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Sample records for aircraft wing box

  1. Equivalent plate analysis of aircraft wing box structures with general planform geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new equivalent plate analysis formulation is described which is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. Multiple trapezoidal segments are used to represent such planforms. A Ritz solution technique is used in conjunction with global displacement functions which encompass all the segments. This Ritz solution procedure is implemented efficiently into a computer program so that it can be used by rigorous optimization algorithms for application in early preliminary design. A direct method to interface this structural analysis procedure with aerodynamic programs for use in aeroelastic calculations is described. This equivalent plate analysis procedure is used to calculate the static deflections and stresses and vibration frequencies and modes of an example wing configuration. The numerical results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same configuration to illustrate typical levels of accuracy and computation times resulting from use of this procedure.

  2. Equivalent plate analysis of aircraft wing box structures with general planform geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new equilvalent plate analysis formulation is described which is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. Multiple trapezoidal segments are used to represent such planforms. A Ritz solution technique is used in conjunction with global displacement functions which encompass all the segments. This Ritz solution procedure is implemented efficiently into a computer program so that it can be used by rigorous optimization algorithms for application in early preliminary design. A direct method to interface this structural analysis procedure with aerodynamic programs for use in aeroelastic calculations is described. This equivalent plate analysis procedure is used to calculate the static deflections and stresses and vibration frequencies and modes of an example wing configuration. The numerical results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same configuration to illustrate typical levels of accuracy and computation times resulting from use of this procedure.

  3. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  4. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  5. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  6. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  7. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  8. Control of a swept wing tailless aircraft through wing morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiler, Richard W.

    Inspired by flight in nature, work done by Lippisch, the Hortens, and Northrop offered insight to achieving the efficiency of bird flight with swept-wing tailless aircraft. Tailless designs must incorporate aerodynamic compromises for control, which have inhibited potential advantages. A morphing mechanism, capable of changing the twist of wing and that can also provide pitch, roll and yaw control for a tailless swept wing aircraft is the first step to a series of morphing techniques, which will lead to more fluid, bird-like flight. This research focuses on investigating the design of a morphing wing to improve the flight characteristics of swept wing Horten type tailless aircraft. Free flight demonstrators, wind tunnel flow visualization, wind-tunnel force and moment data along with CFD studies have been used to evaluate the stability, control and efficiency of a morphing swept wing tailless aircraft. A wing morphing mechanism for the control of a swept wing tailless aircraft has been developed. This new control technique was experimentally and numerically compared to an existing elevon equipped tailless aircraft and has shown the potential for significant improvement in efficiency. The feasibility of this mechanism was also validated through flight testing of a flight weight version. In the process of comparing the Horten type elevon equipped aircraft and the morphing model, formal wind tunnel verification of wingtip induced thrust, found in Horten (Bell Shaped Lift distribution) type swept wing tailless aircraft was documented. A more complete physical understanding of the highly complex flow generated in the control region of the morphing tailless aircraft has been developed. CFD models indicate the possibility of the presence of a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) on the control section morphing wing when the tip is twisted between +3.5 degrees and +7 degrees. The presence of this LEV causes a reduction of drag while lift is increased. Similar LEVs have been

  9. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  10. Free wing assembly for an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A free wing is attached to a fuselage of an aircraft in a manner such that the wing is free to pivot about a spanwise axis forward of its aerodynamic center. The wing is angularly displaced about the axis by aerodynamic pitching moments, resulting from lift, and is trimmed through a use of a trimmable free stabilizer comprising a floating canard mounted on a strut rigidly connected to the wing and projected forward from it.

  11. Aircraft wing weight build-up methodology with modification for materials and construction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, P.; Labell, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An aircraft wing weight estimating method based on a component buildup technique is described. A simplified analytically derived beam model, modified by a regression analysis, is used to estimate the wing box weight, utilizing a data base of 50 actual airplane wing weights. Factors representing materials and methods of construction were derived and incorporated into the basic wing box equations. Weight penalties to the wing box for fuel, engines, landing gear, stores and fold or pivot are also included. Methods for estimating the weight of additional items (secondary structure, control surfaces) have the option of using details available at the design stage (i.e., wing box area, flap area) or default values based on actual aircraft from the data base.

  12. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  13. Incompressible flutter characteristics of representative aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilts, C H

    1958-01-01

    This report gives the results of a detailed study of the flutter characteristics of four representative aircraft wings. This study was made using the electric-analog computer at the California Institute of Technology. During the course of this investigation eight important parameters of each wing were varied and, in addition, the effects of mass, inertia, pitching spring, and location of a concentrated mass were investigated for all four wings and at several sweepback angles.

  14. Frequencies and Flutter Speed Estimation for Damaged Aircraft Wing Using Scaled Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalent plate analysis is often used to replace the computationally expensive finite element analysis in initial design stages or in conceptual design of aircraft wing structures. The equivalent plate model can also be used to design a wind tunnel model to match the stiffness characteristics of the wing box of a full-scale aircraft wing model while satisfying strength-based requirements An equivalent plate analysis technique is presented to predict the static and dynamic response of an aircraft wing with or without damage. First, a geometric scale factor and a dynamic pressure scale factor are defined to relate the stiffness, load and deformation of the equivalent plate to the aircraft wing. A procedure using an optimization technique is presented to create scaled equivalent plate models from the full scale aircraft wing using geometric and dynamic pressure scale factors. The scaled models are constructed by matching the stiffness of the scaled equivalent plate with the scaled aircraft wing stiffness. It is demonstrated that the scaled equivalent plate model can be used to predict the deformation of the aircraft wing accurately. Once the full equivalent plate geometry is obtained, any other scaled equivalent plate geometry can be obtained using the geometric scale factor. Next, an average frequency scale factor is defined as the average ratio of the frequencies of the aircraft wing to the frequencies of the full-scaled equivalent plate. The average frequency scale factor combined with the geometric scale factor is used to predict the frequency response of the aircraft wing from the scaled equivalent plate analysis. A procedure is outlined to estimate the frequency response and the flutter speed of an aircraft wing from the equivalent plate analysis using the frequency scale factor and geometric scale factor. The equivalent plate analysis is demonstrated using an aircraft wing without damage and another with damage. Both of the problems show that the scaled

  15. Wing design for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the design of the wing-box structure for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The wing structural weight is to be minimized subject to structural and aeroelastic constraints. The composite wing-box structure is composed of skin, stringers, ribs, and spars. The design variables include skin ply thicknesses and orientations and spar cap and stringer cross-sectional areas. With the total task defined, an initial study was conducted to learn more about the intricate dynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the tiltrotor aircraft and their roles in the wing design. Also, some work was done on the wing finite-element modeling (via PATRAN) which would be used in structural analysis and optimization. Initial studies indicate that in order to limit the wing/rotor aeroelastic and dynamic interactions in the preliminary design, the cruise speed, rotor system, and wing geometric attributes must all be held fixed.

  16. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis of wings using Euler/Navier-Stokes equations coupled with improved wing-box finite element structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; MacMurdy, Dale E.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1994-01-01

    Strong interactions between flow about an aircraft wing and the wing structure can result in aeroelastic phenomena which significantly impact aircraft performance. Time-accurate methods for solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations have matured to the point where reliable results can be obtained with reasonable computational costs for complex non-linear flows with shock waves, vortices and separations. The ability to combine such a flow solver with a general finite element structural model is key to an aeroelastic analysis in these flows. Earlier work involved time-accurate integration of modal structural models based on plate elements. A finite element model was developed to handle three-dimensional wing boxes, and incorporated into the flow solver without the need for modal analysis. Static condensation is performed on the structural model to reduce the structural degrees of freedom for the aeroelastic analysis. Direct incorporation of the finite element wing-box structural model with the flow solver requires finding adequate methods for transferring aerodynamic pressures to the structural grid and returning deflections to the aerodynamic grid. Several schemes were explored for handling the grid-to-grid transfer of information. The complex, built-up nature of the wing-box complicated this transfer. Aeroelastic calculations for a sample wing in transonic flow comparing various simple transfer schemes are presented and discussed.

  18. Aeroelastic Analysis of Aircraft: Wing and Wing/Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. H.; Chang, K. C.; Tzong, T.; Cebeci, T.

    1997-01-01

    A previously developed interface method for coupling aerodynamics and structures is used to evaluate the aeroelastic effects for an advanced transport wing at cruise and under-cruise conditions. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel test data. The capability of the interface method is also investigated for an MD-90 wing/fuselage configuration. In addition, an aircraft trim analysis is described and applied to wing configurations. The accuracy of turbulence models based on the algebraic eddy viscosity formulation of Cebeci and Smith is studied for airfoil flows at low Mach numbers by using methods based on the solutions of the boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes equations.

  19. Structural Testing of a Stitched/Resin Film Infused Graphite-Epoxy Wing Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the behavior of an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with non-visible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole.

  20. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  1. Aircraft noise propagation. [sound diffraction by wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J.; Pierce, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Sound diffraction experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to study the acoustical implications of the engine over wing configuration (noise-shielding by wing) and to provide a data base for assessing various theoretical approaches to the problem of aircraft noise reduction are described. Topics explored include the theory of sound diffraction around screens and wedges; the scattering of spherical waves by rectangular patches; plane wave diffraction by a wedge with finite impedence; and the effects of ambient flow and distribution sources.

  2. Reconfiguration control system for an aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakayama, Sean R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Independently deflectable control surfaces are located on the trailing edge of the wing of a blended wing-body aircraft. The reconfiguration control system of the present invention controls the deflection of each control surface to optimize the spanwise lift distribution across the wing for each of several flight conditions, e.g., cruise, pitch maneuver, and high lift at low speed. The control surfaces are deflected and reconfigured to their predetermined optimal positions when the aircraft is in each of the aforementioned flight conditions. With respect to cruise, the reconfiguration control system will maximize the lift to drag ratio and keep the aircraft trimmed at a stable angle of attack. In a pitch maneuver, the control surfaces are deflected to pitch the aircraft and increase lift. Moreover, this increased lift has its spanwise center of pressure shifted inboard relative to its location for cruise. This inboard shifting reduces the increased bending moment about the aircraft's x-axis occasioned by the increased pitch force acting normal to the wing. To optimize high lift at low speed, during take-off and landing for example, the control surfaces are reconfigured to increase the local maximum coefficient of lift at stall-critical spanwise locations while providing pitch trim with control surfaces that are not stall critical.

  3. Electron beam welding of aircraft structures. [joining of titanium alloy wing structures on F-14 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements for advanced aircraft have led to more extensive use of titanium alloys and the resultant search for joining processes which can produce lightweight, high strength airframe structures efficiently. As a result, electron beam welding has been investigated. The following F-14A components are now being EB welded in production and are mainly annealed Ti-6Al-4V except for the upper wing cover which is annealed Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn: F-14A wing center section box, and F-14A lower and upper wing covers joined to wing pivot fitting assemblies. Criteria for selection of welding processes, the EB welding facility, development work on EB welding titanium alloys, and F-14A production and sliding seal electron beam welding are reported.

  4. Structural Test Documentation and Results for the McDonnell Douglas All-Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the behavior of an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing stub box is representative of a section of a commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company as part of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage and repairs. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 140 percent of Design Limit Load prior to failure through an impact site.

  5. Performance of rotating-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K

    1938-01-01

    Up to the present there has been no coordinated presentation from which the influence of the constants essential for the performance of rotating-wing aircraft could be obtained in a systematic manner. The attempt at such a survey is made in the following, whereby nonessential factors, such as effect of blade form, blade profile, blade number, and blade twist on the performances are disregarded. Even the torsional flexibility of the blades is overlooked.

  6. Continuous measurement of aircraft wing icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Stephen S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ice formation on the wings of aircraft is a problem that has plagued air travel since its inception. Several recent incidents have been attributed to ice formation on the lifting surfaces of wings. This paper describes a SBIR Phase 1 research effort on the use of small flat dielectric sensors in detecting a layer of ice above the sensor. The sensors are very small, lightweight, and inexpensive. The electronics package that controls the sensor is also small, and could be even smaller using commonly available miniaturization technologies. Thus, several sensors could be placed on a surface such that a representative ice thickness profile could be measured. The benefits offered by developing this technology go beyond the safety improvements realized by monitoring ice formation on the wings of an aircraft. Continuous monitoring of anti-icing fluid concentrations on the ground would warn the pilot of impending fluid failure as well as allowing the stations to use less de-icing solution per aircraft. This in turn would increase the safety of takeoffs and reduce the overall discharge of de-icing solution into the environment, thus reducing the biohazard of the de-icing procedure.

  7. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  8. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  9. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. A CFD/CSD interaction methodology for aircraft wings

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, M.K.; Kapania, R.K.; Reichenbach, E.; Guruswamy, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    With advanced subsonic transports and military aircraft operating in the transonic regime, it is becoming important to determine the effects of the coupling between aerodynamic loads and elastic forces. Since aeroelastic effects can significantly impact the design of these aircraft, there is a strong need in the aerospace industry to predict these interactions computationally. Such an analysis in the transonic regime requires high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools, due to the nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamics in the transonic regime and also high fidelity computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis tools. Also, there is a need to be able to use a wide variety of CFD and CSD methods to predict aeroelastic effects. Since source codes are not always available, it is necessary to couple the CFD and CSD codes without alteration of the source codes. In this study, an aeroelastic coupling procedure is developed to determine the static aeroelastic response of aircraft wings using any CFD and CSD code with little code integration. The aeroelastic coupling procedure is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas CFD code) and NASTRAN. In addition, the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2) is used for demonstration of the aeroelastic coupling procedure by using ENSAERO (NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) and a finite element wing-box code. The results obtained from the present study are compared with those available from an experimental study conducted at NASA Langley Research Center and a study conducted at NASA Ames Research Center using ENSAERO and modal superposition. The results compare well with experimental data.

  11. Thermal Analysis of a High-Speed Aircraft Wing Using p-Version Finite Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Dana C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of conceptual level thermal analyses of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing using p-version finite elements. The work was motivated by a thermal analysis of a HSCT wing structure which showed the importance of radiation heat transfer throughout the structure. The analysis also showed that refining a traditional finite element mesh to accurately capture the temperature distribution on the internal structure led to very large meshes with unacceptably long execution times. Further study indicated using p-version finite elements might improve computation performance for this class of problem. Methods for determining internal radiation heat transfer were then developed and demonstrated on test problems representative of the geometry found in an aircraft wing structure. This paper presents the results of the application of these new methods to the analysis of a high speed aircraft wing. Results for both a wing box model as well as a full wing model are presented. 'Me reduced wing box model allows for a comparison of the traditional finite element method with mesh refinement (h-refinement) to the new p-version finite elements while the full wing model demonstrates the applicability and efficiency of p-version finite elements for large models.

  12. A CFD/CSD Interaction Methodology for Aircraft Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Manoj K.

    1997-01-01

    With advanced subsonic transports and military aircraft operating in the transonic regime, it is becoming important to determine the effects of the coupling between aerodynamic loads and elastic forces. Since aeroelastic effects can contribute significantly to the design of these aircraft, there is a strong need in the aerospace industry to predict these aero-structure interactions computationally. To perform static aeroelastic analysis in the transonic regime, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools must be used in conjunction with high fidelity computational structural fluid dynamics (CSD) analysis tools due to the nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamics in the transonic regime. There is also a need to be able to use a wide variety of CFD and CSD tools to predict these aeroelastic effects in the transonic regime. Because source codes are not always available, it is necessary to couple the CFD and CSD codes without alteration of the source codes. In this study, an aeroelastic coupling procedure is developed which will perform static aeroelastic analysis using any CFD and CSD code with little code integration. The aeroelastic coupling procedure is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas CFD code) and NASTRAN. In addition, the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2) is used for demonstration of the aeroelastic coupling procedure by using ENSAERO (NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) and a finite element wing-box code (developed as part of this research).

  13. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  14. Aeroelastic stability of forward swept composite winged aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the author's past and present aeroelastic stability and performance studies related to forward swept, composite wing aircraft. The influence of laminate elastic bend/twist coupling upon wing divergence, lateral control, and lift effectiveness will be illustrated by means of closed-form solutions, numerical analysis and simple wind-tunnel experiments. In addition, results of analyses of a freely flying flexible FSW aircraft are discussed to indicate the possible effects of the flexible forward swept wing on aircraft dynamic stability. These studies show, both theoretically and experimentally, that, if the aircraft is not carefully designed, a phenomenon referred to as body freedom flutter may appear.

  15. Application of Interface Technology in Nonlinear Analysis of a Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1997-01-01

    A recently developed interface technology was successfully employed in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of a full-scale stitched/RFI composite wing box loaded in bending. The technology allows mismatched finite element models to be joined in a variationally consistent manner and reduces the modeling complexity by eliminating transition meshing. In the analysis, local finite element models of nonlinearly deformed wide bays of the wing box are refined without the need for transition meshing to the surrounding coarse mesh. The COMET-AR finite element code, which has the interface technology capability, was used to perform the analyses. The COMET-AR analysis is compared to both a NASTRAN analysis and to experimental data. The interface technology solution is shown to be in good agreement with both. The viability of interface technology for coupled global/local analysis of large scale aircraft structures is demonstrated.

  16. A CFD/CSD interaction methodology for aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    With advanced subsonic transports and military aircraft operating in the transonic regime, it is becoming important to determine the effects of the coupling between aerodynamic loads and elastic forces. Since aeroelastic effects can contribute significantly to the design of these aircraft, there is a strong need in the aerospace industry to predict these aero-structure interactions computationally. To perform static aeroelastic analysis in the transonic regime, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools must be used in conjunction with high fidelity computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis tools due to the nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamics in the transonic regime. There is also a need to be able to use a wide variety of CFD and CSD tools to predict these aeroelastic effects in the transonic regime. Because source codes are not always available, it is necessary to couple the CFD and CSD codes without alteration of the source codes. In this study, an aeroelastic coupling procedure is developed which will perform static aeroelastic analysis using any CFD and CSD code with little code integration. The aeroelastic coupling procedure is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas CFD code) and NASTRAN. In addition, the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2) is used for demonstration of the aeroelastic coupling procedure by using ENSAERO (NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) and a finite element wing-box code (developed as a part of this research). The results obtained from the present study are compared with those available from an experimental study conducted at NASA Langley Research Center and a study conducted at NASA Ames Research Center using ENSAERO and modal superposition. The results compare well with experimental data. Parallel computing power is used to investigate parallel static aeroelastic analysis because obtaining an aeroelastic solution using CFD/CSD methods is computationally intensive. A

  17. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  18. Rib for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Structural ribs for providing structural support for a structure, such as the pressure cabin of a blended-wing body aircraft. In a first embodiment, the ribs are generally Y-shaped, being comprised of a vertical web and a pair of inclined webs attached to the vertical web to extend upwardly and outwardly from the vertical web in different directions, with only the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to a structural element. In a second embodiment, the ribs are generally trident-shaped, whereby the vertical web extends upwardly beyond the intersection of the inclined webs with the vertical web, with the upper edge of the vertical web as well as the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to the same structural element.

  19. Descriptors for rotary wing aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Various hypotheses of needed noise level standards for areas around military air bases with rotary wing aircraft were tested in terms of literature surveys, laboratory tests, and community surveys. The hypotheses tested comprised the validities of A-weighted sound levels, an energy model, and a standard 10 dB difference between day and night (D-N) sound levels. The data base covered annoyance surveys near bases and questionnaires filled out to express the level of perceived annoyance. An energy model was found suitable for helicopter noise, particularly with regard to avoiding rattling buildings, a condition which raises the annoyance levels significantly. The studies supported continuance of the traditional 10 dB D-N noise differential.

  20. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  1. NASA F-8A Crusader Supercritical Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph a Vought F-8A Crusader is shown being used as a flying testbed for an experimental Supercritical Wing airfoil. The smooth fairing of the fiberglass glove with the wing is illustrated in this view.

  2. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  3. Linear and reconfigurable control of wing damaged aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespeca, Pascal

    Recently, there has been an interest in researching control techniques that might improve the overall safety of flight. The goal is to create an autopilot control system which could safely land a wing damaged aircraft. Spanwise Full-Loss (SFL) is defined as the entire removal of wing section along the chord of the wing, starting from the tip and moving toward the root. Based upon computational models of a rigid aircraft with varying SFL, obvious force-moment imbalances are likely to be the primary factor affecting survivability. Rigid aircraft with more effective ailerons or additional rolling control surfaces are more likely to survive wing damage. Computer models of wing damage suggest that wing loss in the range of 0--50% SFL will not create an abnormal dynamic instability of a rigid aircraft with a standard linear autopilot. Dynamic instability is not present because the SFL linear model is mostly triangular with longitudinal variables almost exclusively effecting lateral variables. Closed loop performance is not compromised in the range of 0--20% SFL. Resizing ailerons may be needed to accommodate wing damage beyond 20 to 30% SFL. For a flexible aircraft, wing damage that reduces the torsional stiffness of the wing could cause roll-control reversal. Roll control reversal can create closed loop instability with undamaged aircraft. SFL actually increases the torsional stiffness of the wing. However, real world wing damage may not be limited to a spanwise wing loss. Conventional control techniques are introduced by several design examples and successfully extended to wing damaged aircraft. Reconfigurable, switching and conventional control techniques are found to possess acceptable levels of technical merit for flight control. With reconfigurable and switching flight control techniques, one can avoid known instabilities due to time varying gain by simply waiting 6 to 20 seconds between controller switches. Many direct adaptive control and indirect adaptive

  4. The design and testing of subscale smart aircraft wing bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vugampore, J. M. V.; Bemont, C.

    2012-07-01

    Presently costly periodic inspection is vital in guaranteeing the structural integrity of aircraft. This investigation assesses the potential for significantly reducing aircraft maintenance costs without modification of aircraft structures by implementing smart wing bolts, manufactured from TRIP steel, which can be monitored for damage in situ. TRIP steels undergo a transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite during deformation. Subscale smart aircraft wing bolts were manufactured from hot rolled TRIP steel. These wing bolts were used to demonstrate that washers incorporating embedded inductance coils can be utilized to measure the martensitic transformation occurring in the TRIP steel during bolt deformation. Early in situ warning of a critical bolt stress level was thereby facilitated, potentially reducing the costly requirement for periodic wing bolt removal and inspection. The hot rolled TRIP steels that were utilized in these subscale bolts do not however exhibit the mechanical properties required of wing bolt material. Thus warm rolled TRIP steel alloys were also investigated. The mechanical properties of the best warm rolled TRIP steel alloy tested almost matched those of AISI 4340. The warm rolled alloys were also shown to exhibit transformation before yield, allowing for earlier warning when overload occurs. Further work will be required relating to fatigue crack detection, environmental temperature fluctuation and more thorough material characterization. However, present results show that in situ early detection of wing bolt overload is feasible via the use of high alloy warm rolled TRIP steel wing bolts in combination with inductive sensor embedded washers.

  5. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  6. Analysis of aircraft wing-mounted antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marhefka, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    High frequency radiation patterns of aircraft wing mounted antennas are analyzed. Basic antenna types using ray optical techniques are studied. The aircraft is modelled in its most basic form so that this study is applicable to general type aircraft. The fuselage is modelled as a perfectly conducting finite elliptic cylinder. The wings and horizontal and vertical stabilizers are modelled as perfectly conducting "n" sided flat plates that can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage or to themselves. The antenna locations are assumed to be on the surfaces of the wings at locations removed from engines and stores such that these effects are negligible. Volumetric patterns are calculated for several aircraft. The validity of the solution is shown by comparing the results against scale model measurements. The application of this solution to practical airborne antenna problems has shown its versatility in designing antennas and predicting their radiation patterns in an accurate and efficient manner.

  7. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  8. Application of the joined wing to tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolkovitch, Julian; Wainfan, Barnaby; Ben-Harush, Yitzhak; Johnson, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to determine the potential speed improvements and other benefits resulting from the application of the joined wing concept to tiltrotor aircraft. Using the XV-15 as a baseline, the effect of replacing the cantilever wing by a joined-wing pair was studied. The baseline XV-15 cantilever wing has a thickness/chord ratio of 23 percent. It was found that this wing could be replaced by a joined-wing pair of the same span and total area employing airfoils of 12 percent thickness/chord ratio. The joined wing meets the same static strength requirements as the cantilever wing, but increases the limiting Mach Number of the aircraft from M=0.575 to M=0.75, equivalent to an increase of over 100 knots in maximum speed. The joined wing configuration studied is lighter than the cantilever and has approximately 11 percent less wing drag in cruise. Its flutter speed of 245 knots EAS is not high enough to allow the potential Mach number improvement to be attained at low altitude. The flutter speed can be raised either by employing rotors which can be stopped and folded in flight at speeds below 245 knots EAS, or by modifying the airframe to reduce adverse coupling with the rotor dynamics. Several modifications of wing geometry and nacelle mass distribution were investigated, but none produced a flutter speed above 260 knots EAS. It was concluded that additional research is required to achieve a more complete understanding of the mechanism of rotor/wing coupling.

  9. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  10. Oblique Wing Remotely Piloted Research Aircraft. Volume 1: Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Ames/DSI oblique wing remotely piloted research aircraft is a highly unusual, variable remotely piloted vehicle whose configuration and capabilities are the result of certain initial design guidelines that, in terms of conventional aircraft structures and configurations, would be considered to be contradictory and unachievable. Accordingly, the novel design of the yawed wing RPV is at odds in many respects with conventional aircraft practice. Novelty, then, forms the first, unwritten, design guideline. This design is intended to move away from convention in geometry, structure, and materials. The specific guidelines followed in the design of the yawed wing RPV and a short discussion of the impact of each on the configuration of the vehicle are presented.

  11. A preliminary design study of a laminar flow control wing of composite materials for long range transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinford, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an aircraft wing design study are reported. The selected study airplane configuration is defined. The suction surface, ducting, and compressor systems are described. Techniques of manufacturing suction surfaces are identified and discussed. A wing box of graphite/epoxy composite is defined. Leading and trailing edge structures of composite construction are described. Control surfaces, engine installation, and landing gear are illustrated and discussed. The preliminary wing design is appraised from the standpoint of manufacturing, weight, operations, and durability. It is concluded that a practical laminar flow control (LFC) wing of composite material can be built, and that such a wing will be lighter than an equivalent metal wing. As a result, a program of suction surface evaluation and other studies of configuration, aerodynamics, structural design and manufacturing, and suction systems are recommended.

  12. Application of slender wing benefits to military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is provided of aerodynamic research conducted at the Langley Research Center with respect to the application of slender wing benefits in the design of high-speed military aircraft, taking into account the supersonic performance and leading-edge vortex flow associated with very highly sweptback wings. The beginning of the development of modern classical swept wing jet aircraft is related to the German Me 262 project during World War II. In the U.S., a theoretical study conducted by Jones (1945) pointed out the advantages of the sweptback wing concept. Developments with respect to variable sweep wings are discussed, taking into account early research in 1946, a joint program of the U.S. with the United Kingdom, the tactical aircraft concept, and the important part which the Langley variable-sweep research program played in the development of the F-111, F-14, and B-1. Attention is also given to hybrid wings, vortex flow theory development, and examples of flow design technology.

  13. Factors affecting the sticking of insects on modified aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, O.; Chan, R.; Eiss, N. S.; Pingali, U.; Wightman, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of insects to aircraft wings is studied. Insects were collected in road tests in past studies and a large experimental error was introduced caused by the variability of insect flux. The presence of such errors has been detected by studying the insect distribution across an aluminum-strip covered half-cylinder mounted on the top of a car. After a nonuniform insect distribution (insect flux) was found from three road tests, a new arrangement of samples was developed. The feasibility of coating aircraft wing surfaces with polymers to reduce the number of insects sticking onto the surfaces was studied using fluorocarbon elastomers, styrene butadiene rubbers, and Teflon.

  14. Equivalent plate modeling for conceptual design of aircraft wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method that generates conceptual-level design data for aircraft wing structures. A key requirement is that this data must be produced in a timely manner so that is can be used effectively by multidisciplinary synthesis codes for performing systems studies. Such a capability is being developed by enhancing an equivalent plate structural analysis computer code to provide a more comprehensive, robust and user-friendly analysis tool. The paper focuses on recent enhancements to the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) analysis code that significantly expands the modeling capability and improves the accuracy of results. Modeling additions include use of out-of-plane plate segments for representing winglets and advanced wing concepts such as C-wings along with a new capability for modeling the internal rib and spar structure. The accuracy of calculated results is improved by including transverse shear effects in the formulation and by using multiple sets of assumed displacement functions in the analysis. Typical results are presented to demonstrate these new features. Example configurations include a C-wing transport aircraft, a representative fighter wing and a blended-wing-body transport. These applications are intended to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of using equivalent plate modeling of wing structures during conceptual design.

  15. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  16. Decoupling control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Kempel, R. W.; Pahle, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in oblique-wing aircraft has surfaced periodically since the 1940's. This concept offers some substantial aerodynamic performance advantages but also has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. This paper presents a technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The proposed synthesis procedure uses the concept of a real model-following control system. Feedforward gains are selected on the assumption that perfect model-following conditions are satisfied. The feedback gains are obtained by using eigensystem assignment, and the aircraft is stabilized by using partial state feedback. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated by application to linearized equations of motion of an oblique-wing aircraft for a given flight condition.

  17. Rotary wing aircraft and technical publications of NASA, 1970 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiemstra, J. D. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography cites 933 documents in the NASA RECON data base which pertain to rotary wing aircraft. The entries are arranged in descending order by publication data except for the NASA-supported documents which are arranged in descending order by accession date.

  18. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  19. Wing design for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is the proper tailoring of the civil tiltrotor's composite wing-box structure leading to a minimum-weight wing design. With focus on the structural design, the wing's aerodynamic shape and the rotor-pylon system are held fixed. The initial design requirement on drag reduction set the airfoil maximum thickness-to-chord ratio to 18 percent. The airfoil section is the scaled down version of the 23 percent-thick airfoil used in V-22's wing. With the project goal in mind, the research activities began with an investigation of the structural dynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the tiltrotor configuration, and the identification of proper procedures to analyze and account for these characteristics in the wing design. This investigation led to a collection of more than thirty technical papers on the subject, some of which have been referenced here. The review of literature on the tiltrotor revealed the complexity of the system in terms of wing-rotor-pylon interactions. The aeroelastic instability or whirl flutter stemming from wing-rotor-pylon interactions is found to be the most critical mode of instability demanding careful consideration in the preliminary wing design. The placement of wing fundamental natural frequencies in bending and torsion relative to each other and relative to the rotor 1/rev frequencies is found to have a strong influence on the whirl flutter. The frequency placement guide based on a Bell Helicopter Textron study is used in the formulation of frequency constraints. The analysis and design studies are based on two different finite-element computer codes: (1) MSC/NASATRAN and (2) WIDOWAC. These programs are used in parallel with the motivation to eventually, upon necessary modifications and validation, use the simpler WIDOWAC code in the structural tailoring of the tiltrotor wing. Several test cases were studied for the preliminary comparison of the two codes. The results obtained so far indicate a good overall

  20. Damage tolerant composite wing panels for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter J.; Wilson, Robert D.; Gibbins, M. N.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial aircraft advanced composite wing surface panels were tested for durability and damage tolerance. The wing of a fuel-efficient, 200-passenger airplane for 1990 delivery was sized using grahite-epoxy materials. The damage tolerance program was structured to allow a systematic progression from material evaluations to the optimized large panel verification tests. The program included coupon testing to evaluate toughened material systems, static and fatigue tests of compression coupons with varying amounts of impact damage, element tests of three-stiffener panels to evaluate upper wing panel design concepts, and the wing structure damage environment was studied. A series of technology demonstration tests of large compression panels is performed. A repair investigation is included in the final large panel test.

  1. Flying qualities of the X-29 forward swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walchli, Lawrence A.; Smith, Rogers E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the X-29 Forward Swept Wing Technology Demonstrator traces its development and test path during past years. Brief descriptions of the aircraft and its flight control system provide insight for evaluating this unique vehicle. The baseline flight control system provided a starting point for safe concept evaluation and envelope expansion for the aircraft. Subsequent up-dates resulted in performance levels favorably comparable to current fighter aircraft. Efforts are described for the current expansion of the X-29's capabilities into the high angle-of-attack (AOA) regime of flight. Control law changes have permitted all axis maneuvering to 40 deg AOA with pitch excursions to 66 deg, thereby exploiting the full potential of the X-29 forward swept wing configuration.

  2. Modeling Aircraft Wing Loads from Flight Data Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.

    2003-01-01

    Neural networks were used to model wing bending-moment loads, torsion loads, and control surface hinge-moments of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft. Accurate loads models are required for the development of control laws designed to increase roll performance through wing twist while not exceeding load limits. Inputs to the model include aircraft rates, accelerations, and control surface positions. Neural networks were chosen to model aircraft loads because they can account for uncharacterized nonlinear effects while retaining the capability to generalize. The accuracy of the neural network models was improved by first developing linear loads models to use as starting points for network training. Neural networks were then trained with flight data for rolls, loaded reversals, wind-up-turns, and individual control surface doublets for load excitation. Generalization was improved by using gain weighting and early stopping. Results are presented for neural network loads models of four wing loads and four control surface hinge moments at Mach 0.90 and an altitude of 15,000 ft. An average model prediction error reduction of 18.6 percent was calculated for the neural network models when compared to the linear models. This paper documents the input data conditioning, input parameter selection, structure, training, and validation of the neural network models.

  3. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment. PMID:21487173

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of a Hale Aircraft Joined-Wing Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaji, Rangarajan; Ghia, Urmila; Ghia, Karman; Thornburg, Hugh

    2003-11-01

    Aerodynamic analysis of a high-aspect ratio, joined wing of a High-Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft is performed. The requirement of high lift over extended flight periods for the HALE aircraft leads to high-aspect ratio wings experiencing significant deflections necessitating consideration of aeroelastic effects. The finite-volume solver COBALT, with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) capabilities, is used for the flow simulations. Calculations are performed at á = 0° and 12° for M = 0.6, at an altitude of 30,000 feet, at a Re per unit length of 5.6x106. The wing cross sections are NACA 4421 airfoils. Because of the high lift-to-drag ratio wings, an inviscid flow analysis is also performed. The inviscid surface pressure coefficient (Cp) is compared with the corresponding viscous Cp to examine the feasibility of the use of the inviscid pressure loads as an estimate of the total fluid loads on the structure. The viscous and inviscid Cp results compare reasonably only at á = 0°. The viscous flow is examined in detail via surface and field velocity vectors, vorticity, density and pressure contours. For á = 12°, the unsteady DES solutions show a weak shock at the aft-wing trailing edge. Also, the flow near the joint exhibits a region of mild separation.

  5. Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Mark C.; Ardema, Mark D.; Patron, Anthony P.; Hahn, Andrew S.; Miura, Hirokazu; Moore, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft, and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT has traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight. Using statistical analysis techniques, relations between the load-bearing fuselage and wing weights calculated by PDCYL and corresponding actual weights were determined.

  6. Secondary Wing System for Use on an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A secondary wing system for use on an aircraft augments the lift, stability, and control of the aircraft at subsonic speeds. The secondary wing system includes a mechanism that allows the canard to be retracted within the contour of the aircraft fuselage from an operational position to a stowed position. The top surface of the canard is exposed to air flow in the stowed position, and is contoured to integrate aerodynamically and smoothly within the contour of the fuselage when the canard is retracted for high speed flight. The bottom portion of the canard is substantially flat for rotation into a storage recess within the fuselage. The single canard rotates about a vertical axis at its spanwise midpoint. The canard can be positioned between a range of sweep angles during flight and a stowed position in which its span is substantially parallel to the aircraft fuselage. The canard can be deployed and retracted during flight. The deployment mechanism includes a circular mounting ring and drive mechanism that connects the canard with the fuselage and permits it to rotate and to change incidence. The deployment mechanism further includes retractable fairings which serve to streamline the wing when it is retracted into the top of the fuselage.

  7. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  8. The oblique wing-research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The AD-1 airplane was designed as a low cost, low speed manned research tool to evaluate the flying qualities of the oblique wing concept. The airplane is constructed primarily of foam and fiberglass and incorporates simplicity in terms of the onboard systems. There are no hydraulics, the control system is cable and torque tube, and the electrical systems consist of engine driven generators which power the battery for engine start, cockpit gages, trim motors, and the onboard data system. The propulsion systems consist of two Microturbo TRS-18 engines sea level trust rated at 220 pounds. The airplane weighs approximately 2100 pounds and has a performance potential in the range of 200 knots and an altitude of 15,000 feet.

  9. Surface Roughness Measurement on a Wing Aircraft by Speckle Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given. PMID:24013488

  10. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given. PMID:24013488

  11. Study of cross-correlation signals in a data-driven approach for damage classification in aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Navarro, Jhonatan; Ruiz, Magda; Villamizar, Rodolfo; Mujica, Luis; Güemes, Alfredo; González-Requema, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses, experimental results of classifying several mass adding in a wing aircraft structure, using cross-correlated piezoelectric signals, represented by principal components. Piezoelectric signals are applied and recorded at specific points of the structure under analysis. Then, statistical features are obtained by means of principal component analysis to the correlation between excitation and response signals. Unsupervised learning is implemented to the reduced feature space, in order to identify clusters of damaged cases. The main result of this paper is the advantage resulting from using cross-correlated signals, evaluated through the performance of clustering indexes. Experimental data are collected from two test structures: i.) A turbine blade of a commercial aircraft and ii.) The skin panel of the torsion box of a wing. Damages are induced adding masses at different locations of the wing section surface. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the methodology to distinguish between different damage cases.

  12. Integrated Model Reduction and Control of Aircraft with Flexible Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to the modeling and control of aircraft with exible wings. The coupled aircraft rigid body dynamics with a high-order elastic wing model can be represented in a nite dimensional state-space form. Given a set of desired output covariance, a model reduction process is performed by using the weighted Modal Cost Analysis (MCA). A dynamic output feedback controller, which is designed based on the reduced-order model, is developed by utilizing output covariance constraint (OCC) algorithm, and the resulting OCC design weighting matrix is used for the next iteration of the weighted cost analysis. This controller is then validated for full-order evaluation model to ensure that the aircraft's handling qualities are met and the uttering motion of the wings suppressed. An iterative algorithm is developed in CONDUIT environment to realize the integration of model reduction and controller design. The proposed integrated approach is applied to NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) for demonstration.

  13. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  14. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  15. Some observations on the mechanism of aircraft wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure scale model of Northrop F-5A was tested in NASA Ames Research Center Eleven-Foot Transonic Tunnel to simulate the wing rock oscillations in a transonic maneuver. For this purpose, a flexible model support device was designed and fabricated which allowed the model to oscillate in roll at the scaled wing rock frequency. Two tunnel entries were performed to acquire the pressure (steady state and fluctuating) and response data when the model was held fixed and when it was excited by flow to oscillate in roll. Based on these data, a limit cycle mechanism was identified which supplied energy to the aircraft model and caused the Dutch roll type oscillations, commonly called wing rock. The major origin of the fluctuating pressures which contributed to the limit cycle was traced to the wing surface leading edge stall and the subsequent lift recovery. For typical wing rock oscillations, the energy balance between the pressure work input and the energy consumed by the model aerodynamic and mechanical damping was formulated and numerical data presented.

  16. Some observations on the mechanism of aircraft wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    A scale model of the Northrop F-5A was tested in NASA Ames Research Center Eleven-Foot Transonic Tunnel to simulate the wing rock oscillations in a transonic maneuver. For this purpose, a flexible model support device was designed and fabricated, which allowed the model to oscillate in roll at the scaled wing rock frequency. Two tunnel entries were performed to acquire the pressure (steady state and fluctuating) and response data when the model was held fixed and when it was excited by flow to oscillate in roll. Based on these data, a limit cycle mechanism was identified, which supplied energy to the aircraft model and caused the Dutch roll type oscillations, commonly called wing rock. The major origin of the fluctuating pressures that contributed to the limit cycle was traced to the wing surface leading edge stall and the subsequent lift recovery. For typical wing rock oscillations, the energy balance between the pressure work input and the energy consumed by the model's aerodynamic and mechanical damping was formulated and numerical data presented.

  17. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  18. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  19. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  20. C-130 Advanced Technology Center wing box conceptual design/cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, R. S.; Foreman, C. R.; Silva, K.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed by Northrop/LTV for an advanced C-130 Center Wing Box (CWB) which could meet the severe mission requirements of the SOF C-130 aircraft. The goals for the advanced technology CWB relative to the current C-130H CWB were: (1) the same acquisition cost; (2) lower operating support costs; (3) equal or lower weight; (4) a 30,000 hour service life for the SOF mission; and (5) minimum impact on the current maintenance concept. Initially, the structural arrangement, weight, external and internal loads, fatigue spectrum, flutter envelope and design criteria for the SOF C-130 aircraft CWB were developed. An advanced materials assessment was then conducted to determine the suitability of advanced materials for a 1994 production availability and detailed trade studies were performed on candidate CWB conceptual designs. Finally, a life-cycle cost analysis was performed on the advanced CWB. The study results showed that a hybrid composite/metallic CWB could meet the severe SOF design requirements, reduce the CWB weight by 14 pct., and was cost effective relative to an all metal beefed up C-130H CWB.

  1. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  2. Aircraft Wing for Over-The-Wing Mounting of Engine Nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S. (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An aircraft wing has an inboard section and an outboard section. The inboard section is attached (i) on one side thereof to the aircraft's fuselage, and (ii) on an opposing side thereof to an inboard side of a turbofan engine nacelle in an over-the-wing mounting position. The outboard section's leading edge has a sweep of at least 20 degrees. The inboard section's leading edge has a sweep between -15 and +15 degrees, and extends from the fuselage to an attachment position on the nacelle that is forward of an index position defined as an imaginary intersection between the sweep of the outboard section's leading edge and the inboard side of the nacelle. In an alternate embodiment, the turbofan engine nacelle is replaced with an open rotor engine nacelle.

  3. Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui

    2016-07-01

    For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.

  4. Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Acoustic Test Preparations and Facility Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Burley, Casey L.; Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Popenack, Thomas G.; Colbert, Scott E.; Hoad, Danny; Becker, Lawrence; Stead, Dan; Kuchta, Dennis; Yeh, Les

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investigating the potential of acoustic shielding as a means to reduce the noise footprint at airport communities. A subsonic transport aircraft and Langley's 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel were chosen to test the proposed "low noise" technology. The present experiment studies the basic components of propulsion-airframe shielding in a representative flow regime. To this end, a 5.8-percent scale hybrid wing body model was built with dual state-of-the-art engine noise simulators. The results will provide benchmark shielding data and key hybrid wing body aircraft noise data. The test matrix for the experiment contains both aerodynamic and acoustic test configurations, broadband turbomachinery and hot jet engine noise simulators, and various airframe configurations which include landing gear, cruise and drooped wing leading edges, trailing edge elevons and vertical tail options. To aid in this study, two major facility upgrades have occurred. First, a propane delivery system has been installed to provide the acoustic characteristics with realistic temperature conditions for a hot gas engine; and second, a traversing microphone array and side towers have been added to gain full spectral and directivity noise characteristics.

  5. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: Flight service and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizer, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force.

  6. Comments on prospects of fully adaptive aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Gern, Frank H.; Robertshaw, Harry H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Pettit, Greg; Natarajan, Anand; Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-06-01

    New generations of highly maneuverable aircraft, such as Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV) or Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) are likely to feature very flexible lifting surfaces. To enhance stealth properties and performance, the replacement of hinged control surfaces by smart wings and morphing airfoils is investigated. This requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction between aerodynamics, structures, and control systems. The goal is to build a model consistent with distributed control and to exercise this model to determine the progress possible in terms of flight control (lift, drag and maneuver performance) with an adaptive wing. Different modeling levels are examined and combined with a variety of distributed control approaches to determine what types of maneuvers and flight regimes may be possible. This paper describes the current progress of the project and highlights some recent findings.

  7. Control law system for X-Wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Thomas H. (Inventor); Gold, Phillip J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Control law system for the collective axis, as well as pitch and roll axes, of an X-Wing aircraft and for the pneumatic valving controlling circulation control blowing for the rotor. As to the collective axis, the system gives the pilot single-lever direct lift control and insures that maximum cyclic blowing control power is available in transition. Angle-of-attach de-coupling is provided in rotary wing flight, and mechanical collective is used to augment pneumatic roll control when appropriate. Automatic gain variations with airspeed and rotor speed are provided, so a unitary set of control laws works in all three X-Wing flight modes. As to pitch and roll axes, the system produces essentially the same aircraft response regardless of flight mode or condition. Undesirable cross-couplings are compensated for in a manner unnoticeable to the pilot without requiring pilot action, as flight mode or condition is changed. A hub moment feedback scheme is implemented, utilizing a P+I controller, significantly improving bandwidth. Limits protect aircraft structure from inadvertent damage. As to pneumatic valving, the system automatically provides the pressure required at each valve azimuth location, as dictated by collective, cyclic and higher harmonic blowing commands. Variations in the required control phase angle are automatically introduced, and variations in plenum pressure are compensated for. The required switching for leading, trailing and dual edge blowing is automated, using a simple table look-up procedure. Non-linearities due to valve characteristics of circulation control lift are linearized by map look-ups.

  8. Optimal control of a low wing-loading STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.

    1976-01-01

    Linear optimal quadratic control theory is applied to a low wing-loading STOL aircraft for ride quality and flight path following. Design criteria include minimum rms response to wind turbulence and desired transient response characteristics. Design techniques include proper choosing of design versus evaluation models, choosing appropriate performance index responses, and use of classical evaluation techniques. Results are obtained through a combination of frequency response shaping and gust observation. Effects of control rate and authority saturation are examined with a new rapid calculation of random input describing functions. Parameter sensitivity is also evaluated using a Liapunov type matrix equation.

  9. Development of composite wing carrythrough bulkheads for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, J. C.; Behrens, R. S.; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Potential weight savings due to the use of composite materials for highly loaded primary structures are being demonstrated through the design, fabrication, and test of an all composite wing carrythrough bulkhead for the F/A-18 fighter aircraft. A one piece composite design which results in a 24 percent weight savings, relative to the existing aluminum bulkhead, was developed. Critical details of this design were evaluated through element tests, and a full scale prototype component was fabricated. The structural integrity of this design will be demonstrated in a comprehensive full scale test program.

  10. PRSEUS Development for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift to drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. The primary structural concept being developed for the Hybrid Wing Body aircraft design under the ERA project in the Airframe Technology element is the PRSEUS concept. This paper describes how researchers at NASA and Boeing are working together to develop fundamental PRSEUS technologies that could someday be implemented on a transport size HWB airplane design.

  11. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advances in multidisciplinary technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the FW Project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve the challenging goals of aviation. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  12. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Navy's maintenance and materials management data base was used in a study to determine the feasibility of predicting unscheduled maintenance costs for the dynamic systems of military rotary wing aircraft. The major operational and design variables were identified and the direct maintenance man hours per flight hour were obtained by step-wise multiple regression analysis. Five nonmilitary helicopter users were contacted to supply data on which variables were important factors in civil applications. These uses included offshore oil exploration and support, police and fire department rescue and enforcement, logging and heavy equipment movement, and U.S. Army military operations. The equations developed were highly effective in predicting unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flying hours for military aircraft, but less effective for commercial or public service helicopters, probably because of the longer mission durations and the much higher utilization of civil users.

  13. Sonic-box method employing local Mach number for oscillating wings with thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruo, S. Y.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program was developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in the transonic potential flow over an oscillating wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic-box program for planar wing which was previously extended to include the effects of the swept trailing edge and the thickness of the wing. Account for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness is made by application of the local linearization concept. The thickness effect, expressed in terms of the local Mach number, is included in the basic solution to replace the coordinate transformation method used in the earlier work. Calculations were made for a delta wing and a rectangular wing performing plunge and pitch oscillations, and the results were compared with those obtained from other methods. An input quide and a complete listing of the computer code are presented.

  14. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 3: Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kays, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The manufacturing plan for three C-130 aircraft center wing box test articles, selectively reinforced with boron-epoxy composites, is outlined for the following tasks: (1) tooling; (2) metal parts fabrication: (3) reinforcing laminate fabrication; (4) laminate-to-metal parts bonding; and (5) wing box assembly. The criteria used for reliability and quality assurance are discussed, and several solutions to specific manufacturing problems encountered during fabrication are given. For Vol. 1, see N73-13011; for Vol. 2, see N73-22929.

  15. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  16. Math modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary wing aircraft is discussed. Error analysis in the digital simulation of dynamic systems, such as rotary wing aircraft is described. The method for digital simulation of nonlinearities with discontinuities, such as exist in typical flight control systems and rotor blade hinges, is discussed.

  17. Aircraft wing structural design optimization based on automated finite element modelling and ground structure approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weizhu; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Lei; Wang, Peiyan

    2016-01-01

    An optimization procedure combining an automated finite element modelling (AFEM) technique with a ground structure approach (GSA) is proposed for structural layout and sizing design of aircraft wings. The AFEM technique, based on CATIA VBA scripting and PCL programming, is used to generate models automatically considering the arrangement of inner systems. GSA is used for local structural topology optimization. The design procedure is applied to a high-aspect-ratio wing. The arrangement of the integral fuel tank, landing gear and control surfaces is considered. For the landing gear region, a non-conventional initial structural layout is adopted. The positions of components, the number of ribs and local topology in the wing box and landing gear region are optimized to obtain a minimum structural weight. Constraints include tank volume, strength, buckling and aeroelastic parameters. The results show that the combined approach leads to a greater weight saving, i.e. 26.5%, compared with three additional optimizations based on individual design approaches.

  18. Design, Evaluation and Experimental Effort Toward Development of a High Strain Composite Wing for Navy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Joseph; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This design development effort addressed significant technical issues concerning the use and benefits of high strain composite wing structures (Epsilon(sub ult) = 6000 micro-in/in) for future Navy aircraft. These issues were concerned primarily with the structural integrity and durability of the innovative design concepts and manufacturing techniques which permitted a 50 percent increase in design ultimate strain level (while maintaining the same fiber/resin system) as well as damage tolerance and survivability requirements. An extensive test effort consisting of a progressive series of coupon and major element tests was an integral part of this development effort, and culminated in the design, fabrication and test of a major full-scale wing box component. The successful completion of the tests demonstrated the structural integrity, durability and benefits of the design. Low energy impact testing followed by fatigue cycling verified the damage tolerance concepts incorporated within the structure. Finally, live fire ballistic testing confirmed the survivability of the design. The potential benefits of combining newer/emerging composite materials and new or previously developed high strain wing design to maximize structural efficiency and reduce fabrication costs was the subject of subsequent preliminary design and experimental evaluation effort.

  19. Conceptual design for a laminar-flying-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, T. I.

    The laminar-flying-wing aircraft appears to be an attractive long-term prospect for reducing the environmental impact of commercial aviation. In assessing its potential, a relatively straightforward initial step is the conceptual design of a version with restricted sweep angle. Such a design is the topic of this thesis. Subject to constraints, this research aims to; provide insight into the parameters affecting practical laminar-flow-control suction power requirements; identify a viable basic design specification; and, on the basis of this, an assessment of the fuel efficiency through a detailed conceptual design study. It is shown that there is a minimum power requirement independent of the suction system design, associated with the stagnation pressure loss in the boundary layer. This requirement increases with aerofoil section thickness, but depends only weakly on Mach number and (for a thick, lightly-loaded laminar flying wing) lift coefficient. Deviation from the optimal suction distribution, due to a practical chamber-based architecture, is found to have very little effect on the overall suction coefficient. In the spanwise direction, through suitable choice of chamber depth, the pressure drop due to frictional and inertial effects may be rendered negligible. Finally, it is found that the pressure drop from the aerofoil surface to the pump collector ducts determines the power penalty. To identify the viable basic design specification, a high-level exploration of the laminar flying wing design space is performed. The characteristics of the design are assessed as a function of three parameters: thickness-to-chord ratio, wingspan, and unit Reynolds number. A feasible specification, with 20% thickness-to-chord, 80 m span and a unit Reynolds number of 8 x 106 m-1, is identified; it corresponds to a 187 tonne aircraft which cruises at Mach 0.67 and altitude 22,500 ft, with lift coefficient 0.14. On the basis of this specification, a detailed conceptual design is

  20. The significance of wing end configuration in airfoil design for civil aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lift-dependent induced drag in commercial aviation aircraft is discussed, with emphasis on the necessary compromises between wing and configuration modifications which better lift performance and the weight gains accompanying such modifications. Triangular, rectangular and elliptical configurations for wing ends are considered; attention is also given to airfoil designs incorporating winglets. Water tunnel tests of several configurations are reported. In addition, applications of wing and modifications to advanced technology commercial aviation aircraft and the Airbus A-300 are mentioned.

  1. Analysis and testing of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of a stability augmentation system for aircraft flight control were performed. The flutter suppression system and synthesis conducted on a scale model of a supersonic wing for a transport aircraft are discussed. Mechanization and testing of the leading and trailing edge surface actuation systems are described. The ride control system analyses for a 375,000 pound gross weight B-52E aircraft are presented. Analyses of the B-52E aircraft maneuver load control system are included.

  2. TRUSS: An intelligent design system for aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Preston R.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1989-01-01

    Competitive leadership in the international marketplace, superiority in national defense, excellence in productivity, and safety of both private and public systems are all national defense goals which are dependent on superior engineering design. In recent years, it has become more evident that early design decisions are critical, and when only based on performance often result in products which are too expensive, hard to manufacture, or unsupportable. Better use of computer-aided design tools and information-based technologies is required to produce better quality United States products. A program is outlined here to explore the use of knowledge based expert systems coupled with numerical optimization, database management techniques, and designer interface methods in a networked design environment to improve and assess design changes due to changing emphasis or requirements. The initial structural design of a tiltrotor aircraft wing is used as a representative example to demonstrate the approach being followed.

  3. Analysis of LPFG sensor systems for aircraft wing drag optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Ishihara, Abe

    2014-09-01

    In normal fiber, the refractive indices of the core and cladding do not change along the length of the fiber; however, by inducing a periodic modulation of refractive index along the length in the core of the optical fiber, the optical fiber grating is produced. This exhibits very interesting spectral properties and for this reason we propose to develop and integrate a distributed sensor network based on long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) technology which has grating periods on the order of 100 μm to 1 mm to be embedded in the wing section of aircraft to measure bending and torsion in real-time in order to measure wing deformation of commercial airplanes resulting in extensive benefits such as reduced structural weight, mitigation of induced drag and lower fuel consumption which is fifty percent of total cost of operation for airline industry. Fiber optic sensors measurement capabilities are as vital as they are for other sensing technologies, but optical measurements differ in important ways. In this paper we focus on the testing and aviation requirements for LPFG sensors. We discuss the bases of aviation standards for fiber optic sensor measurements, and the quantities that are measured. Our main objective is to optimize the design for material, mechanical, optical and environmental requirements. We discuss the analysis and evaluation of extensive testing of LPFG sensor systems such as attenuation, environmental, humidity, fluid immersion, temperature cycling, aging, smoke, flammability, impact resistance, flexure endurance, tensile, vitiation and shock.

  4. Material and Thickness Grading for Aeroelastic Tailoring of the Common Research Model Wing Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the potential aeroelastic benefits of tailoring a full-scale wing box structure using tailored thickness distributions, material distributions, or both simultaneously. These tailoring schemes are considered for the wing skins, the spars, and the ribs. Material grading utilizes a spatially-continuous blend of two metals: Al and Al+SiC. Thicknesses and material fraction variables are specified at the 4 corners of the wing box, and a bilinear interpolation is used to compute these parameters for the interior of the planform. Pareto fronts detailing the conflict between static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are computed with a genetic algorithm. In some cases, a true material grading is found to be superior to a single-material structure.

  5. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  6. Improved sonic-box computer program for calculating transonic aerodynamic loads on oscillating wings with thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruo, S. Y.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program was developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in transonic potential flow over an oscillation wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic box computer program for planar wing which was extended to account for the effect of wing thickness. Computational efficiency and accuracy were improved and swept trailing edges were accounted for. Account for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness was made by application of the local linearization concept with appropriate coordinate transformation. A brief description of each computer routine and the applications of cubic spline and spline surface data fitting techniques used in the program are given, and the method of input was shown in detail. Sample calculations as well as a complete listing of the computer program listing are presented.

  7. Global and Local Stress Analyses of McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains results of structural analyses performed in support of the NASA structural testing of an all-composite stitched/RFI (resin film infusion) wing stub box. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company designed and fabricated the wing stub box. The analyses used a global/local approach. The global model contains the entire test article. It includes the all-composite stub box, a metallic load-transition box and a metallic wing-tip extension box. The two metallic boxes are connected to the inboard and outboard ends of the composite wing stub box, respectively. The load-transition box was attached to a steel and concrete vertical reaction structure and a load was applied at the tip of the extension box to bend the wing stub box upward. The local model contains an upper cover region surrounding three stringer runouts. In that region, a large nonlinear deformation was identified by the global analyses. A more detailed mesh was used for the local model to obtain more accurate analysis results near stringer runouts. Numerous analysis results such as deformed shapes, displacements at selected locations, and strains at critical locations are included in this report.

  8. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.

  9. Method for Estimating the Sonic-Boom Characteristics of Lifting Canard-Wing Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for estimating the sonic-boom overpressures from a conceptual aircraft where the lift is carried by both a canard and a wing during supersonic cruise is presented and discussed. Computer codes used for the prediction of the aerodynamic performance of the wing, the canard-wing interference, the nacelle-wing interference, and the sonic-boom overpressures are identified and discussed as the procedures in the method are discussed. A canard-wing supersonic-cruise concept was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the method.

  10. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Bush, H.; Sutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Bush, Harold; Sutter, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis.

  12. On Noise Assessment for Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A system noise study is presented for the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft configured with advanced technologies that are projected to be available in the 2025 timeframe of the NASA N+2 definition. This system noise assessment shows that the noise levels of the baseline configuration, measured by the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), have a large margin of 34 dB to the aircraft noise regulation of Stage 4. This confirms the acoustic benefits of the BWB shielding of engine noise, as well as other projected noise reduction technologies, but the noise margins are less than previously published assessments and are short of meeting the NASA N+2 noise goal. In establishing the relevance of the acoustic assessment framework, the design of the BWB configuration, the technical approach of the noise analysis, the databases and prediction tools used in the assessment are first described and discussed. The predicted noise levels and the component decomposition are then analyzed to identify the ranking order of importance of various noise components, revealing the prominence of airframe noise, which holds up the levels at all three noise certification locations and renders engine noise reduction technologies less effective. When projected airframe component noise reduction is added to the HWB configuration, it is shown that the cumulative noise margin to Stage 4 can reach 41.6 dB, nearly at the NASA goal. These results are compared with a previous NASA assessment with a different study framework. The approaches that yield projections of such low noise levels are discussed including aggressive assumptions on future technologies, assumptions on flight profile management, engine installation, and component noise reduction technologies. It is shown that reliable predictions of component noise also play an important role in the system noise assessment. The comparisons and discussions illustrate the importance of practical feasibilities and constraints in aircraft

  13. Internal Structural Design of the Common Research Model Wing Box for Aeroelastic Tailoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the use of alternative internal structural designs within a full-scale wing box structure for aeroelastic tailoring, with a focus on curvilinear spars, ribs, and stringers. The baseline wing model is a fully-populated, cantilevered wing box structure of the Common Research Model (CRM). Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Twelve parametric studies alter the number of internal structural members along with their location, orientation, and curvature. Additional evaluation metrics are considered to identify design trends that lead to lighter-weight, aeroelastically stable wing designs. The best designs of the individual studies are compared and discussed, with a focus on weight reduction and flutter resistance. The largest weight reductions were obtained by removing the inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straight-rotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. For some configurations, the differences between curved and straight ribs were smaller, which provides motivation for future optimization-based studies to fully exploit the trade-offs.

  14. Effects of wing modification on an aircraft's aerodynamic parameters as determined from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effects of four wing-leading-edge modifications on a general aviation aircraft's stability and control parameters is presented. Flight data from the basic aircraft configuration and configurations with wing modifications are analyzed to determine each wing geometry's stability and control parameters. The parameter estimates and aerodynamic model forms are obtained using the stepwise regression and maximum likelihood techniques. The resulting parameter estimates and aerodynamic models are verified using vortex-lattice theory and by analysis of each model's ability to predict aircraft behavior. Comparisons of the stability and control derivative estimates from the basic wing and the four leading-edge modifications are accomplished so that the effects of each modification on aircraft stability and control derivatives can be determined.

  15. Outcome, transport times, and costs of patients evacuated by helicopter versus fixed-wing aircraft.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, F.; Wisham, J.; Clemmer, T. P.; Orme, J. F.; Larsen, K. G.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the differences in transport times and costs for patients transported by fixed-wing aircraft versus helicopter at ranges of 101 to 150 radial miles, where fixed-wing and helicopter in-hospital transports commonly overlap. Statistical analysis failed to show a significant difference between the trauma-care patients transported by helicopter (n = 109) and those transported by fixed-wing (n = 86) for age, injury severity score, hospital length of stay, hospital mortality, or discharge disability score. The times in returning patients to the receiving hospital by helicopter (n = 104) versus fixed-wing (n = 509) did not differ significantly. Helicopter transport costs per mile ($24), however, were 400% higher than those of fixed-wing aircraft with its associated ground ambulance transport costs ($6). Thus, helicopter transport is economically unjustified for interhospital transports exceeding 100 radial miles when an efficient fixed-wing service exists. PMID:2389575

  16. Modal analysis of sailplane and transport aircraft wings using the dynamic stiffness method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide theory, results, discussion and conclusions arising from an in-depth investigation on the modal behaviour of high aspect ratio aircraft wings. The illustrative examples chosen are representative of sailplane and transport airliner wings. To achieve this objective, the dynamic stiffness method of modal analysis is used. The wing is represented by a series of dynamic stiffness elements of bending-torsion coupled beams which are assembled to form the overall dynamic stiffness matrix of the complete wing. With cantilever boundary condition applied at the root, the eigenvalue problem is formulated and finally solved with the help of the Wittrick-Williams algorithm to yield the eigenvalues and eigenmodes which are essentially the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the wing. Results for wings of two sailplanes and four transport aircraft are discussed and finally some conclusions are drawn

  17. Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the summary of a technical survey on the applications of structural optimization in the U.S. aerospace industry through the 1980s. Since applications to rotary wing aircraft will be covered by other literature, applications to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft were considered. It became clear that very significant progress has been made during this decade, indicating this technology is about to become one of the practical tools in computer aided structural design.

  18. Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

  19. New development in flying qualities with application to rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent considerations and developments in handling quality criteria are reviewed with emphasis on using fixed wing experience gained in developing MIL-F-8785C and the more recent MiL Standard and Handbook. Particular emphasis is placed on the tasks and environmental conditions used to develop the criterion boundaries, SAS failures, and potential fixed wing criteria that are applicable to rotary wing aircraft.

  20. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  1. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  2. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  3. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  4. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  5. The Leading Edge 250: Oblique wing aircraft configuration project, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Andre; Moore, Peri; Nguyen, Dan; Oganesyan, Petros; Palmer, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The design of a high speed transport aircraft using the oblique wing concept as a part of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft study is the Leading Edge 250 capable of travelling at Mach 4 with 250 passengers and has a 6,500 nautical mile range. Its innovation lies within its use of the unconventional oblique wing to provide efficient flight at any Mach number. Wave drag is kept to a minimum at high speed, while high lift is attained during critical takeoff and landing maneuvers by varying the sweep of the wing.

  6. Titanium honeycomb structure. [for supersonic aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. A.; Elrod, S. D.; Lovell, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brazed titanium honeycomb sandwich system for supersonic transport wing cover panels provides the most efficient structure spanwise, chordwise, and loadwise. Flutter testing shows that high wing stiffness is most efficient in a sandwich structure. This structure also provides good thermal insulation if liquid fuel is carried in direct contact with the wing structure in integral fuel tanks.

  7. The Horizon: A blended wing aircraft configuration design project, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keidel, Paul; Gonda, Mark; Freeman, Darnon; Kim, Jay; Hsu, Yul

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study to design a High-Speed Civilian Transport (HSCT) using the blended wing-body configuration are presented. The HSCT is a Mach 2 to 5 transport aircraft designed to compete with current commercial aircraft. The subjects discussed are sizing, configuration, aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, performance, structures and pollution effects.

  8. Twist Model Development and Results From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption and by using neural networks. These techniques produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  9. Twist Model Development and Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Allen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption. This technique produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  10. Model-following output feedback controller for oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, Gurbux Singh

    1987-01-01

    A variable-skew oblique-wing offers a substantial aerodynamic performance advantage for aircraft missions that require both high efficiency in subsonic flight and supersonic dash or cruise. The most obvious characteristics of the oblique-wing concept is the asymmetry of the wing-skew angle that causes a significant aerodynamic and inertial cross coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. This paper presents a technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The use of output feedback in control law synthesis without the requirement of state estimation is presented. An explicit model-following control system with output feedback is developed. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated for a given flight condition for an oblique-wing aircraft.

  11. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  12. Output model-following control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in oblique-wing aircraft has focused on the potential aerodynamic performance advantage of a variable-skew oblique wing over a conventional or symmetric sweep wing. Unfortunately, the resulting asymmetric configuration has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. Presented here is a decoupling control law synthesis technique that integrates stability augmentation, decoupling, and the direct incorporation of desired handling qualities into an output feedback controller. The proposed design technique uses linear quadratic regulator concepts in the framework of explicit model following. The output feedback strategy used is a suboptimal projection from the state space to the output space. Dynamics are then introduced into the controller to improve steady-state performance and increase system robustness. Closed-loop performance is shown by application of the control laws to the linearized equations of motion and nonlinear simulation of an oblique-wing aircraft.

  13. Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, V.

    1982-01-01

    The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.

  14. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  15. Demonstration of detectability of SHM system with FBG/PZT hybrid system in composite wing box structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo; Koshioka, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a novel damage monitoring system that can monitor the integrity of composite structures in aircrafts. In this system, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used as sensors and piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are used as the generators of elastic waves that propagate in the structure to be inspected. The damage monitoring system can detect the structural integrity by the change in elastic waves that are detected by the FBG sensor and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-type filter. We confirmed that the structure health monitoring (SHM) system was able to monitor the damage initiation and propagation by a change in the waveform of the elastic waves in coupon specimens and structural element specimens. In this study, we demonstrate the detectability of the damage monitoring system by using a subcomponent test specimen that simulates an actual aircraft wing box structure composed of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The FBG sensors and PZTs are bonded to the surfaces of hat-shaped stringers by an adhesive. Damages such as de-bonding and delamination are introduced in the bonded sections of the skin and stringers by impact. Damage monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by the SHM system under ambient conditions. We successfully verify the detectability of our system.

  16. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  17. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  18. Aeroelasticity of Axially Loaded Aerodynamic Structures for Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an aeroelastic finite-element formulation for axially loaded aerodynamic structures. The presence of axial loading causes the bending and torsional sitffnesses to change. For aircraft with axially loaded structures such as the truss-braced wing aircraft, the aeroelastic behaviors of such structures are nonlinear and depend on the aerodynamic loading exerted on these structures. Under axial strain, a tensile force is created which can influence the stiffness of the overall aircraft structure. This tension stiffening is a geometric nonlinear effect that needs to be captured in aeroelastic analyses to better understand the behaviors of these types of aircraft structures. A frequency analysis of a rotating blade structure is performed to demonstrate the analytical method. A flutter analysis of a truss-braced wing aircraft is performed to analyze the effect of geometric nonlinear effect of tension stiffening on the flutter speed. The results show that the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect can have a significant impact on the flutter speed prediction. In general, increased wing loading results in an increase in the flutter speed. The study illustrates the importance of accounting for the geometric nonlinear tension stiffening effect in analyzing the truss-braced wing aircraft.

  19. Development of the PRSEUS Multi-Bay Pressure Box for a Hybrid Wing Body Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits, and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. Although such novel configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) offer better aerodynamic performance as compared to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, their blended wing shapes also pose significant new design challenges. Developing an improved structural concept that is capable of meeting the structural weight fraction allocated for these non-circular pressurized cabins is the primary obstacle in implementing large lifting-body designs. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to advance new structural concepts like the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), which is an integrally stiffened panel design that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. The large-scale multi-bay fuselage test article described in this paper is the final specimen in a building-block test program that was conceived to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting the structural weight goals established for the HWB pressure cabin.

  20. Flight testing the fixed-wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Morris, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a unique research aircraft designed to flight test advanced helicopter rotor system. Its principal flight test configuration is as a compound helicopter. The fixed wing configuration of the RSRA was primarily considered an energy fly-home mode in the event it became necessary to sever an unstable rotor system in flight. While it had always been planned to flight test the fixed wing configuration, the selection of the RSRA as the flight test bed for the X-wing rotor accelerated this schedule. This paper discusses the build-up to, and the test of, the RSRA fixed wing configuration. It is written primarily from the test pilot's perspective.

  1. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  2. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight: Testing Wing Designs in Aircraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugalee, David K.; Nusinov, Chuck; Giersch, Chris; Royster, David; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation involving several designs of airplane wings in trial flight simulations based on a NASA CONNECT program. Students' experiences with data collection and interpretation are highlighted. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  4. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  5. Free-To-Roll Analysis of Abrupt Wing Stall on Military Aircraft at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, D. Bruce; Capone, Francis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Cunningham, Kevin; Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Transonic free-to-roll and static wind tunnel tests for four military aircraft - the AV-8B, the F/A-18C, the preproduction F/A-18E, and the F-16C - have been analyzed. These tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel as a part of the NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall Program. The objectives were to evaluate the utility of the free-to-roll test technique as a tool for predicting areas of significant uncommanded lateral motions and for gaining insight into the wing-drop and wing-rock behavior of military aircraft at transonic conditions. The analysis indicated that the free-to-roll results had good agreement with flight data on all four models. A wide range of motions - limit cycle wing rock, occasional and frequent damped wing drop/rock and wing rock divergence - were observed. The analysis shows the effects that the static and dynamic lateral stability can have on the wing drop/rock behavior. In addition, a free-to-roll figure of merit was developed to assist in the interpretation of results and assessment of the severity of the motions.

  6. Study of the single body yawed-wing aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Nisbet, J. W.; Neuman, F. D.; Hamilton, E. J.; Murakami, J. K.; Mcbarron, J. P.; Kumasaka, K.

    1974-01-01

    Areas relating to the development and improvement of the single-fuselage, yawed-wing transonic transport concept were investigated. These included: (1) developing an alternate configuration with a simplified engine installation;(2) determining a structural design speed placard that would allow the engine-airframe match for optimum airplane performance; and (3) conducting an aeroelastic stability and control analysis of the yawed-wing configuration with a flexible wing. A two-engine, single-fuselage, yawed-wing configuration was developed that achieved the Mach 1.2 design mission at 5560 km (3000 nmi) and payload of 18,140 kg (40,000 lb) with a gross weight of 217,700 kg (480,000 lb). This airplane was slightly heavier than the aft-integrated four-engine configuration that had been developed in a previous study. A modified structural design speed placard, which was determined, resulted in a 6% to 8% reduction in the gross weight of the yawed-wing configurations. The dynamic stability characteristics of the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration were found to be very dependent on the magnitude of the pitch/roll coupling, the static longitudinal stability, and the dihedral effect.

  7. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  8. Thrust and wing loading requirements for short haul aircraft constrained by engine noise and field length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.; Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Propulsion system and wing loading requirements are determined for a mechanical flap and an externally blown flap aircraft for various engine noise levels and two engine cycles. Both aircraft are sized to operate from a 914m (3000 ft) runway and perform the same mission. For each aircraft concept, propulsion system sizing is demonstrated for two different engine cycles - one having a fan pressure ratio of 1.5 and a bypass ratio of 9, and the other having a fan pressure ratio of 1.25 and a bypass ratio of 17.8. The results presented include the required thrust-to-weight ratio, wing loading, resulting gross weight, and direct operating costs, as functions of the engine noise level, for each combination of engine cycle and aircraft concept.

  9. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  10. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Polyimide Foam for International Space Station Solar Array Wing Blanket Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Albyn, K. C.; Watts, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Onorbit photos of the International Space Station (ISS) solar array blanket box foam pad assembly indicate degradation of the Kapton film covering the foam, leading to atomic oxygen (AO) exposure of the foam. The purpose of this test was to determine the magnitude of particulate generation caused by low-Earth orbital environment exposure of the foam and also by compression of the foam during solar array wing retraction. The polyimide foam used in the ISS solar array wing blanket box assembly is susceptible to significant AO erosion. The foam sample in this test lost one-third of its mass after exposure to the equivalent of 22 mo onorbit. Some particulate was generated by exposure to simulated orbital conditions and the simulated solar array retraction (compression test). However, onorbit, these particles would also be eroded by AO. The captured particles were generally <1 mm, and the particles shaken free of the sample had a maximum size of 4 mm. The foam sample maintained integrity after a compression load of 2.5 psi.

  11. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+. XXXXX Demand for green aviation is expected to increase with the need for reduced environmental impact. Most large transports today operate within the best cruise L/D range of 18-20 using the conventional tube-and-wing design. This configuration has led to marginal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency over this past century, as aerodynamic improvements tend to be incremental. A big opportunity has been shown in recent years to significantly reduce structural weight or trim drag, hence improved energy efficiency, with the use of lightweight materials such as composites. The Boeing 787 transport is an example of a modern airframe design that employs lightweight structures. High aspect ratio wing design can provide another opportunity for further improvements in energy efficiency. Historically, the study of high aspect ratio wings has been intimately tied to the study of

  12. An investigation of supersonic aeroelastic characteristics of oblique winged aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Two formulations of the oblique wing flutter problem are presented: one formulation allows wing bending deformations and the rigid body roll degree of freedom while the second formulation includes bending-torsional deformation and roll degrees of freedom. Flutter is found to occur in two basic modes. The first mode is associated with bending-roll coupling and occurs at low reduced frequency values. The other instability mode is primarily one of classical bending-torsion with negligible roll coupling; this mode occurs at much higher reduced frequencies. The occurrence of bending-roll coupling mode leads to lower flutter speeds while the bending-torsion mode is associated with higher flutter speeds. The ratio of the wing mass moment of inertial in roll to the fuselage moment of inertia evidently plays a major role in the determination of which of the two instabilities is critical.

  13. Conceptual Design and Structural Optimization of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving the fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project requires innovative and unconventional aircraft concepts. In response, advanced hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft concepts have been proposed and analyzed as a means of meeting these objectives. For the current study, several HWB concepts were analyzed using the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) analysis code. HCDstruct is a medium-fidelity finite element based conceptual design and structural optimization tool developed to fill the critical analysis gap existing between lower order structural sizing approaches and detailed, often finite element based sizing methods for HWB aircraft concepts. Whereas prior versions of the tool used a half-model approach in building the representative finite element model, a full wing-tip-to-wing-tip modeling capability was recently added to HCDstruct, which alleviated the symmetry constraints at the model centerline in place of a free-flying model and allowed for more realistic center body, aft body, and wing loading and trim response. The latest version of HCDstruct was applied to two ERA reference cases, including the Boeing Open Rotor Engine Integration On an HWB (OREIO) concept and the Boeing ERA-0009H1 concept, and results agreed favorably with detailed Boeing design data and related Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) analyses. Following these benchmark cases, HCDstruct was used to size NASA's ERA HWB concepts and to perform a related scaling study.

  14. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. 45.25 Section 45.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer surfaces of a multivertical tail. However, on...

  15. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. 45.25 Section 45.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer surfaces of a multivertical tail. However, on...

  16. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. 45.25 Section 45.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer surfaces of a multivertical tail. However, on...

  17. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. 45.25 Section 45.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer surfaces of a multivertical tail. However, on...

  18. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. 45.25 Section 45.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer surfaces of a multivertical tail. However, on...

  19. A fundamental approach to the sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiss, N. S., Jr.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings is investigated. The major topics of this review are: Experimentally tested methods, testing techniques, the effect of surface roughness height on aerodynamic drag, materials tested and, the adhesive properties of insect body fluids are reviewed.

  20. Investigation of the Applicability of the Free-wing Principle to Light, General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Luce, R. G.; Brown, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Gust-alleviation benefits for aircraft employing an unconventional wing, free to pivot about a spanwise axis forward of its aerodynamic center and subject only to aerodynamic pitching moments imposed by lift and drag forces and a trailing-edge control surface are reviewed.

  1. A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft for piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft that was used in a piloted, six-degree-of-freedom flight simulation application is described. Two types of control systems developed for the math model are discussed: a conventional, programmed-flap wing-tilt control system and a geared-flap wing-tilt control system. The primary objective was to develop the capability to study tilt-wing aircraft. Experienced Tilt-wing pilots subjectively evaluated the model using programmed-flap control to assess the quality of the simulation. The math model was then applied to study geared-flap control to investigate the possibility of eliminating the need for auxilary pitch-control devices (such as the horizontal tail rotor or tail jet used in earlier tilt-wing designs). This investigation was performed in the moving-base simulation environment, and the vehicle responses with programmed-flap and geared-flap control were compared. The results of the evaluation of the math model are discussed.

  2. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Chen, Tony; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.; Bessette, Denis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes strain-gage calibration loading through the application of known loads of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 airplane. The primary goal of this test is to produce a database suitable for deriving load equations for left and right wing root and fold shear; bending moment; torque; and all eight wing control-surface hinge moments. A secondary goal is to produce a database of wing deflections measured by string potentiometers and the onboard flight deflection measurement system. Another goal is to produce strain-gage data through both the laboratory data acquisition system and the onboard aircraft data system as a check of the aircraft system. Thirty-two hydraulic jacks have applied loads through whiffletrees to 104 tension-compression load pads bonded to the lower wing surfaces. The load pads covered approximately 60 percent of the lower wing surface. A series of 72 load cases has been performed, including single-point, double-point, and distributed load cases. Applied loads have reached 70 percent of the flight limit load. Maximum wingtip deflection has reached nearly 16 in.

  3. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  4. Survey - Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed wing aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a technical survey of the practical applications of structural optimization methods in the U.S. aerospace industry through 1980s are summarized. One of the most important developments in the 80s is the more widespread acceptance of structural optimization as one of the design tools that support practical structural design. Another significant advance is the development of large software tools for production applications. Attention is also given to the tailoring of the computerized design process to the specific environment of each company. The two most important aspects of this tailoring are seamless and easy-to-use incorporation of structural optimization in the overall aerospace design/production process and multidisciplinary integration aimed at ultimate performance optimization of the final product. Some specific applications discussed include the X-29 forward swept wing demonstrator aircraft, composite wing and vertical tail program, fighter wing redesign evaluations, high speed aircraft design, and space structures.

  5. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  6. Statistical Turbofan Architecture Management for Use in a Supercirculation Wing Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drãgan, Valeriu

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an attempt to determine weather the architecture difference between the two spool and three spool turbofan engines can have any significant effect uppon their use in super circulation wing (SCW) aircraft. Such aircraft have been experimented with since 1970's and have been revived because of growing interest in silent STOL aircraft. The approach used is statistical, i.e. actual data provided by engine manufacturers and regulating authorities such as ICAO and EASA was used to derive certain relevant parameters which were then analyzed and conclusions were formulated.

  7. Flight control system development and flight test experience with the F-111 mission adaptive wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The wing on the NASA F-111 transonic aircraft technology airplane was modified to provide flexible leading and trailing edge flaps. This wing is known as the mission adaptive wing (MAW) because aerodynamic efficiency can be maintained at all speeds. Unlike a conventional wing, the MAW has no spoilers, external flap hinges, or fairings to break the smooth contour. The leading edge flaps and three-segment trailing edge flaps are controlled by a redundant fly-by-wire control system that features a dual digital primary system architecture providing roll and symmetric commands to the MAW control surfaces. A segregated analog backup system is provided in the event of a primary system failure. This paper discusses the design, development, testing, qualification, and flight test experience of the MAW primary and backup flight control systems.

  8. Multilevel decomposition approach to the preliminary sizing of a transport aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, Gregory A.; Dovi, Augustine R.

    1990-01-01

    A multilevel/multidisciplinary optimization scheme for sizing an aircraft wing structure is described. A methodology using nonlinear programming in application to a very large engineering problem is presented. This capability is due to the decomposition approach. Over 1300 design variables are considered for this nonlinear optimization task. In addition, a mathematical link is established coupling the detail of structural sizing to the overall system performance objective, such as fuel consumption. The scheme is implemented as a three level system analyzing aircraft mission performance at the top level, the total aircraft structure as the middle level, and individual stiffened wing skin cover panels at the bottom level. Numerical show effectiveness of the method and its good convergence characteristics.

  9. Prediction of wing aeroelastic effects on aircraft life and pitching moment characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of flight loads on an aircraft structure determine the lift and pitching moment characteristics of the aircraft. When the load distribution changes due to the aeroelastic response of the structure, the lift and pitching moment characteristics also change. An estimate of the effect of aeroelasticity on stability and control characteristics is often required for the development of aircraft simulation models of evaluation of flight characteristics. This presentation outlines a procedure for incorporating calculated linear aeroelastic effects into measured nonlinear lift and pitching moment data from wind tunnel tests. Results are presented which were obtained from applying this procedure to data for an aircraft with a very flexible transport type research wing. The procedure described is generally applicable to all types of aircraft.

  10. Prediction of wing aeroelastic effects on aircraft lift and pitching moment characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of flight loads on an aircraft structure determines the lift and pitching moment characteristics of the aircraft. When the load distribution changes due to the aeroelastic response of the structure, the lift and pitching moment characteristics also change. Some estimate of the effect of aeroelasticity on stability and control characteristics, particularly lift and pitching moment, is required for use in aircraft simulation models for evaluation of flight characteristics. This presentation outlines a procedure to incorporate aeroelastic effects into lift and pitching moment data from wind tunnel tests. Results are presented which were obtained from applying this procedure to an aircraft with a very flexible transport-type research wing. The procedure described is generally applicable to all types of aircraft.

  11. Prediction of wing aeroelastic effects on aircraft lift and pitching moment characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of flight loads on an aircraft structure determine the lift and pitching moment characteristics of the aircraft. When the load distribution changes due to the aeroelastic response of the structure, the lift and pitching moment characteristics also change. An estimate of the effect of aeroelasticity on stability and control characteristics is often required for the development of aircraft simulation models of evaluation of flight characteristics. This presentation outlines a procedure for incorporating calculated linear aeroelastic effects into measured nonlinear lift and pitching moment data from wind tunnel tests. Results are presented which were obtained from applying this procedure to data for an aircraft with a very flexible transport type research wing. The procedure described is generally applicable to all types of aircraft.

  12. Box-wing model approach for solar radiation pressure modelling in a multi-GNSS scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Guillermo; Jesús García, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The solar radiation pressure force is the largest orbital perturbation after the gravitational effects and the major error source affecting GNSS satellites. A wide range of approaches have been developed over the years for the modelling of this non gravitational effect as part of the orbit determination process. These approaches are commonly divided into empirical, semi-analytical and analytical, where their main difference relies on the amount of knowledge of a-priori physical information about the properties of the satellites (materials and geometry) and their attitude. It has been shown in the past that the pre-launch analytical models fail to achieve the desired accuracy mainly due to difficulties in the extrapolation of the in-orbit optical and thermic properties, the perturbations in the nominal attitude law and the aging of the satellite's surfaces, whereas empirical models' accuracies strongly depend on the amount of tracking data used for deriving the models, and whose performances are reduced as the area to mass ratio of the GNSS satellites increases, as it happens for the upcoming constellations such as BeiDou and Galileo. This paper proposes to use basic box-wing model for Galileo complemented with empirical parameters, based on the limited available information about the Galileo satellite's geometry. The satellite is modelled as a box, representing the satellite bus, and a wing representing the solar panel. The performance of the model will be assessed for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo constellations. The results of the proposed approach have been analyzed over a one year period. In order to assess the results two different SRP models have been used. Firstly, the proposed box-wing model and secondly, the new CODE empirical model, ECOM2. The orbit performances of both models are assessed using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements, together with the evaluation of the orbit prediction accuracy. This comparison shows the advantages and disadvantages of

  13. Buckling characteristics of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Shideler, John L.; Fields, Roger A.

    1986-01-01

    The buckling characteristics of Rene 41 tubular panels installed as wing panels on a hypersonic wing test structure (HWTS) were determined nondestructively through use of a force/stiffness technique. The nondestructive buckling tests were carried out under different combined load conditions and different temperature environments. Two panels were subsequently tested to buckling failure in a universal tension compression testing machine. In spite of some data scattering because of large extrapolations of data points resulting from termination of the test at a somewhat low applied load, the overall test data correlated fairly well with theoretically predicted buckling interaction curves. The structural efficiency of the tubular panels was slightly higher than that of the beaded panels which they replaced.

  14. Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.

  15. Deflection-Based Structural Loads Estimation From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. This technique was examined using a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  16. NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

  17. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  18. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  19. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  20. Structural Vulnerability of the Boeing B-29 Aircraft Wing to Damage by Warhead Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; OSullivan, William J., Jr.

    1952-01-01

    An elementary type of analysis has been used to determine the amount of wing tip that must be severed to produce irrevocable loss of control of a B-29 airplane. The remaining inboard structure of the Boeing B-29 wing has then been analyzed and curves are presented for the estimated reduction in structural strength due to four general types of damage produced by rod-type warhead fragments. The curves indicate the extent of structural damage required to produce a kill of the aircraft within 10 seconds.

  1. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings -or- Thinking Outside the Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.

  2. Computational aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings including geometry nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binyu

    The objective of the present study is to show the ability of solving fluid structural interaction problems more realistically by including the geometric nonlinearity of the structure so that the aeroelastic analysis can be extended into the onset of flutter, or in the post flutter regime. A nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software is developed based on second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain is a pair of energetically conjugated tensors that can accommodate arbitrary large structural deformations and deflection, to study the flutter phenomenon. Since both of these tensors are objective tensors, i.e., the rigid-body motion has no contribution to their components, the movement of the body, including maneuvers and deformation, can be included. The nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software developed in this study is verified with ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and IDEAS for the linear static, nonlinear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear dynamic structural solutions. To solve the flow problems by Euler/Navier equations, the current nonlinear structural software is then embedded into ENSAERO, which is an aeroelastic analysis software package developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The coupling of the two software, both nonlinear in their own field, is achieved by domain decomposition method first proposed by Guruswamy. A procedure has been set for the aeroelastic analysis process. The aeroelastic analysis results have been obtained for fight wing in the transonic regime for various cases. The influence dynamic pressure on flutter has been checked for a range of Mach number. Even though the current analysis matches the general aeroelastic characteristic, the numerical value not match very well with previous studies and needs farther investigations. The flutter aeroelastic analysis results have also been plotted at several time points. The influences of the deforming wing geometry can be well seen

  3. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  4. System Noise Assessment of Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft With Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    An aircraft system noise study is presented for the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft concept with three open rotor engines mounted on the upper surface of the airframe. It is shown that for such an aircraft, the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is about 24 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. While this makes the design acoustically viable in meeting the regulatory requirements, even with the consideration of more stringent noise regulations of a possible Stage 5 in the next decade or so, the design will likely meet stiff competitions from aircraft with turbofan engines. It is shown that the noise levels of the BWB design are held up by the inherently high noise levels of the open rotor engines and the limitation on the shielding benefit due to the practical design constraint on the engine location. Furthermore, it is shown that the BWB design has high levels of noise from the main landing gear, due to their exposure to high speed flow at the junction between the center body and outer wing. These are also the reasons why this baseline BWB design does not meet the NASA N+2 noise goal of 42 dB below Stage 4. To identify approaches that may further reduce noise, parametric studies are also presented, including variations in engine location, vertical tail and elevon variations, and airframe surface acoustic liner treatment effect. These have the potential to further reduce noise but they are only at the conceptual stage.

  5. In-flight lift-drag characteristics for a forward-swept wing aircraft and comparisons with contemporary aircraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Hicks, John W.; Luke, Sue (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lift (L) and drag (D) characteristics have been obtained in flight for the X-29A airplane (a forward swept-wing demonstrator) for Mach numbers (M) from 0.4 to 1.3. Most of the data were obtained near an altitude of 30,000 ft. A representative Reynolds number for M = 0.9, and a pressure altitude of 30,000 ft, is 18.6 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The X-29A data (forward-swept wing) are compared with three high-performance fighter aircraft: the F-15C, F-16C, and F/A18. The lifting efficiency of the X-29A, as defined by the Oswald lifting efficiency factor, e, is about average for a cantilevered monoplane for M = 0.6 and angles of attack up to those required for maximum L/D. At M = 0.6 the level of L/D and e, as a function of load factor, for the X-29A was about the same as for the contemporary aircraft. The X-29A and its contemporaries have high transonic wave drag and equivalent parasite area compared with aircraft of the 1940's through 1960's.

  6. Noise characteristics of an electromagnetic sea-ice thickness sounder on a fixed wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenstein, Lasse; Hendricks, Stefan; Lobach, John; Haas, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the noise sources of an airborne electromagnetic frequency domain instrument used to measure sea-ice thickness are studied. The antennas are mounted on the wings of an aircraft. The paper presents real data examples showing that strong noise limited the accuracy of the thickness measurement to ± 0.5 m in the best case. Even drift cor­rection and frequency filtering did not reduce the noise to a level necessary for sea ice thickness measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 m. We show results of 3D finite element modeling of the coupling between transmitter and receiver coils and the aircraft, which indicate that wing flexure is the primary cause of the strong noise. Wing deflection angles below 5° relative to the fuselage are large enough to cause changes higher than the wanted signal from the seawater under the ice. Wing flexure noise can be divided into an inductive and geometric contribution, both of the same order. Most of the wing flexure signal appears on the inphase component only, hence the quadrature component should be taken for sea ice thickness retrievals when wing flexure is present even when the inphase produces a larger ocean sig­nal. Results also show that pitch and roll movements of the aircraft and electromagnetic coupling between seawater and aircraft can contribute significantly to the total noise. For flight heights of 30 m over the ocean these effects can change the sig­nal by about 10% or more. For highly quantitative measurements like sea-ice thickness all these effects must be taken into account. We conclude that a fixed wing electromagnetic instrument for the purpose of measure­ments in a centimeter scale must include instrumentation to measure the relative position of the antenna coils with an accuracy of 1/10 mm. Furthermore the antenna separation distance should be as large as possible in order to increase the measured ratio of secondary to primary magnetic field strength.

  7. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far field. The effects of non-uniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing. 0 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Full scale visualization of the wing tip vortices generated by a typical agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.; Bridges, P. D.; Brownlee, J. A.; Livingston, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectories of the wing tip vortices of a typical agricultural aircraft were experimentally determined by flight test. A flow visualization method, similar to the vapor screen method used in wind tunnels, was used to obtain trajectory data for a range of flight speeds, airplane configurations, and wing loadings. Detailed measurements of the spanwise surface pressure distribution were made for all test points. Further, a powered 1/8 scale model of the aircraft was designed, built, and used to obtain tip vortex trajectory data under conditions similar to that of the full scale test. The effects of light wind on the vortices were demonstrated, and the interaction of the flap vortex and the tip vortex was clearly shown in photographs and plotted trajectory data.

  9. Full scale visualization of the wing tip vortices generated by a typical agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.; Bridges, P.; Brownlee, J. A.; Liningston, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectories of the wing tip vortices of a typical agricultural aircraft were experimentally determined by flight test. A flow visualization method, similar to the vapor screen method used in wind tunnels, was used to obtain trajectory data for a range of flight speeds, airplane configurations, and wing loadings. Detailed measurements of the spanwise surface pressure distribution were made for all test points. Further, a powered 1/8 scale model of the aircraft was designed, built, and used to obtain tip vortex trajectory data under conditions similar to that of the full-scale test. The effects of light wind on the vortices were demonstrated, and the interaction of the flap vortex and the tip vortex was clearly shown in photographs and plotted trajectory data.

  10. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  11. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  12. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering By Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  13. Effect of multiple engine placement on aeroelastic trim and stability of flying wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardanpour, Pezhman; Richards, Phillip W.; Nabipour, Omid; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of multiple engine placement on flutter characteristics of a backswept flying wing resembling the HORTEN IV are investigated using the code NATASHA (Nonlinear Aeroelastic Trim And Stability of HALE Aircraft). Four identical engines with defined mass, inertia, and angular momentum are placed in different locations along the span with different offsets from the elastic axis while fixing the location of the aircraft c.g. The aircraft experiences body freedom flutter along with non-oscillatory instabilities that originate from flight dynamics. Multiple engine placement increases flutter speed particularly when the engines are placed in the outboard portion of the wing (60-70% span), forward of the elastic axis, while the lift to drag ratio is affected negligibly. The behavior of the sub- and supercritical eigenvalues is studied for two cases of engine placement. NATASHA captures a hump body-freedom flutter with low frequency for the clean wing case, which disappears as the engines are placed on the wings. In neither case is there any apparent coalescence between the unstable modes. NATASHA captures other non-oscillatory unstable roots with very small amplitude, apparently originating with flight dynamics. For the clean-wing case, in the absence of aerodynamic and gravitational forces, the regions of minimum kinetic energy density for the first and third bending modes are located around 60% span. For the second mode, this kinetic energy density has local minima around the 20% and 80% span. The regions of minimum kinetic energy of these modes are in agreement with calculations that show a noticeable increase in flutter speed if engines are placed forward of the elastic axis at these regions.

  14. Three-dimensional canard-wing shape optimization in aircraft cruise and maneuver environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Silva, B. M. E.; Carmichael, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a numerical technique for canard-wing shape optimization at two operating conditions. For purposes of simplicity, a mean surface wing paneling code is employed for the aerodynamic calculations. The optimization procedures are based on the method of feasible directions. The shape functions for describing the thickness, camber, and twist are based on polynomial representations. The primary design requirements imposed restrictions on the canard and wing volumes and on the lift coefficients at the operating conditions. Results indicate that significant improvements in minimum drag and lift-to-drag ratio are possible with reasonable aircraft geometries. Calculations were done for supersonic speeds with Mach numbers ranging from 1 to 6. Planforms were mainly of a delta shape with aspect ratio of 1.

  15. Effect of engine noise on aircraft wing laminar boundary-layer stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotty, R. A.

    1981-07-01

    It is noted that high-intensity acoustical disturbances can cause transition of controlled laminar flow. An investigation is carried out to determine whether the installation of main propulsion engines on an aircraft wing could cause excessive transition of laminar to turbulent flow. A method is developed for analyzing the influence of noise on the stability of a controlled laminar boundary layer; the method is based on the Tollmien-Schlichting traveling wave solution, on the Orr-Sommerfeld equation and some wind tunnel experimental data. It is found that wing-mounted, high-bypass-ratio engines with sufficient acoustic treatment for controlling turbomachinery noise would not cause excessive loss of wing laminar flow.

  16. Statistical analysis of the time and fatigue strength of aircraft wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Hans W

    1941-01-01

    The results from stress measurements in flight operation afford data for analyzing the frequency of appearance of certain parts of the static breaking strength during a specified number of operating hours. Appropriate frequency evaluations furnish data for the prediction of the required strength under repeated stress in the wing structures of aircraft of the different stress categories for the specified number of operating hours demanded during the life of a component.

  17. Identification of Spey engine dynamics in the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehoff, R. L.; Reed, W. B.; Trankle, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The development and validation of a spey engine model is described. An analysis of the dynamical interactions involved in the propulsion unit is presented. The model was reduced to contain only significant effects, and was used, in conjunction with flight data obtained from an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft, to develop initial estimates of parameters in the system. The theoretical background employed in estimating the parameters is outlined. The software package developed for processing the flight data is described. Results are summarized.

  18. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  19. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Joined-wing Research Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Stonum, Ronald K.

    1989-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test was conducted at Ames Research Center to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of a joined-wing research aircraft (JWRA). This aircraft was designed to utilize the fuselage and engines of the existing NASA AD-1 aircraft. The JWRA was designed to have removable outer wing panels to represent three different configurations with the interwing joint at different fractions of the wing span. A one-sixth-scale wind-tunnel model of all three configurations of the JWRA was tested in the Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel to measure aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics. The results of these tests are presented. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were measured over an angle of attack range of -7 to 14 deg and over an angle of sideslip range of -5 to +2.5 deg at a Mach number of 0.35 and a Reynolds number of 2.2x10(6)/ft. Various combinations of deflected control surfaces were tested to measure the effectiveness and impact on stability of several control surface arrangements. In addition, the effects on stall and post-stall aerodynamic characteristics from small leading-edge devices called vortilons were measured. The results of these tests indicate that the JWRA had very good aerodynamic performance and acceptable stability and control throughout its flight envelope. The vortilons produced a profound improvement in the stall and post-stall characteristics with no measurable effects on cruise performance.

  20. The use of pressure sensing taps on the aircraft wing as sensor for flight control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.

    1985-02-01

    For the low speed operation of aircraft, during STOL-take off or STOL-landing and for windshear situations a precise measurement of the state of the aerodynamic flow is required. Normally the dynamic pressure is used to assess the state of flow, thus defining the stall margin in terms of a speed factor. However, flying at higher lift coefficients, a precise maintainence of a given lift coefficient by controlling the speed is no longer feasible. Instead, controlling the angle of attack or controlling the lift coefficient directly should be used. Some methods for the measurement and the control of the state of the aerodynamical flow including wing tap pressure measurements are discussed. Wind tunnel results are presented, that show the pressure distribution of a slotted STOL-wing and the typical relationship between the tap pressure, angle of attack and flap angle. Wing tape pressure measurements taken with the STOL-aircraft Do 28 aircraft are then discussed showing the feasibility of the method described to sense the state of flow.

  1. Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

  2. Jet Noise Shielding Provided by a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Pope, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward achieving NASA's aggressive N+2 noise goal of 42 EPNdB cumulative margin below Stage 4 is through the use of novel vehicle configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB). Jet noise measurements from an HWB acoustic test in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are described. Two dual-stream, heated Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are mounted underneath the inverted HWB model on a traversable support to permit measurement of varying levels of shielding provided by the fuselage. Both an axisymmetric and low noise chevron nozzle set are investigated in the context of shielding. The unshielded chevron nozzle set shows 1 to 2 dB of source noise reduction (relative to the unshielded axisymmetric nozzle set) with some penalties at higher frequencies. Shielding of the axisymmetric nozzles shows up to 6.5 dB of reduction at high frequency. The combination of shielding and low noise chevrons shows benefits beyond the expected additive benefits of the two, up to 10 dB, due to the effective migration of the jet source peak noise location upstream for increased shielding effectiveness. Jet noise source maps from phased array results processed with the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm reinforce these observations.

  3. Loading tests of a wing structure for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, R. A.; Reardon, L. F.; Siegel, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Room-temperature loading tests were conducted on a wing structure designed with a beaded panel concept for a Mach 8 hypersonic research airplane. Strain, stress, and deflection data were compared with the results of three finite-element structural analysis computer programs and with design data. The test program data were used to evaluate the structural concept and the methods of analysis used in the design. A force stiffness technique was utilized in conjunction with load conditions which produced various combinations of panel shear and compression loading to determine the failure envelope of the buckling critical beaded panels The force-stiffness data did not result in any predictions of buckling failure. It was, therefore, concluded that the panels were conservatively designed as a result of design constraints and assumptions of panel eccentricities. The analysis programs calculated strains and stresses competently. Comparisons between calculated and measured structural deflections showed good agreement. The test program offered a positive demonstration of the beaded panel concept subjected to room-temperature load conditions.

  4. NASA Hybrid Wing Aircraft Aeroacoustic Test Documentation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Hoad, Danny; Becker, Lawrence; Humphreys, William M.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Dan; Pope, Dennis S.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Kuchta, Dennis H.; Plassman, Gerald E.; Moen, Jaye A.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) N2A-EXTE model aeroacoustic test. The N2A-EXTE model was tested in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 Tunnel) from September 12, 2012 until January 28, 2013 and was designated as test T598. This document contains the following main sections: Section 1 - Introduction, Section 2 - Main Personnel, Section 3 - Test Equipment, Section 4 - Data Acquisition Systems, Section 5 - Instrumentation and Calibration, Section 6 - Test Matrix, Section 7 - Data Processing, and Section 8 - Summary. Due to the amount of material to be documented, this HWB test documentation report does not cover analysis of acquired data, which is to be presented separately by the principal investigators. Also, no attempt was made to include preliminary risk reduction tests (such as Broadband Engine Noise Simulator and Compact Jet Engine Simulator characterization tests, shielding measurement technique studies, and speaker calibration method studies), which were performed in support of this HWB test. Separate reports containing these preliminary tests are referenced where applicable.

  5. Equivalent Plate Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Discrete Source Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent plate procedure is developed to provide a computationally efficient means of matching the stiffness and frequencies of flight vehicle wing structures for prescribed loading conditions. First, the equivalent plate is used to match the stiffness of a stiffened panel without damage and the stiffness of a stiffened panel with damage. For both stiffened panels, the equivalent plate models reproduce the deformation of a corresponding detailed model exactly for the given loading conditions. Once the stiffness was matched, the equivalent plate models were then used to predict the frequencies of the panels. Two analytical procedures using the lumped-mass matrix were used to match the first five frequencies of the corresponding detailed model. In both the procedures, the lumped-mass matrix for the equivalent plate is constructed by multiplying the diagonal terms of the consistent-mass matrix by a proportionality constant. In the first procedure, the proportionality constant is selected such that the total mass of the equivalent plate is equal to that of the detailed model. In the second method, the proportionality constant is selected to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors in a set of pre-selected frequencies between the equivalent plate model and the detailed model. The equivalent plate models reproduced the fundamental first frequency accurately in both the methods. It is observed that changing only the mass distribution in the equivalent plate model did not provide enough flexibility to match all of the frequencies.

  6. A study of high-altitude manned research aircraft employing strut-braced wings of high-aspect-ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.; Deyoung, J.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of increased wing aspect ratio of subsonic aircraft on configurations with and without strut bracing. Results indicate that an optimum cantilever configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 26, has a 19% improvement in cruise range when compared to a baseline concept with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 10. An optimum strut braced configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 28, has a 31% improvment in cruise range when compared to the same baseline concept. This improvement is mainly due to the estimated reduction in wing weight resulting from use of lifting struts. All configurations assume the same mission payload and fuel. The drag characteristics of the wings are enhanced with the use of laminar flow airfoils. A method for determining the extent of attainable natural laminar flow, and methods for preliminary structural design and for aerodynamic analysis of wings lifting struts are presented.

  7. Estimated Benefits of Variable-Geometry Wing Camber Control for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical benefits of variable-camber capability on subsonic transport aircraft are explored. Using aerodynamic performance models, including drag as a function of deflection angle for control surfaces of interest, optimal performance benefits of variable camber are calculated. Results demonstrate that if all wing trailing-edge surfaces are available for optimization, drag can be significantly reduced at most points within the flight envelope. The optimization approach developed and illustrated for flight uses variable camber for optimization of aerodynamic efficiency (maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio). Most transport aircraft have significant latent capability in this area. Wing camber control that can affect performance optimization for transport aircraft includes symmetric use of ailerons and flaps. In this paper, drag characteristics for aileron and flap deflections are computed based on analytical and wind-tunnel data. All calculations based on predictions for the subject aircraft and the optimal surface deflection are obtained by simple interpolation for given conditions. An algorithm is also presented for computation of optimal surface deflection for given conditions. Benefits of variable camber for a transport configuration using a simple trailing-edge control surface system can approach more than 10 percent, especially for nonstandard flight conditions. In the cruise regime, the benefit is 1-3 percent.

  8. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  9. Correlation of Structural Analysis and Test Results for the McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI All-Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Hinrichs, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical and experimental results of an all-composite wing stub box are presented in this report. The wing stub box, which is representative of an inboard portion of a commercial transport high-aspect-ratio wing, was fabricated from stitched graphite-epoxy material with a Resin Film Infusion manufacturing process. The wing stub box was designed and constructed by the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company as part of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology program. The test article contained metallic load-introduction structures on the inboard and outboard ends of the graphite-epoxy wing stub box. The root end of the inboard load introduction structure was attached to a vertical reaction structure, and an upward load was applied to the outermost tip of the outboard load introduction structure to induce bending of the wing stub box. A finite element model was created in which the center portion of the wing-stub-box upper cover panel was modeled with a refined mesh. The refined mesh was required to represent properly the geometrically nonlinear structural behavior of the upper cover panel and to predict accurately the strains in the stringer webs of the stiffened upper cover panel. The analytical and experimental results for deflections and strains are in good agreement.

  10. Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

  11. Wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL aircraft model with wing root and wing thrust augmentors. [Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.; Aiken, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale V/STOL aircraft model with thrust augmentors. The model had a double-delta wing of aspect ratio 1.65 with augmentors located in the wing root and the wing trailing edge. The supply air for the augmentor primary nozzles was provided by the YJ-97 turbojet engine. The airflow was apportioned approximately 74 percent to the wing root augmentor and 24 percent to wing augmentor. Results were obtained at several trailing-edge flap deflections with the nozzle jet-momentum coefficients ranging from 0 to 7.9. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with the agumentor operating with and without the horizontal tail. A limited amount of six component data are also presented.

  12. The effects of aeroelastic deformation on the unaugmented stopped-rotor dynamics of an X-Wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Silva, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    A new design concept in the development of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft with high forward flight speed capability is that of the X-Wing. The X-Wing is a stiff, bearingless helicopter rotor system which can be stopped in flight and the blades used as two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Because of the unusual configuration in the fixed-wing mode, there is a high potential for aeroelastic divergence or flutter and coupling of blade vibration modes with rigid-body modes. An aeroelastic stability analysis of an X-Wing configuration aircraft was undertaken to determine if these problems could exist. This paper reports on the results of dynamic stability analyses in the lateral and longitudinal directions including the vehicle rigid-body and flexible modes. A static aeroelastic analysis using the normal vibration mode equations of motion was performed to determine the cause of a loss of longitudinal static margin with increasing airspeed. This loss of static margin was found to be due to aeroelastic 'washin' of the forward-swept blades and 'washout' of the aft-swept blades moving the aircraft aerodynamic center forward of the center of gravity. This phenomenon is likely to be generic to X-Wing aircraft.

  13. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  14. An assessment of tailoring of lightning protection design requirements for a composite wing structure on a metallic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Navy A-6E aircraft is presently being modified with a new wing which uses graphite/epoxy structures and substructures around a titanium load-bearing structure. The ability of composites to conduct electricity is less than that of aluminum. This is cause for concern when the wing may be required to conduct large lightning currents. The manufacturer attempted to solve lightning protection issues by performing a risk assessment based on a statistical approach which allows relaxation of the wing lightning protection design levels over certain locations of the composite wing. A sensitivity study is presented designed to define the total risk of relaxation of the design levels.

  15. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  16. Design study of structural concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.; Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near-term start-of-design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail-safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low-profile convex-beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with Boron-polyimide composites. The fuselage shell is a closed-hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. This paper presents an executive summary of the study effort, and includes a discussion of the overall study logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design.

  17. On Wings of the Minimum Induced Drag: Spanload Implications for Aircraft and Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Murillo, Oscar J.; Jensen, Robert (Red); Eslinger, Brian; Gelzer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    For nearly a century Ludwig Prandtl's lifting-line theory remains a standard tool for understanding and analyzing aircraft wings. The tool, said Prandtl, initially points to the elliptical spanload as the most efficient wing choice, and it, too, has become the standard in aviation. Having no other model, avian researchers have used the elliptical spanload virtually since its introduction. Yet over the last half-century, research in bird flight has generated increasing data incongruous with the elliptical spanload. In 1933 Prandtl published a little-known paper presenting a superior spanload: any other solution produces greater drag. We argue that this second spanload is the correct model for bird flight data. Based on research we present a unifying theory for superior efficiency and coordinated control in a single solution. Specifically, Prandtl's second spanload offers the only solution to three aspects of bird flight: how birds are able to turn and maneuver without a vertical tail; why birds fly in formation with their wingtips overlapped; and why narrow wingtips do not result in wingtip stall. We performed research using two experimental aircraft designed in accordance with the fundamentals of Prandtl's second paper, but applying recent developments, to validate the various potentials of the new spanload, to wit: as an alternative for avian researchers, to demonstrate the concept of proverse yaw, and to offer a new method of aircraft control and efficiency.

  18. NASA advanced design program. Design and analysis of a radio-controlled flying wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The main challenge of this project was to design an aircraft that will achieve stability while flying without a horizontal tail. The project focused on both the design, analysis and construction of a remotely piloted, elliptical shaped flying wing. The design team was composed of four sub-groups each of which dealt with the different aspects of the design, namely aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, and structures. Each member of the team initially researched the background information pertaining to specific facets of the project. Since previous work on this topic was limited, most of the focus of the project was directed towards developing an understanding of the natural instability of the aircraft. Once the design team entered the conceptual stage of the project, a series of compromises had to be made to satisfy the unique requirements of each sub-group. As a result of the numerous calculations and iterations necessary, computers were utilized extensively. In order to visualize the design and layout of the wing, engines and control surfaces, a solid modeling package was used to evaluate optimum design placements. When the design was finalized, construction began with the help of all the members of the project team. The nature of the carbon composite construction process demanded long hours of manual labor. The assembly of the engine systems also required precision hand work. The final product of this project is the Elang, a one-of-a-kind remotely piloted aircraft of composite construction powered by two ducted fan engines.

  19. Frequency Response of an Aircraft Wing with Discrete Source Damage Using Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent plate procedure is developed to provide a computationally efficient means of matching the stiffness and frequencies of flight vehicle wing structures for prescribed loading conditions. Several new approaches are proposed and studied to match the stiffness and first five natural frequencies of the two reference models with and without damage. One approach divides the candidate reference plate into multiple zones in which stiffness and mass can be varied using a variety of materials including aluminum, graphite-epoxy, and foam-core graphite-epoxy sandwiches. Another approach places point masses along the edge of the stiffness-matched plate to tune the natural frequencies. Both approaches are successful at matching the stiffness and natural frequencies of the reference plates and provide useful insight into determination of crucial features in equivalent plate models of aircraft wing structures.

  20. Buckling behavior of Rene 41 tubular panels for a hypersonic aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.; Shideler, J. L.; Fields, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The buckling characteristics of Rene 41 tubular panels for a hypersonic aircraft wing were investigated. The panels were repeatedly tested for buckling characteristics using a hypersonic wing test structure and a universal tension/compression testing machine. The nondestructive buckling tests were carried out under different combined load conditions and in different temperature environments. The force/stiffness technique was used to determine the buckling loads of the panel. In spite of some data scattering, resulting from large extrapolations of the data fitting curve (because of the termination of applied loads at relatively low percentages of the buckling loads), the overall test data correlate fairly well with theoretically predicted buckling interaction curves. Also, the structural efficiency of the tubular panels was found to be slightly higher than that of beaded panels.

  1. Development of wing and tail configurations for low altitude unmanned research aircraft (LAURA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, S. M.; Harvey, W. D.; Siddiqi, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Altitude/Airspeed Unmanned Research Aircraft (LAURA) is being developed by the U.S. Navy for flight test research using low-Reynolds number airfoils. This vehicle consists of a standard modular fuselage designed to accept the installation of several wings/tails having low Reynolds number airfoils, and various planform shapes. Design constraints include shipboard storage, long flight endurance at very low airspeeds and sea-skimming cruise altitude. The stringent design constraints require the development of high-performance low Reynolds number (LRN) airfoils, suitable lifting surface configuration, and advanced airframe-propulsion systems. The present paper describes ongoing efforts to develop wing and tail configurations for LAURA using airfoils designed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  2. A model for nocturnal frost formation on a wing section: Aircraft takeoff performance penalties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietenberger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The nocturnal frost formation on a wing section, to explain the hazard associated with frost during takeoff was investigated. A model of nocturnal frost formation on a wing section which predicts when the nocturnal frost will form and also its thickness and density as a function of time was developed. The aerodynamic penalities as related to the nocturnal frost formation properties were analyzed to determine how much the takeoff performance would be degraded by a specific frost layer. With an aircraft takeoff assuming equations representing a steady climbing flight, it is determined that a reduction in the maximum gross weight or a partial frost clearance and a reduction in the takeoff angle of attack is needed to neutralize drag and life penalities which are due to frost. Atmospheric conditions which produce the most hazardous frost buildup are determined.

  3. Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft System Noise Assessment with Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Olson, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    A system noise assessment of a hybrid wing body configuration was performed using NASA s best available aircraft models, engine model, and system noise assessment method. A propulsion airframe aeroacoustic effects experimental database for key noise sources and interaction effects was used to provide data directly in the noise assessment where prediction methods are inadequate. NASA engine and aircraft system models were created to define the hybrid wing body aircraft concept as a twin engine aircraft with a 7500 nautical mile mission. The engines were modeled as existing technology high bypass ratio turbofans. The baseline hybrid wing body aircraft was assessed at 22 dB cumulative below the FAA Stage 4 certification level. To determine the potential for noise reduction with relatively near term technologies, seven other configurations were assessed beginning with moving the engines two fan nozzle diameters upstream of the trailing edge and then adding technologies for reduction of the highest noise sources. Aft radiated noise was expected to be the most challenging to reduce and, therefore, the experimental database focused on jet nozzle and pylon configurations that could reduce jet noise through a combination of source reduction and shielding effectiveness. The best configuration for reduction of jet noise used state-of-the-art technology chevrons with a pylon above the engine in the crown position. This configuration resulted in jet source noise reduction, favorable azimuthal directivity, and noise source relocation upstream where it is more effectively shielded by the limited airframe surface, and additional fan noise attenuation from acoustic liner on the crown pylon internal surfaces. Vertical and elevon surfaces were also assessed to add shielding area. The elevon deflection above the trailing edge showed some small additional noise reduction whereas vertical surfaces resulted in a slight noise increase. With the effects of the configurations from the

  4. Navier-Stokes Analysis of the Flowfield Characteristics of an Ice Contaminated Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, J.; Choo, Y.; Reehorst, A.; Potapczuk, M.; Slater, J.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical study was performed as part of the NASA Lewis support of a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aircraft accident investigation. The study was focused on the performance degradation associated with ice contamination on the wing of a commercial turbo-prop-powered aircraft. Based upon the results of an earlier numerical study conducted by the authors, a prominent ridged-ice formation on the subject aircraft wing was selected for detailed flow analysis using 2-dimensional (2-D), as well as, 3-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes computations. This configuration was selected because it caused the largest lift decrease and drag increase among all the ice shapes investigated in the earlier study. A grid sensitivity test was performed to find out the influence of grid spacing on the lift, drag, and associated angle-of-attack for the maximum lift (C(sub lmax)). This study showed that grid resolution is important and a sensitivity analysis is an essential element of the process in order to assure that the final solution is independent of the grid. The 2-D results suggested that a severe stability and control difficulty could have occurred at a slightly higher angle-of-attack (AOA) than the one recorded by the Flight Data Recorder (FDR). This stability and control problem was thought to have resulted from a decreased differential lift on the wings with respect to the normal loading for the configuration. The analysis also indicated that this stability and control problem could have occurred whether or not natural ice shedding took place. Numerical results using an assumed 3-D ice shape showed an increase of the angle at which this phenomena occurred of about 4 degrees. As it occurred with the 2-D case, the trailing edge separation was observed but started only when the AOA was very close to the angle at which the maximum lift occurred.

  5. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  6. Computer program for prediction of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teske, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a user manual for the computer code ""AGDISP'' (AGricultural DISPersal) which has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern.

  7. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  8. Program for establishing long time flight service performance of composite materials in the central wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 2: Detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvill, W. E.; Duhig, J. J.; Spencer, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of boron-epoxy reinforced C-130 center wing boxes are discussed. Design drawings, static strength, fatigue endurance, flutter, and weight analyses required for the wing box fabrication are presented. Additional component testing to verify the design for panel buckling and to evaluate specific local design areas are reported.

  9. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  10. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  11. Extraction from flight data of lateral aerodynamic coefficients for F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Suit, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    A parameter-extraction algorithm was used to determine the lateral aerodynamic derivatives from flight data for the F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing. The flight data used were the recorded responses to aileron or rudder pulses for Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.90, and 0.98. Results of this study showed that a set of derivatives were determined which yielded a calculated aircraft response almost identical with the response measured in flight. Derivatives extracted from motion resulting from rudder inputs were somewhat different from those resulting from aileron inputs. It was found that the derivatives obtained from the rudder-input data were highly correlated in some instances. Those from the aileron input had very low correlations and appeared to be the more reliable.

  12. Fluctuating pressures on aircraft wing and flap surfaces associated with powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Schoenster, J. A.; Willis, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present work presents results from two research studies that provide information on the fluctuating pressures generated by the use of powered-lift systems in STOL aircraft. Data are given for several chordwise and spanwise locations on large-scale models of an externally blown flap (EBF) configuration and an upper surface blown flap (USB) configuration in which actual jet engines were used. Pressure levels were high enough to indicate that special design effort will be required to avoid acoustic fatigue failures of wing and flap sturctures. The observation that pressure levels did not decrease very much with increased distance from the engine exhaust center line suggests that a STOL aircraft fuselage, which is in relatively close proximity to the engines for aerodynamic reasons, will be subjected to unusually high external overall fluctuating pressure levels (OAFPLs) that may cause difficulty in control of the cabin noise level.

  13. Comparisons of simulator and flight results on augmentor-wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innis, R. C.; Anderson, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    The considerations involved in making a piloted simulator an effective research tool in the design and development of new aircraft are discussed. An assessment of the limitations of the simulator in depicting real flight as well as the problem of recognizing erroneous results when the simulator is supplied with incorrect input data is made. Examples of the ways in which the simulator is used to design and develop the augmentor-wing aircraft are presented. Four areas of investigation are: (1) to design the lateral control system for proper feel and response, (2) determine the effect of engine failure during approach, (3) develop the best technique for controlling flight path during approach, and (4) the significance of lift loss in ground effect and how to compensate for such loss.

  14. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoda, M.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  15. Static noise tests on augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (C8A Buffalo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, C. C.; Harkonen, D. L.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented for full scale ground static acoustic tests of over-area conical nozzles and a lobe nozzle installed on the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft, a modified C8A Buffalo. The noise levels and spectrums of the test nozzles are compared against those of the standard conical nozzle now in use on the aircraft. Acoustic evaluations at 152 m (500 ft), 304 m (1000 ft), and 1216 m (4000 ft) are made at various engine power settings with the emphasis on approach and takeoff power. Appendix A contains the test log and propulsion calculations. Appendix B gives the original test plan, which was closely adhered to during the test. Appendix C describes the acoustic data recording and reduction systems, with calibration details.

  16. Multivariable control of a forward swept wing aircraft. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of independent canard and flaperon control of the longitudinal axis of a generic forward swept wing aircraft is examined. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG)/Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) method is used to design three compensators: two single-input-single-output (SISO) systems, one with angle of attack as output and canard as control, the other with pitch attitude as output and canard as control, and a two-input-two-output system with both canard and flaperon controlling both the pitch attitude and angle of attack. The performances of the three systems are compared showing the addition of flaperon control allows the aircraft to perform in the precision control modes with very little loss of command following accuracy.

  17. Realistic Probability Estimates For Destructive Overpressure Events In Heated Center Wing Tanks Of Commercial Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N; Lambert, H

    2007-02-07

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identified 17 accidents that may have resulted from fuel tank explosions on commercial aircraft from 1959 to 2001. Seven events involved JP 4 or JP 4/Jet A mixtures that are no longer used for commercial aircraft fuel. The remaining 10 events involved Jet A or Jet A1 fuels that are in current use by the commercial aircraft industry. Four fuel tank explosions occurred in center wing tanks (CWTs) where on-board appliances can potentially transfer heat to the tank. These tanks are designated as ''Heated Center Wing Tanks'' (HCWT). Since 1996, the FAA has significantly increased the rate at which it has mandated airworthiness directives (ADs) directed at elimination of ignition sources. This effort includes the adoption, in 2001, of Special Federal Aviation Regulation 88 of 14 CFR part 21 (SFAR 88 ''Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements''). This paper addresses SFAR 88 effectiveness in reducing HCWT ignition source probability. Our statistical analysis, relating the occurrence of both on-ground and in-flight HCWT explosions to the cumulative flight hours of commercial passenger aircraft containing HCWT's reveals that the best estimate of HCWT explosion rate is 1 explosion in 1.4 x 10{sup 8} flight hours. Based on an analysis of SFAR 88 by Sandia National Laboratories and our independent analysis, SFAR 88 reduces current risk of historical HCWT explosion by at least a factor of 10, thus meeting an FAA risk criteria of 1 accident in billion flight hours. This paper also surveys and analyzes parameters for Jet A fuel ignition in HCWT's. Because of the paucity of in-flight HCWT explosions, we conclude that the intersection of the parameters necessary and sufficient to result in an HCWT explosion with sufficient overpressure to rupture the HCWT is extremely rare.

  18. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  19. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  20. The effects of aeroelastic deformation on the unaugmented stopped-rotor dynamics of an X-Wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Silva, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    A new design concept in the development of VTOL aircraft with high forward flight speed capability is that of the X-Wing, a stiff, bearingless helicopter rotor system which can be stopped in flight and the blades used as two forward-swept and two aft-swept wings. Because of the usual configuration in the fixed-wing mode, there is a high potential for aeroelastic divergence or flutter and coupling of blade vibration modes with rigid-body modes. An aeroelastic stability analysis of an X-Wing configuration aircraft was undertaken to determine if these problems could exist. This paper reports on the results of dynamic stability analyses in the lateral and longitudinal directions including the vehicle rigid-body and flexible modes. A static aeroelastic analysis using the normal vibration mode equations of motion was performed to determine the cause of a loss of longitudinal static margin with increasing airspeed. This loss of static margin was found to be due to aeroelastic washin of the forward-swept blades and washout of the aft-swept blades moving the aircraft aerodynamic center forward of the center of gravity. This phenomenon is likely to be generic to X-Wing aircraft.

  1. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  2. Fly on the wings of the sun - a study of solar-powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.W.

    1985-06-01

    Solar High Altitude Powered Platform (Solar HAPP) aircraft are unmanned remote sensing vehicles designed for cruises lasting up to one year at 20-km altitude, while carrying up to 250 pounds of cameras and electrooptic sensors in an underslung payload pod. It is anticipated that real time IR and UV images of earth features may be more inexpensively and accurately obtained by this means than by the conventional geosynchronous earth resources satellites. Solar HAPPs, with wing spans of over 300 ft and weights of only 2000 lb, require ultralight composite structures with external wire bracing. Solar cells will cover both sides of the vertical wing stabilizers and wing tips, which hinge up in daytime to capture the maximum amount of sunlight. A 15-hp electric propulsion unit drives a low-rpm, large diameter propeller; power will be derived from the solar cells diurnally, and from hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells nocturnally. The fuel gases will be generated in a water electrolyzer during the day by excess solar cell output.

  3. Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis of an Open Rotor Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Through a recent NASA contract, Boeing Research and Technology in Huntington Beach, CA developed and optimized a conceptual design of an open rotor hybrid wing body aircraft (HWB). Open rotor engines offer a significant potential for fuel burn savings over turbofan engines, while the HWB configuration potentially allows to offset noise penalties through possible engine shielding. Researchers at NASA Langley converted the Boeing design to a FLOPS model which will be used to develop take-off and landing trajectories for community noise analyses. The FLOPS model was calibrated using Boeing data and shows good agreement with the original Boeing design. To complement Boeing s detailed aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration work, a newly developed and validated conceptual structural analysis and optimization tool was used for a conceptual loads analysis and structural weights estimate. Structural optimization and weight calculation are based on a Nastran finite element model of the primary HWB structure, featuring centerbody, mid section, outboard wing, and aft body. Results for flight loads, deformations, wing weight, and centerbody weight are presented and compared to Boeing and FLOPS analyses.

  4. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research model with the engines suspended above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of upper-surface nacelle exhaust flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research configuration was investigated in a 16 foot transonic tunnel over a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. The arrow-wing transport configuration with engines suspended over the wing was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to 6 deg and jet total pressure ratios from 1 to approximately 13. Wing-tip leading edge flap deflections of -10 deg to 10 deg were tested with the wing-body configuration. Various nacelle locations (chordwise, spanwise, and vertical) were tested over the ranges of Mach numbers, angles of attack, and jet total-pressure ratios. The results show that reflecting the wing-tip leading edge flap from 0 deg to -10 deg increased the maximum lift-drag ratio by 1.0 at subsonic speeds. Jet exhaust interference effects were negligible.

  5. 78 FR 34656 - Record of Decision for the F-15 Aircraft Conversion, 144th Fighter Wing, California Air National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...On May 31, 2013, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the F-15 Aircraft Conversion for the 144th Fighter Wing, California Air National Guard at Fresno-Yosemite International Airport. The ROD states the Air Force decision to implement the preferred alternative analyzed in the Environmental Impact Statement. The Preferred Alternative will convert the 144 FW from 21 F-16 aircraft [18......

  6. Static and Dynamic Structural Response of an Aircraft Wing with Damage Using Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Tsai, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    A process to generate an equivalent plate based on an optimization approach to predict the static and dynamic response of flight vehicle wing structures is proposed. Geometric-scale and frequency-scale factors are defined to construct an equivalent plate with any desired scale to use in simulation and wind tunnel experiments. It is shown that the stiffness and the displacements are scaled linearly with the geometric-scale factor, whereas the load is scaled as the square of the geometric-scale factor. The scaled stiffness of the reference flight vehicle is matched first to construct the equivalent plate. Then the frequency-scale factor is defined to scale the flight vehicle frequencies. The scaled flight vehicle frequencies are matched by placing arbitrary point masses along the equivalent plate geometry. Two simple stiffened-plate examples, one with damage and another without damage, were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the optimization procedure proposed. Geometric-scale factors ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 were used in the analyses. In both examples, the static and dynamic response of the reference stiffened-panel solution is matched accurately. The scaled equivalent plate predicted the first five frequencies of the stiffened panel very accurately. Finally, the proposed equivalent plate procedure was demonstrated in a more realistic typical aircraft wing structure. Two scale equivalent plate models were generated using the geometric-scale factors 1.0 and 0.2. Both equivalent plate models predicted the static response of the wing structure accurately. The equivalent plate models reproduced the first five frequencies of the wing structure accurately.

  7. Design & fabrication of two seated aircraft with an advanced rotating leading edge wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmari, Saeed Abdullah Saeed

    The title of this thesis is "Design & Fabrication of two Seated Aircraft with an Advanced Rotating Leading Edge Wing", this gives almost a good description of the work has been done. In this research, the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) concept was investigated and implemented. An experimental model was constructed and tested in wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics using the leading edge moving surface of modified semi-symmetric airfoil NACA1214. The moving surface is provided by a high speed rotating cylinder, which replaces the leading edge of the airfoil. The angle of attack, the cylinder surfaces velocity ratio Uc/U, and the flap deflection angle effects on the lift and drag coefficients and the stall angle of attack were investigated. This new technology was applied to a 2-seat light-sport aircraft that is designed and built in the Aerospace Engineering Department at KFUPM. The project team is led by the aerospace department chairman Dr. Ahmed Z. AL-Garni and Dr. Wael G. Abdelrahman and includes graduate and under graduate student. The wing was modified to include a rotating cylinder along the leading edge of the flap portion. This produced very promising results such as the increase of the maximum lift coefficient at Uc/U=3 by 82% when flaps up and 111% when flaps down at 40° and stall was delayed by 8degrees in both cases. The laboratory results also showed that the effective range of the leading-edge rotating cylinder is at low angles of attack which reduce the need for higher angles of attack for STOL aircraft.

  8. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  9. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  10. An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

  11. Cantilever Wings for Modern Aircraft: Some Aspects of Cantilever Wing Construction with Special Reference to Weight and Torsional Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieger, H J

    1929-01-01

    In the foregoing remarks I have made an attempt to touch on some of the structural problems met with in cantilever wings, and dealt rather fully with a certain type of single-spar construction. The experimental test wing was a first attempt to demonstrate the principles of this departure from orthodox methods. The result was a wing both torsionally stiff and of light weight - lighter than a corresponding biplane construction.

  12. Historical background and design evolution of the transonic aircraft technology supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, T. G.; Hallissy, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel test results obtained for supercritical airfoils indicated that substantial improvements in aircraft performance at high subsonic speeds could be achieved by shaping the airfoil to improve the supercritical flow above the upper surface. Significant increases in the drag divergence Mach number, the maximum lift coefficient for buffer onset, and the Mach number for buffet onset at a given lift coefficient were demonstrated for the supercritical airfoil, as compared with a NACA 6 series airfoil of comparable thickness. These trends were corroborated by results from three dimensional wind tunnel and flight tests. Because these indicated extensions of the buffet boundaries could provide significant improvements in the maneuverability of a fighter airplane, an exploratory wind tunnel investigation was initiated which demonstrated that significant aerodynamic improvements could be achieved from the direct substitution of a supercritical airfoil on a variable wing sweep multimission airplane model.

  13. Numerical studies of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanin, A. J.; Teske, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer code AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal) has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern. In this report, the equations governing the motion of aerially released particles are developed, including a description of the evaporation model used. A series of case studies, using AGDISP, are included.

  14. Simplified Aerodynamic and Structural Modeling for Oblique All-Wing Aircraft. Phase 2: Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Any aircraft preliminary design study requires a structural model of the proposed configuration. The model must be capable of estimating the structural weight of a given configuration, and of predicting the deflections which will result from foreseen flight and ground loads. The present work develops such a model for the proposed Oblique All Wing airplane. The model is based on preliminary structural work done by Jack Williams and Peter Rudolph at Mdng, and is encoded in a FORTRAN program. As a stand-alone application, the program can calculate the weight CG location, and several types of structural deflections; used in conjunction with an aerodynamics model, the program can be used for mission analysis or sizing studies.

  15. A fundamental study of the sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiss, N. S., Jr.; Wightman, J. P.; Gilliam, D. R.; Siochi, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The aircraft industry has long been concerned with the increase of drag on airplanes due to fouling of the wings by insects. The present research studied the effects of surface energy and surface roughness on the phenomenon of insect sticking. Aluminum plates of different roughnesses were coated with thin films of polymers with varying surface energies. The coated plates were attached to a custom jig and mounted on top of an automobile for insect collection. Contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and specular reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface before and after the insect impact experiments. Scanning electron microscopy showed the topography of insect residues on the exposed plates. Moments were calculated in order to find a correlation between the parameters studied and the amount of bugs collected on the plates. An effect of surface energy on the sticking of insect residues was demonstrated.

  16. Phased Acoustic Array Measurements of a 5.75 Percent Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan J.; Horne, William C.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Cheng, Rui; Brusniak, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Detailed acoustic measurements of the noise from the leading-edge Krueger flap of a 5.75 percent Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft model were recently acquired with a traversing phased microphone array in the AEDC NFAC (Arnold Engineering Development Complex, National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The spatial resolution of the array was sufficient to distinguish between individual support brackets over the full-scale frequency range of 100 to 2875 Hertz. For conditions representative of landing and take-off configuration, the noise from the brackets dominated other sources near the leading edge. Inclusion of flight-like brackets for select conditions highlights the importance of including the correct number of leading-edge high-lift device brackets with sufficient scale and fidelity. These measurements will support the development of new predictive models.

  17. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  18. A Summary of Numerous Strain-Gage Load Calibrations on Aircraft Wings and Tails in a Technological Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jerald M.; DeAngelis, V. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen aircraft structures that were calibrated for flight loads using strain gages are examined. The primary purpose of this paper is to document important examples of load calibrations on airplanes during the past four decades. The emphasis is placed on studying the physical procedures of calibrating strain-gaged structures and all the supporting analyses and computational techniques that have been used. The results and experiences obtained from actual data from 14 structures (on 13 airplanes and 1 laboratory test structure) are presented. This group of structures includes fins, tails, and wings with a wide variety of aspect ratios. Straight- wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing configurations are studied. Some of the structures have skin-dominant construction; others are spar-dominant. Anisotropic materials, heat shields, corrugated components, nonorthogonal primary structures, and truss-type structures are particular characteristics that are included.

  19. Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

  20. Morphing Wing Weight Predictors and Their Application in a Template-Based Morphing Aircraft Sizing Environment II. Part 2; Morphing Aircraft Sizing via Multi-level Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an approach for sizing of a morphing aircraft based upon a multi-level design optimization approach. For this effort, a morphing wing is one whose planform can make significant shape changes in flight - increasing wing area by 50% or more from the lowest possible area, changing sweep 30 or more, and/or increasing aspect ratio by as much as 200% from the lowest possible value. The top-level optimization problem seeks to minimize the gross weight of the aircraft by determining a set of "baseline" variables - these are common aircraft sizing variables, along with a set of "morphing limit" variables - these describe the maximum shape change for a particular morphing strategy. The sub-level optimization problems represent each segment in the morphing aircraft's design mission; here, each sub-level optimizer minimizes fuel consumed during each mission segment by changing the wing planform within the bounds set by the baseline and morphing limit variables from the top-level problem.

  1. Evaluation of Braided Stiffener Concepts for Transport Aircraft Wing Structure Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Dexter, H. Benson (Editor); Markus, Alan; Rohwer, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Stiffeners, wing spars, floor beams, and fuselage frames are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage requirements are met. Braiding is an automated process for obtaining near-net shape preforms for fabrication of components for structural applications. Previous test results on braided composite materials obtained at NASA Langley indicate that damage tolerance requirements can be met for some applications. In addition, the braiding industry is taking steps to increase the material through-put to be more competitive with other preform fabrication processes. Data are presented on the compressive behavior of three braided stiffener preform fabric constructions as determined from individual stiffener crippling test and three stiffener wide panel tests. Stiffener and panel fabrication are described and compression data presented for specimens tested with and without impact damage. In addition, data are also presented on the compressive behavior of the stitched stiffener preform construction currently being used by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in the NASA ACT wing development program.

  2. Development and evaluation of automatic landing control laws for light wing loading STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinreich, B.; Degani, O.; Gevaert, G.

    1981-01-01

    Automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for NASA's experimental Twin Otter. This light wing loading STOL aircraft was equipped with direct lift control (DLC) wing spoilers to enhance flight path control. Automatic landing control laws that made use of the spoilers were developed, evaluated in a simulation and the results compared with these obtained for configurations that did not use DLC. The spoilers produced a significant improvement in performance. A simulation that could be operated faster than real time in order to provide statistical landing data for a large number of landings over a wide spectrum of disturbances in a short time was constructed and used in the evaluation and refinement of control law configurations. A longitudinal control law that had been previously developed and evaluated in flight was also simulated and its performance compared with that of the control laws developed. Runway alignment control laws were also defined, evaluated, and refined to result in a final recommended configuration. Good landing performance, compatible with Category 3 operation into STOL runways, was obtained.

  3. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  4. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  5. Inherent spiral stability in a fixed wing aircraft by means of a simplified pneumatic wing tip control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Arunkumar, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of the lateralizer device is to sense the difference in wing tip static pressures (differential pressures being created by wing tip venturis) produced when any deviation from straight to level flight occurs. In a steady state turn the low slow wing tip experiences less venturi suction than the high fast wing tip. This signal activates the appropriate servos connected to the ailerons to produce a wing leveling restoring moment. If the wing is subjected to rolling velocities due to changes of the local angle of attack at the tip, the downgoing wing tip operates at a higher angle than the upgoing one. If with an increase in the angle of attack the signal is such that it increases the venturi pressure, then the servos are activated to produce the most negative signal to an upgoing aileron which results in a wing leveling restoring moment. In other words, any deviation from straight and level flight in either roll or yaw is exploited and the difference signal from the differential pressures activates the servo to effect or produce the necessary corrective action to null the signal.

  6. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  7. A fundamental approach to the sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, O.; Eiss, N. S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    The aircraft industry is concerned with the increase of drag on planes due to the sticking of insects on critical airfoil areas. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of surface energy and elasticity on the number of insects sticking onto the polymer coatings on a modified aircraft wing and to determine the mechanism by which insects stick onto surfaces during high velocity impact. Analyses including scanning electron microscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and contact angle measurements of uncoated and polymer coated aluminum surfaces were performed. A direct relation between the number of insects sticking on a sample and its surface energy was obtained. Since the sticky liquid from a burst open insect will not spread on the low energy surface, it will ball up providing poor adhesion between the insect debris and the surface. The incoming air flow can easily blow off the insect debris and thus reducing the number of insects that remain stuck on the surface. Also a direct relation between the number of insect sticking onto a surface and their modulus of elasticity was obtained.

  8. Euler/Navier-Stokes calculations of transonic flow past fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Agarwal, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics has an increasingly important role in the design and analysis of aircraft as computer hardware becomes faster and algorithms become more efficient. Progress is being made in two directions: more complex and realistic configurations are being treated and algorithms based on higher approximations to the complete Navier-Stokes equations are being developed. The literature indicates that linear panel methods can model detailed, realistic aircraft geometries in flow regimes where this approximation is valid. As algorithms including higher approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations are developed, computer resource requirements increase rapidly. Generation of suitable grids become more difficult and the number of grid points required to resolve flow features of interest increases. Recently, the development of large vector computers has enabled researchers to attempt more complex geometries with Euler and Navier-Stokes algorithms. The results of calculations for transonic flow about a typical transport and fighter wing-body configuration using thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are described along with flow about helicopter rotor blades using both Euler/Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Alleviation of whirl-flutter on a joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft configuration using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanaken, Johannes M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using active controls to delay the onset of whirl-flutter on a joined-wing tilt rotor aircraft was investigated. The CAMRAD/JA code was used to obtain a set of linear differential equations which describe the motion of the joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft. The hub motions due to wing/body motion is a standard input to CAMRAD/JA and were obtained from a structural dynamics model of a representative joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft. The CAMRAD/JA output, consisting of the open-loop system matrices, and the airframe free vibration motion were input to a separate program which performed the closed-loop, active control calculations. An eigenvalue analysis was performed to determine the flutter stability of both open- and closed-loop systems. Sensor models, based upon the feedback of pure state variables and based upon hub-mounted sensors, providing physically measurable accelerations, were evaluated. It was shown that the onset of tilt-rotor whirl-flutter could be delayed from 240 to above 270 knots by feeding back vertical and span-wise accelerations, measured at the rotor hub, to the longitudinal cyclic pitch. Time response calculations at a 270-knot cruise condition showed an active cyclic pitch control level of 0.009 deg, which equates to a very acceptable 9 pound active-control force applied at the rotor hub.

  10. CID Aircraft in practice flight above target impact site with wing cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen making a practice close approach over the prepared impact site. The wing openers, designed to tear open the wings and spill the fuel, are clearly seen on the ground just at the start of the bed of rocks. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720

  11. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Integration Effects for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Elkoby, Ronen

    2010-01-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic effects of a high bypass ratio engine for a hybrid wing body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. The objective was to provide an understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness as a function of engine gas condition and location as well as nozzle configuration. A 4.7% scale nozzle of a bypass ratio seven engine was run at characteristic cycle points under static and forward flight conditions. The effect of the pylon and its orientation on jet noise was also studied as a function of bypass ratio and cycle condition. The addition of a pylon yielded significant spectral changes lowering jet noise by up to 4dB at high polar angles and increasing it by 2 to 3dB at forward angles. In order to assess jet noise shielding, a planform representation of the airframe model, also at 4.7% scale was traversed relative to the jet nozzle from downstream to several diameters upstream of the wing trailing edge. Installations at two fan diameters upstream of the wing trailing edge provided only limited shielding in the forward arc at high frequencies for both the axisymmetric and a conventional round nozzle with pylon. This was consistent with phased array measurements suggesting that the high frequency sources are predominantly located near the nozzle exit and, consequently, are amenable to shielding. The mid to low frequencies sources were observed further downstream and shielding was insignificant. Chevrons were designed and used to impact the distribution of sources with the more aggressive design showing a significant upstream migration of the sources in the mid frequency range. Furthermore, the chevrons reduced the low frequency source levels and the typical high frequency increase due to the application of chevron nozzles was successfully shielded. The pylon was further modified with a technology that injects air through the shelf of the

  12. Close-up of Wing Fit Check of Pylon to Carry the X-38 on B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  13. Preliminary study of propulsion systems and airplane wing parameters for a US Navy subsonic V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zola, C. L.; Fishbach, L. H.; Allen, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Two V/STOL propulsion concepts were evaluated in a common aircraft configuration. One propulsion system consists of cross coupled turboshaft engines driving variable pitch fans. The other system is a gas coupled combination of turbojet gas generators and tip turbine fixed pitch fans. Evaluations were made of endurance at low altitude, low speed loiter with equal takeoff fuel loads. Effects of propulsion system sizing, bypass ratio, and aircraft wing planform parameters were investigated and compared. Shaft driven propulsion systems appear to result in better overall performance, although at higher installed weight, than gas systems.

  14. Simulator study of pilot-aircraft-display system response obtained with a three-dimensional-box pictorial display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varying the two important display parameters of a pictorial display on pilot opinion performance, and pilot aircraft display system servomechanism response is examined. The display presents a picture of a three dimensional box that moves along the desired path ahead of the aircraft. The two display parameters examined are the field of view of the picture (from + or - 5 deg to + or - 45 deg) and the distance to the box (from 92 m (300 ft) to 6100 m (20 000 ft)). The results show that the pilots prefer a distance to the box of 915 m (3000 ft) and a field of view of + or - 30 deg. The best performance, both in the sense of quickness of error correction and lowest standard deviation, is obtained with a distance to the box of 92 m (300 ft) and a field of view of + or - 15 deg. A pilot model analysis is used to determine the gains used by the pilots and the servomechanism response characteristics of the pilot aircraft display system.

  15. Control and display requirements for decelerating approach and landing of fixed- and rotary-wing VSTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Merrick, V. K.; Franklin, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of several simulation investigations of rotary-wing and fixed-wing VSTOL aircraft performing terminal-area operations that include decelerating approaches under instrument conditions and recovery to either fixed landing pads or a ship. By concentrating on instrument decelerating approaches and the hover and landing, it is possible to compare directly the control and display requirements for similar tasks for aircraft with and without vectored thrust capability. Collectively, the results from these experiments, together with other simulator and flight experiments and operational experience, provide a consistent view of control and display complexity required for similar operational capability in adverse weather for the two types of VSTOL configurations. Some initial data showing influence of the transition corridor on flying qualities during transition are pesented and lead to a general discussion of the problem of operating margin definition.

  16. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  17. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Integration Effects for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H; Elkoby, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    An extensive experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic effects of a high bypass ratio engine for a hybrid wing body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. The objective was to provide an understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness as a function of engine gas condition and location as well as nozzle configuration. A 4.7% scale nozzle of a bypass ratio seven engine was run at characteristic cycle points under static and forward flight conditions. The effect of the pylon and its orientation on jet noise was also studied as a function of bypass ratio and cycle condition. The addition of a pylon yielded significant spectral changes lowering jet noise by up to 4 dB at high polar angles and increasing it by 2 to 3 dB at forward angles. In order to assess jet noise shielding, a planform representation of the airframe model, also at 4.7% scale was traversed such that the jet nozzle was positioned from downstream of to several diameters upstream of the airframe model trailing edge. Installations at two fan diameters upstream of the wing trailing edge provided only limited shielding in the forward arc at high frequencies for both the axisymmetric and a conventional round nozzle with pylon. This was consistent with phased array measurements suggesting that the high frequency sources are predominantly located near the nozzle exit and, consequently, are amenable to shielding. The mid to low frequency sources were observed further downstream and shielding was insignificant. Chevrons were designed and used to impact the distribution of sources with the more aggressive design showing a significant upstream migration of the sources in the mid frequency range. Furthermore, the chevrons reduced the low frequency source levels and the typical high frequency increase due to the application of chevron nozzles was successfully shielded. The pylon was further modified with a technology that injects air

  18. Shielding of Turbomachinery Broadband Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Stead, Daniel J.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental study on the effects of engine placement and vertical tail configuration on shielding of exhaust broadband noise radiation are presented. This study is part of the high fidelity aeroacoustic test of a 5.8% scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configuration performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Broadband Engine Noise Simulators (BENS) were used to determine insertion loss due to shielding by the HWB airframe of the broadband component of turbomachinery noise for different airframe configurations and flight conditions. Acoustics data were obtained from flyover and sideline microphones traversed to predefined streamwise stations. Noise measurements performed for different engine locations clearly show the noise benefit associated with positioning the engine nacelles further upstream on the HWB centerbody. Positioning the engine exhaust 2.5 nozzle diameters upstream (compared to 0.5 nozzle diameters downstream) of the HWB trailing edge was found of particular benefit in this study. Analysis of the shielding performance obtained with and without tunnel flow show that the effectiveness of the fuselage shielding of the exhaust noise, although still significant, is greatly reduced by the presence of the free stream flow compared to static conditions. This loss of shielding is due to the turbulence in the model near-wake/boundary layer flow. A comparison of shielding obtained with alternate vertical tail configurations shows limited differences in level; nevertheless, overall trends regarding the effect of cant angle and vertical location are revealed. Finally, it is shown that the vertical tails provide a clear shielding benefit towards the sideline while causing a slight increase in noise below the aircraft.

  19. Navier-Stokes flowfield computation of wing/rotor interaction for a tilt rotor aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejtek, Ian G.

    1993-01-01

    The download on the wing produced by the rotor-induced downwash of a tilt rotor aircraft in hover is of major concern because of its severe impact on payload-carrying capability. A method has been developed to help gain a better understanding of the fundamental fluid dynamics that causes this download, and to help find ways to reduce it. In particular, the method is employed in this work to analyze the effect of a tangential leading edge circulation-control jet on download reduction. Because of the complexities associated with modeling the complete configuration, this work focuses specifically on the wing/rotor interaction of a tilt rotor aircraft in hover. The three-dimensional, unsteady, thin-layer compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a time-accurate, implicit, finite difference scheme that employs LU-ADI factorization. The rotor is modeled as an actuator disk which imparts both a radical and an azimuthal distribution of pressure rise and swirl to the flowfield. A momentum theory blade element analysis of the rotor is incorporated into the Navier-Stokes solution method. Solution blanking at interior points of the mesh has been shown here to be an effective technique in introducing the effects of the rotor and tangential leading edge jet. Results are presented both for a rotor alone and for wing/rotor interaction. The overall mean characteristics of the rotor flowfield are computed including the flow acceleration through the rotor disk, the axial and swirl velocities in the rotor downwash, and the slipstream contraction. Many of the complex tilt rotor flow features are captured including the highly three-dimensional flow over the wing, the recirculation fountain at the plane of symmetry, wing leading and trailing edge separation, and the large region of separated flow beneath the wing. Mean wing surface pressures compare fairly well with available experimental data, but the time-averaged download/thrust ratio is 20-30 percent higher than the

  20. On fluttering modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic air flow

    PubMed Central

    Shubov, Marianna A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with unstable aeroelastic modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic, incompressible, inviscid air flow. In recent author’s papers asymptotic, spectral and stability analysis of the model has been carried out. The model is governed by a system of two coupled integrodifferential equations and a two-parameter family of boundary conditions modelling action of self-straining actuators. The Laplace transform of the solution is given in terms of the ‘generalized resolvent operator’, which is a meromorphic operator-valued function of the spectral parameter λ, whose poles are called the aeroelastic modes. The residues at these poles are constructed from the corresponding mode shapes. The spectral characteristics of the model are asymptotically close to the ones of a simpler system, which is called the reduced model. For the reduced model, the following result is shown: for each value of subsonic speed, there exists a radius such that all aeroelastic modes located outside the circle of this radius centred at zero are stable. Unstable modes, whose number is always finite, can occur only inside this ‘circle of instability’. Explicit estimate of the ‘instability radius’ in terms of model parameters is given. PMID:25484610

  1. Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Process Modeling for Large Transport Aircraft Wing Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, Tamara W.; Loos, Alfred C.

    2000-01-01

    Resin film infusion (RFI) is a cost-effective method for fabricating stiffened aircraft wing structures. The RFI process lends itself to the use of near net shape textile preforms manufactured through a variety of automated textile processes such as knitting and braiding. Often, these advanced fiber architecture preforms have through-the-thickness stitching for improved damage tolerance and delamination resistance. The challenge presently facing RFI is to refine the process to ensure complete infiltration and cure of a geometrically complex shape preform with the high fiber volume fraction needed for structural applications. An accurate measurement of preform permeability is critical for successful modeling of the RFI resin infiltration process. Small changes in the permeability can result in very different infiltration behavior and times. Therefore, it is important to accurately measure the permeabilities of the textile preforms used in the RFI process. The objective of this investigation was to develop test methods that can be used to measure the compaction behavior and permeabilities of high fiber volume fraction, advanced fiber architecture textile preforms. These preforms are often highly compacted due to through-the-thickness stitching used to improve damage tolerance. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated and used to measure both transverse and in-plane permeabilities. The fixtures were used to measure the permeabilities of multiaxial warp knit and triaxial braided preforms at fiber volume fractions from 55% to 65%. In addition, the effects of stitching characteristics, thickness, and batch variability on permeability and compaction behavior were investigated.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  3. Using Fly-By-Wire Technology in Future Models of the UH-60 and Other Rotary Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solem, Courtney K.

    2011-01-01

    Several fixed-winged airplanes have successfully used fly-by-wire (FBW) technology for the last 40 years. This technology is now beginning to be incorporated into rotary wing aircraft. By using FBW technology, manufacturers are expecting to improve upon the weight, maintenance time and costs, handling and reliability of the aircraft. Before mass production of this new system begins in new models such as the UH-60MU, testing must be conducted to insure the safety of this technology as well as to reassure others it will be worth the time and money to make such a dramatic change to a perfectly functional machine. The RASCAL JUH-60A has been modified for these purposes. This Black Hawk helicopter has already been equipped with the FBW technology and can be configured as a near perfect representation of the UH-60MU. Because both machines have very similar qualities, the data collected from the RASCAL can be used to make future decisions about the UH-60MU. The U.S. Army AFDD Flight Project Office oversees all the design modifications for every hardware system used in the RASCAL aircraft. This project deals with specific designs and analyses of unique RASCAL aircraft subsystems and their modifications to conduct flight mechanics research.

  4. Interior and exterior fuselage noise measured on NASA's C-8a augmentor wing jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise field was mapped by 11 microphones located internally and externally in three areas: mid-fuselage, aft fuselage, and on the flight deck. Noise levels were recorded at four power settings varying from takeoff to flight idle and were plotted in one-third octave band spectra. The overall sound pressure levels of the external noise field were compared to previous tests and found to correlate well with engine primary thrust levels. Fuselage values were 145 + or - 3 dB over the aircraft's normal STOL operating range.

  5. Ground Vibration and Flight Flutter Tests of the Single-seat F-16XL Aircraft with a Modified Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA single-seat F-16XL aircraft was modified by the addition of a glove to the left wing. Vibration tests were conducted on the ground to assess the changes to the aircraft caused by the glove. Flight Luther testing was conducted on the aircraft with the glove installed to ensure that the flight envelope was free of aeroelastic or aeroservoelastic instabilities. The ground vibration tests showed that above 20 Hz, several modes that involved the control surfaces were significantly changed. Flight test data showed that modal damping levels and trends were satisfactory where obtainable. The data presented in this report include estimated modal parameters from the ground vibration and flight flutter test.

  6. Simulation and Flight Evaluation of a Parameter Estimation Input Design Method for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve emissions, noise, and performance of next generation aircraft, it is expected that future aircraft will make use of distributed, multi-objective control effectors in a closed-loop flight control system. Correlation challenges associated with parameter estimation will arise with this expected aircraft configuration. Research presented in this paper focuses on addressing the correlation problem with an appropriate input design technique and validating this technique through simulation and flight test of the X-48B aircraft. The X-48B aircraft is an 8.5 percent-scale hybrid wing body aircraft demonstrator designed by The Boeing Company (Chicago, Illinois, USA), built by Cranfield Aerospace Limited (Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom) and flight tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA). Based on data from flight test maneuvers performed at Dryden Flight Research Center, aerodynamic parameter estimation was performed using linear regression and output error techniques. An input design technique that uses temporal separation for de-correlation of control surfaces is proposed, and simulation and flight test results are compared with the aerodynamic database. This paper will present a method to determine individual control surface aerodynamic derivatives.

  7. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  8. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite-epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 pct. of design limit load during the combined unbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  9. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-09-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  10. Aerodynamic and flowfield hysteresis of slender wing aircraft undergoing large-amplitude motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Thompson, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    The implication of maneuvers through large angles of incidence is discussed by examining the unsteady aerodynamic loads, surface pressures, vortical position, and breakdown on slender, flat plate delta wings. Two examples of large amplitude unsteady motions are presented. First, the unsteady characteristics of a 70 degree swept delta wing undergoing pitch oscillation from 0 to 60 degrees is examined. Data is presented that shows the relationship between vortex breakdown and the overshoot and undershoot of the aerodynamic loads and surface pressure distribution. The second example examines the leading edge vortical flow over an 80 degree swept wing undergoing a limit cycle roll oscillation commonly called wing rock.

  11. An Evaluation of Performance Metrics for High Efficiency Tube-and-Wing Aircraft Entering Service in 2030 to 2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Wilson, Jack; Raymer, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of basic vehicle characteristics required to meet the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s 70 percent energy consumption reduction goal for commercial airliners in the 2030 to 2035 timeframe was conducted. A total of 29 combinations of vehicle parasitic drag coefficient, vehicle induced drag coefficient, vehicle empty weight and engine Specific Fuel Consumption were used to create sized tube-and-wing vehicle models. The mission fuel burn for each of these sized vehicles was then compared to a baseline current technology vehicle. A response surface equation was generated of fuel burn reduction as a function of the four basic vehicle performance metrics, so that any values of the performance metrics up to a 50 percent reduction could be used to estimate fuel burn reduction of tube-and-wing aircraft for future studies.

  12. Methodologies for reproducing in-flight loads of aircraft wings on the ground and predicting their response to battle-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Mosleh, Charbel Fouad

    Survivability of an aircraft in combat is achieved by not getting hit or by withstanding the effects of some suffered hits. Combat damage is described by the removal of one or more portions of the wing or any other flight control surface. To determine whether a wing will survive a specific damage, the structural and aerodynamic response of the wing should be predicted and tested. The response of wings to battle-induced damage is currently addressed through live-fire testing on the ground. The loading methodology used in these live-fire tests does not reproduce the loads encountered during flight, and does not account for the changes in structural stiffness and mass of the wing after damage infliction. In addition, current live-fire tests fail to address the changes in the aerodynamic performance of the wing caused by the battle-induced damage. To better address the structural response of aircraft wings to combat damage, this thesis investigates a concept for an alternative loading methodology that exploits recent advances in nonlinear aeroelastic simulations and smart material actuators. The main idea behind this concept is to accurately predict the stress states of the wing before, during, and after sustaining a hit, for a given flight condition, and reproduce them on the ground by loading the spars and ribs of the wings with programmable actuators and/or a few external tethers. Mathematically, this entails solving an optimization problem to determine the locations and gains of the actuators. Two different types of actuators are investigated: 1D actuators or actuators with tension/compression capability and bimorph bender actuators. The potential of the investigated loading methodology is evaluated for "slender" wings (ARW-2 wing) and for "delta" wings (HSCT and F-16 wing) at a transonic flight condition. The obtained numerical results suggest that the investigated loading methodology can reproduce a desired stress state fairly accurately using external tethers

  13. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 4: Ground/flight acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kizer, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The advantageous structural uses of advanced filamentary composites are demonstrated by design, fabrication, and test of three boron-epoxy reinforced C-130 center wing boxes. The advanced development work necessary to support detailed design of a composite reinforced C-130 center wing box was conducted. Activities included the development of a basis for structural design, selection and verification of materials and processes, manufacturing and tooling development, and fabrication and test of full-scale portions of the center wing box. Detailed design drawings, and necessary analytical structural substantiation including static strength, fatigue endurance, flutter, and weight analyses are considered. Some additional component testing was conducted to verify the design for panel buckling, and to evaluate specific local design areas. Development of the cool tool restraint concept was completed, and bonding capabilities were evaluated using full-length skin panel and stringer specimens.

  14. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  15. System Noise Assessment and the Potential for a Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Gern, Frank H.; VanZante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was conducted for a hybrid wing body freighter aircraft concept configured with three open rotor engines. The primary objective of the study was to determine the aircraft system level noise given the significant impact of installation effects including shielding the open rotor noise by the airframe. The aircraft was designed to carry a payload of 100,000 lbs on a 6,500 nautical mile mission. An experimental database was used to establish the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects including those from shielding by the airframe planform, interactions with the control surfaces, and additional noise reduction technologies. A second objective of the study applied the impacts of projected low noise airframe technology and a projection of advanced low noise rotors appropriate for the NASA N+2 2025 timeframe. With the projection of low noise rotors and installation effects, the aircraft system level was 26.0 EPNLdB below Stage 4 level with the engine installed at 1.0 rotor diameters upstream of the trailing edge. Moving the engine to 1.5 rotor diameters brought the system level noise to 30.8 EPNLdB below Stage 4. At these locations on the airframe, the integrated level of installation effects including shielding can be as much as 20 EPNLdB cumulative in addition to lower engine source noise from advanced low noise rotors. And finally, an additional set of technology effects were identified and the potential impact at the system level was estimated for noise only without assessing the impact on aircraft performance. If these additional effects were to be included it is estimated that the potential aircraft system noise could reach as low as 38.0 EPNLdB cumulative below Stage 4.

  16. Experimental investigation and modeling of time resolved thrust of a flapping wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apker, Thomas B.

    This work presents a novel method of measuring the unsteady thrust of a hovering flapping wing vehicle and the development of phenomenological models to simulate it. The measurements were taken using a balance beam with the flapping wings mounted at one end and a counterweight plus an accelerometer mounted at the other. The trust axis of the flapping wings was mounted vertically, and the counterweight was adjusted to balance the weight and average thrust of the flapping wings. An accelerometer mounted above the counterweight measured the unsteady thrust. This method decoupled the force sensing element from the mass of the flapping wings, as opposed to standard force sensors that use a linear spring. This study showed that the spectral content of the flapping wings extended to 15 times the flapping frequency, well above the resonant frequency of the mass-spring-damper system formed by a load cell and flapping mechanism. High speed video of the wings was used to determine the motion of the flexible structure. This motion was used to develop phenomenological linear models of flapping wing thrust generation. The results show that this approach to linear modeling produces a system of equations that can be used for flight dynamics simulation and controller design.

  17. The T-box transcription factor Midline regulates wing development by repressing wingless and hedgehog in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chong-Lei; Wang, Xian-Feng; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Dan; Hirose, Susumu; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Wingless (Wg) and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways are key players in animal development. However, regulation of the expression of wg and hh are not well understood. Here, we show that Midline (Mid), an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, expresses in the wing disc of Drosophila and plays a vital role in wing development. Loss or knock down of mid in the wing disc induced hyper-expression of wingless (wg) and yielded cocked and non-flat wings. Over-expression of mid in the wing disc markedly repressed the expression of wg, DE-Cadherin (DE-Cad) and armadillo (arm), and resulted in a small and blistered wing. In addition, a reduction in the dose of mid enhanced phenotypes of a gain-of-function mutant of hedgehog (hh). We also observed repression of hh upon overexpression of mid in the wing disc. Taken together, we propose that Mid regulates wing development by repressing wg and hh in Drosophila. PMID:27301278

  18. The T-box transcription factor Midline regulates wing development by repressing wingless and hedgehog in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chong-Lei; Wang, Xian-Feng; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Dan; Hirose, Susumu; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Wingless (Wg) and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways are key players in animal development. However, regulation of the expression of wg and hh are not well understood. Here, we show that Midline (Mid), an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, expresses in the wing disc of Drosophila and plays a vital role in wing development. Loss or knock down of mid in the wing disc induced hyper-expression of wingless (wg) and yielded cocked and non-flat wings. Over-expression of mid in the wing disc markedly repressed the expression of wg, DE-Cadherin (DE-Cad) and armadillo (arm), and resulted in a small and blistered wing. In addition, a reduction in the dose of mid enhanced phenotypes of a gain-of-function mutant of hedgehog (hh). We also observed repression of hh upon overexpression of mid in the wing disc. Taken together, we propose that Mid regulates wing development by repressing wg and hh in Drosophila. PMID:27301278

  19. Effect of canard location and size on canard-wing interference and aerodynamic center shift related to maneuvering aircraft at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model, typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 1.20 to determine the effects of canard location and size on canard-wing interference effects and aerodynamic center shift at transonic speeds. The canards had exposed areas of 16.0 and 28.0 percent of the wing reference area and were located in the chord plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above or below the wing chord plane. Two different wing planforms were tested, one with leading-edge sweep of 60 deg and the other 44 deg; both wings had the same reference area and span. The results indicated that the largest benefits in lift and drag were obtained with the canard above the wing chord plane for both wings tested. The low canard configuration for the 60 deg swept wing proved to be more stable and produced a more linear pitching-moment curve than the high and coplanar canard configurations for the subsonic test Mach numbers.

  20. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  1. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  2. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  3. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  4. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... attachment of the basket or cabin suspension cables. (e) Powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft. Each operator of a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft must display the marks...

  5. Close-up of Wing Fit Check of Pylon to Carry the X-38 on B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Andy Blua and Jeff Doughty of Dryden's Experimental Fabrication Shop, along with B-52 Crew Chief Dan Bains and assistant Mark Thompson, all eye the new X-38 pylon during a fit-check on NASA's B-52 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The fit-check was the first time the 1,200-pound steel pylon, which was fabricated at Dryden, was mated to the B-52. The pylon served as an 'adapter' that allowed the X-38 to be attached to the B-52's wing. Earlier flight research vehicles had used the X-15 pylon for attachment to and launch from the B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the Hi

  6. Close-up of Wing Fit Check of Pylon to Carry the X-38 on B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tom McMullen, Chief of Dryden's Experimental Fabrication Shop, makes adjustments to the new pylon for NASA's X-38 during a fit-check on NASA's B-52 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in 1997. The fit-check was the first time the 1,200-pound steel pylon was mated to the B-52 following fabrication at Dryden by the Center's Experimental Fabrication Shop. The pylon was built as an 'adapter' to allow the X-38 to be attached to and launched from the B-52's wing. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST

  7. Structural modeling and optimization of a joined-wing configuration of a High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloyanova, Valentina B.

    Recent research trends have indicated an interest in High-Altitude, Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft as a low-cost alternative to certain space missions, such as telecommunication relay, environmental sensing and military reconnaissance. HALE missions require a light vehicle flying at low speed in the stratosphere at altitudes of 60,000-80,000 ft, with a continuous loiter time of up to several days. To provide high lift and low drag at these high altitudes, where the air density is low, the wing area should be increased, i.e., high-aspect-ratio wings are necessary. Due to its large span and lightweight, the wing structure is very flexible. To reduce the structural deformation, and increase the total lift in a long-spanned wing, a sensorcraft model with a joined-wing configuration, proposed by AFRL, is employed. The joined-wing encompasses a forward wing, which is swept back with a positive dihedral angle, and connected with an aft wing, which is swept forward. The joined-wing design combines structural strength, high aerodynamic performance and efficiency. As a first step to study the joined-wing structural behavior an 1-D approximation model is developed. The 1-D approximation is a simple structural model created using ANSYS BEAM4 elements to present a possible approach for the aerodynamics-structure coupling. The pressure loads from the aerodynamic analysis are integrated numerically to obtain the resultant aerodynamic forces and moments (spanwise lift and pitching moment distributions, acting at the aerodynamic center). These are applied on the 1-D structural model. A linear static analysis is performed under this equivalent load, and the deformed shape of the 1-D model is used to obtain the deformed shape of the actual 3-D joined wing, i.e. deformed aerodynamic surface grid. To date in the existing studies, only simplified structural models have been examined. In the present work, in addition to the simple 1-D beam model, a semi-monocoque structural model is

  8. Close-up of Wing Fit Check of Pylon to Carry the X-38 on B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  9. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Pilotless Aircraft Having Horizontal and Vertical Wings and Cruciform Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrocola, N; Assadourian, A

    1947-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a pilotless aircraft were conducted in the Langley propeller-research tunnel to provide information for the estimation of the longitudinal stability and. control, to measure the aileron effectiveness, and to calibrate the radome and the Machmeter pitot-static orifices. It was found that the model possessed a stEb.le variation of elevator angle required for trim throughout the speed range at the design angle of attack. A comparison of the airplane with and without JATO units and with an alternate rocket booster showed that a large loss in longitudinal stability and control resulting from the addition of the rocket booster to the aircraft was sufficient to make the rocket-booster assembly unsatisfactory as an alternate for the JATO units. Reversal of the aileron effectiveness was evident at positive deflections of the vertical wing flap indicating that the roll-stabilization system would produce roiling moments in a tight right turn contrary to its design purpose. Vertical-wing-flap deflections caused large errors in the static-pressure reading obtained by the original static-tube installation. A practical installation point on the fuselage was located which should yield reliable measurement of the free-stream static pressure.

  10. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  11. Investigation of steady and fluctuating pressures associated with the transonic buffeting and wing rock of a one-seventh scale model of the F-5A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of a 1/7 scale F-5A model is described. The pressure, force, and dynamic response measurements during buffet and wing rock are evaluated. Effects of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip angle, and control surface settings were investigated. The mean and fluctuating static pressure data are presented and correlated with some corresponding flight test data of a F-5A aircraft. Details of the instrumentation and the specially designed support system which allowed the model to oscillate in roll to simulate wing rock are also described. A limit cycle mechanism causing wing rock was identified from this study, and this mechanism is presented.

  12. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  13. Projectiles Impact Assessment of Aircraft Wing Structures with Real Dynamic Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Han, Qing; Wang, Changlin

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis to achieve the impact damage of the wing structure under real dynamic load. MPCCI tools are utilized to convert wing aerodynamic load into structural Finite Element Method (FEM) node load. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA code is also used to simulate the dynamic loading effects of the wing structure hit by several projectiles, including both active damage mechanism and common damage mechanism. In addition, structural node force on the leading edge and the midline is compared to the aerodynamic load separately. Furthermore, the statistical analysis of the penetrating size and the stress concentration around the damage holes indicates that under the same load situation, the structural damage efficiency of active damage mechanism is significantly higher than the one of common damage mechanism.

  14. Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, S.; Aftosmis, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotorcraft to fixed wing flight. Steady numerical simulations at five azimuthal rotor indices are presented over a quarter turn of the rotor, producing 19 points during a single rotation due to symmetry. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the steady flow field. All computations are done with a faired over engine inlet and exit to be consistent with the wind tunnel model geometry. Modification to the geometry is suggested and the aerodynamic effect of the modification is discussed.

  15. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/4-Scale Model of the Naval Aircraft Factory Float-Wing Convoy Interceptor, TED No. NACA 2314

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Evalyn G.; McKinney, Elizabeth G.

    1947-01-01

    A 1/4 - scale model of the Naval Aircraft Factory float-wing convoy interceptor was tested in the Langley 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics. The model was tested in the presence of a ground board to determine the effect of simulating the ground on the longitudinal characteristics.

  17. A progress report on the development of an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Sinclair, S. R. M.; Nark, T. C., Jr.; O'Keefe, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    The development of the aircraft has progressed to the point where the design of the modifications to the de Havilland C-8A Buffalo is complete and the engines are being tested. The predicted performance shows that the aircraft will be able to take off and land in less than 1500 ft. Simulation studies indicate that the handling qualities of the aircraft, with stability augmentation, will be acceptable for STOL research missions. Special techniques were required, however, for flight path control and transition from cruise to landing configuration .

  18. Development of Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-Lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2002-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on previous wind-tunnel and flight-test data for the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (C(sub L) values of 8.5 to 9.0). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg-45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and extends this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  19. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... 39-39-10972 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998), we have been informed that the language in paragraph (c.... Discussion On December 22, 1998, we issued AD 99-01-05, amendment 39-10972 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998... wing lift struts. That AD superseded AD 93-10-06, amendment 39-8586 (58 FR 29965, May 25, 1993),...

  20. Rapid-Transition Tests of a 1/4-Scale Model of the VZ-2 Tilt-Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosti, Louis P.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a 1/4-scale model of the VZ-2 tilt-wing vertical-take-off- and-landing aircraft during rapid transitions has been made on the Langley control-line facility. Only the longitudinal characteristics were studied because with the control-line technique the other phases of the model motion are partially restrained. The rapid transitions from hovering to forward flight could be performed easily at any of the accelerations attempted; whereas, the transitions from forward flight to hovering were generally accompanied by a strong nose up pitching moment which at times was uncontrollable because of an inadequate amount of available pitch control. The model was more difficult to control during rapid decelerations than during slow decelerations and was also more difficult to control for rearward center-of-gravity conditions than for forward ones.

  1. Accuracies of southwell and force/stiffness methods in the prediction of buckling strength of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Accuracies of the Southwell method and the force/stiffness (F/S) method are examined when the methods were used in the prediction of buckling loads of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels, based on nondestructive buckling test data. Various factors affecting the accuracies of the two methods were discussed. Effects of load cutoff point in the nondestructive buckling tests on the accuracies of the two methods were discussed in great detail. For the tubular panels under pure compression, the F/S method was found to give more accurate buckling load predictions than the Southwell method, which excessively overpredicts the buckling load. It was found that the Southwell method required a higher load cutoff point, as compared with the F/S method. In using the F/S method for predicting the buckling load of tubular panels under pure compression, the load cutoff point of approximately 50 percent of the critical load could give reasonably accurate predictions.

  2. A study of prediction methods for the high angle-of-attack aerodynamics of straight wings and fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, O. J.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Work is described dealing with two areas which are dominated by the nonlinear effects of vortex flows. The first area concerns the stall/spin characteristics of a general aviation wing with a modified leading edge. The second area concerns the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of high performance military aircraft. For each area, the governing phenomena are described as identified with the aid of existing experimental data. Existing analytical methods are reviewed, and the most promising method for each area used to perform some preliminary calculations. Based on these results, the strengths and weaknesses of the methods are defined, and research programs recommended to improve the methods as a result of better understanding of the flow mechanisms involved.

  3. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  4. Static performance and noise tests on a thrust reverser for an augmentor wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Marrs, C. C.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/3 scale model static test program was conducted to measure the noise levels and reverse thrust performance characteristics of wing-mounted thrust reverser that could be used on an advanced augmentor wing airplane. The configuration tested represents only the most fundamental designs where installation and packaging restraints are not considered. The thrust reverser performance is presented in terms of horizontal, vertical, and resultant effectiveness ratios and the reverser noise is compared on the basis of peak perceived noise level (PNL) and one-third octave band data (OASPL). From an analysis of the model force and acoustic data, an assessment is made on the stopping distance versus noise for a 90,900 kg (200,000 lb) airplane using this type of thrust reverser.

  5. Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, S. A.; Aftosmis, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations in order to understand the flight characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotor craft to fixed-wing flight. A series of numerical simulations at seven azimuthal rotor indices are presented covering a quarter turn of the rotor With symmetry arguments, these simulations produce 25 data points for a complete rotation. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the flow field about a configuration with faired-over engine inlet and exhaust that matches the wind tunnel geometry. These simulations were performed using meshes with approximately nine Million Cartesian cells. To better understand the aerodynamic effects of the rotor hub on the configuration, the same set of simulations were repeated for a hub-less geometry. Overall loads for both configurations are similar but are due to somewhat different aerodynamic mechanisms.

  6. Sideslip of wing-body combinations. [disturbance theory for predicting aerodynamics of aircraft in sideslip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubbert, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    A small-disturbance theory is developed for predicting the aerodynamics of an airplane in sideslip. Second-order terms involving the interaction between sideslip angle and angle of attack, sideslip angle and wing camber, etc., are retained. It is found that the second-order terms can produce the dominant sideslip effects when the dihedral of the lifting surfaces is small. Numerical implementation of the theory requires a solution procedure capable of producing accurate velocity gradients in the first-order solution.

  7. Identifying the principal noise sources of fixed-wing combat aircraft in high-speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, W. D.; Pinker, R. A.; Strange, P. J. R.

    1992-04-01

    Before considering means for alleviating the noise from modern military combat aircraft operating in high-speed low-level flight, it is important to identify the principal noise sources. To this end, a carefully-controlled flight test program has been carried out using a Tornado aircraft (in standard training configuration) operating at flight speeds from 0.5M to 0.8M. The major sources of the aircraft noise, airframe noise, installed jet mixing noise and jet shock noise, have been successfully identified, quantified and correlated. Although the jet mixing noise tends to be the major source at low flight speeds, and the shock noise at high flight speeds, all three sources are comparable in magnitude during the rapid rise-time of the noise signal and at its peak. Indeed, were it possible to reduce greatly both the jet mixing and shock noise, the peak noise levels would only reduce by about 5 dBA.

  8. Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

  9. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  10. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  11. Performance of a Supersonic Over-Wing Inlet with Application to a Low-Sonic-Boom Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Fink, Lawrence E.; Magee, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    Development of commercial supersonic aircraft has been hindered by many related factors including fuel-efficiency, economics, and sonic-boom signatures that have prevented over-land flight. Materials, propulsion, and flight control technologies have developed to the point where, if over-land flight were made possible, a commercial supersonic transport could be economically viable. Computational fluid dynamics, and modern optimization techniques enable designers to reduce the boom signature of candidate aircraft configurations to acceptable levels. However, propulsion systems must be carefully integrated with these low-boom configurations in order that the signatures remain acceptable. One technique to minimize the downward propagation of waves is to mount the propulsion systems above the wing, such that the wing provides shielding from shock waves generated by the inlet and nacelle. This topmounted approach introduces a number of issues with inlet design and performance especially with the highly-swept wing configurations common to low-boom designs. A 1.79%-scale aircraft model was built and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 8-by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT) to validate the configuration's sonic boom signature. In order to evaluate performance of the top-mounted inlets, the starboard flow-through nacelle on the aerodynamic model was replaced by a 2.3%-scale operational inlet model. This integrated configuration was tested at the 8x6 SWT from Mach 0.25 to 1.8 over a wide range of angles-of-attack and yaw. The inlet was also tested in an isolated configuration over a smaller range of angles-of-attack and yaw. A number of boundary-layer bleed configurations were investigated and found to provide a substantial positive impact on pressure recovery and distortion. Installed inlet performance in terms of mass capture, pressure recovery, and distortion over the Mach number range at the design angle-of-attack of 4-degrees is presented herein and compared

  12. Large-scale static investigation of circulation-control-wing concepts applied to upper surface-blowing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Englar, R. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a circulation control to deflect turbofan engine thrust beyond 90 deg. has been proven in full-scale static ground tests of the circulation-control-wing/upper-surface-blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This powered high-lift system employs a circular, blown trailing edge to replace the USB mechanical flaps to entrain engine-exhaust flow, and to obtain both a vertical-thrust component and an augmented circulation lift for short takeoff and landing (STOL) applications. Previous tests (Phase 1), done in 1982, of a basic configuration installed on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft confirmed these CCW/USB systems capabilities. A second phase (Phase 2) of full-scale, static, thrust-deflection investigations has reconfirmed the ability to deflect engine thrust from 40 to 102 deg., depending on thrust level. Five new configurations were evaluated and performance improvements noted for those configurations with larger blown span, fences or favorable engine interactions, smaller slot height, and larger radii with less than 180 deg. of CCW surface arc. In general, a 90 deg. circular arc with a smaller slot height provided the best performance, demonstrating that adequate thrust turning can be produced by a trailing-edge shape which may have minimal cruise-performance penalty. Thrust deflections were achieved at considerably lower blowing momentum than was required for the baseline case of Phase 1. Improved performance and versatility were thus confirmed for the CCW/USB system applied to STOL aircraft, where the potential for developing a non-moving-parts pneumatic thrust deflector to rapidly vary horizontal force from thrust to drag, while maintaining constant vertical force, appears quite promising. The conversion from high-lift to lower-drag cruise mode by merely terminating the blowing provides an effective STOL aircraft system.

  13. Comparison of structural response and fatigue endurance of aircraft flap-like box structures subjected to acoustic loading.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; White, R G; Aglietti, G S

    2005-05-01

    The results of an extensive test program to characterize the behavior of typical aircraft structures under acoustic loading and to establish their fatigue endurance are presented. The structures tested were the three flap-like box-type of structures. Each structure consisted of one flat (bottom) and one curved (top) stiffener stiffened skin panel, front, and rear spars, and ribs that divided the structures into three bays. The three structures, constructed from three different materials (aircraft standard aluminum alloy, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic, and a Glass Fibre Metal Laminate, i.e., GLARE) had the same size and configuration, with only minor differences due to the use of different materials. A first set of acoustic tests with excitations of intensity ranging from 140 to 160 dB were carried out to obtain detailed data on the dynamic response of the three structures. The FE analysis of the structures is also briefly described and the results compared with the experimental data. The fatigue endurance of the structures was then determined using random acoustic excitation with an overall sound pressure level of 161 dB, and details of crack propagation are reported. PMID:15957753

  14. Aerodynamics of Rotating-wing Aircraft with Blade-pitch Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfluger, A

    1940-01-01

    In the present report, with the aid of the usual computation methods, a rotor is investigated the pitch of whose blades is capable of being controlled in such a manner that it varies linearly with the flapping angle. To test the effect of this linkage on the aircraft performance, the theory is applied to an illustrative example.

  15. Wind-tunnel investigation of effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the high angle-of-attack characteristics of a T-tail low-wing general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory tests have been conducted in the NASA-Langley Research Center's 12-Foot Low-Speed wind Tunnel to evaluate the application of wing-leading-edge devices on the stall-departure and spin resistance characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of a T-tail general-aviation aircraft. The model was force tested with an internal strain-gauge balance to obtain aerodynamic data on the complete configuration and with a separate wing balance to obtain aerodynamic data on the outer portion of the wing. The addition of the outboard leading-edge droop eliminated the abrupt stall of the windtip and maintained or increased the resultant-force coefficient up to about alpha = 32 degrees. This change in slope of the resultant-force coefficient curve with angle of attack has been shown to be important for eliminating autorotation and for providing spin resistance.

  16. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  17. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  18. Predicted flight characteristics of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An existing deHavilland C-8A airplane has been modified into an augmentor wing flight test vehicle. Research objectives are to verify the augmentor flap concept and to produce data for STOL airworthiness criteria. The Modified C-8A provides the means for jet-STOL flight research down to a 60 knot approach speed. The airplane has a high thrust-to-weight ratio, high-lift flap system, vectored thrust, powerful flight controls, and lateral-directional stability augmentation system. Normal performance and handling qualities are expected to be satisfactory. Analysis and piloted simulator results indicate that stability and control characteristics in conventional flight are rated satisfactory. Handling qualities in the STOL regime are also generally satisfactory, although pilot workload is high about the longitudinal axis.

  19. Aeroelastic Response of Swept Aircraft Wings in a Compressible Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the subcritical aeroelastic response of swept wings, in various flight speed regimes, to arbitrary time-dependent external excitations. The methodology based on the concept of indicial functions is carried out in time and frequency domains. As a result of this approach, the proper unsteady aerodynamic loads necessary to study the subcritical aeroelastic response of the open/closed loop aeroelastic systems, and of flutter instability, respectively are obtained. Validation of the aeroelastic model is provided, and applications to subcritical aeroelastic response to blast pressure signatures are illustrated. In this context, an original representation of the aeroelastic response in the phase-space is displayed, and pertinent conclusions on the implications of a number of selected parameters of the system are outlined.

  20. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  1. Simulator Investigations of the Problems of Flying a Swept-Wing Transport Aircraft in Heavy Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.; Larsen, William E.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation of several factors which may contribute to the problem of piloting jet transport aircraft in heavy turbulence was conducted by using a piloted simulator that included the most significant airplane response and cockpit vibrations induced by rough air. Results indicated that the primary fuselage structural frequency contributed significantly to a distracting cockpit environment, and there was obtained evidence of severely reduced instrument flight proficiency during simulated maneuvering flight in heavy turbulence. It is concluded that the addition of similar rough-air response capabilities to training simulators would be of value in pilot indoctrination in turbulent-flight procedures.

  2. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.

    1985-01-01

    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  3. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  4. Analysis and flight evaluation of a small, fixed-wing aircraft equipped with hinged plate spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Sackel, E.; Ellis, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a four phase effort to evaluate the application of hinged plate spoilers/dive brakes to a small general aviation aircraft are presented. The test vehicle was a single engine light aircraft modified with an experimental set of upper surface spoilers and lower surface dive brakes similar to the type used on sailplanes. The lift, drag, stick free stability, trim, and dynamic response characteristics of four different spoiler/dive brake configurations were determined. Tests also were conducted, under a wide range of flight conditions and with pilots of various experience levels, to determine the most favorable methods of spoiler control and to evaluate how spoilers might best be used during the approach and landing task. The effects of approach path angle, approach airspeed, and pilot technique using throttle/spoiler integrated control were investigated for day, night, VFR, and IFR approaches and landings. The test results indicated that spoilers offered significant improvements in the vehicle's performance and flying qualities for all elements of the approach and landing task, provided a suitable method of control was available.

  5. Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration: Standard Configuration with Wing Flaps Deflected 60 Degrees and Model having Tail in Line with Wings, TED No. NACA 2387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David G.

    1947-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallop Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of 0.5-scale models of the Fairchild Lark pilotless aircraft with the tail in line with the wings a d with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 60 deg. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and by radar tracking.

  6. Flight Flutter Testing of Rotary Wing Aircraft Using a Control System Oscillation Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, J. G.; Viswanathan, S.; Matthys, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    A flight flutter testing technique is described in which the rotor controls are oscillated by series actuators to excite the rotor and airframe modes of interest, which are then allowed to decay. The moving block technique is then used to determine the damped frequency and damping variation with rotor speed. The method proved useful for tracking the stability of relatively well damped modes. The results of recently completed flight tests of an experimental soft-in-plane rotor are used to illustrate the technique. Included is a discussion of the application of this technique to investigation of the propeller whirl flutter stability characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 VTOL tilt rotor research aircraft.

  7. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  8. Sensitivity of Mission Energy Consumption to Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Design Assumptions on the N3-X Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael T.; Chu, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors it was shown that the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system, was able to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project goal for N+3 generation aircraft of at least a 60% reduction in total energy consumption as compared to the best in class current generation aircraft. This previous study combined technology assumptions that represented the highest anticipated values that could be matured to technology readiness level (TRL) 4-6 by 2030. This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of the total mission energy consumption to reductions in each key technology assumption. Of the parameters examined, the mission total energy consumption was most sensitive to changes to total pressure loss in the propulsor inlet. The baseline inlet internal pressure loss is assumed to be an optimistic 0.5%. An inlet pressure loss of 3% increases the total energy consumption 9%. However changes to reduce inlet pressure loss can result in additional distortion to the fan which can reduce fan efficiency or vice versa. It is very important that the inlet and fan be analyzed and optimized as a single unit. The turboshaft hot section is assumed to be made of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a 3000 F maximum material temperature. Reducing the maximum material temperature to 2700 F increases the mission energy consumption by only 1.5%. Thus achieving a 3000 F temperature in CMCs is important but not central to achieving the energy consumption objective of the N3-X/TeDP. A key parameter in the efficiency of superconducting motors and generators is the size of the superconducting filaments in the stator. The size of the superconducting filaments in the baseline model is assumed to be 10 microns. A 40 micron filament, which represents current technology, results in a 200% increase in AC losses in the motor and generator stators. This analysis shows that for a system with 40

  9. A flight-test and simulation evaluation of the longitudinal final approach and landing performance of an automatic system for a light wing loading STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.; Hardy, G. H.; Hindson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive flight-test program of STOL operating systems for the terminal area, an automatic landing system was developed and evaluated for a light wing loading turboprop aircraft. The aircraft utilized an onboard advanced digital avionics system. Flight tests were conducted at a facility that included a STOL runway site with a microwave landing system. Longitudinal flight-test results were presented and compared with available (basically CTOL) criteria. These comparisons were augmented by results from a comprehensive simulation of the controlled aircraft which included representations of navigation errors that were encountered in flight and atmospheric disturbances. Acceptable performance on final approach and at touchdown was achieved by the autoland (automatic landing) system for the moderate winds and turbulence conditions encountered in flight. However, some touchdown performance goals were marginally achieved, and simulation results suggested that difficulties could be encountered in the presence of more extreme atmospheric conditions. Suggestions were made for improving performance under those more extreme conditions.

  10. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  11. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  12. Overview of the ARPA/WL Smart Structures and Materials Development-Smart Wing contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudva, Jayanth N.; Jardine, A. Peter; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari

    1996-05-01

    While the concept of an adaptive aircraft wing, i.e., a wing whose shape parameters such as camber, wing twist, and thickness can be varied to optimize the wing shape for various flight conditions, has been extensively studied, the complexity and weight penalty of the actuation mechanisms have precluded their practical implementation. Recent development of sensors and actuators using smart materials could potentially alleviate the shortcomings of prior designs, paving the way for a practical, `smart' adaptive wing which responds to changes in flight and environmental conditions by modifying its shape to provide optimal performance. This paper presents a summary of recent work done on adaptive wing designs under an on-going ARPA/WL contract entitled `Smart Structures and Materials Development--Smart Wing.' Specifically, the design, development and planned wind tunnel testing of a 16% model representative of a fighter aircraft wing and incorporating the following features, are discussed: (1) a composite wing torque box whose span-wise twist can be varied by activating built-in shape memory alloy (SMA) torque tubes to provide increased lift and enhanced maneuverability at multiple flight conditions, (2) trailing edge control surfaces deployed using composite SMA actuators to provide smooth, hingeless aerodynamic surfaces, and (3) a suite of fiber optic sensors integrated into the wing skin which provide real-time strain and pressure data to a feedback control system.

  13. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  14. Evaluation of the Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Upbending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of an F-8 aircraft configuration with a variable camber wing at Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.0. [conducted in the Ames 9 by 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.1-scale model of an F-8 aircraft was tested over a range of Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.0. Reynolds number of 4.12 million was based on wing mean-aerodynamic chord for angles of attack varying from -2 deg to +12 deg. The model was equipped with an advanced-technology-conformal-variable-camber wing (ATCVCW) having simple hinge flaps. Data were also obtained for the model equipped with the basic F-8 wing and conventional flaps. Model variables included aileron and wing trailing edge deflections and horizontal tail incidence. The ATCVCW configuration produced slight improvements in lift-curve slope, drag, and static longitudinal stability over that of the basic F-8 wing configuration. Flap effectiveness was essentially the same for both wings.

  16. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 1: Advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kays, A. O.; Young, E. C.; Mcgee, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Areas where selective reinforcement of conventional metallic structure can improve static strength/fatigue endurance at lower weight than would be possible if metal reinforcement were used are discussed. These advantages are now being demonstrated by design, fabrication, and tests of three boron-epoxy reinforced C-130E center wing boxes. This structural component was previously redesigned using an aluminum build-up to meet increased severity of fatigue loadings. Direct comparisons of relative structural weights, manufacturing costs, and producibility can therefore be obtained, and the long-time flight service performance of the composite reinforced structure can be evaluated against the wide background of metal reinforced structure.

  17. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, D. R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, Randall C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. As part of the Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures, the design and fabrication of the technology integration box beam (TIBB) was completed. The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the Lockheed C-130 aircraft. The TIBB was tested for downbending, upbending, torsion, and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. Current analytical and experimental results are described for a study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data. An analytical study was conducted of the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB.

  18. Aerostructural Level Set Topology Optimization for a Common Research Model Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to use level set topology optimization to improve the design of a representative wing box structure for the NASA common research model. The objective is to minimize the total compliance of the structure under aerodynamic and body force loading, where the aerodynamic loading is coupled to the structural deformation. A taxi bump case was also considered, where only body force loads were applied. The trim condition that aerodynamic lift must balance the total weight of the aircraft is enforced by allowing the root angle of attack to change. The level set optimization method is implemented on an unstructured three-dimensional grid, so that the method can optimize a wing box with arbitrary geometry. Fast matching and upwind schemes are developed for an unstructured grid, which make the level set method robust and efficient. The adjoint method is used to obtain the coupled shape sensitivities required to perform aerostructural optimization of the wing box structure.

  19. The development of a closed-loop flight controller with panel method integration for gust alleviation using biomimetic feathers on aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Lee, Woody; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a biomimetic closed-loop flight controller that integrates gust alleviation and flight control into a single distributed system. Modern flight controllers predominantly rely on and respond to perturbations in the global states, resulting in rotation or displacement of the entire aircraft prior to the response. This bio-inspired gust alleviation system (GAS) employs active deflection of electromechanical feathers that react to changes in the airflow, i.e. the local states. The GAS design is a skeletal wing structure with a network of featherlike panels installed on the wing's surfaces, creating the airfoil profile and replacing the trailing-edge flaps. In this study, a dynamic model of the GAS-integrated wing is simulated to compute gust-induced disturbances. The system implements continuous adjustment to flap orientation to perform corrective responses to inbound gusts. MATLAB simulations, using a closed-loop LQR integrated with a 2D adaptive panel method, allow analysis of the morphing structure's aerodynamic data. Non-linear and linear dynamic models of the GAS are compared to a traditional single control surface baseline wing. The feedback loops synthesized rely on inertial changes in the global states; however, variations in number and location of feather actuation are compared. The bio-inspired system's distributed control effort allows the flight controller to interchange between the single and dual trailing edge flap profiles, thereby offering an improved efficiency to gust response in comparison to the traditional wing configuration. The introduction of aero-braking during continuous gusting flows offers a 25% reduction in x-velocity deviation; other flight parameters can be reduced in magnitude and deviation through control weighting optimization. Consequently, the GAS demonstrates enhancements to maneuverability and stability in turbulent intensive environments.

  20. A flight-test and simulation evaluation of the longitudinal final approach and landing performance of an automatic system for a light wing loading STOL aircraft equipped with wing spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.; Hardy, G. H.; Hindson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive flight-test investigation of short takeoff and landing (STOL) operating systems for the terminal systems for the terminal area, an automatic landing system has been developed and evaluated for a light wing-loading turboprop-powered aircraft. An advanced digital avionics system performed display, navigation, guidance, and control functions for the test aircraft. Control signals were generated in order to command powered actuators for all conventional controls and for a set of symmetrically driven wing spoilers. This report describes effects of the spoiler control on longitudinal autoland (automatic landing) performance. Flight-test results, with and without spoiler control, are presented and compared with available (basically, conventional takeoff and landing) performance criteria. These comparisons are augmented by results from a comprehensive simulation of the controlled aircraft that included representations of the microwave landing system navigation errors that were encountered in flight as well as expected variations in atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. Flight-test results show that the addition of spoiler control improves the touchdown performance of the automatic landing system. Spoilers improve longitudinal touchdown and landing pitch-attitude performance, particularly in tailwind conditions. Furthermore, simulation results indicate that performance would probably be satisfactory for a wider range of atmospheric disturbances than those encountered in flight. Flight results also indicate that the addition of spoiler control during the final approach does not result in any measurable change in glidepath track performance, and results in a very small deterioration in airspeed tracking. This difference contrasts with simulations results, which indicate some improvement in glidepath tracking and no appreciable change in airspeed tracking. The modeling problem in the simulation that contributed to this discrepancy with flight was

  1. Aeroelastic Analysis Of Joined Wing Of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Aircraft Based On The Sensor-Craft Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisarla, Soujanya; Ghia, Urmila; "Karman" Ghia, Kirti

    2002-11-01

    Towards a comprehensive aeroelastic analysis of a joined wing, fluid dynamics and structural analyses are initially performed separately. Steady flow calculations are currently performed using 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow analysis of M6-Onera wing served to validate the software for the fluid dynamics analysis. The complex flow field of the joined wing is analyzed and the prevailing fluid dynamic forces are computed using COBALT software. Currently, these forces are being transferred as fluid loads on the structure. For the structural analysis, several test cases were run considering the wing as a cantilever beam; these served as validation cases. A nonlinear structural analysis of the wing is being performed using ANSYS software to predict the deflections and stresses on the joined wing. Issues related to modeling, and selecting appropriate mesh for the structure were addressed by first performing a linear analysis. The frequencies and mode shapes of the deformed wing are obtained from modal analysis. Both static and dynamic analyses are carried out, and the results obtained are carefully analyzed. Loose coupling between the fluid and structural analyses is currently being examined.

  2. Assessment at full scale of nozzle/wing geometry effects on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics. [short takeoff aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groesbeck, D.; Vonglahn, U.

    1979-01-01

    The effects on acoustic characteristics of nozzle type and location on a wing for STOL engine over-the-wing configurations are assessed at full scale on the basis of model-scale data. Three types of nozzle configurations are evaluated: a circular nozzle with external deflector mounted above the wing, a slot nozzle with external deflector mounted on the wing and a slot nozzle mounted on the wing. Nozzle exhaust plane locations with respect to the wing leading edge are varied from 10 to 46 percent chord (flaps retracted) with flap angles of 20 (takeoff altitude) and 60 (approach attitude). Perceived noise levels (PNL) are calculated as a function of flyover distance at 152 m altitude. From these plots, static EPNL values, defined as flyover relative noise levels, are calculated and plotted as a function of lift and thrust ratios. From such plots the acoustic benefits attributable to variations in nozzle/deflector/wing geometry at full scale are assessed for equal aerodynamic performance.

  3. Real-time testing of titanium sheet and extrusion coupon specimens subjected to Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing stresses and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, T.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  4. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios: Results of Limited Functional Testing With United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated, in Victorville, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.

    2002-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, the FCC adopted a FIRST REPORT AND ORDER, released it on April 22, 2002, and on May 16, 2002 published in the Federal Register a Final Rule, permitting marketing and operation of new products incorporating UWB technology. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This report provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  5. Further generalization of an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments from a continuing effort to provide an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis are described. Previous work provided an equivalent plate analysis formulation that is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. However, the modeling is restricted to representing wing boxes having symmetric cross sections. Further developments, which are described in this paper, allow modeling of wing cross section having asymmetries that can arise from airfoil camber or from thicknesses being different in the upper and lower cover skins. An implementation of thermal loadings, which are described as temperature distributions over the planform of the cover skins, has been included. Spring supports have been added to provide for a more general set of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to assess the effect of wing camber on the static and dynamic response of an example wing structure under pressure and thermal loading. These results are compared with results from a finite element analysis program to indicate how well a cambered wing box can be represented with an equivalent plate formulation.

  6. Further generalization of an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments from a continuing effort to provide an equivalent plate representation for aircraft structural analysis are described. Previous work provided an equivalent plate analysis formulation that is capable of modeling aircraft wing structures with a general planform such as cranked wing boxes. However, the modeling is restricted to representing wing boxes having symmetric cross sections. Further developments, which are described, allow modeling of wing cross sections having asymmetries that can arise from airfoil camber or from thicknesses being different in the upper and lower cover skins. An implementation of thermal loadings, which are described as temperature distributions over the planform of the cover skins, has been included. Spring supports have been added to provide for a more general set of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to assess the effect of wing camber on the static and dynamic response of an example wing structure under pressure and thermal loading. These results are compared with results from a finite element analysis program to indicate how well a cambered wing box can be represented with an equivalent plate formulation.

  7. Head and neck response of a finite element anthropomorphic test device and human body model during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas A; Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-11-01

    A finite element (FE) simulation environment has been developed to investigate aviator head and neck response during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact using both an FE anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and an FE human body model. The head and neck response of the ATD simulation was successfully validated against an experimental sled test. The majority of the head and neck transducer time histories received a CORrelation and analysis (CORA) rating of 0.7 or higher, indicating good overall correlation. The human body model simulation produced a more biofidelic head and neck response than the ATD experimental test and simulation, including change in neck curvature. While only the upper and lower neck loading can be measured in the ATD, the shear force, axial force, and bending moment were reported for each level of the cervical spine in the human body model using a novel technique involving cross sections. This loading distribution provides further insight into the biomechanical response of the neck during a rotary-wing aircraft impact. PMID:25085863

  8. Prediction of effects of wing contour modifications on low-speed maximum lift and transonic performance for the EA-6B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Waggoner, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    Computational predictions of the effects of wing contour modifications on maximum lift and transonic performance were made and verified against low speed and transonic wind tunnel data. This effort was part of a program to improve the maneuvering capability of the EA-6B electronics countermeasures aircraft, which evolved from the A-6 attack aircraft. The predictions were based on results from three computer codes which all include viscous effects: MCARF, a 2-D subsonic panel code; TAWFIVE, a transonic full potential code; and WBPPW, a transonic small disturbance potential flow code. The modifications were previously designed with the aid of these and other codes. The wing modifications consists of contour changes to the leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps and were designed for increased maximum lift with minimum effect on transonic performance. The prediction of the effects of the modifications are presented, with emphasis on verification through comparisons with wind tunnel data from the National Transonic Facility. Attention is focused on increments in low speed maximum lift and increments in transonic lift, pitching moment, and drag resulting from the contour modifications.

  9. Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Model of a Tilt-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosti, Louis P.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a tilt-wing vertical-take-off-and-landing aircraft with the use of a remotely controlled 1/4-scale free-flight model. The model had two propellers with hinged (flapping) blades mounted on the wing which could be tilted up to an incidence angle of nearly 90 deg for vertical take-off and landing. The investigation consisted of hovering flights in still air, vertical take-offs and landings, and slow constant-altitude transitions from hovering to forward flight. The stability and control characteristics of the model were generally satisfactory except for the following characteristics. In hovering flight, the model had an unstable pitching oscillation of relatively long period which the pilots were able to control without artificial stabilization but which could not be considered entirely satisfactory. At very low speeds and angles of wing incidence on the order of 70 deg, the model experienced large nose-up pitching moments which severely limited the allowable center-of-gravity range.

  10. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  11. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  12. Development of laminar flow control wing surface composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments under NAS1-16235 LFC Laminar-Flow-Control Wing Panel Structural Design And Development (WSSD); Design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joints were demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. Cost of the baseline LFC aircraft was estimated and compared to the turbulent aircraft. The mission fuel weight was 21.7 percent lower for the LFC aircraft. The calculation shows that the lower fuel costs for LFC offset the higher incremental costs of LFC in less than six months.

  13. Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.

  14. Pressure-Distribution Measurements of a Model of a Davis Wing Section with Fowler Flap Submitted by Consolidated Aircraft Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Ira H

    1942-01-01

    Wing pressure distribution diagrams for several angles of attack and flap deflections of 0 degrees, 20 degrees, and 40 degrees are presented. The normal force coefficients agree with lift coefficients obtained in previous test of the same model, except for the maximum lifts with flap deflection. Pressure distribution measurements were made at Reynolds Number of about 6,000,000.

  15. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  16. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.70, and 2.95. [Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, O. A.; Fuller, D. E.; Watson, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30. 2.70, and 2.95 to determine the performance, static stability, and control characteristics of a model of a fixed-wing supersonic cruise aircraft with a design Mach Number of 2.70 (SCAT 15-F-9898). The configuration had a 74 deg swept warped wing with a reflexed trailing edge and four engine nacelles mounted below the reflexed portion of the wing. A number of variations in the basic configuration were investigated; they included the effect of wing leading edge radius, the effect of various model components, and the effect of model control deflections.

  18. Aerodynamic Performance and Static Stability at Mach Number 3.3 of an Aircraft Configuration Employing Three Triangular Wing Panels and a Body Equal Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Carlton S.

    1960-01-01

    An aircraft configuration, previously conceived as a means to achieve favorable aerodynamic stability characteristics., high lift-drag ratio, and low heating rates at high supersonic speeds., was modified in an attempt to increase further the lift-drag ratio without adversely affecting the other desirable characteristics. The original configuration consisted of three identical triangular wing panels symmetrically disposed about an ogive-cylinder body equal in length to the root chord of the panels. This configuration was modified by altering the angular disposition of the wing panels, by reducing the area of the panel forming the vertical fin, and by reshaping the body to produce interference lift. Six-component force and moment tests of the modified configuration at combined angles of attack and sideslip were made at a Mach number of 3.3 and a Reynolds number of 5.46 million. A maximum lift-drag ratio of 6.65 (excluding base drag) was measured at a lift coefficient of 0.100 and an angle of attack of 3.60. The lift-drag ratio remained greater than 3 up to lift coefficient of 0.35. Performance estimates, which predicted a maximum lift-drag ratio for the modified configuration 27 percent greater than that of the original configuration, agreed well with experiment. The modified configuration exhibited favorable static stability characteristics within the test range. Longitudinal and directional centers of pressure were slightly aft of the respective centroids of projected plan-form and side area.

  19. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  20. An Experimental Study into Pylon, Wing, and Flap Installation Effects on Jet Noise Generated by Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, Michael

    A pylon bottom bifurcation and a wing with variable flaps were designed and built to attach to a scaled model of a coaxial exhaust nozzle system. The presence of the pylon bifurcation, wing, and flaps modify the characteristics of the exhaust flow forc- ing asymmetric flow and acoustics. A parametric study was carried out for assessing and relating the flow field characteristics to the near-field pressure and far-field acous- tic spectra. The flow field was investigated experimentally using both stream-wise and cross-stream PIV techniques where the near-field pressure and far-field acoustic spectra were measured using microphone arrays. Contour mapping of the flow field characteristics (e.g. mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy levels) and near-field acoustics with and without installation effects were used to explain the changes in the far-field acoustics.

  1. Design Optimization and Verification of a Horizontal Stabilizer for the SeaStryder600 Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIG) Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Stephen

    Aircraft manufacturer Aquavion Systems is currently designing and constructing prototypes for its revolutionary new fleet of aircraft called the SeaStryder. During the prototyping phase, it was discovered that the center-of-gravity of the SeaStryder600 was too far aft and outside of the acceptable range. To solve this design issue, it was hypothesized that the weight of the horizontal stabilizer may be reduced without compromising its structural integrity. The following document analyzes this hypothesis and provides two alternative designs. Each design exceeds the design requirements, meets additional requirements requested by industry, and provides a significant degree of weight savings. The first design provides a 25% weight reduction. The second design provides an 18% weight reduction as well as a 160% increase in loading capacity. The designs proposed have both been verified through the use of Finite Element Analysis as well as by means of experimentation where two prototype wings were constructed and tested to failure confirming the analytical results.

  2. ACTE Wing Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) project modified a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft with a new flexible flap that creates a seamless transition between the flap and the wing. As with any new modification, it is crucial to ensure that the aircraft will not become overstressed in flight. To test this, Star CCM a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program was used to calculate aerodynamic data for the aircraft at given flight conditions.

  3. Results of experiments with slotted wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1924-01-01

    This report recounts some of the successful experiments conducted in England and Germany on slotted wings and ailerons. Wind tunnel test results are given and examples of aircraft constructed with these new wing components are described.

  4. An experimental study of a jet issuing from a lifting wing. [vertical-horizontal flight transitions in VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, H. M.; Antani, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to determine the behavior of a round turbulent jet issuing from a lifting two-dimensional wing in crossflow. The jet was located at 65% wing chord on an NACA 0021 airfoil fitted with a 30% chord NACA 4415 flap. The flowfield associated with the jet was surveyed extensively with directional pressure probes to determine local velocity vectors and pressures for three different values of lift coefficient at jet effective velocity ratios (square root of the ratio of the jet dynamic pressure to the freestream dynamic pressure) of 4, 6, and 8. Data describing the jet centerline and the path of the contrarotating vortices accompanying the deflected jet are presented and compared with similar data for a round jet issuing from a large flat plate. The spacing and strength of the vortices are calculated using a simple vortex model previously proposed for the flat plate case. The results show that the penetration of the jet and the vortices increases significantly with increasing lift for the range of test parameters covered in the study. The calculated vortex spacing and strength also show an increase with lift.

  5. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing-box

  6. Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration. Model with Wing Flaps Deflected 15 Degrees, TED No. NACA 2387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David G.

    1946-01-01

    A flight test was conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallops Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of a 0.5-scale model of the Fairchild Lerk Pilotless aircraft with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 15 degrees. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and also by radar tracking. The results show an increase of effectiveness of the longitudinal control in producing normal accelerations up to a Mach number of 0.75 where this effectiveness gradually decreased becoming negative at a Mach number of 0.89. Previous tests with wing flaps undeflected an increase in effectiveness up to Mach number of 0.93 where a sudden loss of control occurred. The model was dynamically stable throughout the speed range. The data confirmed the drag increase at the critical Mach number for large angles of attack is indicated in high-speed wind-tunnel tests.

  7. Method for creating an aeronautic sound shield having gas distributors arranged on the engines, wings, and nose of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen (Inventor); Smith, Mark Stephen (Inventor); Myre, David Daniel (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention blocks and/or attenuates the upstream travel of acoustic disturbances or sound waves from a flight vehicle or components of a flight vehicle traveling at subsonic speed using a local injection of a high molecular weight gas. Additional benefit may also be obtained by lowering the temperature of the gas. Preferably, the invention has a means of distributing the high molecular weight gas from the nose, wing, component, or other structure of the flight vehicle into the upstream or surrounding air flow. Two techniques for distribution are direct gas injection and sublimation of the high molecular weight solid material from the vehicle surface. The high molecular weight and low temperature of the gas significantly decreases the local speed of sound such that a localized region of supersonic flow and possibly shock waves are formed, preventing the upstream travel of sound waves from the flight vehicle.

  8. Focused Assessment of State-of-the-Art CFD Capabilities for Prediction of Subsonic Fixed Wing Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent workshops and studies are used to make an assessment of the current status of CFD for subsonic fixed wing aerodynamics. Uncertainty quantification plays a significant role in the assessment, so terms associated with verification and validation are given and some methodology and research areas are highlighted. For high-subsonic-speed cruise through buffet onset, the series of drag prediction workshops and NASA/Boeing buffet onset studies are described. For low-speed flow control for high lift, a circulation control workshop and a synthetic jet flow control workshop are described. Along with a few specific recommendations, gaps and needs identified through the workshops and studies are used to develop a list of broad recommendations to improve CFD capabilities and processes for this discipline in the future.

  9. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  10. Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings continue deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  11. Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings begin deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  12. Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings fully deployed during flight following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Californiaornia. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  13. Development of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated With Transport-Class Aircraft Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Kidd, Reggie T.; Hartl, Darren J.; Scholten, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise produced by typical, transport-class aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Leading-edge slat noise is a prominent source of airframe noise. The concept of a slat-cove filler was proposed in previous work as an effective means of mitigating slat noise. Bench-top models were deployed at 75% scale to study the feasibility of producing a functioning slat-cove filler. Initial results from several concepts led to a more-focused effort investigating a deformable structure based upon pseudoelastic SMA materials. The structure stows in the cavity between the slat and main wing during cruise and deploys simultaneously with the slat to guide the aerodynamic flow suitably for low noise. A qualitative parametric study of SMA-enabled, slat-cove filler designs was performed on the bench-top. Computational models were developed and analyses were performed to assess the displacement response under representative aerodynamic load. The bench-top and computational results provide significant insight into design trades and an optimal design.

  14. Human factors issues in the development of helmet-mounted displays for tactical fixed-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, James M.

    1997-06-01

    There are many human factors issues that should be considered when designing a helmet mounted display for use in high speed aircraft with ejection seats. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System Program Office, with support from the Armstrong Laboratory and the Naval Air Warfare Center, has been studying many of these issues and is able to report several findings in the areas of anthropometry, limitations in head movement, helmet stability under high gravity forces and mass properties. This paper serves to summarize the findings of the program office in these areas. The paper will include highlights of several studies that have involved anthropometric data manipulation, 3D head scans, and testing of manikin and human subjects in static and dynamic cockpit environment simulations.

  15. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  16. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  17. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  18. Design integration and noise studies for jet STOL aircraft. Task 7C: Augmentor wing cruise blowing valveless system. Volume 2: Small-scale development testing of augmentor wing critical ducting components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, J. N.; Gupfa, A.

    1973-01-01

    Augmentor wing ducting system studies conducted on a valveless system configuration that provides cruise thrust from the augmentor nozzles have shown that most of the duct system pressure loss would occur in the strut-wing duct y-junction and the wing duct-augmentor lobe nozzles. These components were selected for development testing over a range of duct Mach numbers and pressure ratios to provide a technical basis for predicting installed wing thrust loading and for evaluating design wing loading of a particular wing aspect ratios. The flow characteristics of ducting components with relatively high pressure loss coefficients were investigated. The turbulent pressure fluctuations associated with flows at high Mach numbers were analyzed to evaluate potential duct fatigue problems.

  19. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  20. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  1. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  2. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  3. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  4. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  5. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  6. Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Jenkins, David A.; Ettinger, Scott; Lian, Yong-Sheng; Shyy, Wei; Waszak, Martin R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches. Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept, flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and flight data analysis are presented.

  7. Benchmark Composite Wing Design Including Joint Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Robert G.

    A composite wing panel software package, named WING Joint OpTimization and Analysis (WINGJOTA) featuring bolted joint analysis, is created and presented in this research. Three areas of focus were the development of an analytic composite bolted joint analysis suitable for fast evaluation; a more realistic wing design than what has been considered in the open literature; and the application of two optimization algorithms for composite wing design. Optimization results from 14 wing load cases applied to a composite wing panel with joints are presented. The composite bolted joint analysis consists of an elasticity solution that provides the stress state at a characteristic distance away from the bolt holes. The stresses at the characteristic distance are compared to a failure criterion on a ply-by-ply basis that not only determines first ply failure but also the failure mode. The loads in the multi-fastener joints used in this study were determined by an iterative scheme that provides the bearing-bypass loads to the elasticity analysis. A preliminary design of a composite subsonic transport wing was developed, based around a mid-size, twin-aisle aircraft. The benchmark design includes the leading and trailing edge structures and the center box inside the fuselage. Wing masses were included as point loads, and fuel loads were incorporated as distributed loads. The side-of-body boundary condition was modeled using high stiffness springs, and the aerodynamic loads were applied using an approximate point load scheme. The entire wing structure was modeled using the finite element code ANSYS to provide the internal loads needed as boundary conditions for the wing panel analyzed by WINGJOTA. The software package WINGJOTA combines the composite bolted joint analysis, a composite plate finite element analysis, a wing aeroelastic cycle, and two optimization algorithms to form the basis of a computer code for analysis and optimization. Both the Improving Hit-and-Run (IHR) and

  8. Supersonic Wing Optimization Using SpaRibs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locatelli, David; Mulani, Sameer B.; Liu, Qiang; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the advantages of using curvilinear spars and ribs, termed SpaRibs, to design a supersonic aircraft wing-box in comparison to the use of classic design concepts that employ straight spars and ribs. The objective is to achieve a more efficient load-bearing mechanism and to passively control the deformation of the structure under the flight loads. Moreover, the use of SpaRibs broadens the design space and allows for natural frequencies and natural mode shape tailoring. The SpaRibs concept is implemented in a new optimization MATLAB-based framework referred to as EBF3SSWingOpt. This optimization scheme performs both the sizing and the shaping of the internal structural elements, connecting the optimizer with the analysis software. The shape of the SpaRibs is parametrically defined using the so called Linked Shape method. Each set of SpaRibs is placed in a one by one square domain of the natural space. The set of curves is subsequently transformed in the physical space for creating the wing structure geometry layout. The shape of each curve of each set is unique; however, mathematical relations link the curvature in an effort to reduce the number of design variables. The internal structure of a High Speed Commercial Transport aircraft concept developed by Boeing is optimized subjected to stress, subsonic flutter and supersonic flutter constraints. The results show that the use of the SpaRibs allows for the reduction of the aircraft's primary structure weight without violating the constraints. A weight reduction of about 15 percent is observed.

  9. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) for the Computer Program NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffis, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large general purpose finite element programs require users to develop large quantities of input data. General purpose pre-processors are used to decrease the effort required to develop structural models. Further reduction of effort can be achieved by specific application pre-processors. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) is one such application specific pre-processor. General purpose pre-processors use points, lines and surfaces to describe geometric shapes. Specifying that ADAM is used only for aircraft structures allows generic structural sections, wing boxes and bodies, to be pre-defined. Hence with only gross dimensions, thicknesses, material properties and pre-defined boundary conditions a complete model of an aircraft can be created.

  10. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  11. Three-Dimensional Piecewise-Continuous Class-Shape Transformation of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Erik D.

    2015-01-01

    Class-Shape Transformation (CST) is a popular method for creating analytical representations of the surface coordinates of various components of aerospace vehicles. A wide variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes can be represented analytically using only a modest number of parameters, and the surface representation is smooth and continuous to as fine a degree as desired. This paper expands upon the original two-dimensional representation of airfoils to develop a generalized three-dimensional CST parametrization scheme that is suitable for a wider range of aircraft wings than previous formulations, including wings with significant non-planar shapes such as blended winglets and box wings. The method uses individual functions for the spanwise variation of airfoil shape, chord, thickness, twist, and reference axis coordinates to build up the complete wing shape. An alternative formulation parameterizes the slopes of the reference axis coordinates in order to relate the spanwise variation to the tangents of the sweep and dihedral angles. Also discussed are methods for fitting existing wing surface coordinates, including the use of piecewise equations to handle discontinuities, and mathematical formulations of geometric continuity constraints. A subsonic transport wing model is used as an example problem to illustrate the application of the methodology and to quantify the effects of piecewise representation and curvature constraints.

  12. Surface finishing. [for aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Heffernan, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive. The adhesive is covered with a sheet of flexible film material under tension, and the adhesive is set while maintaining tension on the film material.

  13. Force-Test Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Model of a Tilt-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, William A., Jr.; Tosti, Louis P.

    1959-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/4-scale model of a tilt-wing vertical-take-off-and-landing aircraft. The model had two 3-blade single-rotation propellers with hinged (flapping) blades mounted on the wing, which could be tilted from an incidence of 4 deg for forward flight to 86 deg for hovering flight. The investigation included measurements of both the longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics in both the normal forward flight and the transition ranges. Tests in the forward-flight condition were made for several values of thrust coefficient, and tests in the transition condition were made at several values of wing incidence with the power varied to cover a range of flight conditions from forward-acceleration (or climb) conditions to deceleration (or descent) conditions The control effectiveness of the all-movable horizontal tail, the ailerons and the differential propeller pitch control was also determined. The data are presented without analysis.

  14. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration. Volume 1: Experimental data report, base configuration and effects of wing twist and leading-edge configuration. [wind tunnel tests, aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.

  15. Composite Bending Box Section Modal Vibration Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns with Composite construction in critical structures such as wings and stabilizers is that hidden faults and cracks can develop operationally. In the real world, catastrophic sudden failure can result from these undetected faults in composite structures. Vibration data incorporating a broad frequency modal approach, could detect significant changes prior to failure. The purpose of this report is to investigate the usefulness of frequency mode testing before and after bending and torsion loading on a composite bending Box Test section. This test article is representative of construction techniques being developed for the recent NASA Blended Wing Body Low Speed Vehicle Project. The Box section represents the construction technique on the proposed blended wing aircraft. Modal testing using an impact hammer provides an frequency fingerprint before and after bending and torsional loading. If a significant structural discontinuity develops, the vibration response is expected to change. The limitations of the data will be evaluated for future use as a non-destructive in-situ method of assessing hidden damage in similarly constructed composite wing assemblies. Modal vibration fault detection sensitivity to band-width, location and axis will be investigated. Do the sensor accelerometers need to be near the fault and or in the same axis? The response data used in this report was recorded at 17 locations using tri-axial accelerometers. The modal tests were conducted following 5 independent loading conditions before load to failure and 2 following load to failure over a period of 6 weeks. Redundant data was used to minimize effects from uncontrolled variables which could lead to incorrect interpretations. It will be shown that vibrational modes detected failure at many locations when skin de-bonding failures occurred near the center section. Important considerations are the axis selected and frequency range.

  16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  17. Modeling and Optimization for Morphing Wing Concept Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.

    2007-01-01

    This report consists of two major parts: 1) the approach to develop morphing wing weight equations, and 2) the approach to size morphing aircraft. Combined, these techniques allow the morphing aircraft to be sized with estimates of the morphing wing weight that are more credible than estimates currently available; aircraft sizing results prior to this study incorporated morphing wing weight estimates based on general heuristics for fixed-wing flaps (a comparable "morphing" component) but, in general, these results were unsubstantiated. This report will show that the method of morphing wing weight prediction does, in fact, drive the aircraft sizing code to different results and that accurate morphing wing weight estimates are essential to credible aircraft sizing results.

  18. Structural tests and development of a laminar flow control wing surface composite chordwise joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplished under NAS1-16235 Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) Wing Panel Structural Design and Development (WSSD); design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joint was demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments, Development of LFC Wind Surface Composite Structures (WSCS), are documented. Tests were conducted on two CV2 panels to verify the static tension and fatigue strength of LFC wing surface chordwise joints.

  19. Self-induced wing rock of slender delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Yip, L. P.; Chambers, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a research program aimed at exploring basic mechanisms that cause wing rock in combat aircraft, an investigation was conducted to study the aerodynamic factors which cause the low-speed wing rock exhibited by slender delta wings. A flat-plate delta wing with 80 deg leading-edge sweep was subjected to conventional static-force tests and dynamic wind-tunnel experiments which included forced-oscillation, rotary, and free-to-roll tests. In addition, visualization of the flow phenomena involved was obtained by observing tuft patterns and using a helium-bubble technique. This paper summarizes the results of this study. Fundamental information is presented on the aerodynamic mechanisms that cause the wing rock and the problem of mathematically modeling the aerodynamics and motions is discussed.

  20. X-wing potential for Navy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Arthur W.; Biggers, James C.

    1987-01-01

    The X-wing provides a VTOL aircraft which has a low disc loading hover capability, similar to a conventional helicopter, combined with a high subsonic cruise speed capability. As a result, it hovers with low fuel flow rates which make extended hover duration missions practical. Its low hover power requirements also permit hovering and low speed flight on only one engine in a high speed twin engine aircraft design. The NASA DARPA Sikorsky RSRA X-wing program developed flightworthy X-wing hardware. All design activity and the majority of its component fabrication is completed. A design study was performed on an X-wing concept demonstrator aircraft which is based on the RSRA X-wing components, combined with two MTE engines and a new fuselage.

  1. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  2. X-Wing Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    One of the most unusual experimental flight vehicles appearing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center) in the 1980s was the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) X-Wing aircraft, seen here on the ramp. The craft was developed originally and then modified by Sikorsky Aircraft for a joint NASA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program and was rolled out 19 August 1986. Taxi tests and initial low-altitude flight tests without the main rotor attached were carried out at Dryden before the program was terminated in 1988. The unusual aircraft that resulted from the Ames Research Center/Army X-Wing Project was flown at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, beginning in the spring of 1984, with a follow-on program beginning in 1986. The program, was conceived to provide an efficient combination of the vertical lift characteristic of conventional helicopters and the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. It consisted of a hybrid vehicle called the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), which was equipped with advanced X-wing rotor systems. The program began in the early 1970s to investigate ways to increase the speed of rotor aircraft, as well as their performance, reliability, and safety . It also sought to reduce the noise, vibration, and maintenance costs of helicopters. Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Laboratories built two RSRA aircraft. NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, did some initial testing and transferred the program to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, for an extensive flight research program conducted by Ames and the Army. The purpose of the 1984 tests was to demonstrate the fixed-wing capability of the helicopter/airplane hybrid research vehicle and explore its flight envelope and flying qualities. These tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon

  3. Novel mechanism of transcriptional repression of the human ATP binding cassette transporter A1 gene in hepatic cells by the winged helix/forkhead box transcription factor A2.

    PubMed

    Thymiakou, Efstathia; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2014-06-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in the biogenesis of HDL by promoting the efflux of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid free apoA-I. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene cause Tangier disease which is characterized by near or complete absence of circulating plasma HDL. In the present study we show that the winged helix/forkhead box containing transcription factor A2 (FOXA2) shown previously to play a role in glucose and bile acid homeostasis in the liver and in energy utilization in adipose tissue is a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells. We show that the ABCA1 promoter contains three FOXA2 binding elements in the proximal region. Two of the sites are localized in a region of the ABCA1 promoter enriched in binding elements for transcriptional repressor proteins whereas the third site is the core of the TATA element of the ABCA1 promoter. Inhibition of FOXA2 binding to the ABCA1 promoter by site-directed mutagenesis or FOXA2 gene expression by siRNA was associated with increased ABCA1 promoter activity and protein levels. Overexpression of FOXA2 inhibited both the constitutive ABCA1 gene expression as well as ABCA1 gene induction by oxysterols and retinoids via nuclear receptors LXRα/RXRα. In summary, the present study identifies transcription factor FOXA2 as a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells and reveals a novel mechanism of transcriptional repression by FOXA2 which involves the TATA element of the ABCA1 gene. PMID:24807696

  4. Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.

  5. Testing of a Stitched Composite Large-Scale Multi-Bay Pressure Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn; Rouse, Marshall; Przekop, Adam; Lovejoy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to develop technologies to reduce aviation's impact on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe to enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company have worked together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composite structures. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together. The PRSEUS concept is designed to maintain residual load carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. A series of building block tests were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. The final step in the building block series is an 80%-scale pressure box representing a portion of the center section of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. The testing of this article under maneuver load and internal pressure load conditions is the subject of this paper. The experimental evaluation of this article, along with the other building block tests and the accompanying analyses, has demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the HWB vehicle. Additionally, much of the development effort is also applicable to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, advanced aircraft configurations, and other structures where weight and through-the-thickness strength are design considerations.

  6. Integrated technology wing study (oral presentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design of a plan for a commercial transport manufacturer to integrate advanced technology into a new wing for a derivative and/or new aircraft that could enter service in the late 1980s to early 1990s time period is proposed. The development of a new wing for a derivative or a new long range commercial aircraft and the incorporation of cost effective technologies are studied. The decision provides guidelines for the best allocation of research funds.

  7. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  8. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  9. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  10. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  11. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  12. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  13. Methods for In-Flight Wing Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Formulation of Ko Displacement Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2010-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory is formulated for a cantilever tubular wing spar under bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The Ko displacement equations are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. The bending and distortion strain data can then be input to the displacement equations to calculate slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the wing spar at the strain-sensing stations for generating the deformed shapes of flexible aircraft wing spars. The displacement equations have been successfully validated for accuracy by finite-element analysis. The Ko displacement theory that has been formulated could also be applied to calculate the deformed shape of simple and tapered beams, plates, and tapered cantilever wing boxes. The Ko displacement theory and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) form a powerful tool for in-flight deformation monitoring of flexible wings and tails, such as those often employed on unmanned aerial vehicles. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed in real time to the ground-based pilot for monitoring the deformed shape of unmanned aerial vehicles during flight.

  14. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  16. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  17. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  18. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  19. Design synthesis and optimization of joined-wing transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, John W.; Smith, Stephen C.; Kroo, Ilan M.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program for aircraft synthesis using a numerical optimizer was developed to study the application of the joined-wing configuration to transport aircraft. The structural design algorithm included the effects of secondary bending moments to investigate the possibility of tail buckling and to design joined wings resistant to buckling. The structural weight computed using this method was combined with a statistically-based method to obtain realistic estimates of total lifting surface weight and aircraft empty weight. A variety of 'optimum' joined-wing and conventional aircraft designs were compared on the basis of direct operating cost, gross weight, and cruise drag. The most promising joined-wing designs were found to have a joint location at about 70 percent of the wing semispan. The optimum joined-wing transport is shown to save 1.7 percent in direct operating cost and 11 percent in drag for a 2000 nautical mile transport mission.

  20. Effects of spanwise blowing on the pressure field and vortex-lift characteristics of a 44 deg swept trapezoidal wing. [wind tunnel stability tests - aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Wind-tunnel data were obtained at a free-stream Mach number of 0.26 for a range of model angle of attack, jet thrust coefficient, and jet location. Results of this study show that the sectional effects to spanwise blowing are strongly dependent on angle of attack, jet thrust coefficient, and span location; the largest effects occur at the highest angles of attack and thrust coefficients and on the inboard portion of the wing. Full vortex lift was achieved at the inboard span station with a small blowing rate, but successively higher blowing rates were necessary to achieve full vortex lift at increased span distances. It is shown that spanwise blowing increases lift throughout the angle-of-attack range, delays wing stall to higher angles of attack, and improves the induced-drag polars. The leading-edge suction analogy can be used to estimate the section and total lifts resulting from spanwise blowing.

  1. Mission adaptive wing soars at NASA Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahn, D.; Reinertson, L.

    1986-01-01

    Research pilots have flown the Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) aircraft, a highly modified F-111 jet fighter, from subsonic speeds up to Mach 1.4 in initial flight tests. The inital test flights are clearing the envelope with the wings flexed at various curvatures. This process allows further research data to be safely gathered so that designers of future variable camber wing aircraft have the best information possible. The altitude envelope was cleared from 27,500 down to 7,500 feet where denser air can cause more stress on the aircraft. Testing with the aircraft was conducted with wing sweep angles of 26 and 58 degrees. At the conclusion of the performance tests in the manual configuration, the system will be reconfigured for automatic mode tests. The limited automatic modes include maneuver camber control where the wings are deflected automatically to the best lift versus drag combination for a particular speed; cruise camber control which can help protect the aircraft from high G stresses; and maneuver enhancement/gust alleviation which is designed to improve the aircraft's up and down movement response to pilot commands and reduce the aircraft response to turbulence.

  2. Approximate neutral point of a subsonic canard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate formula is derived for the position of the neutral point in canard aircraft. This formula accounts for the aerodynamic interference between the wing (rear wing) and the canard (forward wing). Topics covered include determination of the canard downwash derivative, determination of the canard and wing liftslopes including the aerodynamic interference, and calculation of the neutral point position.

  3. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  4. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  6. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  7. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  8. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  9. Joukowski wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margoulis, W

    1922-01-01

    To sum up, Professor Joukowski's theory of supporting wings renders it possible to calculate the coefficient of lift in terms of the angle of attack, and Prandtl's coefficient of induced drag and the correction of the angle of attack in terms of the disposition and aspect ratio of the wings.

  10. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    -to-span ratio constraint of 0.1. Finally, unconventional aircraft configurations sized for a regional mission are compared against a conventional baseline. Each aircraft is optimized by varying wing section and wing planform (excluding span) under lift and trim constraints at a single operating point. Based on inviscid pressure drag, the box-wing, C-tip blended-wing-body, and braced-wing configurations considered here are respectively 22%, 25%, and 45% more efficient than the tube-and-wing configuration.

  11. Full-scale study of the cooling system aerodynamics of an operating piston engine installed in a light aircraft wing panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, V. R.; Katz, J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the drag and of the nacelle internal pressures on a wing and nacelle that housed a horizontally opposed piston engine were made in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. These tests are follow-ons to earlier tests made with the same wing and nacelle but in which the engine was replaced with an electric motor and an adjustable orifice plate. In the initial tests the orifice plate was used to control the rate of cooling-air flow through the nacelle and thereby to simulate a range of gasoline engine types. Good agreement was found between the results of those tests and of the test reported here. Also, the upper and lower plenum pressure and cooling-air flow rate were found to be related by conventional equations used to represent the flow through orifices. Tests were run with three cooling air inlet sizes over a free-stream velocity range from 50 to 150 knots, an angle of attack range from 0 deg to 10 deg, and a cowl-flap deflection range from 0 deg to 30 deg. The data were analyzed by computing a flow coefficient similar to that used in the analysis of orifices. It was found that all of the flow coefficient values fell within a band that varied linearly with inlet area. The linear mean line through this band provides an estimate of the relationship between cooling-air flow rate and upper plenum pressure over a wide range of test conditions.

  12. A study of the effects of aeroelastic divergence on the wing structure of an oblique-wing supersonic transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of transport aircraft with oblique wing flying at supersonic speeds are discussed. Aeroelastic divergence of the forward swept portion of the wing is analyzed. The effect of aspect ratio as a method for avoiding aeroelastic divergence is examined. A relatively low aspect ratio appears necessary for an oblique wing when constructed of conventional aluminum alloy materials. The aspect ratio may be increased by increasing the wing thickness ratio and by utilizing materials with higher moduli of elasticity and rigidity.

  13. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  14. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  15. Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration. Static Longitudinal Stability of Models with Wing Flap Deflections of 0 Deg and 15 Deg, TED No. NACA 2387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David G.

    1947-01-01

    From flight tests of 0.5-scale models of the Fairchild Lark pilotless aircraft conducted at the flight test station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallops Island, Va., some evaluations of the static longitudinal stability were obtained by analysis of the short-period oscillations induced by the abrupt movement of the rudder elevators. The analysis shows that for the Lark configuration with wing flap deflections of 0 degrees and 15 degrees the static longitudinal stability decreases slightly up to the critical Mach number and than as the Mach number increases further the stability increases greatly.

  16. RSRA flight control and stabilization. [Rotor Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Handling qualities of the RSRA (rotor systems research aircraft), a special test vehicle with optional configurations (forewings, removable horizontal tailplanes, main rotor, tail rotor, and twin engines for forward flight all removable), are described. The aircraft can be fitted to fly as a conventional rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, or compound helicopter, and is designed for testing existing and future rotor systems in flight. Controls include full-authority fly-by-wire controls and mechanical controls for rotary wing and for fixed wing. Stability augmentation, rotor test measurement systems, variable center of gravity capability, and rotor loading potential of the RSRA are also described.

  17. Wind tunnel and analytical investigation of over-the-wing propulsion/air frame interferences for a short-haul aircraft at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.78. [conducted in the Lewis 8 by 6 foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, O. D.; Lopez, M. L.; Welge, H. R.; Henne, P. A.; Sewell, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of analytical calculations and wind tunnel tests at cruise speeds of a representative four engine short haul aircraft employing upper surface blowing (USB) with a supercritical wing are discussed. Wind tunnel tests covered a range of Mach number M from 0.6 to 0.78. Tests explored the use of three USB nozzle configurations. Results are shown for the isolated wing body and for each of the three nozzle types installed. Experimental results indicate that a low angle nacelle and streamline contoured nacelle yielded the same interference drag at the design Mach number. A high angle powered lift nacelle had higher interference drag primarily because of nacelle boattail low pressures and flow separation. Results of varying the spacing between the nacelles and the use of trailing edge flap deflections, wing upper surface contouring, and a convergent-divergent nozzle to reduce potential adverse jet effects were also discussed. Analytical comparisons with experimental data, made for selected cases, indicate favorable agreement.

  18. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  19. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  20. Nonlinear Aerodynamics and the Design of Wing Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and design of wing tips for fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft still remains part art, part science. Although the design of airfoil sections and basic planform geometry is well developed, the tip regions require more detailed consideration. This is important because of the strong impact of wing tip flow on wing drag; although the tip region constitutes a small portion of the wing, its effect on the drag can be significant. The induced drag of a wing is, for a given lift and speed, inversely proportional to the square of the wing span. Concepts are proposed as a means of reducing drag. Modern computational methods provide a tool for studying these issues in greater detail. The purpose of the current research program is to improve the understanding of the fundamental issues involved in the design of wing tips and to develop the range of computational and experimental tools needed for further study of these ideas.

  1. Scapular Winging

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin W. T.; Geoghegan, John M.; Wallace, W. Angus; Manning, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the causes of scapula winging, with overview of the relevant anatomy, proposed aetiology and treatment. Particular focus is given to lesions of the long thoracic nerve, which is reported to be the most common aetiological factor.

  2. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  3. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  4. Wind tunnel tests of a free-wing/free-trimmer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The riding qualities of an aircraft with low wing loading can be improved by freeing the wing to rotate about its spanwise axis. A trimming surface also free to rotate about its spanwise axis can be added at the wing tips to permit the use of high lift devices. Wind tunnel tests of the free wing/free trimmer model with the trimmer attached to the wing tips aft of the wing chord were conducted to validate a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamic characteristics of a free wing/free trimmer aircraft. A model consisting of a semispan wing with the trimmer mounted on with the wing on an air bearing and the trimmer on a ball bearing was displaced to various angles of attack and released. The damped oscillations of the wing and trimmer were recorded. Real and imaginary parts of the characteristic equations of motion were determined and compared to values predicted using the mathematical model.

  5. Stress concentration around circular hole in a composite material specimen representative of the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang

    1988-01-01

    The theory of anisotropic elasticity was used to evaluate the anisotropic stress concentration factors of a composite laminated plate containing a small circular hole. This advanced composite material was used to manufacture the X-29A forward swept wing. Observe that the usual isotropic material stress concentration factor is three. However, for composite material, it was found that the anisotropic stress concentration factor is no longer constant, and that the locations of maximum tangential stress points could shift by changing the fiber orientation with respect to the loading axis. The analysis showed that through the lamination process, the stress concentration factor could be drastically reduced, and therefore the structural performance could be improved. Both the mixture rule approach and the constant strain approach were used to calculate the stress concentration factor. The results predicted by the mixture rule approach were about 20 percent deviate from the experimental data. However, the results predicted by the constant strain approach matched the testing data very well. This showed the importance of the inplane shear effect on the evaluation of stress concentration factor for the X-29A composite plate.

  6. The development of an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (modified C-8A). Volume 2: Analysis of contractor's flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skavdahl, H.; Patterson, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The initial flight test phase of the modified C-8A airplane was conducted. The primary objective of the testing was to establish the basic airworthiness of the research vehicle. This included verification of the structural design and evaluation of the aircraft's systems. Only a minimum amount of performance testing was scheduled; this has been used to provide a preliminary indication of the airplane's performance and flight characteristics for future flight planning. The testing included flutter and loads investigations up to the maximum design speed. The operational characteristics of all systems were assessed including hydraulics, environmental control system, air ducts, the vectoring conical nozzles, and the stability augmentation system (SAS). Approaches to stall were made at three primary flap settings: up, 30 deg and 65 deg, but full stalls were not scheduled. Minimum control speeds and maneuver margins were checked. All takeoffs and landings were conventional, and STOL performance was not scheduled during this phase of the evaluation.

  7. The Aerodynamic Optimization of Wings at Subsonic Speeds and the Influence of Wingtip Design. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the objectives of modern aircraft development are related to the achievement of reduced fuel consumption and aircraft noise. This investigation is mainly concerned with the aerodynamic aspects of aircraft development, i.e., reduction of induced drag. New studies of wing design, and in particular wing tips, are considered. Induced drag is important since, in cruising flight, it accounts for approximately one-third of the entire drag for the aircraft, and one-half while climbing. A survey is presented for the wing geometries and wing tip designs studied, and theoretical investigations of different planar wings with systematically varied wing tip forms are conducted. Attention is also paid to a theoretical study of some planar and nonplanar wings and their comparison with experimental data.

  8. Dynamic thermal tomography for nondestructive inspection of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Durbin, Philip F.; Gorvad, Michael R.; Shapiro, Arthur B.

    1993-12-01

    We apply dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging as a dynamic thermal tomography tool for wide area inspection of a Boeing 737 aircraft (owned by the FAA/AANC at the Sandia hangar in Albuquerque, NM) and several Boeing KC-135 aircraft panels (used for the round robin experiment conducted at Tinker AFB, OK). Our analyses are discussed in this report. After flash-heating the aircraft skin, we record synchronized DBIR images every 40 ms, from onset to 8 seconds after the heat flash. We analyze selective DBIR image ratios which enhance surface temperature contrast and remove surface-emissivity clutter (from dirt, dents, tape, markings, ink, sealants, uneven paint, paint stripper, exposed metal and roughness variations). The Boeing 737 and KC-135 aircraft fuselage panels have varying percent thickness losses from corrosion. We established the correlation of percent thickness loss with surface temperature rise (above ambient) for a partially corroded F-18 wing box structure (with a 2.9 mm uncorroded thickness) and several aluminum plates (with 1.0, 1.1, 2.3, and 3.9 mm thicknesses) which had 6 to 60% thickness losses at milled flat-bottom hole sites.

  9. Flight measurements of lifting pressures for a thin low-aspect-ratio wing at subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure distributions in the form of differential pressure coefficients are presented for several wing chordwise and spanwise stations. Also presented are the results of limited analysis which show aircraft configuration effects, Mach number effects on the local wing loadings, comparisons of selected measured wing pressures with predicted pressures, and comparisons of wing loadings during right-turn and left-turn maneuvers.

  10. High-transonic-speed transport aircraft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An initial design study of high-transonic-speed transport aircraft has been completed. Five different design concepts were developed. These included fixed swept wing, variable-sweep wing, delta wing, double-fuselage yawed-wing, and single-fuselage yawed-wing aircraft. The boomless supersonic design objectives of range = 5560 km (3000 nmi), payload = 18,143 kg (40,000 lb), Mach = 1.2, and FAR Part 36 aircraft noise levels were achieved by the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration with a gross weight of 211,828 kg (467,000 lb). A noise level of 15 EPNdB below FAR Part 36 requirements was obtained with a gross weight increase to 226,796 kg (500,000 lb). The off-design subsonic range capability for this configuration exceeded the Mach 1.2 design range by more than 20%. Although wing aeroelastic divergence was a primary design consideration for the yawed-wing concepts, the graphite-epoxy wings of this study were designed by critical gust and maneuver loads rather than by divergence requirements. The transonic nacelle drag is shown to be very sensitive to the nacelle installation. A six-degree-of-freedom dynamic stability analysis indicated that the control coordination and stability augmentation system would require more development than for a symmetrical airplane but is entirely feasible. A three-plane development plan is recommended to establish the full potential of the yawed-wing concept.

  11. Boxing clever.

    PubMed

    Toon, P D

    1988-06-01

    This is the first contribution to a new JME column, "At the coalface," to which readers are invited to relate ethical problems they have encountered in their work. An adolescent patient requested that the author, a general practitioner, certify that he was medically fit to box. Toon attempted to dissuade him from boxing by explaining its dangers. When the boy persisted, the physician rapidly considered the ethical principles involved in the encounter and decided to "wash his hands" by telling his patient that if "he insisted on damaging his, or someone else's brain, then he must find another medical accomplice." PMID:3392720

  12. X-Wing Research Vehicle in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    One of the most unusual experimental flight vehicles appearing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center) in the 1980s was the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) X-Wing aircraft, seen here on the ramp. The craft was developed originally and then modified by Sikorsky Aircraft for a joint NASA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program and was rolled out 19 August 1986. Taxi tests and initial low-altitude flight tests without the main rotor attached were carried out at Dryden before the program was terminated in 1988. The unusual aircraft that resulted from the Ames Research Center/Army X-Wing Project was flown at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, beginning in the spring of 1984, with a follow-on program beginning in 1986. The program, was conceived to provide an efficient combination of the vertical lift characteristic of conventional helicopters and the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. It consisted of a hybrid vehicle called the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), which was equipped with advanced X-wing rotor systems. The program began in the early 1970s to investigate ways to increase the speed of rotor aircraft, as well as their performance, reliability, and safety . It also sought to reduce the noise, vibration, and maintenance costs of helicopters. Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Laboratories built two RSRA aircraft. NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, did some initial testing and transferred the program to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, for an extensive flight research program conducted by Ames and the Army. The purpose of the 1984 tests was to demonstrate the fixed-wing capability of the helicopter/airplane hybrid research vehicle and explore its flight envelope and flying qualities. These tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon

  13. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  14. Design of a transonically profiled wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekebusch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The application of well known design concepts with the combined use of thick transonic profiles to aircraft wing design was investigated. Optimization in terms of weight and operational costs was emphasized. It is shown that the usual design criteria and concepts are too restricted and do not sufficiently represent the physical processes over the wing. Suggestions are made for improving this situation, and a design example given. Compared with a wing design according to previously used criteria, the new design is found to be superior in the most important functions. It is concluded that an isobar concept adjusted to the planform in conjunction with an 'organically' designed wing will lead to the weight optimum solutions of wing profiles.

  15. CFD validation experiments at McDonnell Aircraft Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, August

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation experiments at McDonnell Aircraft Company. Topics covered include a high speed research model, a supersonic persistence fighter model, a generic fighter wing model, surface grids, force and moment predictions, surface pressure predictions, forebody models with 65 degree clipped delta wings, and the low aspect ratio wing/body experiment.

  16. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  17. Advanced composites wing study program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, S. T.; Michaelson, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures was conducted as a part of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program to establish, by the mid-1980s, the technology for the design of a subsonic commercial transport aircraft leading to a 40% fuel savings. The study objective was to develop a plan to define the effort needed to support a production commitment for the extensive use of composite materials in wings of new generation aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Identification and analysis of what was needed to meet the above plan requirements resulted in a program plan consisting of three key development areas: (1) technology development; (2) production capability development; and (3) integration and validation by designing, building, and testing major development hardware.

  18. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  19. The Behavior of a Stitched Composite Large-Scale Multi-Bay Pressure Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Przekop, Adam; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to develop technologies to reduce impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe to enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company have worked together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composite structures. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building block tests were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. The final step in the building block series of tests is an 80%-scale pressure box representing a portion of the center section of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. The testing of this test article under maneuver and internal pressure loading conditions is the subject of this paper. The experimental evaluation of this article, along with the other building block tests and the accompanying analyses, has demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the HWB vehicle. Additionally, much of the development effort is also applicable to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, advanced aircraft configurations, and other structures where weight and

  20. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF RIGHT WING. AFTER DOCKING, THE FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF RIGHT WING. AFTER DOCKING, THE FIRST STEP IN MAINTENANCE IS TO OPEN UP THOSE AREAS OF THE AIRCRAFT THAT REQUIRE SERVICING. IN THIS VIEW WING SLATS, KRUGER FLAPS, AND TRAILING EDGE FLAPS ARE ALL DOWN; THRUST REVERSERS ARE IN THE OPEN POSITION; ENGINE COWLING IS OPEN. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Selective reinforcement of wing structure for flutter prevention.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Stroud, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical study are presented on the use of boron polyimide filamentary composite material for the purpose of increasing the flutter speed of a simple titanium full depth sandwich wing structure designed for strength. The results clearly demonstrate that selective reinforcement of wing surfaces, using judiciously placed filamentary composites, promises sizable mass savings in the design of advanced aircraft structures.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  5. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  6. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  7. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  8. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over The Wing (OTW) design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is demonstrated. Composite structures and digital engine controls are among the topics included.

  9. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  10. Design, analysis, and fabrication of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.; Meade, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated analytically and empirically for the covers and spars of a transport wing box. This information was applied to the design, analysis, and fabrication of a full-scale section of a transport wing box. A blade-stiffened design was selected for the upper and lower covers of the box. These covers have been constructed using three styles of AS4/974 prepreg fabrics. The front and rear T-stiffened channel spars were filament wound using AS4/1806 towpreg. Covers, ribs, and spars were assembled using mechanical fasteners. When they are completed later this year, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  11. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  12. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  13. Design of a Large Span-Distributed Load Flying-Wing Cargo Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.; Quartero, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of very large, long-range, subsonic cargo aircraft are considered. A design concept which distributes the payload along the wingspan to counterbalance the aerodynamic loads, with a resultant decrease in the in-flight wing bending moments and shear forces, is described. The decreased loading of the wing structure, coupled with the very thick wing housing the cargo, results in a relatively low overall structural weight in comparison to that of conventional aircraft.

  14. Similitude relations for buffet and wing rock on delta wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, D. G.

    1997-08-01

    Vortex flow phenomena at high angles of incidence are of great interest to the designers of advanced combat aircraft. The steady phenomena (such as steady lift and pitching moments) are understood fairly well, whereas the unsteady phenomena are still uncertain. This paper addresses two important unsteady phenomena on delta wings. With regard to the frequency parameter of the quasi-periodic excitation caused by vortex bursting, a new correlation is established covering a range of sweep back from 60 to 75°. With regard to the much lower frequency parameter of limit-cycle rigid-body wing-rock, a new experiment shows conclusively that although the motion is non-linear, the frequency parameter can be predicted by quasi-steady theory. As a consequence, for a given sweep angle, the frequency parameter is inversely proportional to the square root of the inertia in roll. This is an important observation when attempting to extrapolate from model tests in wind tunnels to predict the wing-rock characteristics of aircraft.

  15. The RSRA/X-Wing experiment - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, James W.; Sumich, Mark

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)/X-Wing Experiment program designed to demonstrate the technology readiness of the X-Wing concept for a prototype vehicle. Program accomplishments, test results on all of the necessary major hardware elements, and the results of flight tests are described. Future wind tunnel testing of the full-scale rotor system in the NASA NF SAC facility is presently being planned; these tests must be completed before an objective assessment can be made regarding the viability of the RSRA/X-Wing concept for an operational aircraft.

  16. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  17. Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

  18. Boeing EX Concept, Advanced Surveillance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The photograph shows a model of the Boeing EX Concept installed in the NASA Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel. The Boeing EX is an advanced surveillance aircraft proposed by Boeing to replace the Grumman E-2C Hawkeye. The concept employs the diamond-shape 'joined-wing'planform and active aperture radar arrays in each wing segment to create a more aerodynamic effective surveillance aircraft. Wind tunnel testing was conducted to evaulate longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic charcteristics and the effectiveness of control surface deflections. Measurements were made to determine the effects of the wings and fuselage on the inlet fan face total pressure distortions at angle of attack and sideslip.

  19. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  20. Reduction of structural loads using maneuver load control on the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)/F-111 mission adaptive wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Stephen V.

    1993-01-01

    A transonic fighter-bomber aircraft, having a swept supercritical wing with smooth variable-camber flaps was fitted with a maneuver load control (MLC) system that implements a technique to reduce the inboard bending moments in the wing by shifting the spanwise load distribution inboard as load factor increases. The technique modifies the spanwise camber distribution by automatically commanding flap position as a function of flap position, true airspeed, Mach number, dynamic pressure, normal acceleration, and wing sweep position. Flight test structural loads data were obtained for loads in both the wing box and the wing root. Data from uniformly deflected flaps were compared with data from flaps in the MLC configuration where the outboard segment of three flap segments was deflected downward less than the two inboard segments. The changes in the shear loads in the forward wing spar and at the roots of the stabilators also are presented. The camber control system automatically reconfigures the flaps through varied flight conditions. Configurations having both moderate and full trailing-edge flap deflection were tested. Flight test data were collected at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 and dynamic pressures of 300, 450, 600, and 800 lb/sq ft. The Reynolds numbers for these flight conditions ranged from 26 x 10(exp 6) to 54 x 10(exp 6) at the mean aerodynamic chord. Load factor increases of up to 1.0 g achieved with no increase in wing root bending moment with the MLC flap configuration.