimal traps, thereby enabling effective searches for fields that give the global maximum of the objective. This paper addresses the structure of the landscape as a complement to topological critical point features. Recent work showed that landscape structure is highly favorable for optimization of state-to-state transition probabilities, in that gradient-based control trajectories to the global maximum value are nearly straight paths. The landscape structure is codified in the metric R ≥ 1.0, defined as the ratio of the length of the control trajectory to the Euclidean distance between the initial and optimal controls. A value of R = 1 would indicate an exactly straight trajectory to the optimal observable value. This paper extends the state-to-state transition probability results to the quantum ensemble and unitary transformation control landscapes. Again, nearly straight trajectories predominate, and we demonstrate that R can take values approaching 1.0 with high precision. However, the interplay of optimization trajectories with critical saddle submanifolds is found to influence landscape structure. A fundamental relationship necessary for perfectly straight gradient-based control trajectories is derived, wherein the gradient on the quantum control landscape must be an eigenfunction of the Hessian. This relation is an indicator of landscape structure and may provide a means to identify physical conditions when control trajectories can achieve perfect linearity. The collective favorable landscape topology and structure provide a foundation to understand why optimal quantum control can be readily achieved. PMID:25377547
Program manual for ASTOP, an Arbitrary space trajectory optimization program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horsewood, J. L.
1974-01-01
The ASTOP program (an Arbitrary Space Trajectory Optimization Program) designed to generate optimum low-thrust trajectories in an N-body field while satisfying selected hardware and operational constraints is presented. The trajectory is divided into a number of segments or arcs over which the control is held constant. This constant control over each arc is optimized using a parameter optimization scheme based on gradient techniques. A modified Encke formulation of the equations of motion is employed. The program provides a wide range of constraint, end conditions, and performance index options. The basic approach is conducive to future expansion of features such as the incorporation of new constraints and the addition of new end conditions.
The vibro-acoustic mapping of low gravity trajectories on a Learjet aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grodsinsky, C. M.; Sutliff, T. J.
1990-01-01
Terrestrial low gravity research techniques have been employed to gain a more thorough understanding of basic science and technology concepts. One technique frequently used involves flying parabolic trajectories aboard the NASA Lewis Research Center Learjet aircraft. A measurement program was developed to support an isolation system conceptual design. This program primarily was intended to measure time correlated high frequency accelerations (up to 100 Hz) present at various locations throughout the Learjet during a series of trajectories and flights. As suspected, the measurements obtained revealed that the environment aboard such an aircraft can not simply be described in terms of the static level low gravity g vector obtained, but that it also must account for both rigid body and high frequency vibro-acoustic dynamics.
A robust optimization methodology for preliminary aircraft design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prigent, S.; Maréchal, P.; Rondepierre, A.; Druot, T.; Belleville, M.
2016-05-01
This article focuses on a robust optimization of an aircraft preliminary design under operational constraints. According to engineers' know-how, the aircraft preliminary design problem can be modelled as an uncertain optimization problem whose objective (the cost or the fuel consumption) is almost affine, and whose constraints are convex. It is shown that this uncertain optimization problem can be approximated in a conservative manner by an uncertain linear optimization program, which enables the use of the techniques of robust linear programming of Ben-Tal, El Ghaoui, and Nemirovski [Robust Optimization, Princeton University Press, 2009]. This methodology is then applied to two real cases of aircraft design and numerical results are presented.
Mars entry trajectory optimization using DOC and DCNLP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuang; Peng, Yuming
2011-02-01
This paper addresses the issue of Mars atmospheric entry trajectory optimization by use of the desensitized optimal control (DOC) and Direct Collocation and Nonlinear Programming (DCNLP). Firstly, desensitized optimal control methodology is adopted to reduce the sensitivity of terminal state variables with respect to uncertainties and perturbations along the trajectory, in addition to optimizing the original performance index. Then, Direct Collocation (DC) method is used to transform the optimal control problem into Nonlinear Programming (NLP) problem which can be easily solved using the SNOPT software package. Monte Carlo simulations of error analysis show that the sensitivity of terminal state variables with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is significantly reduced, leading to improved entry precision.
Trajectory optimization for unmanned aerial vehicle formation reconfiguration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyoung-seok; Kim, Youdan
2014-01-01
The results of trajectory optimization to reconfigure unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) formation in the event of a critical failure are presented. The formation reconfiguration process includes two distinct manoeuvres: an escape manoeuvre for a malfunctioning UAV and a replacement movement for an alternative UAV related to its position. This article deals with both manoeuvres but focuses more on the replacement movement. The trajectory optimization problem of the escape manoeuvre is formulated as a minimum-time problem to reduce the possibility of collisions resulting from a failure, whereas the problem of the replacement movement is formulated as a final-time fixed minimum-fuel problem to secure the durability of the group of UAVs. These problems are solved by means of sequential quadratic programming. To evaluate the performance of the optimization results, fuel consumption for the replacement movement is considered and optimization of a three-phase reference trajectory is performed. The results show that the trajectory optimization reduces the fuel consumption and saves time.
Flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.
1986-01-01
One of the risks associated with wet runway aircraft operation is the ingestion of water spray produced by an aircraft's tires into its engines. This problem can be especially dangerous at or near rotation speed on the takeoff roll. An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Hydrodynamics Research Facility to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft nose tire operating on a flooded runway. The effects of various parameters on the spray patterns including distance aft of nosewheel, speed, load, and water depth were evaluated. Variations in the spray pattern caused by the airflow about primary structure such as the fuselage and wing are discussed. A discussion of events in and near the tire footprint concerning spray generation is included.
Techniques for trajectory optimization using a hybrid computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neely, P. L.
1975-01-01
The use of a hybrid computer in the solution of trajectory optimization problems is described. The solution technique utilizes the indirect method and requires iterative computation of the initial condition vector of the co-state variables. Convergence of the iteration is assisted by feedback switching and contour modification. A simulation of the method in an on-line updating scheme is presented.
Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Volume 3: Programmer's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Habeger, A. R.; Petersen, F. M.; Stevenson, R.
1975-01-01
Information pertinent to the programmer and relating to the program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is presented. Topics discussed include: program structure and logic, subroutine listings and flow charts, and internal FORTRAN symbols. The POST core requirements are summarized along with program macrologic.
Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.
1990-01-01
The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality
Optimal trajectory generation for mechanical arms. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iemenschot, J. A.
1972-01-01
A general method of generating optimal trajectories between an initial and a final position of an n degree of freedom manipulator arm with nonlinear equations of motion is proposed. The method is based on the assumption that the time history of each of the coordinates can be expanded in a series of simple time functions. By searching over the coefficients of the terms in the expansion, trajectories which minimize the value of a given cost function can be obtained. The method has been applied to a planar three degree of freedom arm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuman, F.
1980-01-01
A method for determining fuel conservative terminal approaches that include changes in altitude, speed, and heading are described. Three different guidance system concepts for STOL aircraft were evaluated in flight: (1) a fixed trajectory system; (2) a system that included a fixed path and a real time synthesized capture flight path; and (3) a trajectory synthesizing system. Simulation results for the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft and for the Boeing 727 aircraft are discussed. The results indicate that for minimum fuel consumption, two guidance deceleration segments are required.
Parallelization of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, Dana P.; Korte, John J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper describes the parallelization of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D). POST3D uses a gradient-based optimization algorithm that reaches an optimum design point by moving from one design point to the next. The gradient calculations required to complete the optimization process, dominate the computational time and have been parallelized using a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) on a distributed memory NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture. The Origin2000 was used for the tests presented.
Optimal Recovery Trajectories for Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto GCAS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suplisson, Angela W.
The US Air Force recently fielded the F-16 Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS). This system meets the operational requirements of being both aggressive and timely, meaning that extremely agile avoidance maneuvers will be executed at the last second to avoid the ground. This small window of automatic operation maneuvering in close proximity to the ground makes the problem challenging. There currently exists no similar Auto GCAS for manned military 'heavy' aircraft with lower climb performance such as transport, tanker, or bomber aircraft. The F-16 Auto GCAS recovery is a single pre-planned roll to wings-level and 5-g pull-up which is very effective for fighters due to their high g and climb performance, but it is not suitable for military heavy aircraft. This research proposes a new optimal control approach to the ground collision avoidance problem for heavy aircraft by mapping the aggressive and timely requirements of the automatic recovery to the optimal control formulation which includes lateral maneuvers around terrain. This novel mapping creates two ways to pose the optimal control problem for Auto GCAS; one as a Max Distance with a Timely Trigger formulation and the other as a Min Control with an Aggressive Trigger formulation. Further, the optimal path and optimal control admitted by these two formulations are demonstrated to be equivalent at the point the automatic recovery is initiated for the simplified 2-D case. The Min Control formulation was demonstrated to have faster computational speed and was chosen for the 3-D case. Results are presented for representative heavy aircraft scenarios against 3-D digital terrain. The Min Control formulation was then compared to a Multi-Trajectory Auto GCAS with five pre-planned maneuvers. Metrics were developed to quantify the improvement from using an optimal approach versus the pre-planned maneuvers. The proposed optimal Min Control method was demonstrated to require less control or trigger later
Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James
A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel
Coupled Low-thrust Trajectory and System Optimization via Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob Aldo; Ghosh, Alexander R.
2015-01-01
The optimization of low-thrust trajectories is tightly coupled with the spacecraft hardware. Trading trajectory characteristics with system parameters ton identify viable solutions and determine mission sensitivities across discrete hardware configurations is labor intensive. Local independent optimization runs can sample the design space, but a global exploration that resolves the relationships between the system variables across multiple objectives enables a full mapping of the optimal solution space. A multi-objective, hybrid optimal control algorithm is formulated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm as an outer loop systems optimizer around a global trajectory optimizer. The coupled problem is solved simultaneously to generate Pareto-optimal solutions in a single execution. The automated approach is demonstrated on two boulder return missions.
Photogrammetric Trajectory Estimation of Foam Debris Ejected From an F-15 Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Mark S.
2006-01-01
Photogrammetric analysis of high-speed digital video data was performed to estimate trajectories of foam debris ejected from an F-15B aircraft. This work was part of a flight test effort to study the transport properties of insulating foam shed by the Space Shuttle external tank during ascent. The conical frustum-shaped pieces of debris, called "divots," were ejected from a flight test fixture mounted underneath the F-15B aircraft. Two onboard cameras gathered digital video data at two thousand frames per second. Time histories of divot positions were determined from the videos post flight using standard photogrammetry techniques. Divot velocities were estimated by differentiating these positions with respect to time. Time histories of divot rotations were estimated using four points on the divot face. Estimated divot position, rotation, and Mach number for selected cases are presented. Uncertainty in the results is discussed.
Combining Simulation Tools for End-to-End Trajectory Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitley, Ryan; Gutkowski, Jeffrey; Craig, Scott; Dawn, Tim; Williams, Jacobs; Stein, William B.; Litton, Daniel; Lugo, Rafael; Qu, Min
2015-01-01
Trajectory simulations with advanced optimization algorithms are invaluable tools in the process of designing spacecraft. Due to the need for complex models, simulations are often highly tailored to the needs of the particular program or mission. NASA's Orion and SLS programs are no exception. While independent analyses are valuable to assess individual spacecraft capabilities, a complete end-to-end trajectory from launch to splashdown maximizes potential performance and ensures a continuous solution. In order to obtain end-to-end capability, Orion's in-space tool (Copernicus) was made to interface directly with the SLS's ascent tool (POST2) and a new tool to optimize the full problem by operating both simulations simultaneously was born.
Optimization of Low-Thrust Spiral Trajectories by Collocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John W.
2012-01-01
As NASA examines potential missions in the post space shuttle era, there has been a renewed interest in low-thrust electric propulsion for both crewed and uncrewed missions. While much progress has been made in the field of software for the optimization of low-thrust trajectories, many of the tools utilize higher-fidelity methods which, while excellent, result in extremely high run-times and poor convergence when dealing with planetocentric spiraling trajectories deep within a gravity well. Conversely, faster tools like SEPSPOT provide a reasonable solution but typically fail to account for other forces such as third-body gravitation, aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure. SEPSPOT is further constrained by its solution method, which may require a very good guess to yield a converged optimal solution. Here the authors have developed an approach using collocation intended to provide solution times comparable to those given by SEPSPOT while allowing for greater robustness and extensible force models.
Definition and Demonstration of a Methodology for Validating Aircraft Trajectory Predictors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vivona, Robert A.; Paglione, Mike M.; Cate, Karen T.; Enea, Gabriele
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new methodology for validating an aircraft trajectory predictor, inspired by the lessons learned from a number of field trials, flight tests and simulation experiments for the development of trajectory-predictor-based automation. The methodology introduces new techniques and a new multi-staged approach to reduce the effort in identifying and resolving validation failures, avoiding the potentially large costs associated with failures during a single-stage, pass/fail approach. As a case study, the validation effort performed by the Federal Aviation Administration for its En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) system is analyzed to illustrate the real-world applicability of this methodology. During this validation effort, ERAM initially failed to achieve six of its eight requirements associated with trajectory prediction and conflict probe. The ERAM validation issues have since been addressed, but to illustrate how the methodology could have benefited the FAA effort, additional techniques are presented that could have been used to resolve some of these issues. Using data from the ERAM validation effort, it is demonstrated that these new techniques could have identified trajectory prediction error sources that contributed to several of the unmet ERAM requirements.
On a global aerodynamic optimization of a civil transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savu, G.; Trifu, O.
1991-01-01
An aerodynamic optimization procedure developed to minimize the drag to lift ratio of an aircraft configuration: wing - body - tail, in accordance with engineering restrictions, is described. An algorithm developed to search a hypersurface with 18 dimensions, which define an aircraft configuration, is discussed. The results, when considered from the aerodynamic point of view, indicate the optimal configuration is one that combines a lifting fuselage with a canard.
A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.
1979-01-01
The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.
Aircraft design for mission performance using nonlinear multiobjective optimization methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dovi, Augustine R.; Wrenn, Gregory A.
1990-01-01
A new technique which converts a constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained one where conflicting figures of merit may be simultaneously considered was combined with a complex mission analysis system. The method is compared with existing single and multiobjective optimization methods. A primary benefit from this new method for multiobjective optimization is the elimination of separate optimizations for each objective, which is required by some optimization methods. A typical wide body transport aircraft is used for the comparative studies.
Clustering Molecular Dynamics Trajectories for Optimizing Docking Experiments
De Paris, Renata; Quevedo, Christian V.; Ruiz, Duncan D.; Norberto de Souza, Osmar; Barros, Rodrigo C.
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein receptors have become an attractive tool for rational drug discovery. However, the high computational cost of employing molecular dynamics trajectories in virtual screening of large repositories threats the feasibility of this task. Computational intelligence techniques have been applied in this context, with the ultimate goal of reducing the overall computational cost so the task can become feasible. Particularly, clustering algorithms have been widely used as a means to reduce the dimensionality of molecular dynamics trajectories. In this paper, we develop a novel methodology for clustering entire trajectories using structural features from the substrate-binding cavity of the receptor in order to optimize docking experiments on a cloud-based environment. The resulting partition was selected based on three clustering validity criteria, and it was further validated by analyzing the interactions between 20 ligands and a fully flexible receptor (FFR) model containing a 20 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectory. Our proposed methodology shows that taking into account features of the substrate-binding cavity as input for the k-means algorithm is a promising technique for accurately selecting ensembles of representative structures tailored to a specific ligand. PMID:25873944
Clustering molecular dynamics trajectories for optimizing docking experiments.
De Paris, Renata; Quevedo, Christian V; Ruiz, Duncan D; Norberto de Souza, Osmar; Barros, Rodrigo C
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of protein receptors have become an attractive tool for rational drug discovery. However, the high computational cost of employing molecular dynamics trajectories in virtual screening of large repositories threats the feasibility of this task. Computational intelligence techniques have been applied in this context, with the ultimate goal of reducing the overall computational cost so the task can become feasible. Particularly, clustering algorithms have been widely used as a means to reduce the dimensionality of molecular dynamics trajectories. In this paper, we develop a novel methodology for clustering entire trajectories using structural features from the substrate-binding cavity of the receptor in order to optimize docking experiments on a cloud-based environment. The resulting partition was selected based on three clustering validity criteria, and it was further validated by analyzing the interactions between 20 ligands and a fully flexible receptor (FFR) model containing a 20 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectory. Our proposed methodology shows that taking into account features of the substrate-binding cavity as input for the k-means algorithm is a promising technique for accurately selecting ensembles of representative structures tailored to a specific ligand. PMID:25873944
Trajectory optimization and guidance for an aerospace plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mease, Kenneth D.; Vanburen, Mark A.
1989-01-01
The first step in the approach to developing guidance laws for a horizontal take-off, air breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is to characterize the minimum-fuel ascent trajectories. The capability to generate constrained, minimum fuel ascent trajectories for a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was developed. A key component of this capability is the general purpose trajectory optimization program OTIS. The pre-production version, OTIS 0.96 was installed and run on a Convex C-1. A propulsion model was developed covering the entire flight envelope of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. Three separate propulsion modes, corresponding to an after burning turbojet, a ramjet and a scramjet, are used in the air breathing propulsion phase. The Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example aerodynamic model of a hypersonic air breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was obtained and implemented. Preliminary results pertaining to the effects of variations in acceleration constraints, available thrust level and fuel specific impulse on the shape of the minimum-fuel ascent trajectories were obtained. The results show that, if the air breathing engines are sized for acceleration to orbital velocity, it is the acceleration constraint rather than the dynamic pressure constraint that is active during ascent.
Rapid Generation of Optimal Asteroid Powered Descent Trajectories Via Convex Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinson, Robin; Lu, Ping
2015-01-01
This paper investigates a convex optimization based method that can rapidly generate the fuel optimal asteroid powered descent trajectory. The ultimate goal is to autonomously design the optimal powered descent trajectory on-board the spacecraft immediately prior to the descent burn. Compared to a planetary powered landing problem, the major difficulty is the complex gravity field near the surface of an asteroid that cannot be approximated by a constant gravity field. This paper uses relaxation techniques and a successive solution process that seeks the solution to the original nonlinear, nonconvex problem through the solutions to a sequence of convex optimal control problems.
Terminal-Area Aircraft Intent Inference Approach Based on Online Trajectory Clustering
Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-quan
2015-01-01
Terminal-area aircraft intent inference (T-AII) is a prerequisite to detect and avoid potential aircraft conflict in the terminal airspace. T-AII challenges the state-of-the-art AII approaches due to the uncertainties of air traffic situation, in particular due to the undefined flight routes and frequent maneuvers. In this paper, a novel T-AII approach is introduced to address the limitations by solving the problem with two steps that are intent modeling and intent inference. In the modeling step, an online trajectory clustering procedure is designed for recognizing the real-time available routes in replacing of the missed plan routes. In the inference step, we then present a probabilistic T-AII approach based on the multiple flight attributes to improve the inference performance in maneuvering scenarios. The proposed approach is validated with real radar trajectory and flight attributes data of 34 days collected from Chengdu terminal area in China. Preliminary results show the efficacy of the presented approach. PMID:26171417
Rapid Generation of Optimal Asteroid Powered Descent Trajectories Via Convex Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinson, Robin; Lu, Ping
2015-01-01
Mission proposals that land on asteroids are becoming popular. However, in order to have a successful mission the spacecraft must reliably and softly land at the intended landing site. The problem under investigation is how to design a fuel-optimal powered descent trajectory that can be quickly computed on-board the spacecraft, without interaction from ground control. An optimal trajectory designed immediately prior to the descent burn has many advantages. These advantages include the ability to use the actual vehicle starting state as the initial condition in the trajectory design and the ease of updating the landing target site if the original landing site is no longer viable. For long trajectories, the trajectory can be updated periodically by a redesign of the optimal trajectory based on current vehicle conditions to improve the guidance performance. One of the key drivers for being completely autonomous is the infrequent and delayed communication between ground control and the vehicle. Challenges that arise from designing an asteroid powered descent trajectory include complicated nonlinear gravity fields, small rotating bodies and low thrust vehicles.
Trajectory Optimization of an Interstellar Mission Using Solar Electric Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kluever, Craig A.
1996-01-01
This paper presents several mission designs for heliospheric boundary exploration using spacecraft with low-thrust ion engines as the primary mode of propulsion The mission design goal is to transfer a 200-kg spacecraft to the heliospheric boundary in minimum time. The mission design is a combined trajectory and propulsion system optimization problem. Trajectory design variables include launch date, launch energy, burn and coast arc switch times, thrust steering direction, and planetary flyby conditions. Propulsion system design parameters include input power and specific impulse. Both SEP and NEP spacecraft arc considered and a wide range of launch vehicle options are investigated. Numerical results are presented and comparisons with the all chemical heliospheric missions from Ref 9 are made.
Ascent trajectory optimization for stratospheric airship with thermal effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiao; Zhu, Ming
2013-09-01
Ascent trajectory optimization with thermal effects is addressed for a stratospheric airship. Basic thermal characteristics of the stratospheric airship are introduced. Besides, the airship’s equations of motion are constructed by including the factors about aerodynamic force, added mass and wind profiles which are developed based on horizontal-wind model. For both minimum-time and minimum-energy flights during ascent, the trajectory optimization problem is described with the path and terminal constraints in different scenarios and then, is converted into a parameter optimization problem by a direct collocation method. Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer(SNOPT) is employed as a nonlinear programming solver and two scenarios are adopted. The solutions obtained illustrate that the trajectories are greatly affected by the thermal behaviors which prolong the daytime minimum-time flights of about 20.8% compared with that of nighttime in scenario 1 and of about 10.5% in scenario 2. And there is the same trend for minimum-energy flights. For the energy consumption of minimum-time flights, 6% decrease is abstained in scenario 1 and 5% decrease in scenario 2. However, a few energy consumption reduction is achieved for minimum-energy flights. Solar radiation is the principal component and the natural wind also affects the thermal behaviors of stratospheric airship during ascent. The relationship between take-off time and performance of airship during ascent is discussed. it is found that the take-off time at dusk is best choice for stratospheric airship. And in addition, for saving energy, airship prefers to fly downwind.
Tiltrotor noise reduction through flight trajectory management and aircraft configuration control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gervais, Marc
A tiltrotor can hover, takeoff and land vertically as well as cruise at high speeds and fly long distances. Because of these unique capabilities, tiltrotors are envisioned as an aircraft that could provide a solution to the issue of airport gridlock by operating on stub runways, helipads, or from smaller regional airports. However, during an approach-to-land a tiltrotor is susceptible to radiating strong impulsive noise, in particular, Blade-Vortex Interaction noise (BVI), a phenomenon highly dependent on the vehicle's performance-state. A mathematical model was developed to predict the quasi-static performance characteristics of a tiltrotor during a converting approach in the longitudinal plane. Additionally, a neural network was designed to model the acoustic results from a flight test of the XV-15 tiltrotor as a function of the aircraft's performance parameters. The performance model was linked to the neural network to yield a combined performance/acoustic model that is capable of predicting tiltrotor noise emitted during a decelerating approach. The model was then used to study noise trends associated with different combinations of airspeed, nacelle tilt, and flight path angle. It showed that BVI noise is the dominant noise source during a descent and that its strength increases with steeper descent angles. Strong BVI noise was observed at very steep flight path angles, suggesting that the tiltrotor's high downwash prevents the wake from being pushed above the rotor, even at such steep descent angles. The model was used to study the effects of various aircraft configuration and flight trajectory parameters on the rotor inflow, which adequately captured the measured BVI noise trends. Flight path management effectively constrained the rotor inflow during a converting approach and thus limited the strength of BVI noise. The maximum deceleration was also constrained by controlling the nacelle tilt-rate during conversion. By applying these constraints, low BVI noise
Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.
1987-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.
Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaicaitis, R.
1985-01-01
Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latypov, A. F.
2009-03-01
The fuel economy was estimated at boost trajectory of aerospace plane during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final velocities of the flight were given. A model of planning flight above cold air in infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The comparison of fuel consumption was done at optimal trajectories. The calculations were done using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was constructed in the first part of the paper for estimating the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. To estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft a quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift is used. The energy for flow heating is obtained at the sacrifice of an equivalent decrease of exergy of combustion products. The dependencies are obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight at different Mach numbers. In the second part of the paper, a mathematical model is presented for the boost part of the flight trajectory of the flying vehicle and computational results for reducing the fuel expenses at the boost trajectory at a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.
Trajectory optimization for intra-operative nuclear tomographic imaging.
Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir
2013-10-01
Diagnostic nuclear imaging modalities like SPECT typically employ gantries to ensure a densely sampled geometry of detectors in order to keep the inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction as well-posed as possible. In an intra-operative setting with mobile freehand detectors the situation changes significantly, and having an optimal detector trajectory during acquisition becomes critical. In this paper we propose an incremental optimization method based on the numerical condition of the system matrix of the underlying iterative reconstruction method to calculate optimal detector positions during acquisition in real-time. The performance of this approach is evaluated using simulations. A first experiment on a phantom using a robot-controlled intra-operative SPECT-like setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23706624
Particle swarm optimization of ascent trajectories of multistage launch vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontani, Mauro
2014-02-01
Multistage launch vehicles are commonly employed to place spacecraft and satellites in their operational orbits. If the rocket characteristics are specified, the optimization of its ascending trajectory consists of determining the optimal control law that leads to maximizing the final mass at orbit injection. The numerical solution of a similar problem is not trivial and has been pursued with different methods, for decades. This paper is concerned with an original approach based on the joint use of swarming theory and the necessary conditions for optimality. The particle swarm optimization technique represents a heuristic population-based optimization method inspired by the natural motion of bird flocks. Each individual (or particle) that composes the swarm corresponds to a solution of the problem and is associated with a position and a velocity vector. The formula for velocity updating is the core of the method and is composed of three terms with stochastic weights. As a result, the population migrates toward different regions of the search space taking advantage of the mechanism of information sharing that affects the overall swarm dynamics. At the end of the process the best particle is selected and corresponds to the optimal solution to the problem of interest. In this work the three-dimensional trajectory of the multistage rocket is assumed to be composed of four arcs: (i) first stage propulsion, (ii) second stage propulsion, (iii) coast arc (after release of the second stage), and (iv) third stage propulsion. The Euler-Lagrange equations and the Pontryagin minimum principle, in conjunction with the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions, are employed to express the thrust angles as functions of the adjoint variables conjugate to the dynamics equations. The use of these analytical conditions coming from the calculus of variations leads to obtaining the overall rocket dynamics as a function of seven parameters only, namely the unknown values of the initial state
Real-time trajectory optimization on parallel processors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Psiaki, Mark L.
1993-01-01
A parallel algorithm has been developed for rapidly solving trajectory optimization problems. The goal of the work has been to develop an algorithm that is suitable to do real-time, on-line optimal guidance through repeated solution of a trajectory optimization problem. The algorithm has been developed on an INTEL iPSC/860 message passing parallel processor. It uses a zero-order-hold discretization of a continuous-time problem and solves the resulting nonlinear programming problem using a custom-designed augmented Lagrangian nonlinear programming algorithm. The algorithm achieves parallelism of function, derivative, and search direction calculations through the principle of domain decomposition applied along the time axis. It has been encoded and tested on 3 example problems, the Goddard problem, the acceleration-limited, planar minimum-time to the origin problem, and a National Aerospace Plane minimum-fuel ascent guidance problem. Execution times as fast as 118 sec of wall clock time have been achieved for a 128-stage Goddard problem solved on 32 processors. A 32-stage minimum-time problem has been solved in 151 sec on 32 processors. A 32-stage National Aerospace Plane problem required 2 hours when solved on 32 processors. A speed-up factor of 7.2 has been achieved by using 32-nodes instead of 1-node to solve a 64-stage Goddard problem.
Recent Improvements to the Copernicus Trajectory Design and Optimization System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Jacob; Senent, Juan S.; Ocampo, Cesar; Lee, David E.
2012-01-01
Copernicus is a software tool for spacecraft trajectory design and optimization. The latest version (v3.0.1) was released in October 2011. It is available at no cost to NASA centers, government contractors, and organizations with a contractual affiliation with NASA. This paper is a brief overview of the recent development history of Copernicus. An overview of the evolution of the software and a discussion of significant new features and improvements is given, and how the tool is used to design spacecraft missions
Theoretical Foundation of Copernicus: A Unified System for Trajectory Design and Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ocampo, Cesar; Senent, Juan S.; Williams, Jacob
2010-01-01
The fundamental methods are described for the general spacecraft trajectory design and optimization software system called Copernicus. The methods rely on a unified framework that is used to model, design, and optimize spacecraft trajectories that may operate in complex gravitational force fields, use multiple propulsion systems, and involve multiple spacecraft. The trajectory model, with its associated equations of motion and maneuver models, are discussed.
Formulation of the multimission aircraft design optimization problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straussfogel, Dennis M.
1998-12-01
The conventional single-mission aircraft design optimization problem is reformulated to allow design and optimization for multiple missions. Defining the aircraft mission as a set of continuous scalar variables leads to the concepts of mission vector and mission space. The multimission aircraft design optimization problem becomes one of optimizing a design for several different points in the mission space, simultaneously. In the limit, a design can be optimized simultaneously for all points in the mission space. Mapping various points from the optimization design space into the mission space generates actual and theoretical optimum performance surfaces. The multimission optimum configuration is defined as the single configuration that minimizes the difference between the actual performance and the theoretical optimum performance. The multimission aircraft design optimization method can be applied over several distinct mission by summing the differences between actual and theoretical optimum performance, or over all possible missions by integrating the difference between the actual and theoretical optimum performance surfaces. The concepts associated with the mission vector, mission space, and multimission optimum configuration are presented in mathematical form. The objective function for the multimission optimization problem is expressed both as a summation over discrete mission points and as an integral over the entire mission space. Mathematical expressions for objective functions based on both single and multiple objectives are developed and presented. A weighting function, emphasizing certain parts of the mission space over others, is also discussed. The multimission aircraft design optimization method is applied to an elementary wing-design optimization problem for an executive jet. The optimization problem is solved numerically for single and multiple objectives, with and without a functional constraint. The effect of the different objective functions and
Optimal and suboptimal control technique for aircraft spin recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, J. W.
1974-01-01
An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.
Fuel-optimal trajectories for aeroassisted coplanar orbital transfer problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.; Charalambous, Charalambos D.
1990-01-01
The optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high to low earth orbit via the atmosphere, with the object of minimizing the total fuel consumption. Simulations are carried out to obtain the fuel-optimal trajectories for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight is the application of an efficient multiple-shooting method for treating the nonlinear two-point boundary value problem resulting from the optimizaion procedure. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to fly at the maximum lift-to-drag ratio L/D initially in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly at a negative L/D to level off the flight so that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.
Fuel-optimal trajectories for aeroassisted coplanar orbital transfer problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.; Charalambous, Charalambos D.
1990-03-01
The optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high to low earth orbit via the atmosphere, with the object of minimizing the total fuel consumption. Simulations are carried out to obtain the fuel-optimal trajectories for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight is the application of an efficient multiple-shooting method for treating the nonlinear two-point boundary value problem resulting from the optimizaion procedure. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to fly at the maximum lift-to-drag ratio L/D initially in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly at a negative L/D to level off the flight so that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.
Reentry trajectories and their optimization by an evolution algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bade, A.; Voegt, S.; Axmann, J. K.; Rex, D.
The descent of a winged space vehicle from an orbit and the following re-entry into denser atmospheric layers is a rather complex physical process. To get insight into some of the fundamental phenomena, as a first step, the re-entry of simple shaped bodies has to be simulated. In order to improve the understanding of the physics, in this paper, a stepwise approach is presented: re-entry of balls, of capsules and of winged vehicles. For the re-entry of winged space vehicles, the equations of motion are not formulated in Keplerian elements but in earth-oriented coordinate systems, with the help of spherical polar coordinates in the most general form. They include thrust and aerodynamic forces (in three components). The atmosphere is regarded as fixed with the rotating oblate earth. This set of differential equations is solved by numerical integration. The influence of the angle of attack and of the bank angle upon the re-entry trajectory is discussed, also with respect to constraints (e.g., surface temperature). In all practical applications, various optimization problems arise, e.g. if for a required lateral range the heat load for the vehicle has to be minimized. The Institute of Space Technology and Reactor Technology has developed a method based on the evolution strategy, which will shortly be described here. Optimal re-entry trajectories for a preliminary configuration similar to HORUS are presented.
A man in the loop trajectory optimization program (MILTOP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinfields, J.
1974-01-01
An interactive trajectory optimization program is developed for use in initial fixing of launch configurations. The program is called MILTOP for Man-In-the-Loop-Trajectory Optimization-Program. The program is designed to facilitate quick look studies using man-machine decision combinations to reduce the time required to solve a given problem. MILTOP integrates the equations of motion of a point-mass in 3-Dimensions with drag as the only aerodynamic force present. Any point in time at which an integration step terminates, may be used as a decision-break-point, with complete user control over all variables and routines at this point. Automatic phases are provided for different modes of control: vertical rise, pitch-over, gravity turn, chi-freeze and control turn. Stage parameters are initialized from a separate routine so the user may fly as many stages as his problem demands. The MILTOP system uses both interactively on storage scope consoles, or in batch mode with numerical output on the live printer.
Decomposition technique and optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.
1990-01-01
An actual geosynchronous Earth orbit-to-low Earth orbit (GEO-to-LEO) transfer is considered with reference to the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) spacecraft, and optimal trajectories are determined by minimizing the total characteristic velocity. The optimization is performed with respect to the time history of the controls (angle of attack and angle of bank), the entry path inclination and the flight time being free. Two transfer maneuvers are considered: direct ascent (DA) to LEO and indirect ascent (IA) to LEO via parking Earth orbit (PEO). By taking into account certain assumptions, the complete system can be decoupled into two subsystems: one describing the longitudinal motion and one describing the lateral motion. The angle of attack history, the entry path inclination, and the flight time are determined via the longitudinal motion subsystem. In this subsystem, the difference between the instantaneous bank angle and a constant bank angle is minimized in the least square sense subject to the specified orbital inclination requirement. Both the angles of attack and the angle of bank are shown to be constant. This result has considerable importance in the design of nominal trajectories to be used in the guidance of AFE and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.
Development of Advanced Methods of Structural and Trajectory Analysis for Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, Mark D.
1996-01-01
In this report the author describes: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of flight path optimization. A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT bas traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight.
Optimizing conceptual aircraft designs for minimum life cycle cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Vicki S.
1989-01-01
A life cycle cost (LCC) module has been added to the FLight Optimization System (FLOPS), allowing the additional optimization variables of life cycle cost, direct operating cost, and acquisition cost. Extensive use of the methodology on short-, medium-, and medium-to-long range aircraft has demonstrated that the system works well. Results from the study show that optimization parameter has a definite effect on the aircraft, and that optimizing an aircraft for minimum LCC results in a different airplane than when optimizing for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW), fuel burned, direct operation cost (DOC), or acquisition cost. Additionally, the economic assumptions can have a strong impact on the configurations optimized for minimum LCC or DOC. Also, results show that advanced technology can be worthwhile, even if it results in higher manufacturing and operating costs. Examining the number of engines a configuration should have demonstrated a real payoff of including life cycle cost in the conceptual design process: the minimum TOGW of fuel aircraft did not always have the lowest life cycle cost when considering the number of engines.
Multiobjective Optimization of Low-Energy Trajectories Using Optimal Control on Dynamical Channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coffee, Thomas M.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Lo, Martin W.
2011-01-01
We introduce a computational method to design efficient low-energy trajectories by extracting initial solutions from dynamical channels formed by invariant manifolds, and improving these solutions through variational optimal control. We consider trajectories connecting two unstable periodic orbits in the circular restricted 3-body problem (CR3BP). Our method leverages dynamical channels to generate a range of solutions, and approximates the areto front for impulse and time of flight through a multiobjective optimization of these solutions based on primer vector theory. We demonstrate the application of our method to a libration orbit transfer in the Earth-Moon system.
Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.
1996-01-01
Most decisions made in the cockpit are related to safety, and have therefore been proceduralized in order to reduce risk. There are very few which are made on the basis of a value metric such as economic cost. One which can be shown to be value based, however, is the selection of a flight profile. Fuel consumption and flight time both have a substantial effect on aircraft operating cost, but they cannot be minimized simultaneously. In addition, winds, turbulence, and performance vary widely with altitude and time. These factors make it important and difficult for pilots to (a) evaluate the outcomes associated with a particular trajectory before it is flown and (b) decide among possible trajectories. The two elements of this problem considered here are: (1) determining what constitutes optimality, and (2) finding optimal trajectories. Pilots and dispatchers from major u.s. airlines were surveyed to determine which attributes of the outcome of a flight they considered the most important. Avoiding turbulence-for passenger comfort-topped the list of items which were not safety related. Pilots' decision making about the selection of flight profile on the basis of flight time, fuel burn, and exposure to turbulence was then observed. Of the several behavioral and prescriptive decision models invoked to explain the pilots' choices, utility maximization is shown to best reproduce the pilots' decisions. After considering more traditional methods for optimizing trajectories, a novel method is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA) operating on a discrete representation of the trajectory search space. The representation is a sequence of command altitudes, and was chosen to be compatible with the constraints imposed by Air Traffic Control, and with the training given to pilots. Since trajectory evaluation for the GA is performed holistically, a wide class of objective functions can be optimized easily. Also, using the GA it is possible to compare the costs associated with
Neighboring Optimal Aircraft Guidance in a General Wind Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jardin, Matthew R. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
Method and system for determining an optimal route for an aircraft moving between first and second waypoints in a general wind environment. A selected first wind environment is analyzed for which a nominal solution can be determined. A second wind environment is then incorporated; and a neighboring optimal control (NOC) analysis is performed to estimate an optimal route for the second wind environment. In particular examples with flight distances of 2500 and 6000 nautical miles in the presence of constant or piecewise linearly varying winds, the difference in flight time between a nominal solution and an optimal solution is 3.4 to 5 percent. Constant or variable winds and aircraft speeds can be used. Updated second wind environment information can be provided and used to obtain an updated optimal route.
Aircraft Conflict Analysis and Real-Time Conflict Probing Using Probabilistic Trajectory Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.
2000-01-01
Methods for maintaining separation between aircraft in the current airspace system have been built from a foundation of structured routes and evolved procedures. However, as the airspace becomes more congested and the chance of failures or operational error become more problematic, automated conflict alerting systems have been proposed to help provide decision support and to serve as traffic monitoring aids. The problem of conflict detection and resolution has been tackled from a number of different ways, but in this thesis, it is recast as a problem of prediction in the presence of uncertainties. Much of the focus is concentrated on the errors and uncertainties from the working trajectory model used to estimate future aircraft positions. The more accurate the prediction, the more likely an ideal (no false alarms, no missed detections) alerting system can be designed. Additional insights into the problem were brought forth by a review of current operational and developmental approaches found in the literature. An iterative, trial and error approach to threshold design was identified. When examined from a probabilistic perspective, the threshold parameters were found to be a surrogate to probabilistic performance measures. To overcome the limitations in the current iterative design method, a new direct approach is presented where the performance measures are directly computed and used to perform the alerting decisions. The methodology is shown to handle complex encounter situations (3-D, multi-aircraft, multi-intent, with uncertainties) with relative ease. Utilizing a Monte Carlo approach, a method was devised to perform the probabilistic computations in near realtime. Not only does this greatly increase the method's potential as an analytical tool, but it also opens up the possibility for use as a real-time conflict alerting probe. A prototype alerting logic was developed and has been utilized in several NASA Ames Research Center experimental studies.
Variational Trajectory Optimization Tool Set: Technical description and user's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Queen, Eric M.; Cavanaugh, Michael D.; Wetzel, Todd A.; Moerder, Daniel D.
1993-01-01
The algorithms that comprise the Variational Trajectory Optimization Tool Set (VTOTS) package are briefly described. The VTOTS is a software package for solving nonlinear constrained optimal control problems from a wide range of engineering and scientific disciplines. The VTOTS package was specifically designed to minimize the amount of user programming; in fact, for problems that may be expressed in terms of analytical functions, the user needs only to define the problem in terms of symbolic variables. This version of the VTOTS does not support tabular data; thus, problems must be expressed in terms of analytical functions. The VTOTS package consists of two methods for solving nonlinear optimal control problems: a time-domain finite-element algorithm and a multiple shooting algorithm. These two algorithms, under the VTOTS package, may be run independently or jointly. The finite-element algorithm generates approximate solutions, whereas the shooting algorithm provides a more accurate solution to the optimization problem. A user's manual, some examples with results, and a brief description of the individual subroutines are included.
Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leifsson, Leifur Thor
The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore
Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.
1996-01-01
Most decisions made in the cockpit are related to safety, and have therefore been proceduralized in order to reduce risk. There are very few which are made on the basis of a value metric such as economic cost. One which can be shown to be value based, however, is the selection of a flight profile. Fuel consumption and flight time both have a substantial effect on aircraft operating cost, but they cannot be minimized simultaneously. In addition, winds, turbulence, and performance x,ary widely with altitude and time. These factors make it important and difficult for pilots to (a) evaluate the outcomes associated with a particular trajectory before it is flown and (b) decide among possible trajectories. The two elements of this problem considered here are (1) determining, what constitutes optimality, and (2) finding optimal trajectories. Pilots and dispatchers from major U.S. airlines were surveyed to determine which attributes of the outcome of a flight they considered the most important. Avoiding turbulence-for passenger comfort topped the list of items which were not safety related. Pilots' decision making about the selection of flight profile on the basis of flight time, fuel burn, and exposure to turbulence was then observed. Of the several behavioral and prescriptive decision models invoked to explain the pilots' choices, utility maximization is shown to best reproduce the pilots' decisions. After considering more traditional methods for optimizing trajectories, a novel method is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA) operating on a discrete representation of the trajectory search space. The representation is a sequence of command altitudes, and was chosen to be compatible with the constraints imposed by Air Traffic Control, and with the training given to pilots. Since trajectory evaluation for the GA is performed holistically, a wide class of objective functions can be optimized easily. Also, using the GA it is possible to compare the costs associated with
Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroo, Ilan; Altus, Steve; Braun, Robert; Gage, Peter; Sobieski, Ian
1994-01-01
This paper describes a research program aimed at improved methods for multidisciplinary design and optimization of large-scale aeronautical systems. The research involves new approaches to system decomposition, interdisciplinary communication, and methods of exploiting coarse-grained parallelism for analysis and optimization. A new architecture, that involves a tight coupling between optimization and analysis, is intended to improve efficiency while simplifying the structure of multidisciplinary, computation-intensive design problems involving many analysis disciplines and perhaps hundreds of design variables. Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.
Energy management of three-dimensional minimum-time intercept. [for aircraft flight optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Visser, H. G.
1985-01-01
A real-time computer algorithm to control and optimize aircraft flight profiles is described and applied to a three-dimensional minimum-time intercept mission. The proposed scheme has roots in two well known techniques: singular perturbations and neighboring-optimal guidance. Use of singular-perturbation ideas is made in terms of the assumed trajectory-family structure. A heading/energy family of prestored point-mass-model state-Euler solutions is used as the baseline in this scheme. The next step is to generate a near-optimal guidance law that will transfer the aircraft to the vicinity of this reference family. The control commands fed to the autopilot (bank angle and load factor) consist of the reference controls plus correction terms which are linear combinations of the altitude and path-angle deviations from reference values, weighted by a set of precalculated gains. In this respect the proposed scheme resembles neighboring-optimal guidance. However, in contrast to the neighboring-optimal guidance scheme, the reference control and state variables as well as the feedback gains are stored as functions of energy and heading in the present approach. Some numerical results comparing open-loop optimal and approximate feedback solutions are presented.
Direct Method Transcription for a Human-Class Translunar Injection Trajectory Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witzberger, Kevin E.; Zeiler, Tom
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new trajectory optimization software package developed in the framework of a low-to-high fidelity 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF)/6-DOF vehicle simulation program named Mission Analysis Simulation Tool in Fortran (MASTIF) and its application to a translunar trajectory optimization problem. The functionality of the developed optimization package is implemented as a new "mode" in generalized settings to make it applicable for a general trajectory optimization problem. In doing so, a direct optimization method using collocation is employed for solving the problem. Trajectory optimization problems in MASTIF are transcribed to a constrained nonlinear programming (NLP) problem and solved with SNOPT, a commercially available NLP solver. A detailed description of the optimization software developed is provided as well as the transcription specifics for the translunar injection (TLI) problem. The analysis includes a 3-DOF trajectory TLI optimization and a 3-DOF vehicle TLI simulation using closed-loop guidance.
An inverse dynamics approach to trajectory optimization for an aerospace plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ping
1992-01-01
An inverse dynamics approach for trajectory optimization is proposed. This technique can be useful in many difficult trajectory optimization and control problems. The application of the approach is exemplified by ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace plane. Both minimum-fuel and minimax types of performance indices are considered. When rocket augmentation is available for ascent, it is shown that accurate orbital insertion can be achieved through the inverse control of the rocket in the presence of disturbances.
Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.
Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen
2015-03-01
Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase. PMID:25440950
Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory
2013-01-01
Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.
An analysis and comparison of several trajectory optimization methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewallen, J. M.
1971-01-01
The sensitivities of the convergence characteristics of the methods to initially assumed parameters and trial solution, convergence times, computer logic, and storage requirements are discussed. Numerical comparison of the convergence characteristics is made by considering a minimum time, low thrust, Earth-Mars transfer trajectory. A modified quasi-linearization method reduces convergence time by approximately 70% when compared with the generalized Newton-Raphson method and allows the terminal boundary to be specified by a general function of the problem variables. A uniquely specified and easily determined, time dependent weighting matrix for the gradient techniques accelerates the shaping of the optimal control program and improves the convergence characteristics during the terminal iterations. Convergence envelopes, indicating how sensitive the convergence characteristics are to initially assumed parameters, are plotted for the perturbation and quasi-linearization methods. Several iteration schemes are proposed which increase the size of the convergence envelopes and decrease the sensitivity of the method to initially assumed parameters.
Control optimization, stabilization and computer algorithms for aircraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Research related to reliable aircraft design is summarized. Topics discussed include systems reliability optimization, failure detection algorithms, analysis of nonlinear filters, design of compensators incorporating time delays, digital compensator design, estimation for systems with echoes, low-order compensator design, descent-phase controller for 4-D navigation, infinite dimensional mathematical programming problems and optimal control problems with constraints, robust compensator design, numerical methods for the Lyapunov equations, and perturbation methods in linear filtering and control.
Optimal estimation of diffusion coefficients from single-particle trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vestergaard, Christian L.; Blainey, Paul C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik
2014-02-01
How does one optimally determine the diffusion coefficient of a diffusing particle from a single-time-lapse recorded trajectory of the particle? We answer this question with an explicit, unbiased, and practically optimal covariance-based estimator (CVE). This estimator is regression-free and is far superior to commonly used methods based on measured mean squared displacements. In experimentally relevant parameter ranges, it also outperforms the analytically intractable and computationally more demanding maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). For the case of diffusion on a flexible and fluctuating substrate, the CVE is biased by substrate motion. However, given some long time series and a substrate under some tension, an extended MLE can separate particle diffusion on the substrate from substrate motion in the laboratory frame. This provides benchmarks that allow removal of bias caused by substrate fluctuations in CVE. The resulting unbiased CVE is optimal also for short time series on a fluctuating substrate. We have applied our estimators to human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycolase proteins diffusing on flow-stretched DNA, a fluctuating substrate, and found that diffusion coefficients are severely overestimated if substrate fluctuations are not accounted for.
Minimum-Cost Aircraft Descent Trajectories with a Constrained Altitude Profile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Minghong G.; Sadovsky, Alexander V.
2015-01-01
An analytical formula for solving the speed profile that accrues minimum cost during an aircraft descent with a constrained altitude profile is derived. The optimal speed profile first reaches a certain speed, called the minimum-cost speed, as quickly as possible using an appropriate extreme value of thrust. The speed profile then stays on the minimum-cost speed as long as possible, before switching to an extreme value of thrust for the rest of the descent. The formula is applied to an actual arrival route and its sensitivity to winds and airlines' business objectives is analyzed.
TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.
Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.
1995-01-01
Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.
Aircraft Range Optimization Using Singular Perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oconnor, Joseph Taffe
1973-01-01
An approximate analytic solution is developed for the problem of maximizing the range of an aircraft for a fixed end state. The problem is formulated as a singular perturbation and solved by matched inner and outer asymptotic expansions and the minimum principle of Pontryagin. Cruise in the stratosphere, and on transition to and from cruise at constant Mach number are discussed. The state vector includes altitude, flight path angle, and mass. Specific fuel consumption becomes a linear function of power approximating that of the cruise values. Cruise represents the outer solution; altitude and flight path angle are constants, and only mass changes. Transitions between cruise and the specified initial and final conditions correspond to the inner solutions. The mass is constant and altitude and velocity vary. A solution is developed which is valid for cruise but which is not for the initial and final conditions. Transforming of the independent variable near the initial and final conditions result in solutions which are valid for the two inner solutions but not for cruise. The inner solutions can not be obtained without simplifying the state equations. The singular perturbation approach overcomes this difficulty. A quadratic approximation of the state equations is made. The resulting problem is solved analytically, and the two inner solutions are matched to the outer solution.
Control optimization, stabilization and computer algorithms for aircraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athans, M. (Editor); Willsky, A. S. (Editor)
1982-01-01
The analysis and design of complex multivariable reliable control systems are considered. High performance and fault tolerant aircraft systems are the objectives. A preliminary feasibility study of the design of a lateral control system for a VTOL aircraft that is to land on a DD963 class destroyer under high sea state conditions is provided. Progress in the following areas is summarized: (1) VTOL control system design studies; (2) robust multivariable control system synthesis; (3) adaptive control systems; (4) failure detection algorithms; and (5) fault tolerant optimal control theory.
Optimizing aircraft performance with adaptive, integrated flight/propulsion control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. H.; Chisholm, J. D.; Stewart, J. F.
1991-01-01
The Performance-Seeking Control (PSC) integrated flight/propulsion adaptive control algorithm presented was developed in order to optimize total aircraft performance during steady-state engine operation. The PSC multimode algorithm minimizes fuel consumption at cruise conditions, while maximizing excess thrust during aircraft accelerations, climbs, and dashes, and simultaneously extending engine service life through reduction of fan-driving turbine inlet temperature upon engagement of the extended-life mode. The engine models incorporated by the PSC are continually upgraded, using a Kalman filter to detect anomalous operations. The PSC algorithm will be flight-demonstrated by an F-15 at NASA-Dryden.
Design of the VISITOR Tool: A Versatile ImpulSive Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizeR
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corpaccioli, Luca; Linskens, Harry; Komar, David R.
2014-01-01
The design of trajectories for interplanetary missions represents one of the most complex and important problems to solve during conceptual space mission design. To facilitate conceptual mission sizing activities, it is essential to obtain sufficiently accurate trajectories in a fast and repeatable manner. To this end, the VISITOR tool was developed. This tool modularly augments a patched conic MGA-1DSM model with a mass model, launch window analysis, and the ability to simulate more realistic arrival and departure operations. This was implemented in MATLAB, exploiting the built-in optimization tools and vector analysis routines. The chosen optimization strategy uses a grid search and pattern search, an iterative variable grid method. A genetic algorithm can be selectively used to improve search space pruning, at the cost of losing the repeatability of the results and increased computation time. The tool was validated against seven flown missions: the average total mission (Delta)V offset from the nominal trajectory was 9.1%, which was reduced to 7.3% when using the genetic algorithm at the cost of an increase in computation time by a factor 5.7. It was found that VISITOR was well-suited for the conceptual design of interplanetary trajectories, while also facilitating future improvements due to its modular structure.
Experiences performing conceptual design optimization of transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.
1984-01-01
Optimum Preliminary Design of Transports (OPDOT) is a computer program developed at NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the impact of new technologies upon transport aircraft. For example, it provides the capability to look at configurations which have been resized to take advantage of active controls and provide and indication of economic sensitivity to its use. Although this tool returns a conceptual design configuration as its output, it does not have the accuracy, in absolute terms, to yield satisfactory point designs for immediate use by aircraft manufacturers. However, the relative accuracy of comparing OPDOT-generated configurations while varying technological assumptions has been demonstrated to be highly reliable. Hence, OPDOT is a useful tool for ascertaining the synergistic benefits of active controls, composite structures, improved engine efficiencies and other advanced technological developments. The approach used by OPDOT is a direct numerical optimization of an economic performance index. A set of independent design variables is iterated, given a set of design constants and data. The design variables include wing geometry, tail geometry, fuselage size, and engine size. This iteration continues until the optimum performance index is found which satisfies all the constraint functions. The analyst interacts with OPDOT by varying the input parameters to either the constraint functions or the design constants. Note that the optimization of aircraft geometry parameters is equivalent to finding the ideal aircraft size, but with more degrees of freedom than classical design procedures will allow.
Design optimization of high-speed proprotor aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleicher, David R.; Phillips, James D.; Carbajal, Kevin B.
1993-01-01
NASA's high-speed rotorcraft (HSRC) studies have the objective of investigating technology for vehicles that have both low downwash velocities and forward flight speed capability of up to 450 knots. This paper investigates a tilt rotor, a tilt wing, and a folding tilt rotor designed for a civil transport mission. Baseline aircraft models using current technology are developed for each configuration using a vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft design synthesis computer program to generate converged vehicle designs. Sensitivity studies and numerical optimization are used to illustrate each configuration's key design tradeoffs and constraints. Minimization of the gross takeoff weight is used as the optimization objective function. Several advanced technologies are chosen, and their relative impact on future configurational development is discussed. Finally, the impact of maximum cruise speed on vehicle figures of merit (gross weight, productivity, and direct operating cost) is analyzed. The three most important conclusions from the study are payload ratios for these aircraft will be commensurate with current fixed-wing commuter aircraft; future tilt rotors and tilt wings will be significantly lighter, more productive, and cheaper than competing folding tilt rotors; and the most promising technologies are an advanced-technology proprotor for both tilt rotor and tilt wing and advanced structural materials for the folding tilt rotor.
Trajectory optimization for an asymmetric launch vehicle. M.S. Thesis - MIT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Jeanne Marie
1990-01-01
A numerical optimization technique is used to fully automate the trajectory design process for an symmetric configuration of the proposed Advanced Launch System (ALS). The objective of the ALS trajectory design process is the maximization of the vehicle mass when it reaches the desired orbit. The trajectories used were based on a simple shape that could be described by a small set of parameters. The use of a simple trajectory model can significantly reduce the computation time required for trajectory optimization. A predictive simulation was developed to determine the on-orbit mass given an initial vehicle state, wind information, and a set of trajectory parameters. This simulation utilizes an idealized control system to speed computation by increasing the integration time step. The conjugate gradient method is used for the numerical optimization of on-orbit mass. The method requires only the evaluation of the on-orbit mass function using the predictive simulation, and the gradient of the on-orbit mass function with respect to the trajectory parameters. The gradient is approximated with finite differencing. Prelaunch trajectory designs were carried out using the optimization procedure. The predictive simulation is used in flight to redesign the trajectory to account for trajectory deviations produced by off-nominal conditions, e.g., stronger than expected head winds.
Application of optimal input synthesis to aircraft parameter identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, N. K.; Hall, W. E., Jr.; Mehra, R. K.
1976-01-01
The Frequency Domain Input Synthesis procedure is used in identifying the stability and control derivatives of an aircraft. By using a frequency-domain approach, one can handle criteria that are not easily handled by the time-domain approaches. Numerical results are presented for optimal elevator deflections to estimate the longitudinal stability and control derivatives subject to root-mean square constraints on the input. The applicability of the steady state optimal inputs to finite duration flight testing is investigated. The steady state approximation of frequency-domain synthesis is good for data lengths greater than two time cycles for the short period mode of the aircraft longitudinal motions. Phase relationships between different frequency components become important for shorter data lengths. The frequency domain inputs are shown to be much better than the conventional doublet inputs.
Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.
1983-01-01
This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.
Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok
2004-01-01
This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.
Aircraft optimization by a system approach: Achievements and trends
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1992-01-01
Recently emerging methodology for optimal design of aircraft treated as a system of interacting physical phenomena and parts is examined. The methodology is found to coalesce into methods for hierarchic, non-hierarchic, and hybrid systems all dependent on sensitivity analysis. A separate category of methods has also evolved independent of sensitivity analysis, hence suitable for discrete problems. References and numerical applications are cited. Massively parallel computer processing is seen as enabling technology for practical implementation of the methodology.
Optimization of Conformational Dynamics in an Epistatic Evolutionary Trajectory.
González, Mariano M; Abriata, Luciano A; Tomatis, Pablo E; Vila, Alejandro J
2016-07-01
The understanding of protein evolution depends on the ability to relate the impact of mutations on molecular traits to organismal fitness. Biological activity and robustness have been regarded as important features in shaping protein evolutionary landscapes. Conformational dynamics, which is essential for protein function, has received little attention in the context of evolutionary analyses. Here we employ NMR spectroscopy, the chief experimental tool to describe protein dynamics at atomic level in solution at room temperature, to study the intrinsic dynamic features of a metallo- Β: -lactamase enzyme and three variants identified during a directed evolution experiment that led to an expanded substrate profile. We show that conformational dynamics in the catalytically relevant microsecond to millisecond timescale is optimized along the favored evolutionary trajectory. In addition, we observe that the effects of mutations on dynamics are epistatic. Mutation Gly262Ser introduces slow dynamics on several residues that surround the active site when introduced in the wild-type enzyme. Mutation Asn70Ser removes the slow dynamics observed for few residues of the wild-type enzyme, but increases the number of residues that undergo slow dynamics when introduced in the Gly262Ser mutant. These effects on dynamics correlate with the epistatic interaction between these two mutations on the bacterial phenotype. These findings indicate that conformational dynamics is an evolvable trait, and that proteins endowed with more dynamic active sites also display a larger potential for promoting evolution. PMID:26983555
Optimal path planning for single and multiple aircraft using a reduced order formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Twigg, Shannon S.
High-flying unmanned reconnaissance and surveillance systems are now being used extensively in the United States military. Current development programs are producing demonstrations of next-generation unmanned flight systems that are designed to perform combat missions. Their use in first-strike combat operations will dictate operations in densely cluttered environments that include unknown obstacles and threats, and will require the use of terrain for masking. The demand for autonomy of operations in such environments dictates the need for advanced trajectory optimization capabilities. In addition, the ability to coordinate the movements of more than one aircraft in the same area is an emerging challenge. This thesis examines using an analytical reduced order formulation for trajectory generation for minimum time and terrain masking cases. First, pseudo-3D constant velocity equations of motion are used for path planning for a single vehicle. In addition, the inclusion of winds, moving targets and moving threats is considered. Then, this formulation is increased to using 3D equations of motion, both with a constant velocity and with a simplified varying velocity model. Next, the constant velocity equations of motion are expanded to include the simultaneous path planning of an unspecified number of vehicles, for both aircraft avoidance situations and formation flight cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.
2009-01-01
A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehra, R. K.; Washburn, R. B.; Sajan, S.; Carroll, J. V.
1979-01-01
A hierarchical real time algorithm for optimal three dimensional control of aircraft is described. Systematic methods are developed for real time computation of nonlinear feedback controls by means of singular perturbation theory. The results are applied to a six state, three control variable, point mass model of an F-4 aircraft. Nonlinear feedback laws are presented for computing the optimal control of throttle, bank angle, and angle of attack. Real Time capability is assessed on a TI 9900 microcomputer. The breakdown of the singular perturbation approximation near the terminal point is examined Continuation methods are examined to obtain exact optimal trajectories starting from the singular perturbation solutions.
Shan, S.; Bevis, M.; Kendrick, E.; Mader, G.L.; Raleigh, D.; Hudnut, K.; Sartori, M.; Phillips, D.
2007-01-01
When kinematic GPS processing software is used to estimate the trajectory of an aircraft, unless the delays imposed on the GPS signals by the atmosphere are either estimated or calibrated via external observations, then vertical height errors of decimeters can occur. This problem is clearly manifested when the aircraft is positioned against multiple base stations in areas of pronounced topography because the aircraft height solutions obtained using different base stations will tend to be mutually offset, or biased, in proportion to the elevation differences between the base stations. When performing kinematic surveys in areas with significant topography it should be standard procedure to use multiple base stations, and to separate them vertically to the maximum extent possible, since it will then be much easier to detect mis-modeling of the atmosphere. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Supersonic aircraft optimization for minimizing drag and sonic boom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Martin Kia-Yin
A design tool incorporating classical sonic boom theory, computational fluid dynamics and a multi-objective genetic algorithm was developed for low-boom supersonic aircraft optimization. Both sonic boom and drag were optimized simultaneously and a Pareto optimal set of designs ranging from minimum boom to minimum drag was obtained for each optimization. Since sonic boom was optimized directly, the method had broader applicability than the traditional inverse method. A high-order three-dimensional panel method was used for sonic boom prediction. The traditional linear source model was fast but did not account for wing-body aerodynamic interaction. Euler solutions were expensive for computing sonic booms because a large number of grid points were needed to accurately predict the pressure signature away from the aircraft. For the Mach number and configurations of interest, the panel code showed good agreement with Euler but at a fraction of the cost. A loudness metric was shown to have advantages over initial overpressure and peak overpressure for measuring shaped sonic booms. However, optimization results obtained using calculated loudness raised concerns about the robustness of the solution to atmospheric disturbance. Peak overpressure minimization also produced reasonable sonic boom signatures and appeared more robust to atmospheric uncertainties, but the resulting loudness was not as good. Better convergence was also observed with peak overpressure. Two supersonic business jets were optimized. One was a conventional configuration; the other was a natural laminar flow configuration. Optimization results obtained using loudness and peak overpressure were compared. A non-axisymmetric fuselage was optimized and found to reduce the inviscid drag by 9 to 30 percent at the same sonic boom loudness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Lianghui; Yuan, Jianping; Luo, Jianjun; Ning, Xin; Zhou, Ruiwu
2007-11-01
Direct collocation method has been widely used for trajectory optimization. In this paper, the application of direct optimization method (direct collocation method & nonlinear programming (NLP)) to lunar probe soft-landing trajectory optimization is introduced. Firstly, the model of trajectory optimization control problem to lunar probe soft landing trajectory is established and the equations of motion are simplified respectively based on some reasonable hypotheses. Performance is selected to minimize the fuel consumption. The control variables are thrust attack angle and thrust of engine. Terminal state variable constraints are velocity and altitude constraints. Then, the optimal control problem is transformed into nonlinear programming problem using direct collocation method. The state variables and control variables are selected as optimal parameters at all nodes and collocation nodes. Parameter optimization problem is solved using the SNOPT software package. The simulation results demonstrate that the direct collocation method is not sensitive to lunar soft landing initial conditions; they also show that the optimal solutions of trajectory optimization problem are fairly good in real-time. Therefore, the direct collocation method is a viable approach to lunar probe soft landing trajectory optimization problem.
An Expert System-Driven Method for Parametric Trajectory Optimization During Conceptual Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dees, Patrick D.; Zwack, Mathew R.; Steffens, Michael; Edwards, Stephen; Diaz, Manuel J.; Holt, James B.
2015-01-01
During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle cost. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult in both cost and schedule to enact. The current capability-based paradigm, which has emerged because of the constrained economic environment, calls for the infusion of knowledge usually acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bringing knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture yet little of the information required to successfully optimize a trajectory is known early in the design phase. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi-modal due to the interaction of various constraints. When these obstacles are coupled with the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), an industry standard program to optimize ascent trajectories that is difficult to use, expert trajectory analysts are required to effectively optimize a vehicle's ascent trajectory. Over the course of this paper, the authors discuss a methodology developed at NASA Marshall's Advanced Concepts Office to address these issues
Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.
2015-01-01
During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi
SUNSPOT: A computer program for producing optimal solar sail planetocentric trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sackett, L. L.
1977-01-01
The input, output and subroutines, including listings, for the SUNSPOT code are described. SUNSPOT can calculate time optimal planetocentric trajectories including orbit-to-orbit transfer and orbit to a subescape point. Trajectories about the the four inner planets can be calculated, and shadowing, oblateness, and solar motion may be included. A penalty function may be included to prevent trajectories which intersect the planet's surface.
Interplanetary program to optimize simulated trajectories (IPOST). Volume 4: Sample cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.
1992-01-01
The Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. The IPOST output provides information for sizing and understanding mission impacts related to propulsion, guidance, communications, sensor/actuators, payload, and other dynamic and geometric environments. IPOST models three degree of freedom trajectory events, such as launch/ascent, orbital coast, propulsive maneuvering (impulsive and finite burn), gravity assist, and atmospheric entry. Trajectory propagation is performed using a choice of Cowell, Encke, Multiconic, Onestep, or Conic methods. The user identifies a desired sequence of trajectory events, and selects which parameters are independent (controls) and dependent (targets), as well as other constraints and the cost function. Targeting and optimization are performed using the Standard NPSOL algorithm. The IPOST structure allows sub-problems within a master optimization problem to aid in the general constrained parameter optimization solution. An alternate optimization method uses implicit simulation and collocation techniques.
The effect of parking orbit constraints on the optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sauer, C. G., Jr.
1984-01-01
The optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories is developed which includes constraints on departure parking orbit inclination and node. This problem is formulated to result in a minimum total Delta V where the entire constrained injection Delta V is included in the optimization. An additional Delta V is also defined to allow for possible optimization of parking orbit inclination when the launch vehicle orbit capability varies as a function of parking orbit inclination. The optimization problem is formulated using primer vector theory to derive partial derivatives of total Delta V with respect to possible free parameters. Minimization of total Delta V is accomplished using a quasi-Newton gradient search routine. The analysis is applied to an Eros rendezvous mission whose transfer trajectories are characterized by high values of launch asymptote declination during particular launch opportunities. Comparisons in performance are made between trajectories where parking orbit constraints are included in the optimization and trajectories where the constraints are not included.
Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST). Volume 2: Analytic manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D.; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.
1992-01-01
The Interplanetary Program to Optimize Space Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. The IPOST output provides information for sizing and understanding mission impacts related to propulsion, guidance, communications, sensor/actuators, payload, and other dynamic and geometric environments. IPOST models three degree of freedom trajectory events, such as launch/ascent, orbital coast, propulsive maneuvering (impulsive and finite burn), gravity assist, and atmospheric entry. Trajectory propagation is performed using a choice of Cowell, Encke, Multiconic, Onestep, or Conic methods. The user identifies a desired sequence of trajectory events, and selects which parameters are independent (controls) and dependent (targets), as well as other constraints and the cost function. Targeting and optimization is performed using the Stanford NPSOL algorithm. IPOST structure allows subproblems within a master optimization problem to aid in the general constrained parameter optimization solution. An alternate optimization method uses implicit simulation and collocation techniques.
Ocampo, Cesar
2004-05-01
The modeling, design, and optimization of finite burn maneuvers for a generalized trajectory design and optimization system is presented. A generalized trajectory design and optimization system is a system that uses a single unified framework that facilitates the modeling and optimization of complex spacecraft trajectories that may operate in complex gravitational force fields, use multiple propulsion systems, and involve multiple spacecraft. The modeling and optimization issues associated with the use of controlled engine burn maneuvers of finite thrust magnitude and duration are presented in the context of designing and optimizing a wide class of finite thrust trajectories. Optimal control theory is used examine the optimization of these maneuvers in arbitrary force fields that are generally position, velocity, mass, and are time dependent. The associated numerical methods used to obtain these solutions involve either, the solution to a system of nonlinear equations, an explicit parameter optimization method, or a hybrid parameter optimization that combines certain aspects of both. The theoretical and numerical methods presented here have been implemented in copernicus, a prototype trajectory design and optimization system under development at the University of Texas at Austin. PMID:15220149
Numerical Simulation of Real-Time Trajectory Optimization for Helicopter Noise Abatement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikaida, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirokazu; Gomi, Hiromi; Okuno, Yoshinori
This study was an attempt to obtain optimal landing approaches for helicopters to reduce ground noise impact. Simulations and real flight tests in our previous study confirmed that flights along pre-calculated optimal trajectories resulted in lower noise levels than flights along conventional approach paths. However, some experiments did not show the expected optimization effects because of unforeseen disturbances. This paper therefore improves the algorithms in order to realize practical real-time optimization, which can involve external disturbances. To validate the effect of the new method, various computer simulations were conducted under real flight experimental scenarios. The obtained optimal solutions were characterized by steep flight path angles, which can avoid the generation of loud noise, the avoidance of noise sensitive points, and short flight times. These are different from conventional landing approaches. The optimal trajectories resulted in noise reduction on the ground, which shows the effectiveness and potential of the proposed real-time trajectory optimization method.
A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geiselhart, Karl A.
1994-01-01
A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission
Optimal control of a low wing-loading STOL aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, T. B.
1976-01-01
Linear optimal quadratic control theory is applied to a low wing-loading STOL aircraft for ride quality and flight path following. Design criteria include minimum rms response to wind turbulence and desired transient response characteristics. Design techniques include proper choosing of design versus evaluation models, choosing appropriate performance index responses, and use of classical evaluation techniques. Results are obtained through a combination of frequency response shaping and gust observation. Effects of control rate and authority saturation are examined with a new rapid calculation of random input describing functions. Parameter sensitivity is also evaluated using a Liapunov type matrix equation.
Time optimal trajectories for mobile robots with two independently driven wheels
Reister, D.B.; Pin, F.G.
1992-03-01
This paper addresses the problem of time-optional motions for a mobile platform in a planar environment. The platform has two non-steerable independently driven wheels. The overall mission of the robot is expressed in terms of a sequence of via points at which the platform must be at rest in a given configuration (position and orientation). The objective is to plan time-optimal trajectories between these configurations assuming an unobstructed environment. Using Pontryagin`s maximum principle (PMP), we formally demonstrate that all time optimal motions of the platform for this problem occur for bang-bang controls on the wheels (at each instant, the acceleration on each wheel is either at its upper or lower limit). The PMP, however, only provides necessary conditions for time optimality. To find the time optimal robot trajectories, we first parameterize the bang-bang trajectories using the switch times on the wheels (the times at which the wheel accelerations change sign). With this parameterization, we can fully search the robot trajectory space and find the switch times that will produce particular paths to a desired final configuration of the platform. We show numerically that robot trajectories with three switch times (two on one wheel, one on the other) can reach any position, while trajectories with four switch times can reach any configuration. By numerical comparison with other trajectories involving similar or greater numbers of switch times, we then identify the sets of time-optimal trajectories. These are uniquely defined using ranges of the parameters, and consist of subsets of trajectories with three switch times for the problem when the final orientation of the robot is not specified, and four switch times when a full final configuration is specified. We conclude with a description of the use of the method for trajectory planning for one of our robots.
Time optimal trajectories for mobile robots with two independently driven wheels
Reister, D.B.; Pin, F.G.
1992-03-01
This paper addresses the problem of time-optional motions for a mobile platform in a planar environment. The platform has two non-steerable independently driven wheels. The overall mission of the robot is expressed in terms of a sequence of via points at which the platform must be at rest in a given configuration (position and orientation). The objective is to plan time-optimal trajectories between these configurations assuming an unobstructed environment. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle (PMP), we formally demonstrate that all time optimal motions of the platform for this problem occur for bang-bang controls on the wheels (at each instant, the acceleration on each wheel is either at its upper or lower limit). The PMP, however, only provides necessary conditions for time optimality. To find the time optimal robot trajectories, we first parameterize the bang-bang trajectories using the switch times on the wheels (the times at which the wheel accelerations change sign). With this parameterization, we can fully search the robot trajectory space and find the switch times that will produce particular paths to a desired final configuration of the platform. We show numerically that robot trajectories with three switch times (two on one wheel, one on the other) can reach any position, while trajectories with four switch times can reach any configuration. By numerical comparison with other trajectories involving similar or greater numbers of switch times, we then identify the sets of time-optimal trajectories. These are uniquely defined using ranges of the parameters, and consist of subsets of trajectories with three switch times for the problem when the final orientation of the robot is not specified, and four switch times when a full final configuration is specified. We conclude with a description of the use of the method for trajectory planning for one of our robots.
Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST). Volume 3: Programmer's manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D.; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.
1992-01-01
The Interplanetary Program to Optimize Space Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. Here, information is given on the IPOST code.
Multi-level systems modeling and optimization for novel aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Shreyas Vathul
This research combines the disciplines of system-of-systems (SoS) modeling, platform-based design, optimization and evolving design spaces to achieve a novel capability for designing solutions to key aeronautical mission challenges. A central innovation in this approach is the confluence of multi-level modeling (from sub-systems to the aircraft system to aeronautical system-of-systems) in a way that coordinates the appropriate problem formulations at each level and enables parametric search in design libraries for solutions that satisfy level-specific objectives. The work here addresses the topic of SoS optimization and discusses problem formulation, solution strategy, the need for new algorithms that address special features of this problem type, and also demonstrates these concepts using two example application problems - a surveillance UAV swarm problem, and the design of noise optimal aircraft and approach procedures. This topic is critical since most new capabilities in aeronautics will be provided not just by a single air vehicle, but by aeronautical Systems of Systems (SoS). At the same time, many new aircraft concepts are pressing the boundaries of cyber-physical complexity through the myriad of dynamic and adaptive sub-systems that are rising up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) scale. This compositional approach is envisioned to be active at three levels: validated sub-systems are integrated to form conceptual aircraft, which are further connected with others to perform a challenging mission capability at the SoS level. While these multiple levels represent layers of physical abstraction, each discipline is associated with tools of varying fidelity forming strata of 'analysis abstraction'. Further, the design (composition) will be guided by a suitable hierarchical complexity metric formulated for the management of complexity in both the problem (as part of the generative procedure and selection of fidelity level) and the product (i.e., is the mission
Optimized transfer trajectories in the earth-moon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Wen-Xian; Xu, Wei; Cai, Li
2008-01-01
Investigations of low energy transfer trajectories are important for both celestial mechanics and astronautics. Methodologies using the theories from dynamical systems are developed in recent years. This paper investigates the dynamics of the earth-moon system. Low energy transfer trajectories are solved numerically by employing a hybrid strategy: first, a genetic hide and seek method performs a search in large domain to confine the global minimum f(η) (objective function) region; then, a deterministic Nelder Mead method is utilized to refine the minimum quickly. Some transfer trajectories of the spacecraft in the earth-moon system are successfully simulated which verify the desired efficiency and robustness of the method of this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Striepe, Scott A.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Kirsch, Michael F.; Fowler, Wallace T.
2007-01-01
On January 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe separated from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, entered the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface. As part of NASA Engineering Safety Center Independent Technical Assessment of the Huygens entry, descent, and landing, and an agreement with ESA, NASA provided results of all EDL analyses and associated findings to the Huygens project team prior to probe entry. In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper.
Uno, Y; Kawato, M; Suzuki, R
1989-01-01
In this paper, we study trajectory planning and control in voluntary, human arm movements. When a hand is moved to a target, the central nervous system must select one specific trajectory among an infinite number of possible trajectories that lead to the target position. First, we discuss what criterion is adopted for trajectory determination. Several researchers measured the hand trajectories of skilled movements and found common invariant features. For example, when moving the hand between a pair of targets, subjects tended to generate roughly straight hand paths with bell-shaped speed profiles. On the basis of these observations and dynamic optimization theory, we propose a mathematical model which accounts for formation of hand trajectories. This model is formulated by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement: square of the rate of change of torque integrated over the entire movement. That is, the objective function CT is defined as follows: (formula; see text) We overcome this difficult by developing an iterative scheme, with which the optimal trajectory and the associated motor command are simultaneously computed. To evaluate our model, human hand trajectories were experimentally measured under various behavioral situations. These results supported the idea that the human hand trajectory is planned and controlled in accordance with the minimum torque-change criterion. PMID:2742921
Optimization of Insertion Cost for Transfer Trajectories to Libration Point Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, K. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Lo, M. W.
1999-01-01
The objective of this work is the development of efficient techniques to optimize the cost associated with transfer trajectories to libration point orbits in the Sun-Earth-Moon four body problem, that may include lunar gravity assists. Initially, dynamical systems theory is used to determine invariant manifolds associated with the desired libration point orbit. These manifolds are employed to produce an initial approximation to the transfer trajectory. Specific trajectory requirements such as, transfer injection constraints, inclusion of phasing loops, and targeting of a specified state on the manifold are then incorporated into the design of the transfer trajectory. A two level differential corrections process is used to produce a fully continuous trajectory that satisfies the design constraints, and includes appropriate lunar and solar gravitational models. Based on this methodology, and using the manifold structure from dynamical systems theory, a technique is presented to optimize the cost associated with insertion onto a specified libration point orbit.
Systematic low-thrust trajectory optimization for a multi-rendezvous mission using adjoint scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Fanghua; Tang, Gao
2016-04-01
A deep-space exploration mission with low-thrust propulsion to rendezvous with multiple asteroids is investigated. Indirect methods, based on the optimal control theory, are implemented to optimize the fuel consumption. The application of indirect methods for optimizing low-thrust trajectories between two asteroids is briefly given. An effective method is proposed to provide initial guesses for transfers between close near-circular near-coplanar orbits. The conditions for optimality of a multi-asteroid rendezvous mission are determined. The intuitive method of splitting the trajectories into several legs that are solved sequentially is applied first. Then the results are patched together by a scaling method to provide a tentative guess for optimizing the whole trajectory. Numerical examples of optimizing three probe exploration sequences that contain a dozen asteroids each demonstrate the validity and efficiency of these methods.
Optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment. Part 4: Data, tables, and graphs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Wang, H.; Wu, G. D.
1989-01-01
The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. Data, tables, and graphs relative to the following transfers are presented: (IA) indirect ascent to a 178 NM perigee via a 197 NM apogee; and (DA) direct ascent to a 178 NM apogee. For both transfers, two cases are investigated: (1) the bank angle is continuously variable; and (2) the trajectory is divided into segments along which the bank angle is constant. For case (2), the following subcases are studied: two segments, three segments, four segments, and five segments; because the time duration of each segment is optimized, the above subcases involve four, six, eight, and ten parameters, respectively. Presented here are systematic data on a total of ten optimal trajectories (OT), five for Transfer IA and five for Transfer DA. For comparison purposes and only for Transfer IA, a five-segment reference trajectory RT is also considered.
Global Optimization of Low-Thrust Interplanetary Trajectories Subject to Operational Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Hinckley, David
2016-01-01
Low-thrust interplanetary space missions are highly complex and there can be many locally optimal solutions. While several techniques exist to search for globally optimal solutions to low-thrust trajectory design problems, they are typically limited to unconstrained trajectories. The operational design community in turn has largely avoided using such techniques and has primarily focused on accurate constrained local optimization combined with grid searches and intuitive design processes at the expense of efficient exploration of the global design space. This work is an attempt to bridge the gap between the global optimization and operational design communities by presenting a mathematical framework for global optimization of low-thrust trajectories subject to complex constraints including the targeting of planetary landing sites, a solar range constraint to simplify the thermal design of the spacecraft, and a real-world multi-thruster electric propulsion system that must switch thrusters on and off as available power changes over the course of a mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Fei; Zhang, Wanxi; Liang, Jicai; Gao, Song
2015-11-01
Most of the existing studies use constant force to reduce springback while researching stretch force. However, variable stretch force can reduce springback more efficiently. The current research on springback prediction in stretch bending forming mainly focuses on artificial neural networks combined with the finite element simulation. There is a lack of springback prediction by support vector regression (SVR). In this paper, SVR is applied to predict springback in the three-dimensional stretch bending forming process, and variable stretch force trajectory is optimized. Six parameters of variable stretch force trajectory are chosen as the input parameters of the SVR model. Sixty experiments generated by design of experiments (DOE) are carried out to train and test the SVR model. The experimental results confirm that the accuracy of the SVR model is higher than that of artificial neural networks. Based on this model, an optimization algorithm of variable stretch force trajectory using particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The springback amount is used as the objective function. Changes of local thickness are applied as the criterion of forming constraints. The objection and constraints are formulated by response surface models. The precision of response surface models is examined. Six different stretch force trajectories are employed to certify springback reduction in the optimum stretch force trajectory, which can efficiently reduce springback. This research proposes a new method of springback prediction using SVR and optimizes variable stretch force trajectory to reduce springback.
Trajectory Optimization for Crewed Missions to an Earth-Moon L2 Halo Orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowling, Jennifer
Baseline trajectories to an Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit and round trip trajectories for crewed missions have been created in support of an advanced Orion mission concept. Various transfer durations and orbit insertion locations have been evaluated. The trajectories often include a deterministic mid-course maneuver that decreases the overall change in velocity in the trajectory. This paper presents the application of primer vector theory to study the existence, location, and magnitude of the mid-course maneuver in order to understand how to build an optimal round trip trajectory to an Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit. The lessons learned about when to add mid-course maneuvers can be applied to other mission designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios
2016-06-01
In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.
Overview and Software Architecture of the Copernicus Trajectory Design and Optimization System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Jacob; Senent, Juan S.; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravi; Davis, Elizabeth C.
2010-01-01
The Copernicus Trajectory Design and Optimization System represents an innovative and comprehensive approach to on-orbit mission design, trajectory analysis and optimization. Copernicus integrates state of the art algorithms in optimization, interactive visualization, spacecraft state propagation, and data input-output interfaces, allowing the analyst to design spacecraft missions to all possible Solar System destinations. All of these features are incorporated within a single architecture that can be used interactively via a comprehensive GUI interface, or passively via external interfaces that execute batch processes. This paper describes the Copernicus software architecture together with the challenges associated with its implementation. Additionally, future development and planned new capabilities are discussed. Key words: Copernicus, Spacecraft Trajectory Optimization Software.
Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST). Volume 1: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D.; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.
1992-01-01
IPOST is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. The IPOST output provides information for sizing and understanding mission impacts related to propulsion, guidance, communications, sensor/actuators, payload, and other dynamic and geometric environments. IPOST models three degree of freedom trajectory events, such as launch/ascent, orbital coast, propulsive maneuvering (impulsive and finite burn), gravity assist, and atmospheric entry. Trajectory propagation is performed using a choice of Cowell, Encke, Multiconic, Onestep, or Conic methods. The user identifies a desired sequence fo trajectory events, and selects which parameters are independent (controls) and dependent (targets), as well as other constraints and the coat function. Targeting and optimization is performed using the Stanford NPSOL algorithm. IPOST structure allows sub-problems within a master optimization problem to aid in the general constrained parameter optimization solution. An alternate optimization method uses implicit simulation and collocation techniques.
Design-oriented aeroservoelastic optimization of strain-actuated aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Timothy W.
An integrated design-oriented aeroservoelastic optimization capability for strain-actuated aircraft is presented. This capability is called SMART and it encompasses a suite of computer applications created for conceptual and preliminary design of aircraft augmented with "smart" actuation technologies. The SMART suite of applications includes: (1) a dedicated pre-processor for vehicle geometry, material, actuator, mechanism, and sensor layout; (2) a dedicated finite element automesher for conventional and strain-actuated flight vehicles; (3) integration of structural dynamics with a state of the art commercial unsteady aerodynamics code (ZAERO) via automated pre- and post-processors; (4) a database architecture for analyzing multiple designs and flight conditions; and (5) automated open- and closed-loop aeroservoelastic (ASE) model preparation. The analysis techniques used as the basis for SMART are suitable (within the range of application of linear theory) for modeling real flight vehicles with real large-scale structural, aerodynamic, and control systems. These techniques include: (6) dedicated linear finite element infrastructure for modeling conventional and strain-actuated (temperature and voltage induced) flight structures; (7) dedicated static and dynamic finite element solvers; (8) state space stability analysis for coupled aeroservoelastic systems; (9) computational tools for LQR controller design; and (10) analysis tools for the calculation of random response of linear systems to random inputs. SMART can compute: (11) static aeroelastic deformations and stresses in trimmed maneuvering elastic airplanes; (12) open-loop aeroelastic poles; (13) closed-loop (control by LQR) aeroservoelastic poles; (14) gust response (random gusts) of the open-loop and closed-loop aeroservoelastic system, and, also, when aerodynamic loads are not present; and (15) deformation and stresses of passive or actively-controlled structures subject to dynamic and static loads. To
Optimism and Pessimism as Predictors of Alcohol Use Trajectories in Adolescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wray, Tyler B.; Dvorak, Rob D.; Hsia, Jennifer F.; Arens, Ashley M.; Schweinle, William E.
2013-01-01
A range of research has recognized the benefits of optimism in a variety of health-related outcomes. Pessimism has received less attention but may be a distinct concept that is uniquely related to certain health behaviors, including drug use. The present study examined relationships between optimism and pessimism and alcohol use trajectories of…
Simulation of Airplane and Rocket Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahbah, Magdy M.; Berning, Michael J.; Choy, Tony S.
1987-01-01
Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories program (SORT) contains comprehensive mathematical models for simulating aircraft dynamics, freely falling objects, and many types of ballistic trajectories. Provides high-fidelity, three-degrees-of-freedom simulation for atmospheric and exoatmospheric flight. It numerically models vehicle subsystems and vehicle environment. Used for wide range of simulations. Written in machine-independent FORTRAN 77.
Xu, Y; Li, N
2014-09-01
Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator-prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. PMID:24713876
Calculation of free fall trajectories based on numerical optimization techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The development of a means of computing free-fall (nonthrusting) trajectories from one specified point in the solar system to another specified point in the solar system in a given amount of time was studied. The problem is that of solving a two-point boundary value problem for which the initial slope is unknown. Two standard methods of attack exist for solving two-point boundary value problems. The first method is known as the initial value or shooting method. The second method of attack for two-point boundary value problems is to approximate the nonlinear differential equations by an appropriate linearized set. Parts of both boundary value problem solution techniques described above are used. A complete velocity history is guessed such that the corresponding position history satisfies the given boundary conditions at the appropriate times. An iterative procedure is then followed until the last guessed velocity history and the velocity history obtained from integrating the acceleration history agree to some specified tolerance everywhere along the trajectory.
New trends in astrodynamics and applications: optimal trajectories for space guidance.
Azimov, Dilmurat; Bishop, Robert
2005-12-01
This paper represents recent results on the development of optimal analytic solutions to the variation problem of trajectory optimization and their application in the construction of on-board guidance laws. The importance of employing the analytically integrated trajectories in a mission design is discussed. It is assumed that the spacecraft is equipped with a power-limited propulsion and moving in a central Newtonian field. Satisfaction of the necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of trajectories is analyzed. All possible thrust arcs and corresponding classes of the analytical solutions are classified based on the propulsion system parameters and performance index of the problem. The solutions are presented in a form convenient for applications in escape, capture, and interorbital transfer problems. Optimal guidance and neighboring optimal guidance problems are considered. It is shown that the analytic solutions can be used as reference trajectories in constructing the guidance algorithms for the maneuver problems mentioned above. An illustrative example of a spiral trajectory that terminates on a given elliptical parking orbit is discussed. PMID:16510410
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuang; Zhu, Yongsheng; Wang, Yukai
2014-02-01
Asteroid deflection techniques are essential in order to protect the Earth from catastrophic impacts by hazardous asteroids. Rapid design and optimization of low-thrust rendezvous/interception trajectories is considered as one of the key technologies to successfully deflect potentially hazardous asteroids. In this paper, we address a general framework for the rapid design and optimization of low-thrust rendezvous/interception trajectories for future asteroid deflection missions. The design and optimization process includes three closely associated steps. Firstly, shape-based approaches and genetic algorithm (GA) are adopted to perform preliminary design, which provides a reasonable initial guess for subsequent accurate optimization. Secondly, Radau pseudospectral method is utilized to transcribe the low-thrust trajectory optimization problem into a discrete nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. Finally, sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is used to efficiently solve the nonlinear programming problem and obtain the optimal low-thrust rendezvous/interception trajectories. The rapid design and optimization algorithms developed in this paper are validated by three simulation cases with different performance indexes and boundary constraints.
A modular approach to intensity-modulated arc therapy optimization with noncoplanar trajectories.
Papp, Dávid; Bortfeld, Thomas; Unkelbach, Jan
2015-07-01
Utilizing noncoplanar beam angles in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has the potential to combine the benefits of arc therapy, such as short treatment times, with the benefits of noncoplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans, such as improved organ sparing. Recently, vendors introduced treatment machines that allow for simultaneous couch and gantry motion during beam delivery to make noncoplanar VMAT treatments possible. Our aim is to provide a reliable optimization method for noncoplanar isocentric arc therapy plan optimization. The proposed solution is modular in the sense that it can incorporate different existing beam angle selection and coplanar arc therapy optimization methods. Treatment planning is performed in three steps. First, a number of promising noncoplanar beam directions are selected using an iterative beam selection heuristic; these beams serve as anchor points of the arc therapy trajectory. In the second step, continuous gantry/couch angle trajectories are optimized using a simple combinatorial optimization model to define a beam trajectory that efficiently visits each of the anchor points. Treatment time is controlled by limiting the time the beam needs to trace the prescribed trajectory. In the third and final step, an optimal arc therapy plan is found along the prescribed beam trajectory. In principle any existing arc therapy optimization method could be incorporated into this step; for this work we use a sliding window VMAT algorithm. The approach is demonstrated using two particularly challenging cases. The first one is a lung SBRT patient whose planning goals could not be satisfied with fewer than nine noncoplanar IMRT fields when the patient was treated in the clinic. The second one is a brain tumor patient, where the target volume overlaps with the optic nerves and the chiasm and it is directly adjacent to the brainstem. Both cases illustrate that the large number of angles utilized by isocentric noncoplanar VMAT plans
A modular approach to intensity-modulated arc therapy optimization with noncoplanar trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papp, Dávid; Bortfeld, Thomas; Unkelbach, Jan
2015-07-01
Utilizing noncoplanar beam angles in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has the potential to combine the benefits of arc therapy, such as short treatment times, with the benefits of noncoplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans, such as improved organ sparing. Recently, vendors introduced treatment machines that allow for simultaneous couch and gantry motion during beam delivery to make noncoplanar VMAT treatments possible. Our aim is to provide a reliable optimization method for noncoplanar isocentric arc therapy plan optimization. The proposed solution is modular in the sense that it can incorporate different existing beam angle selection and coplanar arc therapy optimization methods. Treatment planning is performed in three steps. First, a number of promising noncoplanar beam directions are selected using an iterative beam selection heuristic; these beams serve as anchor points of the arc therapy trajectory. In the second step, continuous gantry/couch angle trajectories are optimized using a simple combinatorial optimization model to define a beam trajectory that efficiently visits each of the anchor points. Treatment time is controlled by limiting the time the beam needs to trace the prescribed trajectory. In the third and final step, an optimal arc therapy plan is found along the prescribed beam trajectory. In principle any existing arc therapy optimization method could be incorporated into this step; for this work we use a sliding window VMAT algorithm. The approach is demonstrated using two particularly challenging cases. The first one is a lung SBRT patient whose planning goals could not be satisfied with fewer than nine noncoplanar IMRT fields when the patient was treated in the clinic. The second one is a brain tumor patient, where the target volume overlaps with the optic nerves and the chiasm and it is directly adjacent to the brainstem. Both cases illustrate that the large number of angles utilized by isocentric noncoplanar VMAT plans
Differential Evolution Based Ascent Phase Trajectory Optimization for a Hypersonic Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri, Ritwik; Ghose, D.
In this paper, a new method for the numerical computation of optimal, or nearly optimal, solutions to aerospace trajectory problems is presented. Differential Evolution (DE), a powerful stochastic real-parameter optimization algorithm is used to optimize the ascent phase of a hypersonic vehicle. The vehicle has to undergo large changes in altitude and associated aerodynamic conditions. As a result, its aerodynamic characteristics, as well as its propulsion parameters, undergo drastic changes. Such trajectory optimization problems can be solved by converting it to a non-linear programming (NLP) problem. One of the issues in the NLP method is that it requires a fairly large number of grid points to arrive at an optimal solution. Differential Evolution based algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to perform equally well with lesser number of grid points. This is supported by extensive simulation results.
Simulation to Support Local Search in Trajectory Optimization Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Robert A.; Venable, K. Brent; Lindsey, James
2012-01-01
NASA and the international community are investing in the development of a commercial transportation infrastructure that includes the increased use of rotorcraft, specifically helicopters and civil tilt rotors. However, there is significant concern over the impact of noise on the communities surrounding the transportation facilities. One way to address the rotorcraft noise problem is by exploiting powerful search techniques coming from artificial intelligence coupled with simulation and field tests to design low-noise flight profiles which can be tested in simulation or through field tests. This paper investigates the use of simulation based on predictive physical models to facilitate the search for low-noise trajectories using a class of automated search algorithms called local search. A novel feature of this approach is the ability to incorporate constraints directly into the problem formulation that addresses passenger safety and comfort.
Optimal low-thrust trajectories for nuclear and solar electric propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genta, G.; Maffione, P. F.
2016-01-01
The optimization of the trajectory and of the thrust profile of a low-thrust interplanetary transfer is usually solved under the assumption that the specific mass of the power generator is constant. While this is reasonable in the case of nuclear electric propulsion, if solar electric propulsion is used the specific mass depends on the distance of the spacecraft from the Sun. In the present paper the optimization of the trajectory of the spacecraft and of the thrust profile is solved under the latter assumption, to obtain optimized interplanetary trajectories for solar electric spacecraft, also taking into account all phases of the journey, from low orbit about the starting planet to low orbit about the destination one. General plots linking together the travel time, the specific mass of the generator and the propellant consumption are obtained.
Numerical optimization of actuator trajectories for ITER hybrid scenario profile evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dongen, J.; Felici, F.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Geelen, P.; Maljaars, E.
2014-12-01
Optimal actuator trajectories for an ITER hybrid scenario ramp-up are computed using a numerical optimization method. For both L-mode and H-mode scenarios, the time trajectory of plasma current, EC heating and current drive distribution is determined that minimizes a chosen cost function, while satisfying constraints. The cost function is formulated to reflect two desired properties of the plasma q profile at the end of the ramp-up. The first objective is to maximize the ITG turbulence threshold by maximizing the volume-averaged s/q ratio. The second objective is to achieve a stationary q profile by having a flat loop voltage profile. Actuator and physics-derived constraints are included, imposing limits on plasma current, ramp rates, internal inductance and q profile. This numerical method uses the fast control-oriented plasma profile evolution code RAPTOR, which is successfully benchmarked against more complete CRONOS simulations for L-mode and H-mode mode ITER hybrid scenarios. It is shown that the optimized trajectories computed using RAPTOR also result in an improved ramp-up scenario for CRONOS simulations using the same input trajectories. Furthermore, the optimal trajectories are shown to vary depending on the precise timing of the L-H transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Michael; Strom, Ben; Breuer, Kenneth; Mandre, Shreyas
2014-11-01
We determine the feasibility of applying optimization algorithms to an oscillating hydrofoil's motion trajectory to determine maximum efficiency of energy capture. Optimization is performed using the Nelder-Meade downhill simplex method. The objective function is the energy captured measured experimentally in run-time with an oscillating hydrofoil capable of measuring mechanical energy capture in a laboratory flume. For sinusoidal trajectories, optimization is performed over pitch and heave amplitudes as well as frequency; this system is shown to be capable of optimization in run-time. The optimum efficiency of 30% is found for a pitch amplitude of 70°, a heave amplitude of 0.8* chord and a dimensionless frequency of 0.13. To treat non-sinusoidal trajectories, we expand them in a truncated Fourier series and consider the coefficients of this series as variables for optimization. The sinusoidal case is simply an extreme case of such a truncated Fourier series, with only one term in the series retained. We present a systematic method for optimization over general non-sinusoidal trajectories by including more and more terms in the Fourier series.
A concept for adaptive performance optimization on commercial transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Michael R.; Enns, Dale F.
1995-01-01
An adaptive control method is presented for the minimization of drag during flight for transport aircraft. The minimization of drag is achieved by taking advantage of the redundant control capability available in the pitch axis, with the horizontal tail used as the primary surface and symmetric deflection of the ailerons and cruise flaps used as additional controls. The additional control surfaces are excited with sinusoidal signals, while the altitude and velocity loops are closed with guidance and control laws. A model of the throttle response as a function of the additional control surfaces is formulated and the parameters in the model are estimated from the sensor measurements using a least squares estimation method. The estimated model is used to determine the minimum drag positions of the control surfaces. The method is presented for the optimization of one and two additional control surfaces. The adaptive control method is extended to optimize rate of climb with the throttle fixed. Simulations that include realistic disturbances are presented, as well as the results of a Monte Carlo simulation analysis that shows the effects of changing the disturbance environment and the excitation signal parameters.
Space safety trajectory optimization and debris analysis using ASTOS at ESA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Guillermo; Blasco, Ana; Weikert, Sven
This paper describes the coupling of the space trajectory optimization software ASTOS with a tool for splashdown analysis of separated spacecraft stages and debris called DARS (Destructive Analysis for Re-entry Spacecraft), and a Risk Analysis Module called RAM. ASTOS is a main reference tool for space trajectory optimization at ESA. It is also used to compute demise and break up of rocket stages and re-entry vehicles and analyze the risk to populated areas. ASTOS software is a simulation and optimization environment to compute optimal trajectories for a variety of complex multi-phase optimal control problems. It consists of fast and powerful optimization programs, PROMIS, CAMTOS, SOCS and TROPIC, that handle large and highly discretized problems, a user interface with multiple plot capability, and GISMO, an integrated graphical iteration monitor to review the optimization process and plot the state and control histories at intermediate steps during the optimization. The optimization programs used by ASTOS use Non-Linear Programming (NLP) mathematical solvers like NPSOL, SLSQP, SLLSQP, and SNOPT. These solvers use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) mathematical algorithms to find the solution of the non-linear programming problems in trajectory optimization. ASTOS comprises an extensive model library, which allows launcher and re-entry spacecraft trajectory optimization without programming work. DARS considers not only a stage break-up, but also ablation and melting of the fragments, taking diverse materials and shapes into account. The paper discusses hazard due to stage and debris impact, considering the ESA launchers and re-entry vehicles as examples. Previous approaches for the impact point calculation during trajectory optimization are presented. Subsequently the results of these approaches are compared to DARS results. This paper shows that ASTOS and the DARS and RAM extensions can calculate impact points with satisfactory accuracy and calculation time
Global Optimal Trajectory in Chaos and NP-Hardness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latorre, Vittorio; Gao, David Yang
This paper presents an unconventional theory and method for solving general nonlinear dynamical systems. Instead of the direct iterative methods, the discretized nonlinear system is first formulated as a global optimization problem via the least squares method. A newly developed canonical duality theory shows that this nonconvex minimization problem can be solved deterministically in polynomial time if a global optimality condition is satisfied. The so-called pseudo-chaos produced by linear iterative methods are mainly due to the intrinsic numerical error accumulations. Otherwise, the global optimization problem could be NP-hard and the nonlinear system can be really chaotic. A conjecture is proposed, which reveals the connection between chaos in nonlinear dynamics and NP-hardness in computer science. The methodology and the conjecture are verified by applications to the well-known logistic equation, a forced memristive circuit and the Lorenz system. Computational results show that the canonical duality theory can be used to identify chaotic systems and to obtain realistic global optimal solutions in nonlinear dynamical systems. The method and results presented in this paper should bring some new insights into nonlinear dynamical systems and NP-hardness in computational complexity theory.
Trajectory optimization using parallel shooting method on parallel computer
Wirthman, D.J.; Park, S.Y.; Vadali, S.R.
1995-03-01
The efficiency of a parallel shooting method on a parallel computer for solving a variety of optimal control guidance problems is studied. Several examples are considered to demonstrate that a speedup of nearly 7 to 1 is achieved with the use of 16 processors. It is suggested that further improvements in performance can be achieved by parallelizing in the state domain. 10 refs.
Optimal trajectory designs and systems engineering analyses of reusable launch vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Hung-I. Bruce
Realizing a reusable launch vehicle (RLU) that is low cost with highly effective launch capability has become the "Holy Grail" within the aerospace community world-wide. Clear understanding of the vehicle's operational limitations and flight characteristics in all phases of the flight are preponderant components in developing such a launch system. This dissertation focuses on characterizing and designing the RLU optimal trajectories in order to aid in strategic decision making during mission planning in four areas: (1) nominal ascent phase, (2) abort scenarios and trajectories during ascent phase including abort-to-orbit (ATO), transoceanic-abort-landing (TAL) and return-to-launch-site (RTLS), (3) entry phase (including footprint), and (4) systems engineering aspects of such flight trajectory design. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body design that lifts off vertically with two linear aerospike rocket engines and lands horizontally. An in-depth investigation of the optimal endo-atmospheric ascent guidance parameters such as earliest abort time, engine throttle setting, number of flight phases, flight characteristics and structural design limitations will be performed and analyzed to establish a set of benchmarks for making better trade-off decisions. Parametric analysis of the entry guidance will also be investigated to allow the trajectory designer to pinpoint relevant parameters and to generate optimal constrained trajectories. Optimal ascent and entry trajectories will be generated using a direct transcription method to cast the optimal control problem as a nonlinear programming problem. The solution to the sparse nonlinear programming problem is then solved using sequential quadratic programming. Finally, guidance system hierarchy studies such as work breakdown structure, functional analysis, fault-tree analysis, and configuration management will be developed to ensure that the guidance system meets the definition of
Optimal return-to-launchsite abort trajectories for an HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutton, Kevin E.
1993-01-01
The Personnel Launch System (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the Space Shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return-to-launchsite (RTLS) abort. This paper describes an investigation of the RTLS abort scenario using optimal control theory. The objective of the abort trajectory is to maximize final altitude at a point near the runway. The assumption is then made that there exists a control history to steer the vehicle to any final altitude lower than the final optimal altitude. With this selection of cost function, and with this assumption, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times along the ascent trajectory can be determined. The method of differential inclusions, which allows the determination of optimal states and eliminates the need for determining the optimal controls, is used to determine the optimal trajectories.
Optimal return-to-launchsite abort trajectories for an HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutton, Kevin E.
The Personnel Launch System (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the Space Shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return-to-launchsite (RTLS) abort. This paper describes an investigation of the RTLS abort scenario using optimal control theory. The objective of the abort trajectory is to maximize final altitude at a point near the runway. The assumption is then made that there exists a control history to steer the vehicle to any final altitude lower than the final optimal altitude. With this selection of cost function, and with this assumption, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times along the ascent trajectory can be determined. The method of differential inclusions, which allows the determination of optimal states and eliminates the need for determining the optimal controls, is used to determine the optimal trajectories.
Solving the Optimal Trading Trajectory Problem Using a Quantum Annealer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Gili; Haghnegahdar, Poya; Goddard, Phil; Carr, Peter; Wu, Kesheng; de Prado, Marcos Lopez
2016-09-01
We solve a multi-period portfolio optimization problem using D-Wave Systems' quantum annealer. We derive a formulation of the problem, discuss several possible integer encoding schemes, and present numerical examples that show high success rates. The formulation incorporates transaction costs (including permanent and temporary market impact), and, significantly, the solution does not require the inversion of a covariance matrix. The discrete multi-period portfolio optimization problem we solve is significantly harder than the continuous variable problem. We present insight into how results may be improved using suitable software enhancements, and why current quantum annealing technology limits the size of problem that can be successfully solved today. The formulation presented is specifically designed to be scalable, with the expectation that as quantum annealing technology improves, larger problems will be solvable using the same techniques.
Nearly-grazing optimal trajectories for noncoplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Mease, K. D.; Lee, W. Y.
1988-01-01
This paper discusses aeroassisted orbital transfer maneuvers under the assumption that the terminal orbital inclinations are different. Both GEO-to-LEO and LEO-to-LEO transfers are considered in connection with a spacecraft which is controlled during the atmospheric pass via the angle of attack and the angle of bank. Within the framework of classical optimal control, the following problems are studied: the minimization of the total characteristic velocity (P1); the minimization of the time integral of the square of the path inclination (P5); and the minimization of the peak heating rate (Q1). Numerical solutions are obtained by means of the sequential gradient-restoration logarithm for optimal control problems under the conditions that, for the problem (P1), the plane change components are optimized, while for the problems (P5) and (Q1), the plane change components are kept at the levels determined for problem (P1). The engineering implications of the solutions are discussed, in order to determine the most useful solutions in the light of energy requirements and heat transfer requirements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, D. H.
1986-01-01
Advanced flight management systems are being developed which are capable of calculating optimal 3-D and 4-D flight trajectories for arbitrary fuel and time costs. These systems require mathematical models of airplane performance in order to compute the optimal profiles. Mismodeled idle engine characteristics can result in descent trajectories requiring excessive throttle and/or speedbrake activity in order to achieve the desired end conditions. This paper evaluates the cost and fuel penalties, trajectory variations, and flight control requirements associated with typical idle engine modeling errors for a twin-jet transport airplane. Variations in idle power setting, thrust, fuel flow, and surge bleed operation were evaluated for a cruise/descent flight segment. The results of this analysis provide insight into the penalties associated with uncertainties in idle engine performance and suggest methods of modeling which minimize these penalties.
Closed Loop Guidance with Multiple Constraints for Low Orbit Vehicle Trajectory Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rufei; Zhao, Shifan
Low orbit has features of strong invisibility and penetration, but needs more shutdown energy comparable to high orbit under the same range, which strongly requires studying the problem of delivery capacity optimization for multi-stage launch vehicles. Based on remnant apparent velocity and constraints models, multi-constraint closed-loop guidance with constraints of trajectory maximum height and azimuth was proposed, which adopted elliptical orbit theory and Newton iteration algorithm to optimize trajectory and thrust direction, reached to take full advantage of multi-stage launch vehicle propellant, and guided low orbit vehicle to enter maximum range trajectory. Theory deduction and numerical example demonstrate that the proposed guidance method could extend range and achieve precise control for orbit maximum height and azimuth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rommel, Bruce A.
1989-01-01
An overview of the Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP) at the Douglas Aircraft Company is given. A pilot test program involving the animation of mode shapes with solid rendering as well as wire frame displays, a complete aircraft model of a high-altitude hypersonic aircraft to test ADOP procedures, a flap model, and an aero-mesh modeler for doublet lattice aerodynamics are discussed.
Analysis of LPFG sensor systems for aircraft wing drag optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemi, Alex A.; Ishihara, Abe
2014-09-01
In normal fiber, the refractive indices of the core and cladding do not change along the length of the fiber; however, by inducing a periodic modulation of refractive index along the length in the core of the optical fiber, the optical fiber grating is produced. This exhibits very interesting spectral properties and for this reason we propose to develop and integrate a distributed sensor network based on long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) technology which has grating periods on the order of 100 μm to 1 mm to be embedded in the wing section of aircraft to measure bending and torsion in real-time in order to measure wing deformation of commercial airplanes resulting in extensive benefits such as reduced structural weight, mitigation of induced drag and lower fuel consumption which is fifty percent of total cost of operation for airline industry. Fiber optic sensors measurement capabilities are as vital as they are for other sensing technologies, but optical measurements differ in important ways. In this paper we focus on the testing and aviation requirements for LPFG sensors. We discuss the bases of aviation standards for fiber optic sensor measurements, and the quantities that are measured. Our main objective is to optimize the design for material, mechanical, optical and environmental requirements. We discuss the analysis and evaluation of extensive testing of LPFG sensor systems such as attenuation, environmental, humidity, fluid immersion, temperature cycling, aging, smoke, flammability, impact resistance, flexure endurance, tensile, vitiation and shock.
Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armand, Sasan C.
1995-01-01
In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.
Solar sailing trajectory optimization with planetary gravity assist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, XingShan; Li, JunFeng; Gong, ShengPing
2015-01-01
Significant propellant mass saving can be obtained with the use of complex multiple intermediate flyby maneuvers for conventional propulsion systems, and trip time also decreases for a portion of the proper solar sail missions. This paper discusses the performance of gravity assist (GA) in the time-optimal control problem of solar sailing with respect to sail lightness number and the energy difference between the initial and final orbit in the rendezvous problem in a two-body model, in which the GA is modeled as a substantial change in the velocity of the sailcraft at the GA time. In addition, this paper presents a method to solve the time-optimal problem of solar sailing with GA in a full ephemeris model, which introduces the third body's gravity in a dynamic equation. This study builds a set of inner constraints that can describe the GA process accurately. Finally, this study presents an example for evaluating the accuracy and rationality of the two-body model's simplification of GA by comparison with the full ephemeris model.
Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Navagh, John
1993-01-01
Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.
Object Specific Trajectory Optimization for Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography.
Fischer, Andreas; Lasser, Tobias; Schrapp, Michael; Stephan, Jürgen; Noël, Peter B
2016-01-01
In industrial settings, X-ray computed tomography scans are a common tool for inspection of objects. Often the object can not be imaged using standard circular or helical trajectories because of constraints in space or time. Compared to medical applications the variance in size and materials is much larger. Adapting the acquisition trajectory to the object is beneficial and sometimes inevitable. There are currently no sophisticated methods for this adoption. Typically the operator places the object according to his best knowledge. We propose a detectability index based optimization algorithm which determines the scan trajectory on the basis of a CAD-model of the object. The detectability index is computed solely from simulated projections for multiple user defined features. By adapting the features the algorithm is adapted to different imaging tasks. Performance of simulated and measured data was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed.The results illustrate that our algorithm not only allows more accurate detection of features, but also delivers images with high overall quality in comparison to standard trajectory reconstructions. This work enables to reduce the number of projections and in consequence scan time by introducing an optimization algorithm to compose an object specific trajectory. PMID:26817435
Trajectory planning of free-floating space robot using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Walter, Ulrich
2015-07-01
This paper investigates the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) strategy to trajectory planning of the kinematically redundant space robot in free-floating mode. Due to the path dependent dynamic singularities, the volume of available workspace of the space robot is limited and enormous joint velocities are required when such singularities are met. In order to overcome this effect, the direct kinematics equations in conjunction with PSO are employed for trajectory planning of free-floating space robot. The joint trajectories are parametrized with the Bézier curve to simplify the calculation. Constrained PSO scheme with adaptive inertia weight is implemented to find the optimal solution of joint trajectories while specific objectives and imposed constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is not sensitive to the singularity issue due to the application of forward kinematic equations. Simulation results are presented for trajectory planning of 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) redundant manipulator mounted on a free-floating spacecraft and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Object Specific Trajectory Optimization for Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Andreas; Lasser, Tobias; Schrapp, Michael; Stephan, Jürgen; Noël, Peter B.
2016-01-01
In industrial settings, X-ray computed tomography scans are a common tool for inspection of objects. Often the object can not be imaged using standard circular or helical trajectories because of constraints in space or time. Compared to medical applications the variance in size and materials is much larger. Adapting the acquisition trajectory to the object is beneficial and sometimes inevitable. There are currently no sophisticated methods for this adoption. Typically the operator places the object according to his best knowledge. We propose a detectability index based optimization algorithm which determines the scan trajectory on the basis of a CAD-model of the object. The detectability index is computed solely from simulated projections for multiple user defined features. By adapting the features the algorithm is adapted to different imaging tasks. Performance of simulated and measured data was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed.The results illustrate that our algorithm not only allows more accurate detection of features, but also delivers images with high overall quality in comparison to standard trajectory reconstructions. This work enables to reduce the number of projections and in consequence scan time by introducing an optimization algorithm to compose an object specific trajectory.
Object Specific Trajectory Optimization for Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography
Fischer, Andreas; Lasser, Tobias; Schrapp, Michael; Stephan, Jürgen; Noël, Peter B.
2016-01-01
In industrial settings, X-ray computed tomography scans are a common tool for inspection of objects. Often the object can not be imaged using standard circular or helical trajectories because of constraints in space or time. Compared to medical applications the variance in size and materials is much larger. Adapting the acquisition trajectory to the object is beneficial and sometimes inevitable. There are currently no sophisticated methods for this adoption. Typically the operator places the object according to his best knowledge. We propose a detectability index based optimization algorithm which determines the scan trajectory on the basis of a CAD-model of the object. The detectability index is computed solely from simulated projections for multiple user defined features. By adapting the features the algorithm is adapted to different imaging tasks. Performance of simulated and measured data was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed.The results illustrate that our algorithm not only allows more accurate detection of features, but also delivers images with high overall quality in comparison to standard trajectory reconstructions. This work enables to reduce the number of projections and in consequence scan time by introducing an optimization algorithm to compose an object specific trajectory. PMID:26817435
Improving aircraft composite inspections using optimized reference standards
Roach, D.; Dorrell, L.; Kollgaard, J.; Dreher, T.
1998-10-01
The rapidly increasing use of composites on commercial airplanes coupled with the potential for economic savings associated with their use in aircraft structures means that the demand for composite materials technology will continue to increase. Inspecting these composite structures is a critical element in assuring this continued airworthiness. The FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair committee, is developing a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed.
Optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories using Lyapunov-based guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Da-lin; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Lei
2016-09-01
For an increasing number of electric propulsion systems used for real missions, it is very important to design optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories for these missions. However, it is particularly challenging to search for optimal low-thrust transfers. This paper describes an efficient optimal guidance scheme for the design of time-optimal and time-fixed fuel-optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories. The time-optimal solution is obtained with Lyapunov-based guidance, in which the artificial neural network (ANN) is adopted to implement control gains steering and the evolutionary algorithm is used as the learning algorithm for ANN. Moreover, the relative efficiency introduced in Q-law is analyzed and a periapis-and-apoapsis-centered burn structure is proposed for solving time-fixed fuel-optimal low-thrust orbit transfer problem. In this guidance scheme, the ANN is adopted to determine the burn structure within each orbital revolution and the optimal low-thrust orbit transfer problem is converted to the parameter optimization problem. This guidance scheme runs without an initial guess and provides closed form solutions. In addition, Earth J2 perturbation and Earth-shadow eclipse effects are considered in this paper. Finally, a comparison with solutions given by the literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie
2014-01-01
An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046
Reinhardt, V; Winckler, M; Lebiedz, D
2008-02-28
Many common kinetic model reduction approaches are explicitly based on inherent multiple time scales and often assume and directly exploit a clear time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. They approximate the system dynamics with a dimension-reduced model after eliminating the fast modes by enslaving them to the slow ones. The corresponding restrictive assumption of full relaxation of fast modes often renders the resulting approximation of slow attracting manifolds inaccurate as a representation of the reduced model and makes the numerical solution of the nonlinear "reduction equations" particularly difficult in many cases where the gap in intrinsic time scales is not large enough. We demonstrate that trajectory optimization approaches can avoid such severe restrictions by computing numerical solutions that correspond to "maximally relaxed" dynamical modes in a suitable sense. We present a framework of trajectory-based optimization for model reduction in chemical kinetics and a general class of reduction criteria characterizing the relaxation of chemical forces along reaction trajectories. These criteria can be motivated geometrically exploiting ideas from differential geometry and fundamental physics and turn out to be highly successful in example applications. Within this framework, we provide results for the computational approximation of slow attracting low-dimensional manifolds in terms of families of optimal trajectories for a six-component hydrogen combustion mechanism. PMID:18247506
Parker, G.G.; Eisler, G.R.; Feddema, J.T.
1994-09-01
Procedures for trajectory planning and control of flexible link robots are becoming increasingly important to satisfy performance requirements of hazardous waste removal efforts. It has been shown that utilizing link flexibility in designing open loop joint commands can result in improved performance as opposed to damping vibration throughout a trajectory. The efficient use of link compliance is exploited in this work. Specifically, experimental verification of minimum time, straight line tracking using a two-link planar flexible robot is presented. A numerical optimization process, using an experimentally verified modal model, is used for obtaining minimum time joint torque and angle histories. The optimal joint states are used as commands to the proportional-derivative servo actuated joints. These commands are precompensated for the nonnegligible joint servo actuator dynamics. Using the precompensated joint commands, the optimal joint angles are tracked with such fidelity that the tip tracking error is less than 2.5 cm.
Low-thrust Trajectory Optimization Using Indirect Shooting Method without Initial Costate Guess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, H. Y.; Zhao, C. Y.
2012-05-01
Based on the optimal control theory, the optimal control problem of the low-thrust trajectory is transformed into a sequence of nonlinear two-point bound-value problem (TPBVP). In the process of solving the TPVBP, the initial constates need repeated random guesses and iterative computations. In order to enhance the convergence of the iteration, we select an appropriate performance index, and then linearize the equations of the TPBVP around the Keplerian orbits. For multi-revolution transfers, we use the multi-splicing Keplerian arcs instead of the multi-revolution Lambert trajectory to ensure the effectiveness of the linearization. The method is totally automatic with multiple iterations. With this method, we can get the results within~3 ˜ 5 iterations, and the random guess of the initial constates is unnecessary. Then by iterative optimization of the performance index, we can get a better control strategy.
Optimal Trajectories for the Helicopter in One-Engine-Inoperative Terminal-Area Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Yiyuan; Chen, Robert T. N.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a summary of a series of recent analytical studies conducted to investigate One-Engine-Inoperative (OEI) optimal control strategies and the associated optimal trajectories for a twin engine helicopter in Category-A terminal-area operations. These studies also examine the associated heliport size requirements and the maximum gross weight capability of the helicopter. Using an eight states, two controls, augmented point-mass model representative of the study helicopter, Continued TakeOff (CTO), Rejected TakeOff (RTO), Balked Landing (BL), and Continued Landing (CL) are investigated for both Vertical-TakeOff-and-Landing (VTOL) and Short-TakeOff-and-Landing (STOL) terminal-area operations. The formulation of the nonlinear optimal control problems with considerations for realistic constraints, solution methods for the two-point boundary-value problem, a new real-time generation method for the optimal OEI trajectories, and the main results of this series of trajectory optimization studies are presented. In particular, a new balanced- weight concept for determining the takeoff decision point for VTOL Category-A operations is proposed, extending the balanced-field length concept used for STOL operations.
Global Optimization of N-Maneuver, High-Thrust Trajectories Using Direct Multiple Shooting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ellison, Donald H.
2015-01-01
The performance of impulsive, gravity-assist trajectories often improves with the inclusion of one or more maneuvers between flybys. However, grid-based scans over the entire design space can become computationally intractable for even one deep-space maneuver, and few global search routines are capable of an arbitrary number of maneuvers. To address this difficulty a trajectory transcription allow-ing for any number of maneuvers is developed within a multi-objective, global optimization framework for constrained, multiple gravity-assist trajectories. The formulation exploits a robust shooting scheme and analytic derivatives for com-putational efficiency. The approach is applied to several complex, interplanetary problems, achieving notable performance without a user-supplied initial guess.
Global Optimization of N-Maneuver, High-Thrust Trajectories Using Direct Multiple Shooting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ellison, Donald H.
2016-01-01
The performance of impulsive, gravity-assist trajectories often improves with the inclusion of one or more maneuvers between flybys. However, grid-based scans over the entire design space can become computationally intractable for even one deep-space maneuver, and few global search routines are capable of an arbitrary number of maneuvers. To address this difficulty a trajectory transcription allowing for any number of maneuvers is developed within a multi-objective, global optimization framework for constrained, multiple gravity-assist trajectories. The formulation exploits a robust shooting scheme and analytic derivatives for computational efficiency. The approach is applied to several complex, interplanetary problems, achieving notable performance without a user-supplied initial guess.
Optimization-based tuning of LPV fault detection filters for civil transport aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossmann, D.; Varga, A.
2013-12-01
In this paper, a two-step optimal synthesis approach of robust fault detection (FD) filters for the model based diagnosis of sensor faults for an augmented civil aircraft is suggested. In the first step, a direct analytic synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV) FD filter is performed for the open-loop aircraft using an extension of the nullspace based synthesis method to LPV systems. In the second step, a multiobjective optimization problem is solved for the optimal tuning of the LPV detector parameters to ensure satisfactory FD performance for the augmented nonlinear closed-loop aircraft. Worst-case global search has been employed to assess the robustness of the fault detection system in the presence of aerodynamics uncertainties and estimation errors in the aircraft parameters. An application of the proposed method is presented for the detection of failures in the angle-of-attack sensor.
Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.
1998-09-22
This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.
Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.
1998-01-01
This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.
Enhanced Fuel-Optimal Trajectory-Generation Algorithm for Planetary Pinpoint Landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, James C.; Scharf, Daniel P.
2011-01-01
An enhanced algorithm is developed that builds on a previous innovation of fuel-optimal powered-descent guidance (PDG) for planetary pinpoint landing. The PDG problem is to compute constrained, fuel-optimal trajectories to land a craft at a prescribed target on a planetary surface, starting from a parachute cut-off point and using a throttleable descent engine. The previous innovation showed the minimal-fuel PDG problem can be posed as a convex optimization problem, in particular, as a Second-Order Cone Program, which can be solved to global optimality with deterministic convergence properties, and hence is a candidate for onboard implementation. To increase the speed and robustness of this convex PDG algorithm for possible onboard implementation, the following enhancements are incorporated: 1) Fast detection of infeasibility (i.e., control authority is not sufficient for soft-landing) for subsequent fault response. 2) The use of a piecewise-linear control parameterization, providing smooth solution trajectories and increasing computational efficiency. 3) An enhanced line-search algorithm for optimal time-of-flight, providing quicker convergence and bounding the number of path-planning iterations needed. 4) An additional constraint that analytically guarantees inter-sample satisfaction of glide-slope and non-sub-surface flight constraints, allowing larger discretizations and, hence, faster optimization. 5) Explicit incorporation of Mars rotation rate into the trajectory computation for improved targeting accuracy. These enhancements allow faster convergence to the fuel-optimal solution and, more importantly, remove the need for a "human-in-the-loop," as constraints will be satisfied over the entire path-planning interval independent of step-size (as opposed to just at the discrete time points) and infeasible initial conditions are immediately detected. Finally, while the PDG stage is typically only a few minutes, ignoring the rotation rate of Mars can introduce 10s
A New Architecture for Extending the Capabilities of the Copernicus Trajectory Optimization Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Jacob
2015-01-01
This paper describes a new plugin architecture developed for the Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization program. Details of the software architecture design and development are described, as well as examples of how the capability can be used to extend the tool in order to expand the type of trajectory optimization problems that can be solved. The inclusion of plugins is a significant update to Copernicus, allowing user-created algorithms to be incorporated into the tool for the first time. The initial version of the new capability was released to the Copernicus user community with version 4.1 in March 2015, and additional refinements and improvements were included in the recent 4.2 release. It is proving quite useful, enabling Copernicus to solve problems that it was not able to solve before.
Cascade Optimization Strategy for Aircraft and Air-Breathing Propulsion System Concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Coroneos, Rula M.
1996-01-01
Design optimization for subsonic and supersonic aircraft and for air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) and the NASA Engine Performance Program analyzer (NEPP), to the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Aircraft and engine design problems, with their associated constraints and design variables, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with aircraft weight and engine thrust as the respective merit functions. Because of the diversity of constraint types and the overall distortion of the design space, the most reliable single optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS could not produce a satisfactory feasible optimum solution. Some of COMETBOARDS' unique features, which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, successfully optimized the performance of both aircraft and engines. The cascade method has two principal steps: In the first, the solution initiates from a user-specified design and optimizer, in the second, the optimum design obtained in the first step with some random perturbation is used to begin the next specified optimizer. The second step is repeated for a specified sequence of optimizers or until a successful solution of the problem is achieved. A successful solution should satisfy the specified convergence criteria and have several active constraints but no violated constraints. The cascade strategy available in the combined COMETBOARDS, FLOPS, and NEPP design tool converges to the same global optimum solution even when it starts from different design points. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of aircraft and of air-breathing propulsion engines where it eases the cycle analysis procedures. The combined code is also much easier to use, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS
Optimal RTLS abort trajectories for an HL-20 personnel launch vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutton, Kevin
1993-12-01
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Return To Launch Site (RTLS) abort at T seconds along the launch trajectory of the Personnel Launch System (PLS) is possible using optimal control theory. The secondary objective is to assess effects of bank angle constraint, lift coefficient constraint, free and fixed final boundary conditions, etc. of the vehicle. The PLS is a complementary system to the Space Shuttle.
Optimal RTLS abort trajectories for an HL-20 personnel launch vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutton, Kevin
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Return To Launch Site (RTLS) abort at T seconds along the launch trajectory of the Personnel Launch System (PLS) is possible using optimal control theory. The secondary objective is to assess effects of bank angle constraint, lift coefficient constraint, free and fixed final boundary conditions, etc. of the vehicle. The PLS is a complementary system to the Space Shuttle.
Trajectory optimization for dynamic couch rotation during volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyth, Gregory; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Philip M.; Bedford, James L.
2013-11-01
Non-coplanar radiation beams are often used in three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce dose to organs at risk (OAR) by geometric avoidance. In volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) non-coplanar geometries are generally achieved by applying patient couch rotations to single or multiple full or partial arcs. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method for a non-coplanar technique, dynamic couch rotation during VMAT (DCR-VMAT), which combines ray tracing with a graph search algorithm. Four clinical test cases (partial breast, brain, prostate only, and prostate and pelvic nodes) were used to evaluate the potential OAR sparing for trajectory-optimized DCR-VMAT plans, compared with standard coplanar VMAT. In each case, ray tracing was performed and a cost map reflecting the number of OAR voxels intersected for each potential source position was generated. The least-cost path through the cost map, corresponding to an optimal DCR-VMAT trajectory, was determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Results show that trajectory optimization can reduce dose to specified OARs for plans otherwise comparable to conventional coplanar VMAT techniques. For the partial breast case, the mean heart dose was reduced by 53%. In the brain case, the maximum lens doses were reduced by 61% (left) and 77% (right) and the globes by 37% (left) and 40% (right). Bowel mean dose was reduced by 15% in the prostate only case. For the prostate and pelvic nodes case, the bowel V50 Gy and V60 Gy were reduced by 9% and 45% respectively. Future work will involve further development of the algorithm and assessment of its performance over a larger number of cases in site-specific cohorts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorris, Timothy R.
2007-12-01
To support the Air Force's Global Reach concept, a Common Aero Vehicle is being designed to support the Global Strike mission. "Waypoints" are specified for reconnaissance or multiple payload deployments and "no-fly zones" are specified for geopolitical restrictions or threat avoidance. Due to time critical targets and multiple scenario analysis, an autonomous solution is preferred over a time-intensive, manually iterative one. Thus, a real-time or near real-time autonomous trajectory optimization technique is presented to minimize the flight time, satisfy terminal and intermediate constraints, and remain within the specified vehicle heating and control limitations. This research uses the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) as a simplified two-dimensional platform to compare multiple solution techniques. The solution techniques include a unique geometric approach developed herein, a derived analytical dynamic optimization technique, and a rapidly emerging collocation numerical approach. This up-and-coming numerical technique is a direct solution method involving discretization then dualization, with pseudospectral methods and nonlinear programming used to converge to the optimal solution. This numerical approach is applied to the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) as the test platform for the full three-dimensional reentry trajectory optimization problem. The culmination of this research is the verification of the optimality of this proposed numerical technique, as shown for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Additionally, user implementation strategies are presented to improve accuracy and enhance solution convergence. Thus, the contributions of this research are the geometric approach, the user implementation strategies, and the determination and verification of a numerical solution technique for the optimal reentry trajectory problem that minimizes time to target while satisfying vehicle dynamics and control limitation, and heating, waypoint, and no
A new approach to trajectory optimization based on direct transcription and differential flatness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poustini, Mohammad Javad; Esmaelzadeh, Reza; Adami, Amirhossein
2015-02-01
The objective of the present paper is to introduce a reliable method to produce an optimal trajectory in the presence of all limitations and constraints. Direct transcription, has been employed to convert the trajectory optimization problem into nonlinear programming problem via discretizing the profile of state and control parameters and solving for a constrained problem. Differential flatness as a complementary theory leads to model the optimization problem in a lowered dimensional space through defining flat variables. Several curvilinear functions have been used to approximate flat variables and have their own benefits and disadvantages. Accuracy, complexity and number of needed points are examples of related issues. A new approach is developed based on an indirect approximation of flat variables, which leads to decrease the optimization variables and computational costs while preserving the needed accuracy. The proposed method deals with a 3rd order approximation of flat variables via integrating linear function of the acceleration profile. The new method is implemented on the terminal area energy management phase of a reusable launch vehicle. Test results show that the suggested method, as compared with other conventional methods, requires lower computational efforts in cases of the number of iterations and function evaluations, while providing a more accurate optimal solution.
A hybrid, self-adjusting search algorithm for optimal space trajectory design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolle, Andrea; Circi, Christian
2012-08-01
The aim of the present paper is to propose a hybrid, self adjusting, search algorithm for space trajectory optimization. By taking advantage of both direct and indirect methods, the present algorithm allows the finding of the optimal solution through the introduction of some new control parameters, whose number is smaller than that of the Lagrange multipliers, and whose range is bounded. Eventually, the optimal solution is determined by means of an iterative self-adjustment of the search domain occurring at "runtime", without any correction by an external user. This new set of parameters can be found through a reduction process of the degrees of freedom, obtained through the transversality conditions before entering the search loop. Furthermore, such a process shows that Lagrange multipliers are subject to a deep symmetry mirroring the features of the state vector. The algorithm reliability and efficiency is assessed through some test cases, and by reproducing some optimal transfer trajectories: a full three-dimensional, minimum time Mars mission, an optimal transfer to Jupiter, and finally an injection into a circular Moon orbit.
Yang, Chenguang; Li, Zhijun; Li, Jing
2013-02-01
In this paper, we investigate optimized adaptive control and trajectory generation for a class of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models of vehicle systems. Aiming at shaping the controlled vehicle dynamics to be of minimized motion tracking errors as well as angular accelerations, we employ the linear quadratic regulation optimization technique to obtain an optimal reference model. Adaptive control has then been developed using variable structure method to ensure the reference model to be exactly matched in a finite-time horizon, even in the presence of various internal and external uncertainties. The minimized yaw and tilt angular accelerations help to enhance the vehicle rider's comfort. In addition, due to the underactuated mechanism of WIP, the vehicle forward velocity dynamics cannot be controlled separately from the pendulum tilt angle dynamics. Inspired by the control strategy of human drivers, who usually manipulate the tilt angle to control the forward velocity, we design a neural-network-based adaptive generator of implicit control trajectory (AGICT) of the tilt angle which indirectly "controls" the forward velocity such that it tracks the desired velocity asymptotically. The stability and optimal tracking performance have been rigorously established by theoretic analysis. In addition, simulation studies have been carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed AGICT and optimized adaptive controller. PMID:22695357
Low-thrust trajectory design and optimization of lunar south pole coverage missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozimek, Martin T.
A framework for designing and optimizing low-thrust trajectories for lunar south pole coverage missions is developed. Such missions may involve three, two, or even one satellite to maintain continuous communications between a lunar ground station and the Earth. Special emphasis is dedicated to single satellite communication links, which involve the design and discovery of novel pole-sitter orbits. Pole-sitters are possible, given the availability of an efficient low-thrust force in the model. Low-thrust acceleration can be delivered in various forms; solar sails and electric propulsion engines are obvious examples. Low-thrust propulsion may also be employed to construct transfer trajectories to the coverage orbits of interest as well as end-of-life transfers. Additionally, a low-thrust thruster allows a spacecraft to shift between lunar coverage orbits. In this scenario, an optimal control-based approach is applicable for rapidly computing trajectories, however, in general, the many complexities involved in generating the trajectories are best solved with a direct transcription approach using collocation and mesh refinement. This general process is robust and allows for the inclusion of an unknown control history, path constraints, and the simultaneous optimization of multiple phases while exploiting matrix sparsity for maximum computational efficiency. Even incorporating higher-fidelity dynamical effects, the pole-sitter solutions can be sustained as a long-duration option, using a solar sail, or as a temporary option in excess of one year on a small 500 kg spacecraft, using a solar electric propulsion engine comparable to existing technology.
Zhang Pengpeng; Happersett, Laura; Yang Yingli; Yamada, Yoshiya; Mageras, Gig; Hunt, Margie
2010-06-01
Purpose: To develop a collimator trajectory optimization paradigm for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and evaluate this technique in paraspinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Method and Materials: We propose a novel VMAT paradigm, Coll-VMAT, which integrates collimator rotation with synchronized gantry rotation, multileaf collimator (MLC) motion, and dose-rate modulation. At each gantry angle a principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to calculate the primary cord orientation. The collimator angle is then aligned so that MLC travel is parallel to the PCA-derived direction. An in-house VMAT optimization follows the geometry-based collimator trajectory optimization to obtain the optimal MLC position and monitor units (MU) at each gantry angle. A treatment planning study of five paraspinal SBRT patients compared Coll-VMAT to standard VMAT (fixed collimator angle) and static field IMRT plans. Plan evaluation statistics included planning target volume (PTV) V95%, PTV-D95%, cord-D05%, and total beam-on time. Results: Variation of collimator angle in Coll-VMAT plans ranges from 26 deg. to 54 deg., with a median of 40 deg. Patient-averaged PTV V95% (94.6% Coll-VMAT vs. 92.1% VMAT and 93.3% IMRT) and D95% (22.5 Gy vs. 21.4 Gy and 22.0 Gy, respectively) are highest with Coll-VMAT, and cord D05% (9.8 Gy vs. 10.0 Gy and 11.7 Gy) is lowest. Total beam-on time with Coll-VMAT (5,164 MU) is comparable to standard VMAT (4,868 MU) and substantially lower than IMRT (13,283 MU). Conclusion: Collimator trajectory optimization-based VMAT provides an additional degree of freedom that can improve target coverage and cord sparing of paraspinal SBRT plans compared with standard VMAT and IMRT approaches.
Optimal trajectories for an aerospace plane. Part 2: Data, tables, and graphs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, Angelo; Lee, W. Y.; Wu, G. D.
1990-01-01
Data, tables, and graphs relative to the optimal trajectories for an aerospace plane are presented. A single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) configuration is considered, and the transition from low supersonic speeds to orbital speeds is studied for a single aerodynamic model (GHAME) and three engine models. Four optimization problems are solved using the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm for optimal control problems: (1) minimization of the weight of fuel consumed; (2) minimization of the peak dynamic pressure; (3) minimization of the peak heating rate; and (4) minimization of the peak tangential acceleration. The above optimization studies are carried out for different combinations of constraints, specifically: initial path inclination that is either free or given; dynamic pressure that is either free or bounded; and tangential acceleration that is either free or bounded.
Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft in the 1980s
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.
1992-01-01
This report is the summary of a technical survey on the applications of structural optimization in the U.S. aerospace industry through the 1980s. Since applications to rotary wing aircraft will be covered by other literature, applications to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft were considered. It became clear that very significant progress has been made during this decade, indicating this technology is about to become one of the practical tools in computer aided structural design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.
1989-01-01
The determination of optimal trajectories for the aero-assisted flight experiment (AFE) is investigated. The intent of this experiment is to simulate a GEO-to-LEO transfer, where GEO denotes a geosynchronous Earth orbit and LEO denotes a low Earth orbit. The trajectories of an AFE spacecraft are analyzed in a 3D-space, employing the full system of 6 ODEs describing the atmospheric pass. The atmospheric entry conditions are given, and the atmospheric exit conditions are adjusted in such a way that the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the atmospheric velocity depletion is such that, after exiting, the AFE spacecraft first ascends to a specified apogee and then descends to a specified perigee; and (2) the exit orbital plane is identical with the entry orbital plane. The final maneuver, not analyzed here, includes the rendezvous with and the capture by the space shuttle.
Optimal strategy for low-thrust spiral trajectories using Lyapunov-based guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalin, Yang; Bo, Xu; Youtao, Gao
2015-09-01
It is difficult and time-consuming to search the optimal low-thrust spiral trajectories. This is because the analytical solutions for long powered arcs are not available, and hundreds or even thousands of orbital revolutions are involved in transfer trajectories. This paper examines a smart guidance scheme based on Lyapunov feedback control which overcomes the difficulties found in control gains steering. In this guidance scheme, the artificial neural network is adopted to implement gains steering and the evolutionary algorithm is used as the learning algorithm for artificial neural network. In this paper, Earth J2 perturbation and Earth-shadow eclipse effects are considered. Finally, a comparison with solutions given by the literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. Numerical simulation results show that the time-varying gains guidance scheme can decrease the transfer time with respect to constant gains cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lovell, T. Alan; Schmidt, D. K.
1994-01-01
The class of hypersonic vehicle configurations with single stage-to-orbit (SSTO) capability reflect highly integrated airframe and propulsion systems. These designs are also known to exhibit a large degree of interaction between the airframe and engine dynamics. Consequently, even simplified hypersonic models are characterized by tightly coupled nonlinear equations of motion. In addition, hypersonic SSTO vehicles present a major system design challenge; the vehicle's overall mission performance is a function of its subsystem efficiencies including structural, aerodynamic, propulsive, and operational. Further, all subsystem efficiencies are interrelated, hence, independent optimization of the subsystems is not likely to lead to an optimum design. Thus, it is desired to know the effect of various subsystem efficiencies on overall mission performance. For the purposes of this analysis, mission performance will be measured in terms of the payload weight inserted into orbit. In this report, a trajectory optimization problem is formulated for a generic hypersonic lifting body for a specified orbit-injection mission. A solution method is outlined, and results are detailed for the generic vehicle, referred to as the baseline model. After evaluating the performance of the baseline model, a sensitivity study is presented to determine the effect of various subsystem efficiencies on mission performance. This consists of performing a parametric analysis of the basic design parameters, generating a matrix of configurations, and determining the mission performance of each configuration. Also, the performance loss due to constraining the total head load experienced by the vehicle is evaluated. The key results from this analysis include the formulation of the sizing problem for this vehicle class using trajectory optimization, characteristics of the optimal trajectories, and the subsystem design sensitivities.
Papp, Dávid Unkelbach, Jan
2014-01-15
Purpose: The authors propose a novel optimization model for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning that directly optimizes deliverable leaf trajectories in the treatment plan optimization problem, and eliminates the need for a separate arc-sequencing step. Methods: In this model, a 360° arc is divided into a given number of arc segments in which the leaves move unidirectionally. This facilitates an algorithm that determines the optimal piecewise linear leaf trajectories for each arc segment, which are deliverable in a given treatment time. Multileaf collimator constraints, including maximum leaf speed and interdigitation, are accounted for explicitly. The algorithm is customized to allow for VMAT delivery using constant gantry speed and dose rate, however, the algorithm generalizes to variable gantry speed if beneficial. Results: The authors demonstrate the method for three different tumor sites: a head-and-neck case, a prostate case, and a paraspinal case. The authors first obtain a reference plan for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using fluence map optimization and 20 intensity-modulated fields in equally spaced beam directions, which is beyond the standard of care. Modeling the typical clinical setup for the treatment sites considered, IMRT plans using seven or nine beams are also computed. Subsequently, VMAT plans are optimized by dividing the 360° arc into 20 corresponding arc segments. Assuming typical machine parameters (a dose rate of 600 MU/min, and a maximum leaf speed of 3 cm/s), it is demonstrated that the optimized VMAT plans with 2–3 min delivery time are of noticeably better quality than the 7–9 beam IMRT plans. The VMAT plan quality approaches the quality of the 20-beam IMRT benchmark plan for delivery times between 3 and 4 min. Conclusions: The results indicate that high quality treatments can be delivered in a single arc with 20 arc segments if sufficient time is allowed for modulation in each segment.
A Subsonic Aircraft Design Optimization With Neural Network and Regression Approximators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Haller, William J.
2004-01-01
The Flight-Optimization-System (FLOPS) code encountered difficulty in analyzing a subsonic aircraft. The limitation made the design optimization problematic. The deficiencies have been alleviated through use of neural network and regression approximations. The insight gained from using the approximators is discussed in this paper. The FLOPS code is reviewed. Analysis models are developed and validated for each approximator. The regression method appears to hug the data points, while the neural network approximation follows a mean path. For an analysis cycle, the approximate model required milliseconds of central processing unit (CPU) time versus seconds by the FLOPS code. Performance of the approximators was satisfactory for aircraft analysis. A design optimization capability has been created by coupling the derived analyzers to the optimization test bed CometBoards. The approximators were efficient reanalysis tools in the aircraft design optimization. Instability encountered in the FLOPS analyzer was eliminated. The convergence characteristics were improved for the design optimization. The CPU time required to calculate the optimum solution, measured in hours with the FLOPS code was reduced to minutes with the neural network approximation and to seconds with the regression method. Generation of the approximators required the manipulation of a very large quantity of data. Design sensitivity with respect to the bounds of aircraft constraints is easily generated.
User's guide to four-body and three-body trajectory optimization programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pu, C. L.; Edelbaum, T. N.
1974-01-01
A collection of computer programs and subroutines written in FORTRAN to calculate 4-body (sun-earth-moon-space) and 3-body (earth-moon-space) optimal trajectories is presented. The programs incorporate a variable step integration technique and a quadrature formula to correct single step errors. The programs provide capability to solve initial value problem, two point boundary value problem of a transfer from a given initial position to a given final position in fixed time, optimal 2-impulse transfer from an earth parking orbit of given inclination to a given final position and velocity in fixed time and optimal 3-impulse transfer from a given position to a given final position and velocity in fixed time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chun; Tseng, Lin-Yu
2014-10-01
Multi-objective optimization is widely used in science, engineering and business. In this article, an improved version of the multiple trajectory search (MTS) called MTS2 is presented and successfully applied to real-value multi-objective optimization problems. In the first step, MTS2 generates M initial solutions distributed over the solution space. These solutions are called seeds. Some seeds with good objective values are selected as foreground seeds. Then, MTS2 chooses a suitable region search method for each foreground seed according to the landscape of the neighbourhood of the seed. During the search, MTS2 focuses its search on some promising areas specified by the foreground seeds. The performance of MTS2 was examined by applying it to solve the benchmark problems provided by the Competition of Performance Assessment of Constrained/Bound Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms held at the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation.
Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav
1990-01-01
A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.
Optimal input design for aircraft parameter estimation using dynamic programming principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Morelli, Eugene A.
1990-01-01
A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Guanrong
1991-01-01
An optimal trajectory planning problem for a single-link, flexible joint manipulator is studied. A global feedback-linearization is first applied to formulate the nonlinear inequality-constrained optimization problem in a suitable way. Then, an exact and explicit structural formula for the optimal solution of the problem is derived and the solution is shown to be unique. It turns out that the optimal trajectory planning and control can be done off-line, so that the proposed method is applicable to both theoretical analysis and real time tele-robotics control engineering.
Optimal guidance and control for investigating aircraft noise-impact reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, E. C.; Carson, T. M.
1978-01-01
A methodology for investigating the reduction of community noise impact is reported. This report is concerned with the development of two models to provide data: a guidance generator and an aircraft control generator suitable for various current and advanced types of aircraft. The guidance generator produces the commanded path information from inputs chosen by an operator from a graphic scope display of a land-use map of the terminal area. The guidance generator also produces smoothing at the junctions of straight-line paths.The aircraft control generator determines the optimal set of the available controls such that the aircraft will follow the commanded path. The solutions for the control functions are given and shown to be dependent on the class of aircraft to be considered, that is, whether the thrust vector is rotatable and whether the thrust vector affects the aerodynamic forces. For the class of aircraft possessing a rotatable thrust vector, the solution is redundant; this redundancy is removed by the additional condition that the noise inpact be minimized. Information from both the guidance generator and the aircraft control generator is used by the footprint program to construct the noise footprint.
The primer vector in linear, relative-motion equations. [spacecraft trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
Primer vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear, relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal, N-impulse trajectory. Since the state vector for these equations is defined in terms of a linear system of ordinary differential equations, all fundamental relations defining the solution of the state and costate equations, and the necessary conditions for optimality, can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of (1) fixed-end conditions, two-impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized rendezvous problem. A sequence of rendezvous problems is solved to illustrate the analysis and the computational procedure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandlin, Doral R.; Bauer, Brent Alan
1993-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a FORTRAN computer code to perform agility analysis on aircraft configurations. This code is to be part of the NASA-Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. This paper begins with a discussion of contemporary agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics. The methodology, techniques and models developed for the code are then presented. Finally, example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT are illustrated. These trade studies were conducted using a Northrop F-20 Tigershark aircraft model. The studies show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations. In addition one study illustrates the module's ability to optimize a configuration's agility performance.
A novel trajectory prediction control for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qing, Wang; Ning, Chen; Shen, Xu; Weifeng, Sun; Longxing, Shi
2014-09-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a novel trajectory prediction method for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters. The control method provides pre-estimations of the duty ratio in the next several switching cycles, so as to compensate the computational time delay of the control loop and increase the control loop bandwidth, thereby improving the response speed. The experiment results show that the fastest transient response time of the digital DC—DC with the proposed prediction is about 8 μs when the load current changes from 0.6 to 0.1 A.
Global Optimization of Interplanetary Trajectories in the Presence of Realistic Mission Contraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinckley, David, Jr.; Englander, Jacob; Hitt, Darren
2015-01-01
Interplanetary missions are often subject to difficult constraints, like solar phase angle upon arrival at the destination, velocity at arrival, and altitudes for flybys. Preliminary design of such missions is often conducted by solving the unconstrained problem and then filtering away solutions which do not naturally satisfy the constraints. However this can bias the search into non-advantageous regions of the solution space, so it can be better to conduct preliminary design with the full set of constraints imposed. In this work two stochastic global search methods are developed which are well suited to the constrained global interplanetary trajectory optimization problem.
Six-Degree-of-Freedom Trajectory Optimization Utilizing a Two-Timescale Collocation Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desai, Prasun N.; Conway, Bruce A.
2005-01-01
Six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) trajectory optimization of a reentry vehicle is solved using a two-timescale collocation methodology. This class of 6DOF trajectory problems are characterized by two distinct timescales in their governing equations, where a subset of the states have high-frequency dynamics (the rotational equations of motion) while the remaining states (the translational equations of motion) vary comparatively slowly. With conventional collocation methods, the 6DOF problem size becomes extraordinarily large and difficult to solve. Utilizing the two-timescale collocation architecture, the problem size is reduced significantly. The converged solution shows a realistic landing profile and captures the appropriate high-frequency rotational dynamics. A large reduction in the overall problem size (by 55%) is attained with the two-timescale architecture as compared to the conventional single-timescale collocation method. Consequently, optimum 6DOF trajectory problems can now be solved efficiently using collocation, which was not previously possible for a system with two distinct timescales in the governing states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mann, F. I.; Horsewood, J. L.
1974-01-01
A performance-analysis computer program, that was developed explicitly to generate optimum electric propulsion trajectory data for missions of interest in the exploration of the solar system is presented. The program was primarily designed to evaluate the performance capabilities of electric propulsion systems, and in the simulation of a wide variety of interplanetary missions. A numerical integration of the two-body, three-dimensional equations of motion and the Euler-Lagrange equations was used in the program. Transversality conditions which permit the rapid generation of converged maximum-payload trajectory data, and the optimization of numerous other performance indices for which no transversality conditions exist are included. The ability to simulate constrained optimum solutions, including trajectories having specified propulsion time and constant thrust cone angle, is also in the program. The program was designed to handle multiple-target missions with various types of encounters, such as rendezvous, stopover, orbital capture, and flyby. Performance requirements for a variety of launch vehicles can be determined.
Optimization via CFD of aircraft hot-air anti-icing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellissier, Mathieu Paul Constantin
In-flight icing is a major concern in aircraft safety and a non-negligible source of incidents and accidents, and is still a serious hazard today. It remains consequently a design and certification challenge for aircraft manufacturers. The aerodynamic performance of an aircraft can indeed degrade rapidly when flying in icing conditions, leading to incidents or accidents. In-flight icing occurs when an aircraft passes through clouds containing supercooled water droplets at or below freezing temperature. Droplets impinge on its exposed surfaces and freeze, causing roughness and shape changes that increase drag, decrease lift and reduce the stall angle of attack, eventually inducing flow separation and stall. This hazardous ice accretion is prevented by the use of dedicated anti-icing systems, among which hot-air-types are the most common for turbofan aircraft. This work presents a methodology for the optimization of such aircraft hot-air-type anti-icing systems, known as Piccolo tubes. Having identified through 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the most critical in-flight icing conditions, as well as determined thermal power constraints, the objective is to optimize the heat distribution in such a way to minimize power requirements, while meeting or exceeding all safety regulation requirements. To accomplish this, an optimization method combining 3D CFD, Reduced-Order Models (ROM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is constructed to determine the optimal configuration of the Piccolo tube (angles of jets, spacing between holes, and position from leading edge). The methodology successfully results in increasingly optimal configurations from three up to five design variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patniak, Surya N.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.
1998-01-01
Nonlinear mathematical-programming-based design optimization can be an elegant method. However, the calculations required to generate the merit function, constraints, and their gradients, which are frequently required, can make the process computational intensive. The computational burden can be greatly reduced by using approximating analyzers derived from an original analyzer utilizing neural networks and linear regression methods. The experience gained from using both of these approximation methods in the design optimization of a high speed civil transport aircraft is the subject of this paper. The Langley Research Center's Flight Optimization System was selected for the aircraft analysis. This software was exercised to generate a set of training data with which a neural network and a regression method were trained, thereby producing the two approximating analyzers. The derived analyzers were coupled to the Lewis Research Center's CometBoards test bed to provide the optimization capability. With the combined software, both approximation methods were examined for use in aircraft design optimization, and both performed satisfactorily. The CPU time for solution of the problem, which had been measured in hours, was reduced to minutes with the neural network approximation and to seconds with the regression method. Instability encountered in the aircraft analysis software at certain design points was also eliminated. On the other hand, there were costs and difficulties associated with training the approximating analyzers. The CPU time required to generate the input-output pairs and to train the approximating analyzers was seven times that required for solution of the problem.
Developing Optimized Trajectories Derived from Mission and Thermo-Structural Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Anderson, Michael P.; Green, Peter W.
2008-01-01
In conjunction with NASA and the Department of Defense, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been investigating analytical techniques to address many of the fundamental issues associated with solar exploration spacecraft and high-speed atmospheric vehicle systems. These issues include: thermo-structural response including the effects of thermal management via the use of surface optical properties for high-temperature composite structures; aerodynamics with the effects of non-equilibrium chemistry and gas radiation; and aero-thermodynamics with the effects of material ablation for a wide range of thermal protection system (TPS) materials. The need exists to integrate these discrete tools into a common framework that enables the investigation of interdisciplinary interactions (including analysis tool, applied load, and environment uncertainties) to provide high fidelity solutions. In addition to developing robust tools for the coupling of aerodynamically induced thermal and mechanical loads, JHU/APL has been studying the optimal design of high-speed vehicles as a function of their trajectory. Under traditional design methodology the optimization of system level mission parameters such as range and time of flight is performed independently of the optimization for thermal and mechanical constraints such as stress and temperature. A truly optimal trajectory should optimize over the entire range of mission and thermo-mechanical constraints. Under this research, a framework for the robust analysis of high-speed spacecraft and atmospheric vehicle systems has been developed. It has been built around a generic, loosely coupled framework such that a variety of readily available analysis tools can be used. The methodology immediately addresses many of the current analysis inadequacies and allows for future extension in order to handle more complex problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.
2014-01-01
Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.
Optimization applications in aircraft engine design and test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pratt, T. K.
1984-01-01
Starting with the NASA-sponsored STAEBL program, optimization methods based primarily upon the versatile program COPES/CONMIN were introduced over the past few years to a broad spectrum of engineering problems in structural optimization, engine design, engine test, and more recently, manufacturing processes. By automating design and testing processes, many repetitive and costly trade-off studies have been replaced by optimization procedures. Rather than taking engineers and designers out of the loop, optimization has, in fact, put them more in control by providing sophisticated search techniques. The ultimate decision whether to accept or reject an optimal feasible design still rests with the analyst. Feedback obtained from this decision process has been invaluable since it can be incorporated into the optimization procedure to make it more intelligent. On several occasions, optimization procedures have produced novel designs, such as the nonsymmetric placement of rotor case stiffener rings, not anticipated by engineering designers. In another case, a particularly difficult resonance contraint could not be satisfied using hand iterations for a compressor blade, when the STAEBL program was applied to the problem, a feasible solution was obtained in just two iterations.
Optimization of fire blocking layers for aircraft seating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.
1982-01-01
Ablative materials are used to provide thermal protection for heat sensitive substrates against large jet fuel fires. The present investigation is concerned with the possibility to increase the available egress time for passengers, from a transport aircraft, in which the flexible polyurethane seating is exposed to the action of a large pool fire. Suitable approaches for providing sufficient ablative protection for polyurethane cushioning are considered. The efficiency of any fire blocking layer is defined as the ratio of the incident radiant heating rate, to the rate of production of combustible gas produced per unit area per second, generated by the pyrolysis of the substrate polyurethane foam. It is found that adequate fire blocking protection can be achieved through replacement of cotton batting slip covers with a wide variety of fire blocking layers. Metallized high temperature resistant char forming ablatives appear to provide optimum protection.
Small Spacecraft System-Level Design and Optimization for Interplanetary Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spangelo, Sara; Dalle, Derek; Longmier, Ben
2014-01-01
The feasibility of an interplanetary mission for a CubeSat, a type of miniaturized spacecraft, that uses an emerging technology, the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (CAT) is investigated. CAT is a large delta-V propulsion system that uses a high-density plasma source that has been miniaturized for small spacecraft applications. An initial feasibility assessment that demonstrated escaping Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and achieving Earth-escape trajectories with a 3U CubeSat and this thruster technology was demonstrated in previous work. We examine a mission architecture with a trajectory that begins in Earth orbits such as LEO and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) which escapes Earth orbit and travels to Mars, Jupiter, or Saturn. The goal was to minimize travel time to reach the destinations and considering trade-offs between spacecraft dry mass, fuel mass, and solar power array size. Sensitivities to spacecraft dry mass and available power are considered. CubeSats are extremely size, mass, and power constrained, and their subsystems are tightly coupled, limiting their performance potential. System-level modeling, simulation, and optimization approaches are necessary to find feasible and optimal operational solutions to ensure system-level interactions are modeled. Thus, propulsion, power/energy, attitude, and orbit transfer models are integrated to enable systems-level analysis and trades. The CAT technology broadens the possible missions achievable with small satellites. In particular, this technology enables more sophisticated maneuvers by small spacecraft such as polar orbit insertion from an equatorial orbit, LEO to GEO transfers, Earth-escape trajectories, and transfers to other interplanetary bodies. This work lays the groundwork for upcoming CubeSat launch opportunities and supports future development of interplanetary and constellation CubeSat and small satellite mission concepts.
Trajectory optimization for A S.S.T.O. using in-flight LOX collection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saint-Mard, M.; Hendrick, P.
A key point for a space mission (launch of a satellite, earth observation,…) is the optimization of the vehicle trajectory in order to burn the smallest quantity of propelant and then maximize the payload. This is true for evay space vehicle, but especially it is a crucial point for a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) where the choice of a bad trajectory can result in an unrealizable vehicle due to the large airbreathing part of the flight In this study, we discuss the trajectory optimization for a Vertical Take-Off and Horizontal Landing (VTOHL) SSTO using supersonic in-flight atmospheric oxygen collection during a cruise phase (constant speed & constant altitude). This collected oxygen is stored in the LOX tanks and reused in the final rocket phase. This SSTO bas a Blended Body aerodynamic configuration as the one chosen by Lockheed Martin for its new space launcher (VentureStar and X-33). This SSTO uses rocket engines from take-off to Mach 1.7 and also for the exoatmospheric flight phase (that means for an altitude higher than 30km and a Mach number evolution from 6.8 to about 20). Between these two rocket phases, the SSTO is propelled by a subsonic ramjet. To perform this study, we use 2 computer programs (running on a home Computer): the first one allows to estimate the SSTO performances (TOGW, dry weight, hydrogen and oxygen consumptions) for a fixed payload mass and the second one permits the evaluation of the payload mass for a fixed TOGW.
Kinio, Steven; Mills, James K
2016-08-01
Dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces applied to microscopic particles are highly dependent on the gradient of the electric field experienced by the particles. These DEP forces can be used to selectively capture and remove cells from fluid flows within a micro-channel above the DEP electrodes. Modification of the geometry of the electrodes that generate the electric field is the main approach available to increase the electric field gradient over a wide area, and hence increase the applied dielectrophoretic force. Optimized DEP forces increase attraction or repulsion of target cells from the electrode surface, enhancing the efficacy of electrodes for cell sorting applications. In this paper, we present a design approach, using genetic optimization techniques, to develop novel electrode geometries that effectively capture target particles. The performance of candidate electrode designs is evaluated by calculating simplified particle trajectories. PMID:27432322
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Stevenson, R.
1977-01-01
The capabilities and applications of the three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) version and the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) version of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) are summarized. The document supplements the detailed program manuals by providing additional information that motivates and clarifies basic capabilities, input procedures, applications and computer requirements of these programs. The information will enable prospective users to evaluate the programs, and to determine if they are applicable to their problems. Enough information is given to enable managerial personnel to evaluate the capabilities of the programs and describes the POST structure, formulation, input and output procedures, sample cases, and computer requirements. The report also provides answers to basic questions concerning planet and vehicle modeling, simulation accuracy, optimization capabilities, and general input rules. Several sample cases are presented.
Flight orientation behaviors promote optimal migration trajectories in high-flying insects.
Chapman, Jason W; Nesbit, Rebecca L; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Don R; Smith, Alan D; Middleton, Douglas R; Hill, Jane K
2010-02-01
Many insects undertake long-range seasonal migrations to exploit temporary breeding sites hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, but the behavioral adaptations that facilitate these movements remain largely unknown. Using entomological radar, we showed that the ability to select seasonally favorable, high-altitude winds is widespread in large day- and night-flying migrants and that insects adopt optimal flight headings that partially correct for crosswind drift, thus maximizing distances traveled. Trajectory analyses show that these behaviors increase migration distances by 40% and decrease the degree of drift from seasonally optimal directions. These flight behaviors match the sophistication of those seen in migrant birds and help explain how high-flying insects migrate successfully between seasonal habitats. PMID:20133570
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kéchichian, Jean A.
2011-09-01
A fourth order extension of the analytic form of the accelerations due to the luni-solar gravity perturbations along rotating axes is presented. These derivations are carried out in order to increase the accuracy of the dynamic modeling of perturbed optimal low-thrust transfers between general elliptic orbits, and enhance the fidelity of trajectory optimization software used in simulations and mission analyses. A set of rotating axes attached to the thrusting spacecraft is used such that both the thrust and perturbation accelerations due to Earth's geopotential and the luni-solar gravity are mathematically resolved along these axes prior to numerical integration of the actual trajectory. This Gaussian form of the state as well as the adjoint differential equations form a set of equations that are readily integrated and an iterative process is used to achieve convergence to a desired transfer. This analysis further reveals that further extensions to higher orders, say to the fifth order and beyond, are not needed to extract even more accuracy in the solutions because the minimum-time transfer solutions become fully stabilized in the sense that they do not exhibit any differences beyond a fraction of a second, or at most a few seconds even in the more extreme cases of very large orbits with apogee heights around 100,000 km with strong lunar influence.
Survey - Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed wing aircraft and spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.
1992-01-01
Results of a technical survey of the practical applications of structural optimization methods in the U.S. aerospace industry through 1980s are summarized. One of the most important developments in the 80s is the more widespread acceptance of structural optimization as one of the design tools that support practical structural design. Another significant advance is the development of large software tools for production applications. Attention is also given to the tailoring of the computerized design process to the specific environment of each company. The two most important aspects of this tailoring are seamless and easy-to-use incorporation of structural optimization in the overall aerospace design/production process and multidisciplinary integration aimed at ultimate performance optimization of the final product. Some specific applications discussed include the X-29 forward swept wing demonstrator aircraft, composite wing and vertical tail program, fighter wing redesign evaluations, high speed aircraft design, and space structures.
Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Komoda, M.
1976-01-01
An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.
Homotopic approach and pseudospectral method applied jointly to low thrust trajectory optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Tieding; Jiang, Fanghua; Li, Junfeng
2012-02-01
The homotopic approach and the pseudospectral method are two popular techniques for low thrust trajectory optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in this paper by combining the above two together to cope with various difficulties encountered when they are applied separately. Explicitly, a smooth energy-optimal problem is first discretized by the pseudospectral method, leading to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP). Costates, especially their initial values, are then estimated from Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) multipliers of this NLP. Based upon these estimated initial costates, homotopic procedures are initiated efficiently and the desirable non-smooth fuel-optimal results are finally obtained by continuing the smooth energy-optimal results through a homotopic algorithm. Two main difficulties, one due to absence of reasonable initial costates when the homotopic procedures are being initiated and the other due to discontinuous bang-bang controls when the pseudospectral method is applied to the fuel-optimal problem, are both resolved successfully. Numerical results of two scenarios are presented in the end, demonstrating feasibility and well performance of this hybrid technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Manseok; Kim, Jong-Wook
In this paper, a humanoid is simulated and implemented to walk up and down a staircase using the blending polynomial and genetic algorithm (GA). Both ascending and descending a staircase are scheduled by four steps. Each step mimics natural gait of human being and is easy to analyze and implement. Optimal trajectories of ten motors in a lower extremity of a humanoid are rigorously computed to simultaneously satisfy stability condition, walking constraints, and energy efficiency requirements. As an optimization method, GA is applied to search optimal trajectory parameters in blending polynomials. The feasibility of this approach will be validated by simulation with a small humanoid robot.
Flight control systems research. [optimization of F-8 aircraft control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, H. P.; Baram, Y.; Cheng, Y.
1973-01-01
Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedback control system are presented. The concept of evolving the simplest system configuration that is capable of meeting a specified set of performance requirements is illustrated in this work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lisano, Michael E.
2004-01-01
Controlled flight of a solar sail-propelled spacecraft ('sailcraft') is a six-degree-of-freedom dynamics problem. Current state-of-the-art tools that simulate and optimize the trajectories flown by sailcraft do not treat the full kinetic (i.e. force and torque-constrained) motion, instead treating a discrete history of commanded sail attitudes, and either neglecting the sail attitude motion over an integration timestep, or treating the attitude evolution kinematically with a spline or similar treatment. The present paper discusses an aspect of developing a next generation sailcraf trajectory designing optimization tool JPL, for NASA's Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (SS). The aspect discussed in an experimental approach to modeling full six-degree-of-freedom kinetic motion of a solar sail in a trajectory propagator. Early results from implementing this approach in a new trajectory propagation tool are given.
Flight test trajectory control analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, R.; Gupta, N.
1983-01-01
Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raiszadeh, Ben; Queen, Eric M.
2002-01-01
A capability to simulate trajectories Of Multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST II). Previously, POST II had the ability to simulate multiple bodies without interacting forces. The current implementation is used for the Simulation of parachute trajectories, in which the parachute and suspended bodies can be treated as rigid bodies. An arbitrary set of connecting lines can be included in the model and are treated as massless spring-dampers. This paper discusses details of the connection line modeling and results of several test cases used to validate the capability.
Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.
2015-06-07
The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions that represent radiation-matter interactions. Here, we extend the OMT to include additional vibrational coherence and energy transfer processes. This generalized approximation is applied to a pair of anharmonic chromophores coupled to a bath. The resulting 2D spectra are shown to reflect coherence transfer between normal modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.
2015-06-01
The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions that represent radiation-matter interactions. Here, we extend the OMT to include additional vibrational coherence and energy transfer processes. This generalized approximation is applied to a pair of anharmonic chromophores coupled to a bath. The resulting 2D spectra are shown to reflect coherence transfer between normal modes.
Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.
2015-01-01
The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions that represent radiation-matter interactions. Here, we extend the OMT to include additional vibrational coherence and energy transfer processes. This generalized approximation is applied to a pair of anharmonic chromophores coupled to a bath. The resulting 2D spectra are shown to reflect coherence transfer between normal modes. PMID:26049437
DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, C. H.; Spurlock, O. F.
2014-01-01
From the late 1960's through 1997, the leadership of NASA's Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRC's primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the code's operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960's is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUP's many major
DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spurlock, O. Frank; Williams, Craig H.
2015-01-01
From the late 1960s through 1997, the leadership of NASAs Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRCs primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the codes operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960s is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the AtlasCentaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (AtlasCentaur, TitanCentaur, and ShuttleCentaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUPs many major impacts on
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbach, L. H.
1980-01-01
The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiffen, Gregory J.
2006-01-01
Mystic software is designed to compute, analyze, and visualize optimal high-fidelity, low-thrust trajectories, The software can be used to analyze inter-planetary, planetocentric, and combination trajectories, Mystic also provides utilities to assist in the operation and navigation of low-thrust spacecraft. Mystic will be used to design and navigate the NASA's Dawn Discovery mission to orbit the two largest asteroids, The underlying optimization algorithm used in the Mystic software is called Static/Dynamic Optimal Control (SDC). SDC is a nonlinear optimal control method designed to optimize both 'static variables' (parameters) and dynamic variables (functions of time) simultaneously. SDC is a general nonlinear optimal control algorithm based on Bellman's principal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, C.-H.; Goodson, Troy D.; Ledsinger, Laura A.
1995-01-01
This report describes current work in the numerical computation of multiple burn, fuel-optimal orbit transfers and presents an analysis of the second variation for extremal multiple burn orbital transfers as well as a discussion of a guidance scheme which may be implemented for such transfers. The discussion of numerical computation focuses on the use of multivariate interpolation to aid the computation in the numerical optimization. The second variation analysis includes the development of the conditions for the examination of both fixed and free final time transfers. Evaluations for fixed final time are presented for extremal one, two, and three burn solutions of the first variation. The free final time problem is considered for an extremal two burn solution. In addition, corresponding changes of the second variation formulation over thrust arcs and coast arcs are included. The guidance scheme discussed is an implicit scheme which implements a neighboring optimal feedback guidance strategy to calculate both thrust direction and thrust on-off times.
The optimal control frequency response problem in manual control. [of manned aircraft systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrington, W. W.
1977-01-01
An optimal control frequency response problem is defined within the context of the optimal pilot model. The problem is designed to specify pilot model control frequencies reflective of important aircraft system properties, such as control feel system dynamics, airframe dynamics, and gust environment, as well as man machine properties, such as task and attention allocation. This is accomplished by determining a bounded set of control frequencies which minimize the total control cost. The bounds are given by zero and the neuromuscular control frequency response for each control actuator. This approach is fully adaptive, i.e., does not depend upon user entered estimates. An algorithm is developed to solve this optimal control frequency response problem. The algorithm is then applied to an attitude hold task for a bare airframe fighter aircraft case with interesting dynamic properties.
Wu, Hao; Mey, Antonia S J S; Rosta, Edina; Noé, Frank
2014-12-01
We propose a discrete transition-based reweighting analysis method (dTRAM) for analyzing configuration-space-discretized simulation trajectories produced at different thermodynamic states (temperatures, Hamiltonians, etc.) dTRAM provides maximum-likelihood estimates of stationary quantities (probabilities, free energies, expectation values) at any thermodynamic state. In contrast to the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), dTRAM does not require data to be sampled from global equilibrium, and can thus produce superior estimates for enhanced sampling data such as parallel/simulated tempering, replica exchange, umbrella sampling, or metadynamics. In addition, dTRAM provides optimal estimates of Markov state models (MSMs) from the discretized state-space trajectories at all thermodynamic states. Under suitable conditions, these MSMs can be used to calculate kinetic quantities (e.g., rates, timescales). In the limit of a single thermodynamic state, dTRAM estimates a maximum likelihood reversible MSM, while in the limit of uncorrelated sampling data, dTRAM is identical to WHAM. dTRAM is thus a generalization to both estimators. PMID:25481128
Wu, Hao; Mey, Antonia S. J. S.; Noé, Frank; Rosta, Edina
2014-12-07
We propose a discrete transition-based reweighting analysis method (dTRAM) for analyzing configuration-space-discretized simulation trajectories produced at different thermodynamic states (temperatures, Hamiltonians, etc.) dTRAM provides maximum-likelihood estimates of stationary quantities (probabilities, free energies, expectation values) at any thermodynamic state. In contrast to the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), dTRAM does not require data to be sampled from global equilibrium, and can thus produce superior estimates for enhanced sampling data such as parallel/simulated tempering, replica exchange, umbrella sampling, or metadynamics. In addition, dTRAM provides optimal estimates of Markov state models (MSMs) from the discretized state-space trajectories at all thermodynamic states. Under suitable conditions, these MSMs can be used to calculate kinetic quantities (e.g., rates, timescales). In the limit of a single thermodynamic state, dTRAM estimates a maximum likelihood reversible MSM, while in the limit of uncorrelated sampling data, dTRAM is identical to WHAM. dTRAM is thus a generalization to both estimators.
Use of optimization to predict the effect of selected parameters on commuter aircraft performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, V. L.; Shevell, R. S.
1982-01-01
The relationships between field length and cruise speed and aircraft direct operating cost were determined. A gradient optimizing computer program was developed to minimize direct operating cost (DOC) as a function of airplane geometry. In this way, the best airplane operating under one set of constraints can be compared with the best operating under another. A constant 30-passenger fuselage and rubberized engines based on the General Electric CT-7 were used as a baseline. All aircraft had to have a 600 nautical mile maximum range and were designed to FAR part 25 structural integrity and climb gradient regulations. Direct operating cost was minimized for a typical design mission of 150 nautical miles. For purposes of C sub L sub max calculation, all aircraft had double-slotted flaps but with no Fowler action.
Heliocentric interplanetary low thrust trajectory optimization program, supplement 1, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mann, F. I.; Horsewood, J. L.
1978-01-01
The improvements made to the HILTOP electric propulsion trajectory computer program are described. A more realistic propulsion system model was implemented in which various thrust subsystem efficiencies and specific impulse are modeled as variable functions of power available to the propulsion system. The number of operating thrusters are staged, and the beam voltage is selected from a set of five (or less) constant voltages, based upon the application of variational calculus. The constant beam voltages may be optimized individually or collectively. The propulsion system logic is activated by a single program input key in such a manner as to preserve the HILTOP logic. An analysis describing these features, a complete description of program input quantities, and sample cases of computer output illustrating the program capabilities are presented.
Models and methodology for optimal trajectory generation in safety-critical road-vehicle manoeuvres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berntorp, Karl; Olofsson, Björn; Lundahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Lars
2014-10-01
There is currently a strongly growing interest in obtaining optimal control solutions for vehicle manoeuvres, both in order to understand optimal vehicle behaviour and, perhaps more importantly, to devise improved safety systems, either by direct deployment of the solutions or by including mimicked driving techniques of professional drivers. However, it is non-trivial to find the right combination of models, optimisation criteria, and optimisation tools to get useful results for the above purposes. Here, a platform for investigation of these aspects is developed based on a state-of-the-art optimisation tool together with adoption of existing vehicle chassis and tyre models. A minimum-time optimisation criterion is chosen for the purpose of gaining an insight into at-the-limit manoeuvres, with the overall aim of finding improved fundamental principles for future active safety systems. The proposed method to trajectory generation is evaluated in time-manoeuvres using vehicle models established in the literature. We determine the optimal control solutions for three manoeuvres using tyre and chassis models of different complexities. The results are extensively analysed and discussed. Our main conclusion is that the tyre model has a fundamental influence on the resulting control inputs. Also, for some combinations of chassis and tyre models, inherently different behaviour is obtained. However, certain variables important in vehicle safety-systems, such as the yaw moment and the body-slip angle, are similar for several of the considered model configurations in aggressive manoeuvring situations.
Three-dimensional time optimal double angular momentum reversal trajectory using solar sails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiangyuan; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng; Gong, Shengping
2011-12-01
A new concept of three dimensional non-Keplerian trajectories with double angular momentum reversal is investigated with high performance solar sails. The main discussion of this paper is about such 3D solar inverse orbits with inner constraints. The problem is addressed in a time optimal control framework solved by an indirect method. Two typical solar inverse orbits have been achieved and presented in a 3D non-dimensional dynamic model in the Heliocentric Inertial Frame. Starting from the Earth orbit ecliptic plane, a sailcraft in the inverse orbit exhibits a butterfly shape trajectory. As such, the new orbits are symmetrical with respect to a plane which contains the Sun-perihelion line. The relation of the sail attitude angles between the two symmetrical parts of the orbits are used to reduce the simulation effort. The quasi-heliostationary property at its aphelia is demonstrated with variation of the orbital radius. Evolutions of the orbital velocity and optimal sail orientations are also outlined and discussed to benefit future design work. As is suited for space observation guaranteed by its butterfly shape, the inverse orbits are thoroughly studied in terms of the concerned parameters. The discussion of the parametric influence is ranked in order as perihelion distance r E , required maximum position z max, perihelion position z f and the sail lightness number β. Suitable ranges of each parameter are adopted to illustrate the orbital variation trend. Through numerical simulations the features of such inverse orbits are further emphasized to provide an initial reference for future researchers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayanjali, M.; Pourtakdoust, Seid H.
2015-05-01
This paper investigates the problem of optimal transfer trajectory design towards the L2 centered Halo orbit of the Sun-Earth three body system, where the initial launch is to start from a low Earth parking orbit (LEO). The proposed optimal transfer trajectory consists of an active part with low-thrust propulsion and a passive coasting part with no thrust or fuel consumption. In this respect a pseudo-stable manifold (SM) is initially determined through backward time integration of the bicircular four body (BCFB) equations of motion, whose initial states are obtained via stable manifolds of the restricted three body problem (R3BP). The optimal transfer trajectories are extracted via a hybrid direct-indirect optimization formulation applied on both R3BP as well as the BCFB models for comparative purposes. The optimal transfer trajectories are designed and analyzed for different Halo injection points (HOI), different Moon's final anomaly (FMA) and also for different locations of the burn-out conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Cory
This dissertation presents a decentralized gradient-based mobility control algorithm for the formation and maintenance of an optimal end-to-end communication chain using a team of unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays. With the use of unmanned aircraft (UA) as communication relays, a common mode of operation is to form a communication relay chain between a lead exploring node (which may be ground based or another UA) and a control station. In this type of operation the lead node is typically deployed to explore (sense) a remote region of interest that is beyond direct radio frequency (RF) communication range, or out of line-of-sight, to the control station. To provide non-line-of-sight service, and extend the communication range of the lead node, unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays are deployed in a convoy fashion behind the lead vehicle to form a cascaded relay chain. The focus of this work is the use of the mobility of a fixed number of relay aircraft to maximize the capacity of a directed communication chain from a source node to a destination node. Local objective functions are presented that use the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SNIR) of neighbor communication links as inputs to maximize the end-to-end capacity of packet-based and repeater-type network chains. An adaptive gradient-based SNIR controller using the local objective function can show significant improvement in the capacity of the communication chain that is not possible with range-based controllers, or static deployment strategies, in RF environments containing unknown localized noise sources and terrain effects. Since the SNIR field is unknown, an online estimate of the SNIR field gradient is formed using methods of Stochastic Approximation from the orbital motion of the aircraft tracking a control point. Flight demonstrations using the Networked Unmanned Aircraft System Command, Control and Communications testbed were conducted to validate the controller
Time-optimal aircraft pursuit-evasion with a weapon envelope constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.; Duke, E. L.
1990-01-01
The optimal pursuit-evasion problem between two aircraft, including nonlinear point-mass vehicle models and a realistic weapon envelope, is analyzed. Using a linear combination of flight time and the square of the vehicle acceleration as the performance index, a closed-form solution is obtained in nonlinear feedback form. Due to its modest computational requirements, this guidance law can be used for onboard real-time implementation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1988-01-01
Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1988-01-01
Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.
Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Patnaik, Surya
2003-01-01
The neural network and regression methods of NASA Glenn Research Center s COMETBOARDS design optimization testbed were used to generate approximate analysis and design models for a subsonic aircraft operating at Mach 0.85 cruise speed. The analytical model is defined by nine design variables: wing aspect ratio, engine thrust, wing area, sweep angle, chord-thickness ratio, turbine temperature, pressure ratio, bypass ratio, fan pressure; and eight response parameters: weight, landing velocity, takeoff and landing field lengths, approach thrust, overall efficiency, and compressor pressure and temperature. The variables were adjusted to optimally balance the engines to the airframe. The solution strategy included a sensitivity model and the soft analysis model. Researchers generated the sensitivity model by training the approximators to predict an optimum design. The trained neural network predicted all response variables, within 5-percent error. This was reduced to 1 percent by the regression method. The soft analysis model was developed to replace aircraft analysis as the reanalyzer in design optimization. Soft models have been generated for a neural network method, a regression method, and a hybrid method obtained by combining the approximators. The performance of the models is graphed for aircraft weight versus thrust as well as for wing area and turbine temperature. The regression method followed the analytical solution with little error. The neural network exhibited 5-percent maximum error over all parameters. Performance of the hybrid method was intermediate in comparison to the individual approximators. Error in the response variable is smaller than that shown in the figure because of a distortion scale factor. The overall performance of the approximators was considered to be satisfactory because aircraft analysis with NASA Langley Research Center s FLOPS (Flight Optimization System) code is a synthesis of diverse disciplines: weight estimation, aerodynamic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.
2016-01-01
Simultaneously achieving the fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project requires innovative and unconventional aircraft concepts. In response, advanced hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft concepts have been proposed and analyzed as a means of meeting these objectives. For the current study, several HWB concepts were analyzed using the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) analysis code. HCDstruct is a medium-fidelity finite element based conceptual design and structural optimization tool developed to fill the critical analysis gap existing between lower order structural sizing approaches and detailed, often finite element based sizing methods for HWB aircraft concepts. Whereas prior versions of the tool used a half-model approach in building the representative finite element model, a full wing-tip-to-wing-tip modeling capability was recently added to HCDstruct, which alleviated the symmetry constraints at the model centerline in place of a free-flying model and allowed for more realistic center body, aft body, and wing loading and trim response. The latest version of HCDstruct was applied to two ERA reference cases, including the Boeing Open Rotor Engine Integration On an HWB (OREIO) concept and the Boeing ERA-0009H1 concept, and results agreed favorably with detailed Boeing design data and related Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) analyses. Following these benchmark cases, HCDstruct was used to size NASA's ERA HWB concepts and to perform a related scaling study.
The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Yan-Yee Andy
The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes
Flight Test of an Adaptive Configuration Optimization System for Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilyard, Glenn B.; Georgie, Jennifer; Barnicki, Joseph S.
1999-01-01
A NASA Dryden Flight Research Center program explores the practical application of real-time adaptive configuration optimization for enhanced transport performance on an L-1011 aircraft. This approach is based on calculation of incremental drag from forced-response, symmetric, outboard aileron maneuvers. In real-time operation, the symmetric outboard aileron deflection is directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilator and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. A flight experiment has been conducted from an onboard research engineering test station, and flight research results are presented herein. The optimization system has demonstrated the capability of determining the minimum drag configuration of the aircraft in real time. The drag-minimization algorithm is capable of identifying drag to approximately a one-drag-count level. Optimizing the symmetric outboard aileron position realizes a drag reduction of 2-3 drag counts (approximately 1 percent). Algorithm analysis of maneuvers indicate that two-sided raised-cosine maneuvers improve definition of the symmetric outboard aileron drag effect, thereby improving analysis results and consistency. Ramp maneuvers provide a more even distribution of data collection as a function of excitation deflection than raised-cosine maneuvers provide. A commercial operational system would require airdata calculations and normal output of current inertial navigation systems; engine pressure ratio measurements would be optional.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welstead, Jason; Crouse, Gilbert L., Jr.
2014-01-01
Empirical sizing guidelines such as tail volume coefficients have long been used in the early aircraft design phases for sizing stabilizers, resulting in conservatively stable aircraft. While successful, this results in increased empty weight, reduced performance, and greater procurement and operational cost relative to an aircraft with optimally sized surfaces. Including flight dynamics in the conceptual design process allows the design to move away from empirical methods while implementing modern control techniques. A challenge of flight dynamics and control is the numerous design variables, which are changing fluidly throughout the conceptual design process, required to evaluate the system response to some disturbance. This research focuses on addressing that challenge not by implementing higher order tools, such as computational fluid dynamics, but instead by linking the lower order tools typically used within the conceptual design process so each discipline feeds into the other. In thisresearch, flight dynamics and control was incorporated into the conceptual design process along with the traditional disciplines of vehicle sizing, weight estimation, aerodynamics, and performance. For the controller, a linear quadratic regulator structure with constant gains has been specified to reduce the user input. Coupling all the disciplines in the conceptual design phase allows the aircraft designer to explore larger design spaces where stabilizers are sized according to dynamic response constraints rather than historical static margin and volume coefficient guidelines.
Automatic carrier landing system for V/STOL aircraft using L1 adaptive and optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariharapura Ramesh, Shashank
This thesis presents a framework for developing automatic carrier landing systems for aircraft with vertical or short take-off and landing capability using two different control strategies---gain-scheduled linear optimal control, and L1 adaptive control. The carrier landing sequence of V/STOL aircraft involves large variations in dynamic pressure and aerodynamic coefficients arising because of the transition from aerodynamic-supported to jet-borne flight, descent to the touchdown altitude, and turns performed to align with the runway. Consequently, the dynamics of the aircraft exhibit a highly non-linear dynamical behavior with variations in flight conditions prior to touchdown. Therefore, the implication is the need for non-linear control techniques to achieve automatic landing. Gain-scheduling has been one of the most widely employed techniques for control of aircraft, which involves designing linear controllers for numerous trimmed flight conditions, and interpolating them to achieve a global non-linear control. Adaptive control technique, on the other hand, eliminates the need to schedule the controller parameters as they adapt to changing flight conditions.
Optimizing an Actuator Array for the Control of Multi-Frequency Noise in Aircraft Interiors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palumbo, D. L.; Padula, S. L.
1997-01-01
Techniques developed for selecting an optimized actuator array for interior noise reduction at a single frequency are extended to the multi-frequency case. Transfer functions for 64 actuators were obtained at 5 frequencies from ground testing the rear section of a fully trimmed DC-9 fuselage. A single loudspeaker facing the left side of the aircraft was the primary source. A combinatorial search procedure (tabu search) was employed to find optimum actuator subsets of from 2 to 16 actuators. Noise reduction predictions derived from the transfer functions were used as a basis for evaluating actuator subsets during optimization. Results indicate that it is necessary to constrain actuator forces during optimization. Unconstrained optimizations selected actuators which require unrealistically large forces. Two methods of constraint are evaluated. It is shown that a fast, but approximate, method yields results equivalent to an accurate, but computationally expensive, method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.
2008-01-01
This report presents an approach for sizing of a morphing aircraft based upon a multi-level design optimization approach. For this effort, a morphing wing is one whose planform can make significant shape changes in flight - increasing wing area by 50% or more from the lowest possible area, changing sweep 30 or more, and/or increasing aspect ratio by as much as 200% from the lowest possible value. The top-level optimization problem seeks to minimize the gross weight of the aircraft by determining a set of "baseline" variables - these are common aircraft sizing variables, along with a set of "morphing limit" variables - these describe the maximum shape change for a particular morphing strategy. The sub-level optimization problems represent each segment in the morphing aircraft's design mission; here, each sub-level optimizer minimizes fuel consumed during each mission segment by changing the wing planform within the bounds set by the baseline and morphing limit variables from the top-level problem.
Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Transport Aircraft Wing using Particle Swarm Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Venter, Gerhard
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of particle swarm optimization to a realistic multidisciplinary optimization test problem. The paper's new contributions to multidisciplinary optimization is the application of a new algorithm for dealing with the unique challenges associated with multidisciplinary optimization problems, and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm in future multidisciplinary optimization applications. The selected example is a bi-level optimization problem that demonstrates severe numerical noise and has a combination of continuous and truly discrete design variables. The use of traditional gradient-based optimization algorithms is thus not practical. The numerical results presented indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is able to reliably find the optimum design for the problem presented here. The algorithm is capable of dealing with the unique challenges posed by multidisciplinary optimization as well as the numerical noise and truly discrete variables present in the current example problem.
Optimization of the terrain following radar flight cues in special operations aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garman, Patrick J.; Trang, Jeff A.
1995-05-01
Over the past 18 months the Army has been developing a terrain following capability in it's next generation special operations aircraft (SOA), the MH-60K and the MH-47E. As two experimental test pilots assigned to the Army's Airworthiness Qualification Test Directorate of the US Army Aviation Technical Test Center, we would like to convey the role that human factors has played in the development of the MMR for terrain following operations in the SOA. In the MH-60K, the pilot remains the interface between the aircraft, via the flight controls and the processed radar data, and the flight director cues. The presentation of the processed radar data to the pilot significantly affects the overall system performance, and is directly driven by the way humans see, process, and react to stimuli. Our development has been centered around the optimization of this man-machine interface.
Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung-Yeun
2011-01-01
Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.
A Comparison of Trajectory Optimization Methods for the Impulsive Minimum Fuel Rendezvous Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, Steven P.; Mailhe, Laurie M.; Guzman, Jose J.
2003-01-01
In this paper we present, a comparison of trajectory optimization approaches for the minimum fuel rendezvous problem. Both indirect and direct methods are compared for a variety of test cases. The indirect approach is based on primer vector theory. The direct approaches are implemented numerically and include Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). Quasi- Newton and Nelder-Meade Simplex. Several cost function parameterizations are considered for the direct approach. We choose one direct approach that appears to be the most flexible. Both the direct and indirect methods are applied to a variety of test cases which are chosen to demonstrate the performance of each method in different flight regimes. The first test case is a simple circular-to-circular coplanar rendezvous. The second test case is an elliptic-to-elliptic line of apsides rotation. The final test case is an orbit phasing maneuver sequence in a highly elliptic orbit. For each test case we present a comparison of the performance of all methods we consider in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Zhao, Z. G.; Lee, W. Y.
1989-01-01
The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The AFE refers to the study of the free flight of an autonomous spacecraft, shuttle-launched and shuttle-recovered. Its purpose is to gather atmospheric entry environmental data for use in designing aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV). It is assumed that: (1) the spacecraft is a particle of constant mass; (2) the Earth is rotating with constant angular velocity; (3) the Earth is an oblate planet, and the gravitational potential depends on both the radial distance and the latitude (harmonics of order higher than four are ignored); and (4) the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the Earth. Under these assumptions, the equations of motion for hypervelocity atmospheric flight (which can be used not only for AFE problems, but also for AOT problems and space shuttle problems) are derived in an inertial system. Transformation relations are supplied which allow one to pass from quantities computed in an inertial system to quantities computed in an Earth-fixed system and vice versa.
Optimal lunar trajectories for a combined chemical-electric propulsion spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kluever, Craig A.
1995-01-01
Spacecraft which utilize electric propulsion (EP) systems are capable of delivering a greater payload fraction compared to spacecraft using conventional chemical propulsion systems. Several researchers have investigated numerous applications of low-thrust EP including a manned Mars mission, scientific missions to the outer planets, and lunar missions. In contrast, the study of optimal combined high and low-thrust spacecraft trajectories has been limited. In response to the release of NASA's 1994 Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Discovery class interplanetary exploration missions, a preliminary investigation of a lunar comet rendezvous mission using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) spacecraft was performed. The Discovery mission (eventually named Diana) was envisioned to be a two-phase scientific exploration mission: the first phase involved exploration of the moon and second phase involved rendezvous with a comet. The initial phase began with a chemical propulsion translunar injection and chemical insertion into a lunar orbit, followed by a low-thrust SEP transfer to a circular, polar, low-lunar orbit (LLO). After scientific data was collected at the moon, the SEP spacecraft performed a spiral lunar escape maneuver to begin the interplanetary leg of the mission. After escape from the Earth-moon system, the SEP spacecraft maneuvered in interplanetary space and performed a rendezvous with a short period comet. An initial study that demonstrated the feasibility of using EP for the lunar and comet orbit transfer was performed under the grant NAG3-1581. This final report is a continuation of the initial research efforts in support of the Discovery mission proposal that was submitted to NASA Headquarters in October 1994. Section 2 discusses the lunar orbit transfer phase of the Diana mission which involves both chemical and electric propulsion stages. Section 3 discusses the chemical lunar orbit insertion (LOI) burn optimization. Finally, section 4 presents the
A Method of Trajectory Design for Manned Asteroids Exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Q. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Z. F.; Han, W. H.; Dong, X.
2014-11-01
A trajectory optimization method of the nuclear propulsion manned asteroids exploration is presented. In the case of launching between 2035 and 2065, based on the Lambert transfer orbit, the phases of departure from and return to the Earth are searched at first. Then the optimal flight trajectory in the feasible regions is selected by pruning the flight sequences. Setting the nuclear propulsion flight plan as propel-coast-propel, and taking the minimal mass of aircraft departure as the index, the nuclear propulsion flight trajectory is separately optimized using a hybrid method. With the initial value of the optimized local parameters of each three phases, the global parameters are jointedly optimized. At last, the minimal departure mass trajectory design result is given.
Global Optimization of Low-Thrust Interplanetary Trajectories Subject to Operational Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englander, Jacob Aldo; Vavrina, Matthew; Hinckley, David
2016-01-01
Low-thrust electric propulsion provides many advantages for mission to difficult targets-Comets and asteroids-Mercury-Outer planets (with sufficient power supply)Low-thrust electric propulsion is characterized by high power requirements but also very high specific impulse (Isp), leading to very good mass fractions. Low-thrust trajectory design is a very different process from chemical trajectory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.
2002-01-01
This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Gao; Jiang, FanHuag; Li, JunFeng
2015-11-01
Near-Earth asteroids have gained a lot of interest and the development in low-thrust propulsion technology makes complex deep space exploration missions possible. A mission from low-Earth orbit using low-thrust electric propulsion system to rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid and bring sample back is investigated. By dividing the mission into five segments, the complex mission is solved separately. Then different methods are used to find optimal trajectories for every segment. Multiple revolutions around the Earth and multiple Moon gravity assists are used to decrease the fuel consumption to escape from the Earth. To avoid possible numerical difficulty of indirect methods, a direct method to parameterize the switching moment and direction of thrust vector is proposed. To maximize the mass of sample, optimal control theory and homotopic approach are applied to find the optimal trajectory. Direct methods of finding proper time to brake the spacecraft using Moon gravity assist are also proposed. Practical techniques including both direct and indirect methods are investigated to optimize trajectories for different segments and they can be easily extended to other missions and more precise dynamic model.
Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Shengmao; Zhu, Zhengfan; Peng, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang
2015-10-01
In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajectory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selection, escape from and capture by the Earth-Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital resonance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid exploration.
Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Shengmao; Zhu, Zhengfan; Peng, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang
2016-08-01
In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajectory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selection, escape from and capture by the Earth-Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital resonance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid exploration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony
1996-01-01
This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods (13, 12, 44, 38). The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method (19, 20, 21, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42, 43, 9) was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations (39, 25). In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that the basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures [241. In this paper, our concem will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Jameson, Antony
1996-01-01
This work describes the application of a control theory-based aerodynamic shape optimization method to the problem of supersonic aircraft design. The design process is greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and a parallel implementation on distributed memory computers. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is then implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on higher order computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). In our earlier studies, the serial implementation of this design method was shown to be effective for the optimization of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations using both the potential equation and the Euler equations. In our most recent paper, the Euler method was extended to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. Furthermore, during the same conference, we also presented preliminary results demonstrating that this basic methodology could be ported to distributed memory parallel computing architectures. In this paper, our concern will be to demonstrate that the combined power of these new technologies can be used routinely in an industrial design environment by applying it to the case study of the design of typical supersonic transport configurations. A particular difficulty of this test case is posed by the propulsion/airframe integration.
Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, W.; Swetits, J.
1994-01-01
During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McNamara, Luke W.; Braun, Robert D.
2014-01-01
One of the key design objectives of NASA's Orion Exploration Mission 1 (EM- 1) is to execute a guided entry trajectory demonstrating GN&C capability. The focus of this paper is defining the flyable entry corridor for EM-1 taking into account multiple subsystem constraints such as complex aerothermal heating constraints, aerothermal heating objectives, landing accuracy constraints, structural load limits, Human-System-Integration-Requirements, Service Module debris disposal limits and other flight test objectives. During the EM-1 Design Analysis Cycle 1 design challenges came up that made defining the flyable entry corridor for the EM-1 mission critical to mission success. This document details the optimization techniques that were explored to use with the 6-DOF ANTARES simulation to assist in defining the design entry interface state and entry corridor with respect to key flight test constraints and objectives.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sensmeier, Mark D.; Samareh, Jamshid A.
2005-01-01
An approach is proposed for the application of rapid generation of moderate-fidelity structural finite element models of air vehicle structures to allow more accurate weight estimation earlier in the vehicle design process. This should help to rapidly assess many structural layouts before the start of the preliminary design phase and eliminate weight penalties imposed when actual structure weights exceed those estimated during conceptual design. By defining the structural topology in a fully parametric manner, the structure can be mapped to arbitrary vehicle configurations being considered during conceptual design optimization. A demonstration of this process is shown for two sample aircraft wing designs.
An overview of the Douglas Aircraft Company Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodd, Alan J.
1989-01-01
From a program manager's viewpoint, the history, scope and architecture of a major structural design program at Douglas Aircraft Company called Aeroelastic Design Optimization Program (ADOP) are described. ADOP was originally intended for the rapid, accurate, cost-effective evaluation of relatively small structural models at the advanced design level, resulting in improved proposal competitiveness and avoiding many costly changes later in the design cycle. Before release of the initial version in November 1987, however, the program was expanded to handle very large production-type analyses.
Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.
2014-01-01
Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.
Use of optimization to predict the effect of selected parameters on commuter aircraft performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, V. L.; Shevell, R. S.
1982-01-01
An optimizing computer program determined the turboprop aircraft with lowest direct operating cost for various sets of cruise speed and field length constraints. External variables included wing area, wing aspect ratio and engine sea level static horsepower; tail sizes, climb speed and cruise altitude were varied within the function evaluation program. Direct operating cost was minimized for a 150 n.mi typical mission. Generally, DOC increased with increasing speed and decreasing field length but not by a large amount. Ride roughness, however, increased considerably as speed became higher and field length became shorter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jezewski, D.
1980-01-01
Prime vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C/W) equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal N-impulse trajectory. The analysis develops the analytical criteria for improving a solution by: (1) moving any dependent or independent variable in the initial and/or final orbit, and (2) adding intermediate impulses. If these criteria are violated, the theory establishes a sufficient number of analytical equations. The subsequent satisfaction of these equations will result in the optimal position vectors and times of an N-impulse trajectory. The solution is examined for the specific boundary conditions of: (1) fixed-end conditions, two impulse, and time-open transfer; (2) an orbit-to-orbit transfer; and (3) a generalized renezvous problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welstead, Jason
2014-01-01
This research focused on incorporating stability and control into a multidisciplinary de- sign optimization on a Boeing 737-class advanced concept called the D8.2b. A new method of evaluating the aircraft handling performance using quantitative evaluation of the sys- tem to disturbances, including perturbations, continuous turbulence, and discrete gusts, is presented. A multidisciplinary design optimization was performed using the D8.2b transport air- craft concept. The con guration was optimized for minimum fuel burn using a design range of 3,000 nautical miles. Optimization cases were run using xed tail volume coecients, static trim constraints, and static trim and dynamic response constraints. A Cessna 182T model was used to test the various dynamic analysis components, ensuring the analysis was behaving as expected. Results of the optimizations show that including stability and con- trol in the design process drastically alters the optimal design, indicating that stability and control should be included in conceptual design to avoid system level penalties later in the design process.
A KBE-enabled design framework for cost/weight optimization study of aircraft composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H.; La Rocca, G.; van Tooren, M. J. L.
2014-10-01
Traditionally, minimum weight is the objective when optimizing airframe structures. This optimization, however, does not consider the manufacturing cost which actually determines the profit of the airframe manufacturer. To this purpose, a design framework has been developed able to perform cost/weight multi-objective optimization of an aircraft component, including large topology variations of the structural configuration. The key element of the proposed framework is a dedicated knowledge based engineering (KBE) application, called multi-model generator, which enables modelling very different product configurations and variants and extract all data required to feed the weight and cost estimation modules, in a fully automated fashion. The weight estimation method developed in this research work uses Finite Element Analysis to calculate the internal stresses of the structural elements and an analytical composite plate sizing method to determine their minimum required thicknesses. The manufacturing cost estimation module was developed on the basis of a cost model available in literature. The capability of the framework was successfully demonstrated by designing and optimizing the composite structure of a business jet rudder. The study case indicates the design framework is able to find the Pareto optimal set for minimum structural weight and manufacturing costin a very quick way. Based on the Pareto set, the rudder manufacturer is in conditions to conduct both internal trade-off studies between minimum weight and minimum cost solutions, as well as to offer the OEM a full set of optimized options to choose, rather than one feasible design.
Moriguchi, H; Wendt, M; Duerk, J L
2000-11-01
Various kinds of nonrectilinear Cartesian k-space trajectories have been studied, such as spiral, circular, and rosette trajectories. Although the nonrectilinear Cartesian sampling techniques generally have the advantage of fast data acquisition, the gridding process prior to 2D-FFT image reconstruction usually requires a number of additional calculations, thus necessitating an increase in the computation time. Further, the reconstructed image often exhibits artifacts resulting from both the k-space sampling pattern and the gridding procedure. To date, it has been demonstrated in only a few studies that the special geometric sampling patterns of certain specific trajectories facilitate fast image reconstruction. In other words, the inherent link among the trajectory, the sampling scheme, and the associated complexity of the regridding/reconstruction process has been investigated to only a limited extent. In this study, it is demonstrated that a Lissajous trajectory has the special geometric characteristics necessary for rapid reconstruction of nonrectilinear Cartesian k-space trajectories with constant sampling time intervals. Because of the applicability of a uniform resampling (URS) algorithm, a high-quality reconstructed image is obtained in a short reconstruction time when compared to other gridding algorithms. PMID:11064412
Global optimality of extremals: An example
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreindler, E.; Newman, F.
1980-01-01
The question of the existence and location of Darboux points is crucial for minimally sufficient conditions for global optimality and for computation of optimal trajectories. A numerical investigation is presented of the Darboux points and their relationship with conjugate points for a problem of minimum fuel, constant velocity, and horizontal aircraft turns to capture a line. This simple second order optimal control problem shows that ignoring the possible existence of Darboux points may play havoc with the computation of optimal trajectories.
Cooling Panel Optimization for the Active Cooling System of a Hypersonic Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youn, B.; Mills, A. F.
1995-01-01
Optimization of cooling panels for an active cooling system of a hypersonic aircraft is explored. The flow passages are of rectangular cross section with one wall heated. An analytical fin-type model for incompressible flow in smooth-wall rectangular ducts with coupled wall conduction is proposed. Based on this model, the a flow rate of coolant to each design minimum mass flow rate or coolant for a single cooling panel is obtained by satisfying hydrodynamic, thermal, and Mach number constraints. Also, the sensitivity of the optimal mass flow rate of coolant to each design variable is investigated. In addition, numerical solutions for constant property flow in rectangular ducts, with one side rib-roughened and coupled wall conduction, are obtained using a k-epsilon and wall function turbulence model, these results are compared with predictions of the analytical model.
Development of the quasi-procedural method for use in aircraft configuration optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gage, P.; Kroo, I.
1992-01-01
The performance of the quasi-procedural analysis system in optimization tasks is investigated. In particular, the quasi-procedural method is applied to the complete mission optimization of a medium-sized transport aircraft using a vortex-lattice aerodynamic model and finite element structural analysis of the wing and the tail. Some modifications and improvements to the system, required in order to complete this task, are described. The performance of the system is compared with that of the standard procedural system, and it is shown that the quasi-procedural approach reduces the analysis required to reach the optimum. The overall cost is shown to be strongly dependent on the analysis architecture and data structure.
Reduced state feedback gain computation. [optimization and control theory for aircraft control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H.
1976-01-01
Because application of conventional optimal linear regulator theory to flight controller design requires the capability of measuring and/or estimating the entire state vector, it is of interest to consider procedures for computing controls which are restricted to be linear feedback functions of a lower dimensional output vector and which take into account the presence of measurement noise and process uncertainty. Therefore, a stochastic linear model that was developed is presented which accounts for aircraft parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, turbulence, pilot command and a restricted number of measurable outputs. Optimization with respect to the corresponding output feedback gains was performed for both finite and infinite time performance indices without gradient computation by using Zangwill's modification of a procedure originally proposed by Powell. Results using a seventh order process show the proposed procedures to be very effective.
Three-dimensional canard-wing shape optimization in aircraft cruise and maneuver environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Silva, B. M. E.; Carmichael, R. L.
1978-01-01
This paper demonstrates a numerical technique for canard-wing shape optimization at two operating conditions. For purposes of simplicity, a mean surface wing paneling code is employed for the aerodynamic calculations. The optimization procedures are based on the method of feasible directions. The shape functions for describing the thickness, camber, and twist are based on polynomial representations. The primary design requirements imposed restrictions on the canard and wing volumes and on the lift coefficients at the operating conditions. Results indicate that significant improvements in minimum drag and lift-to-drag ratio are possible with reasonable aircraft geometries. Calculations were done for supersonic speeds with Mach numbers ranging from 1 to 6. Planforms were mainly of a delta shape with aspect ratio of 1.
Comparative study of flare control laws. [optimal control of b-737 aircraft approach and landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadkarni, A. A.; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.
1979-01-01
A digital 3-D automatic control law was developed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between various initial glid slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition. A discrete, time-invariant, optimal, closed-loop control law presented for a linear regulator problem, was extended to include a system being acted upon by a constant disturbance. Two forms of control laws were derived to solve this problem. One method utilized the feedback of integral states defined appropriately and augmented with the original system equations. The second method formulated the problem as a control variable constraint, and the control variables were augmented with the original system. The control variable constraint control law yielded a better performance compared to feedback control law for the integral states chosen.
Optimum Three Impulse Trajectory Generator with Patched Conic Trajectory Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.
1972-01-01
Optimal multi-impulse trajectories were investigated as a nominal about which asymptotic expansion was used to obtain approximations of optimal low thrust trajectories. The work consisted of the analysis and description of an optimal 3-impulse trajectory program. A patched-conic trajectory model was specifically designed for compatibility with the subsequent addition of the low thrust expansion approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepner, D. E.; Mehra, R. K.
1973-01-01
A new method of extracting aircraft stability and control derivatives from flight test data is developed based on the maximum likelihood cirterion. It is shown that this new method is capable of processing data from both linear and nonlinear models, both with and without process noise and includes output error and equation error methods as special cases. The first application of this method to flight test data is reported for lateral maneuvers of the HL-10 and M2/F3 lifting bodies, including the extraction of stability and control derivatives in the presence of wind gusts. All the problems encountered in this identification study are discussed. Several different methods (including a priori weighting, parameter fixing and constrained parameter values) for dealing with identifiability and uniqueness problems are introduced and the results given. The method for the design of optimal inputs for identifying the parameters of linear dynamic systems is also given. The criterion used for the optimization is the sensitivity of the system output to the unknown parameters. Several simple examples are first given and then the results of an extensive stability and control dervative identification simulation for a C-8 aircraft are detailed.
Planform, aero-structural, and flight control optimization for tailless morphing aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molinari, Giulio; Arrieta, Andres F.; Ermanni, Paolo
2015-04-01
Tailless airplanes with swept wings rely on variations of the spanwise lift distribution to provide controllability in roll, pitch and yaw. Conventionally, this is achieved utilizing multiple control surfaces, such as elevons, on the wing trailing edge. As every flight condition requires different control moments (e.g. to provide pitching moment equilibrium), these surfaces are practically permanently displaced. Due to their nature, causing discontinuities, corners and gaps, they bear aerodynamic penalties, mostly in terms of shape drag. Shape adaptation, by means of chordwise morphing, has the potential of varying the lift of a wing section by deforming its profile in a way that minimizes the resulting drag. Furthermore, as the shape can be varied differently along the wingspan, the lift distribution can be tailored to each specific flight condition. For this reason, tailless aircraft appear as a prime choice to apply morphing techniques, as the attainable benefits are potentially significant. In this work, we present a methodology to determine the optimal planform, profile shape, and morphing structure for a tailless aircraft. The employed morphing concept is based on a distributed compliance structure, actuated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric elements. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed considering the static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the resulting structure. The goal is the maximization of the aerodynamic efficiency while guaranteeing the controllability of the plane, by means of morphing, in a set of flight conditions.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Complex Aircraft Configurations via an Adjoint Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Farmer, James; Martinelli, Luigi; Saunders, David
1996-01-01
This work describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for complex aircraft configurations. Here control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which allows for a drastic reduction in computational costs over previous design methods (13, 12, 43, 38). In our earlier studies (19, 20, 22, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42) it was shown that this method could be used to devise effective optimization procedures for airfoils, wings and wing-bodies subject to either analytic or arbitrary meshes. Design formulations for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations have been demonstrated, showing that such methods can be devised for various governing equations (39, 25). In our most recent works (40, 42) the method was extended to treat wing-body configurations with a large number of mesh points, verifying that significant computational savings can be gained for practical design problems. In this paper the method is extended for the Euler equations to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. New elements include a multiblock-multigrid flow solver, a multiblock-multigrid adjoint solver, and a multiblock mesh perturbation scheme. Two design examples are presented in which the new method is used for the wing redesign of a transonic business jet.
Algorithm for fuel conservative horizontal capture trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuman, F.; Erzberger, H.
1981-01-01
A real time algorithm for computing constant altitude fuel-conservative approach trajectories for aircraft is described. The characteristics of the trajectory computed were chosen to approximate the extremal trajectories obtained from the optimal control solution to the problem and showed a fuel difference of only 0.5 to 2 percent for the real time algorithm in favor of the extremals. The trajectories may start at any initial position, heading, and speed and end at any other final position, heading, and speed. They consist of straight lines and a series of circular arcs of varying radius to approximate constant bank-angle decelerating turns. Throttle control is maximum thrust, nominal thrust, or zero thrust. Bank-angle control is either zero or aproximately 30 deg.
Taniai, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Jun
2015-08-01
When we move our body to perform a movement task, our central nervous system selects a movement trajectory from an infinite number of possible trajectories under constraints that have been acquired through evolution and learning. Minimization of the energy cost has been suggested as a potential candidate for a constraint determining locomotor parameters, such as stride frequency and stride length; however, other constraints have been proposed for a human upper-arm reaching task. In this study, we examined whether the minimum metabolic energy cost model can also explain the characteristics of the upper-arm reaching trajectories. Our results show that the optimal trajectory that minimizes the expected value of energy cost under the effect of signal-dependent noise on motor commands expresses not only the characteristics of reaching movements of typical speed but also those of slower movements. These results suggest that minimization of the energy cost would be a basic constraint not only in locomotion but also in upper-arm reaching. PMID:26079750
Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay
2011-01-01
An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Weizhu; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Lei; Wang, Peiyan
2016-01-01
An optimization procedure combining an automated finite element modelling (AFEM) technique with a ground structure approach (GSA) is proposed for structural layout and sizing design of aircraft wings. The AFEM technique, based on CATIA VBA scripting and PCL programming, is used to generate models automatically considering the arrangement of inner systems. GSA is used for local structural topology optimization. The design procedure is applied to a high-aspect-ratio wing. The arrangement of the integral fuel tank, landing gear and control surfaces is considered. For the landing gear region, a non-conventional initial structural layout is adopted. The positions of components, the number of ribs and local topology in the wing box and landing gear region are optimized to obtain a minimum structural weight. Constraints include tank volume, strength, buckling and aeroelastic parameters. The results show that the combined approach leads to a greater weight saving, i.e. 26.5%, compared with three additional optimizations based on individual design approaches.
Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.
2010-01-01
In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.
2000-01-01
A preliminary aircraft engine design methodology is being developed that utilizes a cascade optimization strategy together with neural network and regression approximation methods. The cascade strategy employs different optimization algorithms in a specified sequence. The neural network and regression methods are used to approximate solutions obtained from the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP), which implements engine thermodynamic cycle and performance analysis models. The new methodology is proving to be more robust and computationally efficient than the conventional optimization approach of using a single optimization algorithm with direct reanalysis. The methodology has been demonstrated on a preliminary design problem for a novel subsonic turbofan engine concept that incorporates a wave rotor as a cycle-topping device. Computations of maximum thrust were obtained for a specific design point in the engine mission profile. The results (depicted in the figure) show a significant improvement in the maximum thrust obtained using the new methodology in comparison to benchmark solutions obtained using NEPP in a manual design mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filatyev, A. S.; Yanova, O. V.
2013-12-01
A problem of through optimization of fail-safe branched trajectories of launchers in view of aerodynamic load constraints and restrictions on ground impact areas of separated parts (SP) is considered. The failsafety is regarded to the possibility of a recoverable vehicle (RV) to return from any point of the ascent trajectory to landing points without excess of allowable g-loads. So, the purpose is determination of the launcher optimal control in view of constraints on all trajectory branches: the main, corresponding to an active injection leg, and side branches, corresponding to SP fall trajectories and imaginary RV emergency trajectories, which form a continuum. The problem solution is based on the Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrieta, Albert Joseph
2001-07-01
Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) was considered in the global design optimization of an aircraft wing structure. Residual strength and fatigue life requirements, based on the damage tolerance philosophy, were investigated as new design constraints. In general, accurate fatigue prediction is difficult if the load environment is not known with a high degree of certainty. To address this issue, a probabilistic approach was used to describe the uncertain load environment. Probabilistic load spectra models were developed from flight recorder data. The global/local finite element approach allowed local fatigue requirements to be considered in the global design optimization. AFGROW fatigue crack growth analysis provided a new strength criterion for satisfying damage tolerance requirements within a global optimization environment. Initial research with the ASTROS program used the probabilistic load model and this damage tolerance constraint to optimize cracked skin panels on the lower wing of a fighter/attack aircraft. For an aerodynamic and structural model similar to an F-16, ASTROS simulated symmetric and asymmetric maneuvers during the optimization. Symmetric maneuvers, without underwing stores, produced the highest stresses and drove the optimization of the inboard lower wing skin. Asymmetric maneuvers, with underwing stores, affected the optimum thickness of the outboard hard points. Subsequent design optimizations included von Mises stress, aileron effectiveness, and lift effectiveness constraints simultaneously. This optimization was driven by the DTA and von Mises stress constraints and, therefore, DTA requirements can have an active role to play in preliminary aircraft design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbach, L. H.
1979-01-01
The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.
Entropy based design and topology optimization for multifunctional composite aircraft skins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlers, Kristopher Henry Otto
The research presented in this dissertation investigates the design methodology of a new integrated radar aircraft skin, which serves a multifunctional role by accommodating structural and thermal loads. Mechanically the skin must be capable of handling tensile and shear loads. The Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM) method is applied to the multifunctional aircraft skin in order to provide a thermodynamic metric for the analysis of different skin material systems. Thermoelectric (TE) devices, sandwiched between the skin and the radar devices for the purpose of harvesting some of the waste heat to be rejected to the ambient, are considered in the analysis. The optimal entropy generation configuration is one that corresponds to the maximum energy harvesting condition, while satisfying tensile and shear running loads. This optimal condition is found to be when the skin is at its thinnest, with a maximum of 65% volume fraction of carbon fiber inclusions. Additionally it is shown that despite increasing the mass of the skin, the overall mission entropy generated decreases. A topology optimization technique is used to determine the optimal material distribution within the multifunctional skin composite at the 65% volume fraction of inclusion material. A three-dimensional design space is created in which thermal and mechanical loads are applied, and optimized using the Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization (SIMP) method. A weighting variable is introduced to allow for scaling of the incident loads, such that either the thermal or mechanical loading condition may be the dominant load affecting the design space. A thermal dominant loading condition produces a topology representative of a domed structure. A mechanically dominate load results in a 'truss' shaped structure. Novel topologies between these two extreme solutions are realized and presented. Materials research was conducted on carbon foams to assess their viability as a multifunctional skin material
Time-optimal Aircraft Pursuit-evasion with a Weapon Envelope Constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.
1990-01-01
The optimal pursuit-evasion problem between two aircraft including a realistic weapon envelope is analyzed using differential game theory. Six order nonlinear point mass vehicle models are employed and the inclusion of an arbitrary weapon envelope geometry is allowed. The performance index is a linear combination of flight time and the square of the vehicle acceleration. Closed form solution to this high-order differential game is then obtained using feedback linearization. The solution is in the form of a feedback guidance law together with a quartic polynomial for time-to-go. Due to its modest computational requirements, this nonlinear guidance law is useful for on-board real-time implementation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fishbach, L. H.
1979-01-01
The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.; Sensmeier, mark D.; Stewart, Bret A.
2006-01-01
Algorithms for rapid generation of moderate-fidelity structural finite element models of air vehicle structures to allow more accurate weight estimation earlier in the vehicle design process have been developed. Application of these algorithms should help to rapidly assess many structural layouts before the start of the preliminary design phase and eliminate weight penalties imposed when actual structure weights exceed those estimated during conceptual design. By defining the structural topology in a fully parametric manner, the structure can be mapped to arbitrary vehicle configurations being considered during conceptual design optimization. Recent enhancements to this approach include the porting of the algorithms to a platform-independent software language Python, and modifications to specifically consider morphing aircraft-type configurations. Two sample cases which illustrate these recent developments are presented.
Fuzzy optimal swarm of autonomous aircrafts for target determination and convergence control system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, Zach D.
The thesis project proposes analytical and theoretical algorithms for a networked swarm of autonomous vehicles, such as those used in planet exploration, and to be used in target location determination and convergence, an algorithm of this type could be used in an Autonomous Stratospheric Aircraft (ASA), thus having the possibility of being used for the exploration of a planet as well as many other applications. Upon locating an unknown location of a specified target, the algorithm would then swarm and eventually converge upon the location. There are two similar, but fundamentally different algorithms proposed in this project. These algorithms are capable of locating and converging upon multiple targeted locations simultaneously. This project is inspired by the current thought of NASA in the search of life on Mars, which is "Follow the Water" [18], where the targeted location would be the targeted source of water. These algorithms make use of combining a modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with fuzzy variables for increased intelligence.
Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2012-09-01
This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.
Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroneos, Rula M.
2012-01-01
This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.
Practical input optimization for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. Ph.D. Thesis, 1990
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1993-01-01
The object of this research was to develop an algorithm for the design of practical, optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. A general, single pass technique was developed which allows global optimization of the flight test input design for parameter estimation using the principles of dynamic programming with the input forms limited to square waves only. Provision was made for practical constraints on the input, including amplitude constraints, control system dynamics, and selected input frequency range exclusions. In addition, the input design was accomplished while imposing output amplitude constraints required by model validity and considerations of safety during the flight test. The algorithm has multiple input design capability, with optional inclusion of a constraint that only one control move at a time, so that a human pilot can implement the inputs. It is shown that the technique can be used to design experiments for estimation of open loop model parameters from closed loop flight test data. The report includes a new formulation of the optimal input design problem, a description of a new approach to the solution, and a summary of the characteristics of the algorithm, followed by three example applications of the new technique which demonstrate the quality and expanded capabilities of the input designs produced by the new technique. In all cases, the new input design approach showed significant improvement over previous input design methods in terms of achievable parameter accuracies.
Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah
An integrated design and optimization methodology has been developed for the conceptual design of an aircraft. The methodology brings higher fidelity Computer Aided Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD, CAE and CAM) Tools such as CATIA, FLUENT, ANSYS and SURFCAM into the conceptual design by utilizing Excel as the integrator and controller. The approach is demonstrated to integrate with many of the existing low to medium fidelity codes such as the aerodynamic panel code called CMARC and sizing and constraint analysis codes, thus providing the multi-fidelity capabilities to the aircraft designer. The higher fidelity design information from the CAD and CAE tools for the geometry, aerodynamics, structural and environmental performance is provided for the application of the structured design methods such as the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Pugh's Method. The higher fidelity tools bring the quantitative aspects of a design such as precise measurements of weight, volume, surface areas, center of gravity (CG) location, lift over drag ratio, and structural weight, as well as the qualitative aspects such as external geometry definition, internal layout, and coloring scheme early in the design process. The performance and safety risks involved with the new technologies can be reduced by modeling and assessing their impact more accurately on the performance of the aircraft. The methodology also enables the design and evaluation of the novel concepts such as the blended (BWB) and the hybrid wing body (HWB) concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) allow verification of the claims for the performance gains in aerodynamics and ascertain risks of structural failure due to different pressure distribution in the fuselage as compared with the tube and wing design. The higher fidelity aerodynamics and structural models can lead to better cost estimates that help reduce the financial risks as well. This helps in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Mark Charles
1994-01-01
Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.
Optimization of Return Trajectories for Orbital Transfer Vehicle between Earth and Moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro
2007-01-01
In this paper, optimum trajectories in Earth Transfer Orbit (ETO) for a lunar transportation system are proposed. This paper aims at improving the payload ratio of the reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), which transports the payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar Low Orbit (LLO) and returns to LEO. In ETO, we discuss ballistic flight using chemical propulsion, multi-impulse flight using electrical propulsion, and aero-assisted flight using aero-brake. The feasibility of the OTV is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danilin, M. Y.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Lyjak, L. V.; Froidevaux, L.; Santee, M. L.; Zawodny, J. M.; Hoppel, K. W.; Richard, E. C.; Spackman, J. R.; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We compared the version 5 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), version 3 Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement-III (POAM-111) aboard the French satellite SPOT-IV, version 6.0 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE-II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, and NASA ER-2 aircraft measurements made in the northern hemisphere in January-February 2000 during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). This study addresses one of the key scientific objectives of the SOLVE campaign, namely, to validate multi-platform satellite measurements made in the polar stratosphere during winter. This intercomparison was performed using a traditional correlative analysis (TCA) and a trajectory hunting technique (THT). Launching backward and forward trajectories from the points of measurement, the THT identifies air parcels sampled at least twice within a prescribed match criterion during the course of 5 days. We found that the ozone measurements made by these four instruments agree most of the time within 110% in the stratosphere up to 1400 K (approximately 35 km). The water vapor measurements from POAM-III and the ER-2 Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer and JPL laser hygrometer agree to within 10.5 ppmv (or about +/-10%) in the lower stratosphere above 380 K. The MLS and ER-2 ClO measurements agree within their error bars for the TCA. The MLS and ER-2 nitric acid measurements near 17-20 km altitude agree within their uncertainties most of the time with a hint of a positive offset by MLS according to the TCA. We also applied the AER box model constrained by the ER-2 measurements for analysis of the ClO and HN03 measurements using the THT. We found that: (1) the model values of ClO are smaller by about 0.3-0.4 (0.2) ppbv below (above) 400 K than those by MLS and (2) the HN03 comparison shows a positive offset of MLS values by approximately 1 and 1-2 ppbv below 400 K and near 450 K, respectively. It is hard to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bochem, J. H.; Mossman, D. C.; Lanier, P. D.
1977-01-01
The feasibility of incorporating optimal concepts into a practical system was determined. Various earlier theoretical analyses were confirmed, and insight was gained into the sensitivity of fuel conservation strategies to nonlinear and second order aerodynamic and engine characteristics. In addition to the investigation of optimal trajectories the study ascertained combined fuel savings by utilizing various procedure-oriented improvements such as delayed flap/decelerating approaches and great circle navigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pascale, P.; Vasile, M.; Casotto, S.
The design of interplanetary trajectories requires the solution of an optimization problem, which has been traditionally solved by resorting to various local optimization techniques. All such approaches, apart from the specific method employed (direct or indirect), require an initial guess, which deeply influences the convergence to the optimal solution. The recent developments in low-thrust propulsion have widened the perspectives of exploration of the Solar System, while they have at the same time increased the difficulty related to the trajectory design process. Continuous thrust transfers, typically characterized by multiple spiraling arcs, have a broad number of design parameters and thanks to the flexibility offered by such engines, they typically turn out to be characterized by a multi-modal domain, with a consequent larger number of optimal solutions. Thus the definition of the first guesses is even more challenging, particularly for a broad search over the design parameters, and it requires an extensive investigation of the domain in order to locate the largest number of optimal candidate solutions and possibly the global optimal one. In this paper a tool for the preliminary definition of interplanetary transfers with coast-thrust arcs and multiple swing-bys is presented. Such goal is achieved combining a novel methodology for the description of low-thrust arcs, with a global optimization algorithm based on a hybridization of an evolutionary step and a deterministic step. Low thrust arcs are described in a 3D model in order to account the beneficial effects of low-thrust propulsion for a change of inclination, resorting to a new methodology based on an inverse method. The two-point boundary values problem (TPBVP) associated with a thrust arc is solved by imposing a proper parameterized evolution of the orbital parameters, by which, the acceleration required to follow the given trajectory with respect to the constraints set is obtained simply through
Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia
2009-01-01
The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.
Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey
2013-01-01
This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauer, G. L.; Habeger, A. R.; Stevenson, R.
1974-01-01
The basic equations and models used in a computer program (6D POST) to optimize simulated trajectories with six degrees of freedom were documented. The 6D POST program was conceived as a direct extension of the program POST, which dealt with point masses, and considers the general motion of a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. It may be used to solve a wide variety of atmospheric flight mechanics and orbital transfer problems for powered or unpowered vehicles operating near a rotating oblate planet. Its principal features are: an easy to use NAMELIST type input procedure, an integrated set of Flight Control System (FCS) modules, and a general-purpose discrete parameter targeting and optimization capability. It was written in FORTRAN 4 for the CDC 6000 series computers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kéchichian, Jean A.
2011-06-01
An analytic form of the accelerations due to the luni-solar perturbations resolved along the rotating Euler-Hill frame is devised by using the expansion method. The addition of higher order terms to the main gravity gradient term linear in the spacecraft radial distance, carried out to the third order, provides a very high level of accuracy in accounting for the gravity perturbations experienced by a vehicle in orbit due to the sun and the moon. The nodal precession as well as the perigee advance of the lunar orbit is taken into account analytically by using the analytic lunar theory of de Pontécoulant. The analytic description of the apparent solar orbit and the motion of the moon remove the need to call an epherneris generator at each integration step during the numerical integration of the spacecraft trajectory, leading to the self-contained software for rapid and efficient optimal trajectory generation through iterations. Equinoctial elements are used to describe the spacecraft state and the luni-solar accelerations are given in terms of the apparent solar and lunar longitudes as well as Eulerian angles of the spacecraft orbit with respect to the inertial ecliptic system. The analysis is useful in optimal low-thrust orbit transfers complementing previous analyses carried out by this author, in which thrust and Earth zonal perturbations such as J2, J3 and J4 in terms of the nonsingular equinoctial elements are included.
Stability analysis of the motion along re-entry optimal trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popescu, M.
1983-10-01
A stability analysis of the equations of motion governing the ricochet re-entry trajectory of a rocket-powered vehicle is presented. The plane case of a vehicle propelled by the time-dependent expulsion of gases is considered, taking the change in mass into account. The zone of stability is defined using a frequency criterion, while the stability domains of the parameters of motion are derived by constructing a Liapunov function. The perturbations of the state variables and their damping-out velocities are estimated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borsody, J.
1976-01-01
Equations are derived by using the maximum principle to maximize the payload of a reusable tug for planetary missions. The analysis includes a correction for precession of the space shuttle orbit. The tug returns to this precessed orbit (within a specified time) and makes the required nodal correction. A sample case is analyzed that represents an inner planet mission as specified by a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote and the mission energy. The reusable stage performance corresponds to that of a typical cryogenic tug. Effects of space shuttle orbital inclination, several trajectory parameters, and tug thrust on payload are also investigated.
Optimal trajectories from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 points to deflect hazardous asteroids and comets.
Maccone, Claudio
2004-05-01
Software code named asteroff was recently created by the author to simulate the deflection of hazardous asteroids off of their collision course with the Earth. This code was both copyrighted and patented to avoid unauthorized use of ideas that could possibly be vital to construct a planetary defense system in the vicinity of the Earth. Having so said, the basic ideas and equations underlying the asteroff simulation code are openly described in this paper. A system of two space bases housing missiles is proposed to achieve the planetary defense of the Earth against dangerous asteroids and comets, collectively called impactors herein. We show that the layout of the Earth-Moon system with the five relevant Lagrangian (or libration) points in space leads naturally to only one, unmistakable location of these two space bases within the sphere of influence of the Earth. These locations are at the two Lagrangian points L(1) (between the Earth and the Moon) and L(3) (in the direction opposite to the Moon from the Earth). We show that placing missile bases at L(1) and L(3) would enable those missiles to deflect the trajectory of impactors by hitting them orthogonally to their impact trajectory toward the Earth, so as to maximize their deflection. We show that confocal conics are the best class of trajectories fulfilling this orthogonal deflection requirement. One additional remark is that the theory developed in this paper is just a beginning for a wider set of future research. In fact, we only develop the Keplerian analytical theory for the optimal planetary defense achievable from the Earth-Moon Lagrangian points L(1) and L(3). Much more sophisticated analytical refinements would be needed to: (1) take into account many perturbation forces of all kinds acting on both the impactors and missiles shot from L(1) and L(3); (2) add more (non-optimal) trajectories of missiles shot from either the Lagrangian points L(4) and L(5) of the Earth-Moon System or from the surface of the
Fuel-Optimal Trajectories in a Planet-Moon Environment Using Multiple Gravity Assists
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Shane D.; Grover, Piyush
2007-01-01
For low energy spacecraft trajectories such as multi-moon orbiters for the Jupiter system, multiple gravity assists by moons could be used in conjunction with ballistic capture to drastically decrease fuel usage. In this paper, we outline a procedure to obtain a family of zero-fuel multi-moon orbiter trajectories, using a family of Keplerian maps derived by the first author previously. The maps capture well the dynamics of the full equations of motion; the phase space contains a connected chaotic zone where intersections between unstable resonant orbit manifolds provide the template for lanes of fast migration between orbits of different semimajor axes. Patched three body approach is used and the four body problem is broken down into two three-body problems, and the search space is considerably reduced by the use of properties of the Keplerian maps. We also introduce the notion of Switching Region where the perturbations due to the two perturbing moons are of comparable strength, and which separates the domains of applicability of the corresponding two Keplerian maps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Striepe, Scott A.; Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.; Fowler, Wallace T.
1991-01-01
Many current manned Mars mission studies are using low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) vehicles to aerobrake at both Mars and earth. The use of these low L/D vehicles imposes constraints on the allowable velocity at the atmospheric interface. This paper will demonstrate that if these entry velocity constraints are incorporated into the interplanetary analysis, more opportunities can be achieved for a small increase in initial LEO mass. These additional opportunities result from varying the initial launch date, the encounter dates, and possibly using a powered Venus swingby on either the inbound or outbound transfer. This paper presents results for three atmospheric entry velocity ranges at Mars arrival and one velocity limitation upon Earth return. The results indicate that by carefully selecting the interplanetary trajectory, an optimum initial LEO mass mission can be found for even highly restrictive entry velocity missions in practically all of the 15 years studied.
2015-01-01
A traditional traffic signal control system is established based on vehicular delay, queue length, saturation and other indicators. However, due to the increasing severity of urban environmental pollution issues and the development of a resource-saving and environmentally friendly social philosophy, the development of low-carbon and energy-efficient urban transport is required. This paper first defines vehicular trajectories and the calculation of vehicular emissions based on VSP. Next, a regression analysis method is used to quantify the relationship between vehicular emissions and delay, and a traffic signal control model is established to reduce emissions and delay using the enumeration method combined with saturation constraints. Finally, one typical intersection of Changchun is selected to verify the model proposed in this paper; its performance efficiency is also compared using simulations in VISSIM. The results of this study show that the proposed model can significantly reduce vehicle delay and traffic emissions simultaneously. PMID:26720095
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.
1990-01-01
General problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and with the synthesis of guidance laws were addressed for an ascent to low-earth-orbit of an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The NASA Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example and the Langley Accelerator aerodynamic sets were acquired and implemented. Work related to the development of purely analytic aerodynamic models was also performed at a low level. A generic model of a multi-mode propulsion system was developed that includes turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engine cycles. Provisions were made in the dynamic model for a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Computational results, which characterize the nonlinear sensitivity of scramjet performance to changes in vehicle angle of attack, were obtained and incorporated into the engine model. Additional trajectory constraints were introduced: maximum dynamic pressure; maximum aerodynamic heating rate per unit area; angle of attack and lift limits; and limits on acceleration both along and normal to the flight path. The remainder of the effort focused on required modifications to a previously derived algorithm when the model complexity cited above was added. In particular, analytic switching conditions were derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another for two cases: the case in which engine cycle operations can overlap, and the case in which engine cycle operations are mutually exclusive. The resulting guidance algorithm was implemented in software and exercised extensively. It was found that the approximations associated with the assumed time scale separation employed in this work are reasonable except over the Mach range from roughly 5 to 8. This phenomenon is due to the very large thrust capability of scramjets in this Mach regime when sized to meet the requirement for ascent to orbit. By accounting for flight path
Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R
2014-12-01
In addition to classic motor signs and symptoms, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by emotional deficits. Ongoing brain activity can be recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG) to discover the links between emotional states and brain activity. This study utilized machine-learning algorithms to categorize emotional states in PD patients compared with healthy controls (HC) using EEG. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and education level-matched controls viewed happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust emotional stimuli while fourteen-channel EEG was being recorded. Multimodal stimulus (combination of audio and visual) was used to evoke the emotions. To classify the EEG-based emotional states and visualize the changes of emotional states over time, this paper compares four kinds of EEG features for emotional state classification and proposes an approach to track the trajectory of emotion changes with manifold learning. From the experimental results using our EEG data set, we found that (a) bispectrum feature is superior to other three kinds of features, namely power spectrum, wavelet packet and nonlinear dynamical analysis; (b) higher frequency bands (alpha, beta and gamma) play a more important role in emotion activities than lower frequency bands (delta and theta) in both groups and; (c) the trajectory of emotion changes can be visualized by reducing subject-independent features with manifold learning. This provides a promising way of implementing visualization of patient's emotional state in real time and leads to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional impairments associated with neurological disorders. PMID:25109433
An Evaluation of a Flight Deck Interval Management Algorithm Including Delayed Target Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swieringa, Kurt A.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Barmore, Bryan; Leonard, Robert D.
2014-01-01
NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature air traffic management technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise timebased scheduling in the terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools enabling precise schedule conformance; and Interval Management (IM), which consists of flight deck automation that enables aircraft to achieve or maintain precise in-trail spacing. During high demand operations, TMA-TM may produce a schedule and corresponding aircraft trajectories that include delay to ensure that a particular aircraft will be properly spaced from other aircraft at each schedule waypoint. These delayed trajectories are not communicated to the automation onboard the aircraft, forcing the IM aircraft to use the published speeds to estimate the target aircraft's estimated time of arrival. As a result, the aircraft performing IM operations may follow an aircraft whose TMA-TM generated trajectories have substantial speed deviations from the speeds expected by the spacing algorithm. Previous spacing algorithms were not designed to handle this magnitude of uncertainty. A simulation was conducted to examine a modified spacing algorithm with the ability to follow aircraft flying delayed trajectories. The simulation investigated the use of the new spacing algorithm with various delayed speed profiles and wind conditions, as well as several other variables designed to simulate real-life variability. The results and conclusions of this study indicate that the new spacing algorithm generally exhibits good performance; however, some types of target aircraft speed profiles can cause the spacing algorithm to command less than optimal speed control behavior.
Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay
2012-01-01
This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinha, Sujit
1988-01-01
A study was conducted to evaluate the performance implications of a heads-up ascent flight design for the Space Transportation System, as compared to the current heads-down flight mode. The procedure involved the use of the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle Trajectory Evaluation Program, which is a three-degree-of-freedom moment balance simulation of shuttle ascent. A minimum-Hamiltonian optimization strategy was employed to maximize injection weight as a function of maximum dynamic pressure constraint and Solid Rocket Motor burnrate. Performance Reference Mission Four trajectory groundrules were used for consistency. The major conclusions are that for heads-up ascent and a mission nominal design maximum dynamic pressure value of 680 psf, the optimum solid motor burnrate is 0.394 ips, which produces a performance enhancement of 4293 lbm relative to the baseline heads-down ascent, with 0.368 ips burnrate solid motors and a 680 psf dynamic pressure constraint. However, no performance advantage exists for heads-up flight if the current Solid Rocket Motor target burnrate of 0.368 ips is used. The advantage of heads-up ascent flight employing the current burnrate is that Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling for dynamic pressure control is not necessary.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borsody, J.
1976-01-01
Equations are derived by using branched trajectory optimization techniques and the maximum principle to maximize the payload capability of a reusable tug/expendable kickstage vehicle configuration for planetary missions. The two stages and the payload are launched into a low earth orbit by a single space shuttle. The analysis includes correction for precession of the orbit. This correction is done by the tug. The tug propels the payload and the kickstage to an energy beyond earth escape and returns within a specified time to the precessed orbit. After separating from the tug, the kickstage accelerates the payload to the required injection conditions. Planetary injection conditions are specified by the mission energy and a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote. The multipoint boundary value problem resulting from the analysis is solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. Partial derivatives of the boundary conditions are obtained by perturbing the initial conditions one at a time, integrating the trajectory and adjoint equations, and observing the changes in boundary conditions. Maximum payload capability is derived for two typical mission energies. In addition, the variations of several mission and stage parameters are also examined.
Evaluating and minimizing noise impact due to aircraft flyover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, I. D.; Cook, G.
1979-01-01
Existing techniques were used to assess the noise impact on a community due to aircraft operation and to optimize the flight paths of an approaching aircraft with respect to the annoyance produced. Major achievements are: (1) the development of a population model suitable for determining the noise impact, (2) generation of a numerical computer code which uses this population model along with the steepest descent algorithm to optimize approach/landing trajectories, (3) implementation of this optimization code in several fictitious cases as well as for the community surrounding Patrick Henry International Airport, Virginia.
Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1990-01-01
The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally
Uncertainty Optimization Applied to the Monte Carlo Analysis of Planetary Entry Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olds, John; Way, David
2001-01-01
Recently, strong evidence of liquid water under the surface of Mars and a meteorite that might contain ancient microbes have renewed interest in Mars exploration. With this renewed interest, NASA plans to send spacecraft to Mars approx. every 26 months. These future spacecraft will return higher-resolution images, make precision landings, engage in longer-ranging surface maneuvers, and even return Martian soil and rock samples to Earth. Future robotic missions and any human missions to Mars will require precise entries to ensure safe landings near science objective and pre-employed assets. Potential sources of water and other interesting geographic features are often located near hazards, such as within craters or along canyon walls. In order for more accurate landings to be made, spacecraft entering the Martian atmosphere need to use lift to actively control the entry. This active guidance results in much smaller landing footprints. Planning for these missions will depend heavily on Monte Carlo analysis. Monte Carlo trajectory simulations have been used with a high degree of success in recent planetary exploration missions. These analyses ascertain the impact of off-nominal conditions during a flight and account for uncertainty. Uncertainties generally stem from limitations in manufacturing tolerances, measurement capabilities, analysis accuracies, and environmental unknowns. Thousands of off-nominal trajectories are simulated by randomly dispersing uncertainty variables and collecting statistics on forecast variables. The dependability of Monte Carlo forecasts, however, is limited by the accuracy and completeness of the assumed uncertainties. This is because Monte Carlo analysis is a forward driven problem; beginning with the input uncertainties and proceeding to the forecasts outputs. It lacks a mechanism to affect or alter the uncertainties based on the forecast results. If the results are unacceptable, the current practice is to use an iterative, trial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizvi, S. Tauqeer ul Islam; Linshu, He; ur Rehman, Tawfiq; Rafique, Amer Farhan
2012-11-01
A numerical optimization study of lifting body re-entry vehicles is presented for nominal as well as shallow entry conditions for Medium and Intermediate Range applications. Due to the stringent requirement of a high degree of accuracy for conventional vehicles, lifting re-entry can be used to attain the impact at the desired terminal flight path angle and speed and thus can potentially improve accuracy of the re-entry vehicle. The re-entry of a medium range and intermediate range vehicles is characterized by very high negative flight path angle and low re-entry speed as compared to a maneuverable re-entry vehicle or a common aero vehicle intended for an intercontinental range. Highly negative flight path angles at the re-entry impose high dynamic pressure as well as heat loads on the vehicle. The trajectory studies are carried out to maximize the cross range of the re-entry vehicle while imposing a maximum dynamic pressure constraint of 350 KPa with a 3 MW/m2 heat rate limit. The maximum normal acceleration and the total heat load experienced by the vehicle at the stagnation point during the maneuver have been computed for the vehicle for possible future conceptual design studies. It has been found that cross range capability of up to 35 km can be achieved with a lifting-body design within the heat rate and the dynamic pressure boundary at normal entry conditions. For shallow entry angle of -20 degree and intermediate ranges a cross range capability of up to 250 km can be attained for a lifting body design with less than 10 percent loss in overall range. The normal acceleration also remains within limits. The lifting-body results have also been compared with wing-body results at shallow entry condition. An hp-adaptive pseudo-spectral method has been used for constrained trajectory optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hou-yuan; Zhao, Chang-yin
2012-10-01
According to the optimal control theory, the optimal control problem of the low-thrust tra jectory can be converted into a solution of nonlinear two- point boundary-value problem (TPBVP). To solve the TPBVP, the repeated random guesses for the initial costate variables and iterative computations are needed. In order to enhance the convergence of the iterations, we select an appropriate performance index, and then linearize the equations of the TPBVP around a Keplerian orbit. For multi-revolution transfers, instead of the multi- revolution Lambert tra jectory, multiple segmented Keplerian arcs are used to ensure the effectiveness of the linearization. The method is totally automatic with multiple iterations. With this method, we can get the results within 3 ˜ 5 iterations, and the random guess of the initial costates is unnecessary. Finally by the iterative optimization of the performance index, a better control strategy approaching to the bang-bang control is obtained.
The Development and Use of a Flight Optimization System Model of a C-130E Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desch, Jeremy D.
1995-01-01
The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center conducts a variety of aircraft design and analyses studies. These studies include the prediction of characteristics of a particular conceptual design, analyses of designs that already exist, and assessments of the impact of technology on current and future aircraft. The FLight OPtimization System (FLOPS) is a tool used for aircraft systems analysis and design. A baseline input model of a Lockheed C-130E was generated for the Flight Optimization System. This FLOPS model can be used to conduct design-trade studies and technology impact assessments. The input model was generated using standard input data such as basic geometries and mission specifications. All of the other data needed to determine the airplane performance is computed internally by FLOPS. The model was then calibrated to reproduce the actual airplane performance from flight test data. This allows a systems analyzer to change a specific item of geometry or mission definition in the FLOPS input file and evaluate the resulting change in performance from the output file. The baseline model of the C-130E was used to analyze the effects of implementing upper wing surface blowing on the airplane. This involved removing the turboprop engines that were on the C-130E and replacing them with turbofan engines. An investigation of the improvements in airplane performance with the new engines could be conducted within the Flight Optimization System. Although a thorough analysis was not completed, the impact of this change on basic mission performance was investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagnon, Hugo
This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height
Global Optimization of Interplanetary Trajectories in the Presence of Realistic Mission Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinckley, David; Englander, Jacob; Hitt, Darren
2015-01-01
Single trial evaluations Trial creation by Phase-wise GA-style or DE-inspired recombination Bin repository structure requires an initialization period Non-exclusionary Kill Distance Population collapse mechanic Main loop Creation Probabilistic switch between GA and DE creation types Locally optimize Submit to repository Repeat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, Jason; Campbell, Mark; Miller, Isaac; Schimpf, Brian
2008-10-01
The local path planner implemented on Cornell's 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge entry vehicle Skynet utilizes a novel mixture of discrete and continuous path planning steps to facilitate a safe, smooth, and human-like driving behavior. The planner first solves for a feasible path through the local obstacle map using a grid based search algorithm. The resulting path is then refined using a cost-based nonlinear optimization routine with both hard and soft constraints. The behavior of this optimization is influenced by tunable weighting parameters which govern the relative cost contributions assigned to different path characteristics. This paper studies the sensitivity of the vehicle's performance to these path planner weighting parameters using a data driven simulation based on logged data from the National Qualifying Event. The performance of the path planner in both the National Qualifying Event and in the Urban Challenge is also presented and analyzed.
Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Wilson, Andrew T.; Valicka, Christopher G.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip; Shead, Timothy M.; Newton, Benjamin D.; Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez
2015-09-01
We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englander, Jacob A.; Englander, Arnold C.
2014-01-01
Trajectory optimization methods using monotonic basin hopping (MBH) have become well developed during the past decade [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. An essential component of MBH is a controlled random search through the multi-dimensional space of possible solutions. Historically, the randomness has been generated by drawing random variable (RV)s from a uniform probability distribution. Here, we investigate the generating the randomness by drawing the RVs from Cauchy and Pareto distributions, chosen because of their characteristic long tails. We demonstrate that using Cauchy distributions (as first suggested by J. Englander [3, 6]) significantly improves monotonic basin hopping (MBH) performance, and that Pareto distributions provide even greater improvements. Improved performance is defined in terms of efficiency and robustness. Efficiency is finding better solutions in less time. Robustness is efficiency that is undiminished by (a) the boundary conditions and internal constraints of the optimization problem being solved, and (b) by variations in the parameters of the probability distribution. Robustness is important for achieving performance improvements that are not problem specific. In this work we show that the performance improvements are the result of how these long-tailed distributions enable MBH to search the solution space faster and more thoroughly. In developing this explanation, we use the concepts of sub-diffusive, normally-diffusive, and super-diffusive random walks (RWs) originally developed in the field of statistical physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englander, Jacob; Englander, Arnold
2014-01-01
Trajectory optimization methods using MBH have become well developed during the past decade. An essential component of MBH is a controlled random search through the multi-dimensional space of possible solutions. Historically, the randomness has been generated by drawing RVs from a uniform probability distribution. Here, we investigate the generating the randomness by drawing the RVs from Cauchy and Pareto distributions, chosen because of their characteristic long tails. We demonstrate that using Cauchy distributions (as first suggested by Englander significantly improves MBH performance, and that Pareto distributions provide even greater improvements. Improved performance is defined in terms of efficiency and robustness, where efficiency is finding better solutions in less time, and robustness is efficiency that is undiminished by (a) the boundary conditions and internal constraints of the optimization problem being solved, and (b) by variations in the parameters of the probability distribution. Robustness is important for achieving performance improvements that are not problem specific. In this work we show that the performance improvements are the result of how these long-tailed distributions enable MBH to search the solution space faster and more thoroughly. In developing this explanation, we use the concepts of sub-diffusive, normally-diffusive, and super-diffusive RWs originally developed in the field of statistical physics.
Trajectory optimization and guidance law development for national aerospace plane applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.
1988-01-01
The work completed to date is comprised of the following: a simple vehicle model representative of the aerospace plane concept in the hypersonic flight regime, fuel-optimal climb profiles for the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases generated using a reduced order dynamic model, an analytic switching condition for transition to rocket powered flight as orbital velocity is approached, simple feedback guidance laws for both the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases derived via singular perturbation theory and a nonlinear transformation technique, and numerical simulation results for ascent to orbit in the dynamic pressure constrained case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azzano, Christopher P.
1992-01-01
Control of a large jet transport aircraft without the use of conventional control surfaces was studied. Engine commands were used to attempt to recreate the forces and moments typically provided by the elevator, ailerons, and rudder. Necessary conditions for aircraft controllability were developed pertaining to aircraft configuration such as the number of engines and engine placement. An optimal linear quadratic regulator controller was developed for the Boeing 707-720, in particular, for regulation of its natural dynamic modes. The design used a method of assigning relative weights to the natural modes, i.e., phugoid and dutch roll, for a more intuitive selection of the cost function. A prototype pilot command interface was then integrated into the loop based on pseudorate command of both pitch and roll. Closed loop dynamics were evaluated first with a batch linear simulation and then with a real time high fidelity piloted simulation. The NASA research pilots assisted in evaluation of closed loop handling qualities for typical cruise and landing tasks. Recommendations for improvement on this preliminary study of optimal propulsion only flight control are provided.
Serial robot for the trajectory optimization and error compensation of TMT mask exchange system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Feifan; Zhou, Zengxiang; Zhai, Chao
2015-10-01
Mask exchange system is the main part of Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). According to the conception of the TMT mask exchange system, the pre-design was introduced in the paper which was based on IRB 140 robot. The stiffness model of IRB 140 in SolidWorks was analyzed under different gravity vectors for further error compensation. In order to find the right location and path planning, the robot and the mask cassette model was imported into MOBIE model to perform different schemes simulation. And obtained the initial installation position and routing. Based on these initial parameters, IRB 140 robot was operated to simulate the path and estimate the mask exchange time. Meanwhile, MATLAB and ADAMS software were used to perform simulation analysis and optimize the route to acquire the kinematics parameters and compare with the experiment results. After simulation and experimental research mentioned in the paper, the theoretical reference was acquired which could high efficient improve the structure of the mask exchange system parameters optimization of the path and precision of the robot position.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Kim Chenming
Real-world engineering optimization problems often require the consideration of multiple conflicting and noncommensurate objectives, subject to nonconvex constraint regions in a high-dimensional decision space. Further challenges occur for combinatorial multiobjective problems in which the decision variables are not continuous. Traditional multiobjective optimization methods of operations research, such as weighting and epsilon constraint methods, are ill-suited to solving these complex, multiobjective problems. This has given rise to the application of a wide range of metaheuristic optimization algorithms, such as evolutionary, particle swarm, simulated annealing, and ant colony methods, to multiobjective optimization. Several multiobjective evolutionary algorithms have been developed, including the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), for determining the Pareto-optimal set of non-dominated solutions. Although numerous researchers have developed a wide range of multiobjective optimization algorithms, there is a continuing need to construct computationally efficient algorithms with an improved ability to converge to globally non-dominated solutions along the Pareto-optimal front for complex, large-scale, multiobjective engineering optimization problems. This is particularly important when the multiple objective functions and constraints of the real-world system cannot be expressed in explicit mathematical representations. This research presents a novel metaheuristic evolutionary algorithm for complex multiobjective optimization problems, which combines the metaheuristic tabu search algorithm with the evolutionary algorithm (TSEA), as embodied in genetic algorithms. TSEA is successfully applied to bicriteria (i.e., structural reliability and retrofit cost) optimization of the aircraft tail structure fatigue life, which increases its reliability by prolonging fatigue life. A comparison for this
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanner, John A. (Editor)
1990-01-01
Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.
1986-01-01
The long range aircraft cruise problem is analyzed using a model intermediate in complexity between energy model and point mass model. It is shown that this formulation imbeds the classical steady state cruise as the central member along with several other oscillatory extremals. The oscillatory cruise trajectories are shown to exist if the Hessian of the function QD/VT with respect to altitude and airspeed is positive definite. An expression for predicting the frequency of oscillation is developed. Qualitative effects of increasing the vehicle thrust and improving the L/D are discussed. Numerical results for two fighter aircraft and a transport aircraft are given. While oscillatory cruise mode exists for the two fighter aircraft, steady state cruise at full throttle is found to be optimal for the transport aircraft. A second variation analysis to bring out the reason for fuel savings is developed. It is shown that whenever the Hessian of the function QD/VT is positive definite, the second variation will be zero along the classical steady state cruise arc, indicating that a neighboring extremal is competitive. Comparisons with the previous point mass and energy modeled results are given.
An Operational Concept for Flying FMS Trajectories in Center and TRACON Airspace
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, Everett; Williams, David; Prevot, Thomas; Romanhn, Stephan; Goka, Tsuyoshi; Smith, Nancy; Crane, Barry; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Current Flight Management Systems (FMS) do a good job of constructing and flying an optimal trajectory for a single aircraft. Unfortunately, flight crews are often unable to fly these FMS routes during arrivals at busy airports. The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) has been designed to aid Center and TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) controllers in assigning runways, sequencing and vectoring all classes of aircraft. CTAS bases its advisories on trajectory predictions for arriving aircraft using algorithms very similar to those in airborne FMS systems. This paper presents near and far term operational concepts for how a ground ATM (air traffic management) automation system like CTAS could work more effectively with the airborne automation in FMS equipped aircraft. The concepts for a more compatible air-ground system include: 1) a common route databases for both CTAS and FMS; 2) datalink to downlink information on aircraft weight, final approach speed and trajectory intent and to uplink wind information; 3) new FMS functions to allow flight crews to easily update their FMS trajectory to match the trajectory suggested by the ground automation with voice clearances, and 4) in the far term, datalink to downlink user preferred trajectories and to uplink trajectory clearances in the terminal area. The paper analyses some of the human factors issues that may result in allowing aircraft to fly FMS routes during enroute descent and in the terminal area. A series of linked human in the loop flight deck and air traffic control simulations and a field test with the NASA 757 are being conducted at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers to address these issues and to evaluate the operational feasibility of these approaches to more efficient flight and increased airport throughput.
Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naidu, D. S.
The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.
Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.
1989-06-01
The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.
Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.
1989-01-01
The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.
Makoae, Mokhantšo G.
2011-01-01
The article describes the caregiving responsibility to provide food for chronically ill family members and the meanings attached to food and eating when ill created stress for family caregivers. The results come from a qualitative phenomenological study using in-depth interviews with 21 family caregivers of chronically ill HIV and AIDS patients in one district in Lesotho. Analysis of the interview data showed that the caregivers attached profound meanings to food and feeding care recipients. Their perceptions about food as part of family life and caring, the role of food and eating in curbing disease progression, the link between food and medical efficacy and the link between food and life led to ritualised behaviour around food, and moments of optimism and anguish in caregiving. Patients’ behaviour in relation to food was in most instances inconsistent with the caregivers’ goals, thus leading this aspect of caregiving to induce stress. Services intended to support home-based caregivers and patients could contribute to the reduction of stress associated with food through suitably tailored food assistance and professional support to caregivers to enhance their competences and understanding of the dynamics of food intake as AIDS progressed. PMID:21328147
Makoae, Mokhantso G
2011-03-01
The article describes the caregiving responsibility to provide food for chronically ill family members and the meanings attached to food and eating when ill created stress for family caregivers. The results come from a qualitative phenomenological study using in-depth interviews with 21 family caregivers of chronically ill HIV and AIDS patients in one district in Lesotho. Analysis of the interview data showed that the caregivers attached profound meanings to food and feeding care recipients. Their perceptions about food as part of family life and caring, the role of food and eating in curbing disease progression, the link between food and medical efficacy and the link between food and life led to ritualized behaviour around food, and moments of optimism and anguish in caregiving. Patients' behaviour in relation to food was in most instances inconsistent with the caregivers' goals, thus leading this aspect of caregiving to induce stress. Services intended to support home-based caregivers and patients could contribute to the reduction of stress associated with food through suitably tailored food assistance and professional support to caregivers to enhance their competences and understanding of the dynamics of food intake as AIDS progressed. PMID:21328147
Longitudinal control of aircraft dynamics based on optimization of PID parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deepa, S. N.; Sudha, G.
2016-03-01
Recent years many flight control systems and industries are employing PID controllers to improve the dynamic behavior of the characteristics. In this paper, PID controller is developed to improve the stability and performance of general aviation aircraft system. Designing the optimum PID controller parameters for a pitch control aircraft is important in expanding the flight safety envelope. Mathematical model is developed to describe the longitudinal pitch control of an aircraft. The PID controller is designed based on the dynamic modeling of an aircraft system. Different tuning methods namely Zeigler-Nichols method (ZN), Modified Zeigler-Nichols method, Tyreus-Luyben tuning, Astrom-Hagglund tuning methods are employed. The time domain specifications of different tuning methods are compared to obtain the optimum parameters value. The results prove that PID controller tuned by Zeigler-Nichols for aircraft pitch control dynamics is better in stability and performance in all conditions. Future research work of obtaining optimum PID controller parameters using artificial intelligence techniques should be carried out.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, R. A.
1977-01-01
A brief review of some of the more pertinent applications of analytical pilot models to the prediction of aircraft handling qualities is undertaken. The relative ease with which multiloop piloting tasks can be modeled via the optimal control formulation makes the use of optimal pilot models particularly attractive for handling qualities research. To this end, a rating hypothesis is introduced which relates the numerical pilot opinion rating assigned to a particular vehicle and task to the numerical value of the index of performance resulting from an optimal pilot modeling procedure as applied to that vehicle and task. This hypothesis is tested using data from piloted simulations and is shown to be reasonable. An example concerning a helicopter landing approach is introduced to outline the predictive capability of the rating hypothesis in multiaxis piloting tasks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miele, A.; Zhao, Z. G.; Lee, W. Y.
1989-01-01
The determination of optimal trajectories for the aeroassisted flight experiment (AFE) is discussed. The AFE refers to the study of the free flight of an autonomous spacecraft, shuttle-launched and shuttle-recovered. Its purpose is to gather atmospheric entry environmental data for use in designing aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV). It is assumed that: (1) the spacecraft is a particle of constant mass; (2) the Earth is rotating with constant angular velocity; (3) the Earth is an oblate planet, and the gravitational potential depends on both the radial distance and the latitude (harmonics of order higher than four are ignored); and (4) the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the Earth. Under these assumptions, the equations of motion for hypervelocity atmospheric flight (which can be used not only for AFE problems, but also for AOT problems and space shuttle problems) are derived in an Earth-fixed system. Transformation relations are supplied which allow one to pass from quantities computed in an Earth-fixed system to quantities computed in an inertial system, and vice versa.
A design procedure for the handling qualities optimization of the X-29A aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosworth, John T.; Cox, Timothy H.
1989-01-01
The techniques used to improve the pitch-axis handling qualities of the X-29A wing-canard-planform fighter aircraft are reviewed. The aircraft and its FCS are briefly described, and the design method, which works within the existing FCS architecture, is characterized in detail. Consideration is given to the selection of design goals and design variables, the definition and calculation of the cost function, the validation of the mathematical model on the basis of flight-test data, and the validation of the improved design by means of nonlinear simulations. Flight tests of the improved design are shown to verify the simulation results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phatak, A. V.; Kessler, K. M.
1975-01-01
The selection of the structure of optimal control type models for the human gunner in an anti aircraft artillery system is considered. Several structures within the LQG framework may be formulated. Two basic types are considered: (1) kth derivative controllers; and (2) proportional integral derivative (P-I-D) controllers. It is shown that a suitable criterion for model structure determination can be based on the ensemble statistics of the tracking error. In the case when the ensemble tracking steady state error is zero, it is suggested that a P-I-D controller formulation be used in preference to the kth derivative controller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, Phillip H.
1993-01-01
A parameter optimization framework has earlier been developed to solve the problem of partitioning a centralized controller into a decentralized, hierarchical structure suitable for integrated flight/propulsion control implementation. This paper presents results from the application of the controller partitioning optimization procedure to IFPC design for a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The controller partitioning problem and the parameter optimization algorithm are briefly described. Insight is provided into choosing various 'user' selected parameters in the optimization cost function such that the resulting optimized subcontrollers will meet the characteristics of the centralized controller that are crucial to achieving the desired closed-loop performance and robustness, while maintaining the desired subcontroller structure constraints that are crucial for IFPC implementation. The optimization procedure is shown to improve upon the initial partitioned subcontrollers and lead to performance comparable to that achieved with the centralized controller. This application also provides insight into the issues that should be addressed at the centralized control design level in order to obtain implementable partitioned subcontrollers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottmann, Uwe
1988-08-01
Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhikar, Pratik Ravindra
The most important and crucial design feature while designing an Aircraft Electric Power Distribution System (EPDS) is reliability. In EPDS, the distribution of power is from top level generators to bottom level loads through various sensors, actuators and rectifiers with the help of AC & DC buses and control switches. As the demands of the consumer is never ending and the safety is utmost important, there is an increase in loads and as a result increase in power management. Therefore, the design of an EPDS should be optimized to have maximum efficiency. This thesis discusses an integrated tool that is based on a Need Based Design method and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to achieve the optimum design of an EPDS to provide maximum reliability in terms of continuous connectivity, power management and minimum cost. If an EPDS is formulated as an optimization problem then it can be solved with the help of connectivity, cost and power constraints by using a linear solver to get the desired output of maximum reliability at minimum cost. Furthermore, the thesis also discusses the viability and implementation of the resulted topology on typical large aircraft specifications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrivastava, Sachin; Mohite, P. M.
2015-01-01
The minimization of weight and maximization of payload is an ever challenging design procedure for air vehicles. The present study has been carried out with an objective to redesign control surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft. In this study, the structure made up of high strength aluminum, titanium and ferrous alloys has been attempted to replace by carbon fiber composite (CFC) skin, ribs and stiffeners. This study presents an approach towards development of a methodology for optimization of first-ply failure index (FI) in unidirectional fibrous laminates using Genetic-Algorithms (GA) under quasi-static loading. The GAs, by the application of its operators like reproduction, cross-over, mutation and elitist strategy, optimize the ply-orientations in laminates so as to have minimum FI of Tsai-Wu first-ply failure criterion. The GA optimization procedure has been implemented in MATLAB and interfaced with commercial software ABAQUS using python scripting. FI calculations have been carried out in ABAQUS with user material subroutine (UMAT). The GA's application gave reasonably well-optimized ply-orientations combination at a faster convergence rate. However, the final optimized sequence of ply-orientations is obtained by tweaking the sequences given by GA's based on industrial practices and experience, whenever needed. The present study of conversion of an all metallic structure to partial CFC structure has led to 12% of weight reduction. Therefore, the approach proposed here motivates designer to use CFC with a confidence.
A design procedure for the handling qualities optimization of the X-29A aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosworth, John T.; Cox, Timothy H.
1989-01-01
A design technique for handling qualities improvement was developed for the X-29A aircraft. As with any new aircraft, the X-29A control law designers were presented with a relatively high degree of uncertainty in their mathematical models. The presence of uncertainties, and the high level of static instability of the X-29A caused the control law designers to stress stability and robustness over handling qualities. During flight test, the mathematical models of the vehicle were validated or corrected to match the vehicle dynamic behavior. The updated models were then used to fine tune the control system to provide fighter-like handling characteristics. A design methodology was developed which works within the existing control system architecture to provide improved handling qualities and acceptable stability with a minimum of cost in both implementation as well as software verification and validation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berlanga, Antonio; Besada, Juan A.; Herrero, Jesús García; Molina, José M.; Portillo, Javier I.; Casar, José R.
2004-12-01
The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR) is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES) to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paknahad, A.; Nourani, R.
2014-04-01
The main essential topic for the design of articulated pressure vessels is related to the determination of the optimal meridian profile. This article, aimed to present the new model for optimum design of dome contours for filament wound articulated pressure vessels based on non-geodesic trajectories. The current model is a mix of finite element analysis and inertia weight particle swarm optimization algorithm. Geometrical limitations, stability-ensuring winding conditions and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion have been used as optimization constraints. Classical lamination theory and non-geodesic trajectories are used to analyse the field stress equations and increase the structural performance. The geometry of dome contours is defined by the B-spline curves with twenty-one points. The results, when compared to the previously published results, indicate the efficiency of the presented model in achieving superior performance of dome shape for articulated pressure vessels. Also, it is shown that the design based on non-geodesic trajectories using this model gains better response than the design by geodesics type.
Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Araki, Fujio; Maruyama, Masato; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Nakato, Kengo; Nagasue, Nozomu; Kai, Yudai
2015-01-01
Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the performance of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and to optimize the acquisition parameters. We evaluated the relationship between the acquisition parameters of 4D-CBCT and the accuracy of the target motion trajectory using a dynamic thorax phantom. The target motion was created three dimensionally using target sizes of 2 and 3 cm, respiratory cycles of 4 and 8 s, and amplitudes of 1 and 2 cm. The 4D-CBCT data were acquired under two detector configurations: "small mode" and "medium mode". The projection data acquired with scan times ranging from 1 to 4 min were sorted into 2, 5, 10, and 15 phase bins. The accuracy of the measured target motion trajectories was evaluated by means of the root mean square error (RMSE) from the setup values. For the respiratory cycle of 4 s, the measured trajectories were within 2 mm of the setup values for all acquisition times and target sizes. Similarly, the errors for the respiratory cycle of 8 s were <4 mm. When we used 10 or more phase bins, the measured trajectory errors were within 2 mm of the setup values. The trajectory errors for the two detector configurations showed similar trends. The acquisition times for achieving an RMSE of 1 mm for target sizes of 2 and 3 cm were 2 and 1 min, respectively, for respiratory cycles of 4 s. The results obtained in this study enable optimization of the acquisition parameters for target size, respiratory cycle, and desired measurement accuracy. PMID:25287015
Dong, Bing; Li, Yan; Han, Xin-Li; Hu, Bin
2016-01-01
For high-speed aircraft, a conformal window is used to optimize the aerodynamic performance. However, the local shape of the conformal window leads to large amounts of dynamic aberrations varying with look angle. In this paper, deformable mirror (DM) and model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSLAO) are used for dynamic aberration correction of an infrared remote sensor equipped with a conformal window and scanning mirror. In model-based WSLAO, aberration is captured using Lukosz mode, and we use the low spatial frequency content of the image spectral density as the metric function. Simulations show that aberrations induced by the conformal window are dominated by some low-order Lukosz modes. To optimize the dynamic correction, we can only correct dominant Lukosz modes and the image size can be minimized to reduce the time required to compute the metric function. In our experiment, a 37-channel DM is used to mimic the dynamic aberration of conformal window with scanning rate of 10 degrees per second. A 52-channel DM is used for correction. For a 128 × 128 image, the mean value of image sharpness during dynamic correction is 1.436 × 10(-5) in optimized correction and is 1.427 × 10(-5) in un-optimized correction. We also demonstrated that model-based WSLAO can achieve convergence two times faster than traditional stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) method. PMID:27598161
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.
1982-01-01
Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.
Second derivatives of the flutter velocity and the optimization of aircraft structures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudisill, C. S.; Bhatia, K. G.
1972-01-01
Equations for the second partial derivatives of the eigenvalues of the flutter equation along with the equations for finding the second partial derivatives of the flutter velocity of an aircraft structure with respect to the structural parameters are derived. These partial derivatives are used to develop expressions for the step size in a projected gradient search along a constant mass hyperlane. A projected gradient search along with a gradient mass and a gradient velocity search is used to minimize the mass of a box beam which supports a lifting surface.
Tsuijikawa, Y.; Nagaoka, M. )
1991-01-01
This paper is devoted to the analyses and optimization of simple and sophisticated cycles, particularly for various gas turbine engines and aero-engines (including the scramjet engine) to achieve maximum performance. The optimization of such criteria as thermal efficiency, specific output, and total performance for gas turbine engines, and overall efficiency, nondimensional thrust, and specific impulse for aero-engines has been performed by the optimization procedure with the multiplier method. Comparison of results with analytical solutions establishes the validity of the optimization procedure.
Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay
2010-01-01
A linear point design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. This paper derives theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. Experimental simulation results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby
2013-01-01
The Sun-Jupiter Trojan asteroids are celestial bodies of great scientific interest as well as potential resources offering water and other mineral resources for longterm human exploration of the solar system. Previous investigations under this project have addressed the automated design of tours within the asteroid swarm. This investigation expands the current automation scheme by incorporating options for a complete trajectory design approach to the Trojan asteroids. Computational aspects of the design procedure are automated such that end-to-end trajectories are generated with a minimum of human interaction after key elements and constraints associated with a proposed mission concept are specified.
Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Benjamin B.
2004-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.
Optimization of lateral-directional dynamics for an aircraft operating at high angle of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snell, S. A.; Garrard, William L., Jr.; Enns, Dale F.
1991-01-01
In this paper, the control laws for the lateral-directional dynamics of a supermaneuverable aircraft is analyzed with a view to reducing the levels of lateral acceleration and sideslip, which are encountered during aggressive rolling maneuvers at high angles of attack. The analysis uses a linearized model of the lateral-directional dynamics and thus H-free-flow techniques can be applied. It is shown that trade-offs exist between simultaneously minimizing lateral acceleration measured at the pilot's station, ny(p), minimizing sideslip and minimizing tracking errors between the roll-rate about the velocity vector and its command. The paper concludes that a significant reduction in ny(p) is only attainable by compromising the roll-rate performance.
cost and benefits optimization model for fault-tolerant aircraft electronic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
The factors involved in economic assessment of fault tolerant systems (FTS) and fault tolerant flight control systems (FTFCS) are discussed. Algorithms for optimization and economic analysis of FTFCS are documented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.
2000-01-01
The NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) can configure and analyze almost any type of gas turbine engine that can be generated through the interconnection of a set of standard physical components. In addition, the code can optimize engine performance by changing adjustable variables under a set of constraints. However, for engine cycle problems at certain operating points, the NEPP code can encounter difficulties: nonconvergence in the currently implemented Powell's optimization algorithm and deficiencies in the Newton-Raphson solver during engine balancing. A project was undertaken to correct these deficiencies. Nonconvergence was avoided through a cascade optimization strategy, and deficiencies associated with engine balancing were eliminated through neural network and linear regression methods. An approximation-interspersed cascade strategy was used to optimize the engine's operation over its flight envelope. Replacement of Powell's algorithm by the cascade strategy improved the optimization segment of the NEPP code. The performance of the linear regression and neural network methods as alternative engine analyzers was found to be satisfactory. This report considers two examples-a supersonic mixed-flow turbofan engine and a subsonic waverotor-topped engine-to illustrate the results, and it discusses insights gained from the improved version of the NEPP code.
Departure Trajectory Synthesis and the Intercept Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolender, Michael A.; Slater, G. L.
1997-01-01
Two areas of the departure problem in air traffic control are discussed. The first topic is the generation of climb-out trajectories to a fix. The trajectories would be utilized by a scheduling algorithm to allocate runways, sequence the proposed departures, and assign a departure time. The second area is concerned with finding horizontal trajectories to merge aircraft from the TRACON to an open slot in the en-route environment. Solutions are presented for the intercept problem for two cases: (1) the aircraft is traveling at the speed of the aircraft in the jetway; (2) the merging aircraft has to accelerate to reach the speed of the aircraft in the en-route stream. An algorithm is given regarding the computation of a solution for the latter case. For the former, a set of equations is given that allows us to numerically solve for the coordinate where the merge will occur.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fuying
1989-01-01
Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. The general flight dynamic equations are numerically integrated and dynamic characteristics are then identified from the dynamic response. The design variables are determined iteratively by the optimizer to optimize a prescribed objective function which is related to desired dynamic characteristics. Generality of the method allows nonlinear effects to aerodynamics and dynamic coupling to be considered in the design process. To demonstrate the method, nonlinear simulation models for an F-5A and an F-16 configurations are used to design dampers to satisfy specifications on flying qualities and control systems to prevent departure. The results indicate that the present method is simple in formulation and effective in satisfying the design objectives.
Low order H∞ optimal control for ACFA blended wing body aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haniš, T.; Kucera, V.; Hromčík, M.
2013-12-01
Advanced nonconvex nonsmooth optimization techniques for fixed-order H∞ robust control are proposed in this paper for design of flight control systems (FCS) with prescribed structure. Compared to classical techniques - tuning of and successive closures of particular single-input single-output (SISO) loops like dampers, attitude stabilizers, etc. - all loops are designed simultaneously by means of quite intuitive weighting filters selection. In contrast to standard optimization techniques, though (H2, H∞ optimization), the resulting controller respects the prescribed structure in terms of engaged channels and orders (e. g., proportional (P), proportional-integral (PI), and proportional-integralderivative (PID) controllers). In addition, robustness with regard to multimodel uncertainty is also addressed which is of most importance for aerospace applications as well. Such a way, robust controllers for various Mach numbers, altitudes, or mass cases can be obtained directly, based only on particular mathematical models for respective combinations of the §ight parameters.
Optimal design of control systems for prevention of aircraft flight departure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fu-Ying
1990-01-01
Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. In the analysis, the general nonlinear flight dynamic equations with nonlinear aerodynamics are numerically integrated; and the dynamic characteristics needed in the optimization process are then identified from the dynamic response. To assure a reasonable solution, the initial input values of the design variables are estimated through a sensitivity analysis. To demonstrate the method, the pitch departure prevention for an F-16 configuration is demonstrated.
Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.
1988-01-01
A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushida, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Kitamura, Akira
Standing from a chair is an important task of daily living for physically handicapped people. In a rehabilitation center, a health care professional is planning motion based on the experience and knowledge so that a patient may stand up with few loads. Therefore, there is a problem that the plan is different occasionally as each health care professional. In this paper, a generation method of motion trajectory to stand from a seated position with few loads by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) was proposed. The human body was expressed as three-rigid-link model. In the model, the ankle, the knee, and the waist were set to the joint. Moreover, Electromyography (EMG) generated from the muscle to drive each joint was measured, and the model between each joint torque and EMG was constructed with the ARX model. The motion trajectory to stand from the seated position was generated by using GA with the evaluation function based on the constructed ARX model. The generated motion trajectory was evaluated by the experimental work with eight healthy subjects. As a result, the effect of the proposed method was objectively verified by subject's EMG. In addition, subjective effect of the proposed method was verified by analysis of variance about subject's impression.
Piloted simulation of an algorithm for onboard control of time-optimal intercept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, D. B.; Calise, A. J.; Moerder, D. D.
1985-01-01
A piloted simulation of algorithms for onboard computation of trajectories for time-optimal intercept of a moving target by an F-8 aircraft is described. The algorithms, use singular perturbation techniques, generate commands in the cockpit. By centering the horizontal and vertical needles, the pilot flies an approximation to a time-optimal intercept trajectory. Example simulations are shown and statistical data on the pilot's performance when presented with different display and computation modes are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lester, H. C.; Posey, J. W.
1975-01-01
An acoustical field theory for axisymmetric, multisectioned lined ducts with uniform flow profiles was combined with a numerical minimization algorithm to predict optimal liner configurations having one, two, and three sections. Source models studied include a point source located on the axis of the duct and rotor/outlet-stator viscous wake interaction effects for a typical research compressor operating at an axial flow Mach number of about 0.4. For this latter source, optimal liners for equipartition-of energy, zero-phase, and least-attenuated-mode source variations were also calculated and compared with exact results. It is found that the potential benefits of liner segmentation for the attenuation of turbomachinery noise is greater than would be predicted from point source results. Furthermore, effective liner design requires precise knowledge of the circumferential and radial modal distributions.
Trajectory Synthesis for Fisher Information Maximization
Wilson, Andrew D.; Schultz, Jarvis A.; Murphey, Todd D.
2015-01-01
Estimation of model parameters in a dynamic system can be significantly improved with the choice of experimental trajectory. For general nonlinear dynamic systems, finding globally “best” trajectories is typically not feasible; however, given an initial estimate of the model parameters and an initial trajectory, we present a continuous-time optimization method that produces a locally optimal trajectory for parameter estimation in the presence of measurement noise. The optimization algorithm is formulated to find system trajectories that improve a norm on the Fisher information matrix (FIM). A double-pendulum cart apparatus is used to numerically and experimentally validate this technique. In simulation, the optimized trajectory increases the minimum eigenvalue of the FIM by three orders of magnitude, compared with the initial trajectory. Experimental results show that this optimized trajectory translates to an order-of-magnitude improvement in the parameter estimate error in practice. PMID:25598763
Implementation of a Landing Footprint Algorithm for the HTV-2 and Trajectory Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Casie M.
2012-01-01
This presentation details work performed during the Fall 2011 term in the Research Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Included is a study on a possible landing footprint algorithm, with direct application to the HTV-2. Also discussed is work in support of the MIPCC effort, which includes optimal trajectory solutions for the F-15A Streak Eagle aircraft and theoretical performance of an F-15A with a MIPCC propulsion system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riedel, S. A.
1979-01-01
A method by which modern and classical control theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well. The first step is to establish the differences, distinguishing characteristics and connections between the modern and classical control theory approaches. Ultimately, this uncovers a relationship between bandwidth goals familiar in classical control and cost function weights in the equivalent optimal system. In order to obtain a practical optimal solution, it is also necessary to formulate the problem very carefully, and each choice of state, measurement and output variable must be judiciously considered. Once design goals are established and problem formulation completed, the control system is synthesized in a straightforward manner. Three steps are involved: filter-observer solution, regulator solution, and the combination of those two into the controller. Assessment of the controller permits and examination and expansion of the synthesis results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy; Kilver, Jacob
2013-01-01
This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model applied to an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. Here, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) serves as the MBEC application engine. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC over a wide range of operating points. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from CMAPSS40k and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. Investigations using the MBEC to provide a stall margin limit for the controller protection logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in traditional engine control architectures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lores, M. E.; Smith, P. R.; Large, R. A.
1980-01-01
An efficient transonic wing design procedure based upon numerical optimization together with three-dimensional transonic methods has been developed and used to design an advanced transport wing. The method development included an examination of the use of both full potential and extended small disturbance analysis codes and demonstrated that the former formulation was more reliable. In either case, the design procedure is economical and easy to use. Design verification in a unique semi-span test arrangement demonstrated that the design method produced a wing which satisfied the study design requirements. However, aeroelastic deformation of the wing occurred during the wind tunnel test. The computational methods used in the design procedure were employed to assess the effect of the aeroelastic deformation. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the design procedure and recommendation for its improvement.
A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar
2015-01-01
In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.
NextGen Far-Term Concept Exploration for Integrated Gate-to-Gate Trajectory-Based Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Sally C.; Barmore, Bryan E.
2016-01-01
NASA is currently conducting concept exploration studies toward the definition of a far-term, gate-to-gate concept for Trajectory-Based Operations. This paper presents a basic architectural framework for the far-term concept and discusses some observations about implementation of trajectory-based operations in the National Airspace System. Within the concept, operators and service providers collaboratively negotiate aircraft trajectories, providing agile, optimized, aircraft-specific routing to meet service provider gate-to-gate flow-management constraints and increasing capacity by smoothly and effectively combining flight-deck-based and ground-based metering, merging, and spacing in a mixed-equipage environment. The far-term TBO concept is intended to influence the direction of mid-term TBO research and to inform the definition of stable requirements and standards for TBO communications infrastructure and user equipage.
Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.
2005-01-01
Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehder, J. J.
1975-01-01
One candidate for a reusable upper stage to be carried by the space shuttle is an aeromaneuvering orbit-to-orbit shuttle (AMOOS). This concept uses the drag of the vehicle during a pass through the atmosphere rather than the propulsion system to slow the vehicle on a return from a high energy orbit. The nature and magnitude of the sensitivity of AMOOS to uncertainties in the properties of the atmosphere are shown. Various guidance schemes for correcting for the effects that the unpredictable variations in the atmosphere have on the trajectory are discussed. For the mission studied here, a payload retrieval from geosynchronous orbit with aerodynamic plane change, a linear feedback guidance scheme was developed. A relatively simple heuristic law was used to demonstrate the concept. Using optimal control theory a feedback law was developed analytically. Testing with a large number of different atmospheres showed this law to be a feasible means of controlling the AMOOS trajectory. Refinements to the technique offer promise of significant improvement, and these are discussed.
Feedback laws for fuel minimization for transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, D. B.; Gracey, C.
1984-01-01
The Theoretical Mechanics Branch has as one of its long-range goals to work toward solving real-time trajectory optimization problems on board an aircraft. This is a generic problem that has application to all aspects of aviation from general aviation through commercial to military. Overall interest is in the generic problem, but specific problems to achieve concrete results are examined. The problem is to develop control laws that generate approximately optimal trajectories with respect to some criteria such as minimum time, minimum fuel, or some combination of the two. These laws must be simple enough to be implemented on a computer that is flown on board an aircraft, which implies a major simplification from the two point boundary value problem generated by a standard trajectory optimization problem. In addition, the control laws allow for changes in end conditions during the flight, and changes in weather along a planned flight path. Therefore, a feedback control law that generates commands based on the current state rather than a precomputed open-loop control law is desired. This requirement, along with the need for order reduction, argues for the application of singular perturbation techniques.
Brown, Zachary S.; Dickinson, Katherine L.; Kramer, Randall A.
2014-01-01
The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of knowing whether insecticide resistance mutations involve fitness costs. Using a theoretical model, this article investigates economically optimal strategies for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes when there is the potential for mosquitoes to evolve resistance to insecticides. Consistent with previous literature, we find that fitness costs are a key element in the computation of economically optimal resistance management strategies. Additionally, our models indicate that different biological mechanisms underlying these fitness costs (e.g., increased adult mortality and/or decreased fecundity) can significantly alter economically optimal resistance management strategies. PMID:23448053
A linear input-varying framework for modeling and control of morphing aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Daniel T.
2011-12-01
Morphing, which changes the shape and configuration of an aircraft, is being adopted to expand mission capabilities of aircraft. The introduction of biological-inspired morphing is particularly attractive in that highly-agile birds present examples of desired shapes and configurations. A previous study adopted such morphing by designing a multiple-joint wing that represented the shoulder and elbow joints of a bird. The resulting variable-gull aircraft could rotate the wing section vertically at these joints to alter the flight dynamics. This paper extends that multiple-joint concept to allow a variable-sweep wing with independent inboard and outboard sections. The aircraft is designed and analyzed to demonstrate the range of flight dynamics which result from the morphing. In particular, the vehicle is shown to have enhanced crosswind rejection which is a certainly critical metric for the urban environments in which these aircraft are anticipated to operate. Mission capability can be enabled by morphing an aircraft to optimize its aerodynamics and associated flight dynamics for each maneuver. Such optimization often consider the steady-state behavior of the configuration; however, the transient behavior must also be analyzed. In particular, the time-varying inertias have an effect on the flight dynamics that can adversely affect mission performance if not properly compensated. These inertia terms cause coupling between the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics even for maneuvers around trim. A simulation of a variable-sweep aircraft undergoing a symmetric morphing for an altitude change shows a noticeable lateral translation in the flight path because of the induced asymmetry. The flight dynamics of morphing aircraft must be analyzed to ensure shape-changing trajectories have the desired characteristics. The tools for describing flight dynamics of fixed-geometry aircraft are not valid for time-varying systems such as morphing aircraft. This paper introduces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zipf, Mark E.
1989-01-01
An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pototzky, Anthony S.; Heeg, Jennifer; Perry, Boyd, III
1990-01-01
Time-correlated gust loads are time histories of two or more load quantities due to the same disturbance time history. Time correlation provides knowledge of the value (magnitude and sign) of one load when another is maximum. At least two analysis methods have been identified that are capable of computing maximized time-correlated gust loads for linear aircraft. Both methods solve for the unit-energy gust profile (gust velocity as a function of time) that produces the maximum load at a given location on a linear airplane. Time-correlated gust loads are obtained by re-applying this gust profile to the airplane and computing multiple simultaneous load responses. Such time histories are physically realizable and may be applied to aircraft structures. Within the past several years there has been much interest in obtaining a practical analysis method which is capable of solving the analogous problem for nonlinear aircraft. Such an analysis method has been the focus of an international committee of gust loads specialists formed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and was the topic of a panel discussion at the Gust and Buffet Loads session at the 1989 SDM Conference in Mobile, Alabama. The kinds of nonlinearities common on modern transport aircraft are indicated. The Statical Discrete Gust method is capable of being, but so far has not been, applied to nonlinear aircraft. To make the method practical for nonlinear applications, a search procedure is essential. Another method is based on Matched Filter Theory and, in its current form, is applicable to linear systems only. The purpose here is to present the status of an attempt to extend the matched filter approach to nonlinear systems. The extension uses Matched Filter Theory as a starting point and then employs a constrained optimization algorithm to attack the nonlinear problem.
Effects of modeling errors on trajectory predictions in air traffic control automation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Michael R. C.; Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda
1996-01-01
Air traffic control automation synthesizes aircraft trajectories for the generation of advisories. Trajectory computation employs models of aircraft performances and weather conditions. In contrast, actual trajectories are flown in real aircraft under actual conditions. Since synthetic trajectories are used in landing scheduling and conflict probing, it is very important to understand the differences between computed trajectories and actual trajectories. This paper examines the effects of aircraft modeling errors on the accuracy of trajectory predictions in air traffic control automation. Three-dimensional point-mass aircraft equations of motion are assumed to be able to generate actual aircraft flight paths. Modeling errors are described as uncertain parameters or uncertain input functions. Pilot or autopilot feedback actions are expressed as equality constraints to satisfy control objectives. A typical trajectory is defined by a series of flight segments with different control objectives for each flight segment and conditions that define segment transitions. A constrained linearization approach is used to analyze trajectory differences caused by various modeling errors by developing a linear time varying system that describes the trajectory errors, with expressions to transfer the trajectory errors across moving segment transitions. A numerical example is presented for a complete commercial aircraft descent trajectory consisting of several flight segments.
Amador-Angulo, Leticia; Mendoza, Olivia; Castro, Juan R; Rodríguez-Díaz, Antonio; Melin, Patricia; Castillo, Oscar
2016-01-01
A hybrid approach composed by different types of fuzzy systems, such as the Type-1 Fuzzy Logic System (T1FLS), Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2FLS) and Generalized Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System (GT2FLS) for the dynamic adaptation of the alpha and beta parameters of a Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) algorithm is presented. The objective of the work is to focus on the BCO technique to find the optimal distribution of the membership functions in the design of fuzzy controllers. We use BCO specifically for tuning membership functions of the fuzzy controller for trajectory stability in an autonomous mobile robot. We add two types of perturbations in the model for the Generalized Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System to better analyze its behavior under uncertainty and this shows better results when compared to the original BCO. We implemented various performance indices; ITAE, IAE, ISE, ITSE, RMSE and MSE to measure the performance of the controller. The experimental results show better performances using GT2FLS then by IT2FLS and T1FLS in the dynamic adaptation the parameters for the BCO algorithm. PMID:27618062
Methods for control over learning individual trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.
2015-09-01
The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.
Analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic flight trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ping
1992-01-01
The flight trajectory of aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints is considered. The constrained dynamics is shown to be a natural two-time-scale system. Asymptotic analytical solutions are obtained. Problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified with these solutions. Applications in trajectory design for an aerospace plane strongly support the theoretical development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barton, J. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Shi, W.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Ferron, J. R.; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.; Luce, T. C.; Turco, F.; Penaflor, B. G.; Johnson, R. D.
2015-09-01
DIII-D experimental results are reported to demonstrate the potential of physics-model-based safety factor profile control for robust and reproducible sustainment of advanced scenarios. In the absence of feedback control, variability in wall conditions and plasma impurities, as well as drifts due to external disturbances, can limit the reproducibility of discharges with simple pre-programmed scenario trajectories. The control architecture utilized is a feedforward + feedback scheme where the feedforward commands are computed off-line and the feedback commands are computed on-line. In this work, a first-principles-driven (FPD), physics-based model of the q profile and normalized beta ({β\\text{N}} ) dynamics is first embedded into a numerical optimization algorithm to design feedforward actuator trajectories that steer the plasma through the tokamak operating space to reach a desired stationary target state that is characterized by the achieved q profile and {β\\text{N}} . Good agreement between experimental results and simulations demonstrates the accuracy of the models employed for physics-model-based control design. Second, a feedback algorithm for q profile control is designed following an FPD approach, and the ability of the controller to achieve and maintain a target q profile evolution is tested in DIII-D high confinement (H-mode) experiments. The controller is shown to be able to effectively control the q profile when {β\\text{N}} is relatively close to the target, indicating the need for integrated q profile and {β\\text{N}} control to further enhance the ability to achieve robust scenario execution. The ability of an integrated q profile + {β\\text{N}} feedback controller to track a desired target is demonstrated through simulation.
Study of fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peeples, M. E.; Herring, R. L.
1976-01-01
Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.
Constrained optimum trajectories with specified range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erzberger, H.; Lee, H.
1980-01-01
The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating costs (DOC). The state variable is range-to-go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (500 n. mi. and less) a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur. The performance difference between free thrust and constrained thrust trajectories has been determined in computer calculations for an example transport aircraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaloyanova, Valentina B.
Recent research trends have indicated an interest in High-Altitude, Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft as a low-cost alternative to certain space missions, such as telecommunication relay, environmental sensing and military reconnaissance. HALE missions require a light vehicle flying at low speed in the stratosphere at altitudes of 60,000-80,000 ft, with a continuous loiter time of up to several days. To provide high lift and low drag at these high altitudes, where the air density is low, the wing area should be increased, i.e., high-aspect-ratio wings are necessary. Due to its large span and lightweight, the wing structure is very flexible. To reduce the structural deformation, and increase the total lift in a long-spanned wing, a sensorcraft model with a joined-wing configuration, proposed by AFRL, is employed. The joined-wing encompasses a forward wing, which is swept back with a positive dihedral angle, and connected with an aft wing, which is swept forward. The joined-wing design combines structural strength, high aerodynamic performance and efficiency. As a first step to study the joined-wing structural behavior an 1-D approximation model is developed. The 1-D approximation is a simple structural model created using ANSYS BEAM4 elements to present a possible approach for the aerodynamics-structure coupling. The pressure loads from the aerodynamic analysis are integrated numerically to obtain the resultant aerodynamic forces and moments (spanwise lift and pitching moment distributions, acting at the aerodynamic center). These are applied on the 1-D structural model. A linear static analysis is performed under this equivalent load, and the deformed shape of the 1-D model is used to obtain the deformed shape of the actual 3-D joined wing, i.e. deformed aerodynamic surface grid. To date in the existing studies, only simplified structural models have been examined. In the present work, in addition to the simple 1-D beam model, a semi-monocoque structural model is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.
2001-01-01
America's air transport system is currently faced with two equally important dilemmas. First, congestion and delays associated with the overburdened hub and spoke system will continue to worsen unless dramatic changes are made in the way air transportation services are provided. Second, many communities and various regions of the country have not benefited from the air transport system, which tends to focus its attention on major population centers. An emerging solution to both problems is a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), which will utilize a new generation of advanced small aircraft to provide air transport services to those citizens who are poorly served by the hub and spoke system and those citizens who are not served at all. Using new innovations in navigation, communication, and propulsion technologies, these aircraft will enable users to safely and reliably access the over 5,000 general aviation landing facilities around the United States. A small aircraft transportation system holds the potential to revolutionize the way Americans travel and to greatly enhance the use of air transport as an economic development tool in rural and isolated communities across the nation.
Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.
Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippone, Antonio
2014-07-01
This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.
Towards a Formal Semantics of Flight Plans and Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.
2014-01-01
In the National Airspace System, ight plans are often used only as a planning tool by air trac controllers and aircraft operators. These plans are implicitly translated into trajectories by the pilot or by the ight management system, and subsequently own by the aircraft. This translation process inevitably introduces di erences between the plan and the trajectory. However, given the current intended usage, exact correspondence between the plan and the trajectory is not needed. To achieve greater capacity and eciency, future air trac management concepts are being designed around the use of trajectories where predictability is extremely important. In this paper, a mathematical relationship between ight plans and trajectories is explored with the goal of making feasible, highly accurate predictions of future positions and velocities of aircraft. The goal here is to describe, in mathematically precise detail, a formal language of trajectories, whereby all receivers of the trajectory information will be able to arrive at precisely the same trajectory predication and to do this without having aircraft broadcast a large amount of data. Although even a four-dimensional ight plan is simple in structure, this paper will show that it is inherently ambiguous and will explore these issues in detail. In e ect, we propose that a rigorous semantics for ight plans can be developed and this will serve as an important stepping stone towards trajectory-based operations in the National Airspace System.