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Sample records for aircrew integrated helmet

  1. An active noise reduction system for aircrew helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, P. D.; Rawlinson, D.; Pelc, S. F.; Dorey, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    An active noise reduction system was developed for use in aircrew flying helmets in which the acoustic noise field inside the ear defender is detected using a miniature microphone and an antiphase signal is fed back to a communications telephone within the ear defender. Performance of the active noise reduction system in a laboratory trial simulating flight conditions is shown to be satisfactory.

  2. Final Phase One Evaluation of the Microvision, Inc. Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) HGU-56P Scanning Laser Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    In support of the RAH-66 Comanche, Microvision , Inc., Seattle, Washington, has developed a prototype helmet mounted display (HMD) based on laser...sources. This report is the second evaluation of the Microvision system. This system has been tested for both optical and visual performance. Tests

  3. Spring-Based Helmet System Support Prototype to Address Aircrew Neck Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopter aircrew are known to have extremely high incidence of chronic, debilitating neck pain. Fischer et al...2013) identified that unbalanced moments due to head-borne equipment (i.e. helmet with NVG ) were a particular concern since the current solution was...to add more weight (battery pack and counterweight (CW)) as a counterbalancing force. Three concepts were proposed to improve the helmet- NVG system

  4. Rotorcraft aircrew systems concepts airborne laboratory (RASCAL) helmet-mounted display flight research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, William S.; Njaka, Chima E.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Barnhart, Warren A.

    1994-06-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. One of the objectives of the research is to develop and integrate technologies for Automated Nap-of-the Earth (ANOE) flight. The principal elements of this system include video imaging sensors, advanced real-time image processing capabilities, a graphics supercomputer, a wide field-of-view color helmet mounted display (HMD), and an advanced fly-by-wire flight control system. The development methodology and the current status of the ANOE Flight Program are summarized, a description of the visionics system is provided, and the plans for the initial applications of the color HMD are presented.

  5. Effects of Magnetic Receiver Unit (MRU) Installation on the Blunt Impact Protection of the HGU-56/P Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    headform accelerations below the 150-G pass-fail criterion for crown impacts. This result was independent of helmet temperature at impact ( ambient ...MRU, the HGU-56/P flight helmet limits headform accelerations to less than the 150-G criterion during crown impacts whether tested at ambient or...135.52 Site 1 19.65 125.93 2 DVA Ambient Site 3 15.84 104.43 Site 5 19.59 165.14 * Peak headform accelerations were filtered at 1650 Hz (CFC

  6. Evaluation of High Performance Aircrew Helmets and Oxygen Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    site. This is achieved because 1.6 cm of expanded polystyrene is inserted in this area. It is concludeC that, while only the DH 41-4D helmets provide...Plastic Liner (TPL). Impact protection is provided by a rigid expanded polystyrene interliner between the helmet shell and the TPL. Four of these liners

  7. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  8. Effects of Personal Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS) Nasal Cannula Installation on the Lateral Impact Protection of the HGU-56/P Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    headform accelerations to less than the 150-G criterion during eardome impacts. Thus, HGU-56/P helmets modified with the PHODS nasal cannula should provide...Two factor ANOVA analysis of the influence of temperature and impact site on peak headform acceleration ...greater than 50 percent (n = 28) sustained no head injury. With the exception of one, the remaining head injuries were limited to mild concussions . The

  9. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  10. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  11. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  12. Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on a NASA Dryden pilot. Five pilots evaluated the helmet for fit, comfort and functionality during the summer and fall of 2002.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on pilot Craig Bomben at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  13. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The obj

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  14. Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on a NASA Dryden pilot. F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on pilot Craig Bomben at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  15. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The obj

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  16. Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on a NASA Dryden pilot. F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on pilot Craig Bomben at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  17. Noise Attenuation Performance of the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) Fixed Wing (FW) Variant with Flight Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Measurements (cm) Head Length Head Width Nasal Root to Supramentale Neck Circumference 1482 20.1 15.2 8.9 38.7 1427 19.2 15.3 9.0 37.3 1379...1. Anthropometric head and neck measurements for participating subjects ........................ 3 Table 2. Mean and standard deviation passive...mounted equipment assembly. The system was designed to be worn with all the current below-the- neck ensembles. Aircrews wear the JSAM-FW based on threat

  18. Helmet Mounted Display symbology integration research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Seery, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    A five-week flight simulation investigation comparing screen/head stabilized Apache Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) flight symbology to world stabilized flight symbology is presented in this paper. Simulation test results indicate that pilots perform significantly (P is less than .05) better using world stabilized attitude symbology. They were accurate to an average of 1/2 deg at estimating terrain relief and aerial target locations. Pilots were able to take advantage of world referenced symbology due to the unique features of HMD that allow the pilot to visually use the symbology at extreme azimuth and elevation off-axis angles. Pilots preferred world stabilized symbology while performing contour flight tasks. They reported that the use of climb-dive-marker during contour flight greatly reduced pilot work load under conditions tested. A surprising number of cyclic input errors occurred when using both MIL-STD-1295 hover symbology and test symbology, indicating that a better approach for depicting hover symbology is probably warranted. The magnitude of cyclic input and spatial estimation errors increased as the off-axis viewing angle became larger.

  19. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on fit, comfort and functionality.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  20. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  1. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  2. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.

    2009-05-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  3. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  4. Designing the integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    1998-08-01

    The design of an integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots is described. The purpose of the design is to provide sufficient information, fine comfort for wear, and low cost. Some factors are considered and compromised in the design. A 3rd generation image intensifier, a half inch cathode ray tube, two combiner eyepieces, and some optical assembly are used in the display. The optical axes of the objective lens, the intensifier, and the combiners are put on one plane with the line of sight of the water. A intensifying channel, a display channel and a see-through channel are included in the display system. These channel present fight symbology and objective scene by multiform way. Accordingly, the design has a great redundance, and the display has fine reliability and the location of the CG, low cost and weight.

  5. Evaluation of integrated night vision goggle (NVG) helmets under sustained +Gz.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, K; Esken, R L

    1995-02-01

    Three integrated night vision goggle (NVG) helmets from different manufacturers were evaluated under high-G conditions. Structural and operational integrity, as well as neck forces in pounds, were determined via instrumented manikin testing before human exposure with the helmets during sustained +Gz. Results of the manikin testing showed that the helmets could withstand the rigors of high-G, and that predicted forces (using helmet weights and centers-of-gravity) matched those obtained experimentally from load cells in the x-axis of the manikin's neck. After manikin testing, 10 subjects were randomly exposed to four different high-G profiles on the Dynamic Environmental Simulator (DES) man-rated centrifuge located at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: gradual onset to +8 Gz, a simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) profile, and two +4 Gz profiles, one with the mask dangling from the helmet and the other with the mask removed. Fit assessments were conducted before high-G exposure, and one helmet was affected significantly by failure of fit. The degree of migration of the NVG intensified image away from the eyes was affected most by the following helmet characteristics: design of the nape strap, size of the NVG image provided by each helmet system, goodness of helmet fit, and the use of the mask as a stabilizer. Although neck strength of each subject was measured and compared to the degree of head stability while wearing each helmet, no effects were found. However, subjects were not allowed to perform fast, high-amplitude head movements in the centrifuge for safety reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Aircrew-aircraft integration - A summary of U.S. Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  7. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  8. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  9. Integration and test of a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg; Lasnier, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the integration and proposed flight test of the Simulation Program for Improved Rotorcraft Integration Technology (SPIRIT) II helmet-mounted display on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. The helmet-mounted display is a wide field-of-view (80 degrees H X 41 degrees V with a 30 degree binocular overlap) high resolution display (1280 X 960 pixels in each eye). Colors are displayed using a field sequential process, whereby green and red laser light is pulsed and directed onto the surface of a reflective ferro-electric liquid crystal display. The prototype helmet-mounted display overlays red, amber, or green symbology on monochrome green imagery obtained from high resolution daylight cameras. The optical design of the display does not form an exit pupil. This allows the wearer greater freedom in movement and comfort due to looser helmet fit tolerances. The helmet-mounted display was integrated with a head tracker and camera platform to form a visually coupled system on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205. The integration process and flight test plan will be discussed.

  10. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  11. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  12. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  13. Visual perceptual issues of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS): four expert perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin; Francis, Gregory; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2008-04-01

    The Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) has been flown for over a quarter of a century on the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter. The aircraft's successful deployment in both peacetime and combat has validated the original design concept for the IHADSS HMD. During its 1970s development phase, a number of design issues were identified as having the potential of introducing visual perception problems for aviators. These issues include monocular design, monochromatic imagery, reduced field-of-view (FOV), sensor spectrum, reduced resolution (effective visual acuity), and displaced visual input eye point. From their diverse perspectives, a panel of four experts - an HMD researcher, a cognitive psychologist, a flight surgeon, and a veteran AH-64 aviator - discuss the impact of the design issues on visual perception and related performance.

  14. Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut Headset and CEP-Custom Communication Earplugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0099 Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut ...SUBTITLE Noise Attenuation Performance of the HGU-25/P Flight Deck Helmet Integrated with the Argonaut Headset and CEP-Custom Communication Earplugs...with the HGU- 25/P flight deck helmet integrated with the Argonaut headset and CEP-custom communication earplugs. The noise attenuation results for

  15. Web-based survey of visual symptoms reported by Apache aviators using the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Suggs, Christie L.

    2002-08-01

    A web-based study was conducted to determine the continuing presence and frequency of visual complaints reported by pilots using the monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A total of 216 pilots responded to the survey, which addressed areas of visual symptoms experienced during and/or after flight, helmet fit, and acoustics. Ninety-two percent of the pilots responding to the survey reported at least one visual symptom. The most frequently reported symptom for both during and after flight was visual discomfort. One out of four respondents reported having some difficulty in purposefully alternating between visual inputs to the two eyes. Approximately two-thirds of the pilots responding expressed reasonable satisfaction with their current helmet fit.

  16. Integration, development, and qualification of the helmet-mounted sight and display on the Rooivalk Attack Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Timothy K.; Van Zyl, Petrus H.; Cross, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    The Rooivalk Attack Helicopter is designed and manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa, and in service with the South African Air Force. The Helmet Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) hardware is manufactured by Sextant Avionique of France. The HMSD symbology is developed by Denel Aviation and is specific to the weapons and roles of the aircraft. The HMSD has visor projected NVG and PNVS images, and Flight and Weapon Symbology incorporating head slaved weapon aiming, helmet-to-helmet cueing, and helmet to main sight cueing. The NVG/PNVS image selection and main image controls are incorporated in the flight controls. The paper gives an overview of the aircraft visionic design and describes the integration process. The development of the displayed flight and weapon symbols is discussed. Aeronautical Design Standard 33E was chosen as a basis for the qualification process, and the development of the qualification criteria and the flight testing program are discussed.

  17. Noise Attenuation Performance of the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with the Lightning II Generation II Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    1 Figure 2. a. F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups...Integrated System Ltd (HISL) active noise reduction ( ANR ) earcups (part number JS02591, Figure 2b), and a MBU-23/P oxygen mask with customized...F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups Table 1. JSAM-JSF Requirement (baseline Gen II HMD total attenuation data collected in

  18. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program (A3I) software detailed design document, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Chiu, Alex; Helms, Gretchen; Hsieh, Tehming; Lui, Andrew; Murray, Jerry; Shankar, Renuka

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities and design approach of the MIDAS (Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System) computer-aided engineering (CAE) workstation under development by the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program is detailed. This workstation uses graphic, symbolic, and numeric prototyping tools and human performance models as part of an integrated design/analysis environment for crewstation human engineering. Developed incrementally, the requirements and design for Phase 3 (Dec. 1987 to Jun. 1989) are described. Software tools/models developed or significantly modified during this phase included: an interactive 3-D graphic cockpit design editor; multiple-perspective graphic views to observe simulation scenarios; symbolic methods to model the mission decomposition, equipment functions, pilot tasking and loading, as well as control the simulation; a 3-D dynamic anthropometric model; an intermachine communications package; and a training assessment component. These components were successfully used during Phase 3 to demonstrate the complex interactions and human engineering findings involved with a proposed cockpit communications design change in a simulated AH-64A Apache helicopter/mission that maps to empirical data from a similar study and AH-1 Cobra flight test.

  19. The effect of an optimised helmet fit on neck load and neck pain during military helicopter flights.

    PubMed

    Van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night flights. A within-subject design was used over a three-month period that consisted of two consecutive interventions of optimising the fit of the aircrew's helmets: 1) a new helmet fit using a renewed protocol and 2) replacement of a thermoplastic inner liner with a viscoelastic foam inner liner. A total of 18 pilots and loadmasters rated the outcome measures using the Visual Analogue Scales immediately after their night flights, for three night flights in total per measurement period. The optimised helmet fit resulted in a significant decrease in the experienced helmet gliding, neck load and pressure points, a decrease trend in the experienced neck pain and irritation/distraction, and a significant increase in the experienced overall helmet comfort during flight. These results demonstrate the importance of achieving an optimised helmet fit for military helicopter aircrew and that an optimised helmet fit might have implications for both health and safety concerns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Aircrew team management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  1. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. The objective of this article is to fill this void by introducing a new equation that can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. Finally, the data from all 24 drop tests is combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation will provide consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets.

  2. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  3. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  4. Thor Helmet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-30

    This heroic image from from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is of a special cloud of dust and gas in the constellation Canis Major catalogued as NGC 2359, or more commonly known as Thor Helmet.

  5. Helmet feedport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kothe, E. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    A helmet design is described which encapsules the head of the wearer, is capable of being pressurized and provides a means for gaining internal access for the purpose of eating. A mechanically actuated valve that combines the purging of carbon dioxide and feeding operations by a simple movement of a mechanical lever obviates problems that are attendant in the type of feed and purge ports previously incorporated in pressurized helmets.

  6. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  8. Helmet blastometer

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  9. Advanced helmet tracking technology developments for naval aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindle, James H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a critical need across the Services to improve the effectiveness of aircrew within the crewstation by capitalizing on the natural psycho-motor skills of the pilot through the use of a variety of helmet-mounted visual display and control techniques. This has resulted in considerable interest and significant ongoing research and development efforts on the part of the Navy, as well as the Army and the Air Force, in the technology building blocks associated with this area, such as advanced head position sensing or head tracking technologies, helmet- mounted display optics and electronics, and advanced night vision or image intensification technologies.

  10. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  11. The biomechanics of helmets and helmet removal.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R D; Daniel, W W

    1985-04-01

    To better understand motion in the cervical spine related to helmet wearing and removal, normal volunteers underwent videotaped fluoroscopy during helmet removal and lateral spine X-rays in various positions. There was a tendency towards increased flexion in the supine position in the helmeted volunteers which disappeared with minimal traction. In forced hyperextension, the posterior lip of the helmet did not guillotine the cervical spine. There was no significant difference in cervical spine motion between a one-person and two-person technique of helmet removal, and in both techniques, a minimum amount of flexion occurred in clearing the occiput.

  12. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-136 27 - 1 Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality Dr. Ed Bachelder Systems Technology Inc. 13766 Hawthorne Blvd...applied to training helicopter aircrew personnel using a prototype simulator, the Prototype Aircrew Virtual Environment Training (PAVET) System...cabin) pixels using blue screen imaging techniques. This bitmap is overlaid on a virtual environment, and sent Bachelder, E. (2006) Helicopter Aircrew

  13. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury.

  14. Contact lenses and corrective flying spectacles in military aircrew--implications for flight safety.

    PubMed

    Partner, Andrew M; Scott, Robert A H; Shaw, Penny; Coker, William J

    2005-07-01

    Refractive devices used by aviators need to suit the aerospace environment or their failure can have serious implications. A relatively minor visual disability can result in loss of life and aircraft. We surveyed commonly occurring problems with the different types of refractive correction worn by Royal Air Force (RAF) aircrew over the previous 12 mo. We also asked if they had experienced any flight safety incidents (FSI) relating to their refractive correction. A retrospective anonymous questionnaire survey was given to 700 active aircrew occupationally graded as requiring corrective flying spectacles (CFS) or contact lenses (CL) for flying. 63% (443) of the questionnaires were completed. CL were worn by 53% of aircrew; 71% of them used daily disposable CL. CFS were worn by the remaining 47% of aircrew, 14% of whom used multifocal lenses. Of CFS wearers, 83% reported problems including misting, moving, discomfort, and conflict with helmet-mounted devices (HMD). CL-related ocular symptoms were reported in 67% of wearers including cloudy vision, dry eye, photophobia, red eyes, excessive mucus formation, CL movement, itching, and grittiness. No CL-related FSI were reported over the previous 12 mo compared with 5% CFS-related FSI (p < 0.001). The graded performance of CL for vision, comfort, handling, convenience, and overall satisfaction was significantly higher than for CFS. CFS are associated with problems in terms of comfort and safety. CL are well tolerated by aircrew, and deliver improved visual performance.

  15. Helmet-mounted displays for rotary-wing aircraft: operational requirements and technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Jean-Marc; Schroer, Gerd

    1993-12-01

    The Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) concept is now widely used to meet the ever increasing mission requirements of modern helicopters especially for the very demanding tasks of night navigation, piloting, and use of armaments. However, a careful review of the system and ergonomic issues has to be undertaken in order to define a product that will be accepted by the aircrew and efficient in the battle field environment. Special attention must be paid in the specifications and implementation of the image sensors used to display the external scene in front of the eyes of the aircrew members. A technical approach, including various designs and the most significant performances, is described.

  16. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-05

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity.

  17. Analysis of Commercially Available Firefighting Helmet and Boot Options for the Joint Firefighter Integrated Response Ensemble (JFIRE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    incorporating an aluminized polybenzimidazole ( PBI ®) shell fabric used for other proximity personal protective equipment (PPE) under a leather boot...and proximity requirements. This new concept incorporating an aluminized PBI ® shell fabric used for other proximity PPE under a leather boot...Helmet Systems Ltd NFPA National Fire Protection Association PBI ® aluminized polybenzimidazole PPE personal protective equipment RCM requirements

  18. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  19. Assessment of a visually coupled system (VCS) using a binocular helmet-mounted display (BHMD) and a steerable FLIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Peter J.; How, Thomas C.; Hudson, Craig; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.

    2001-08-01

    The Defence Evaluation Research Agency carried out an airborne demonstration and evaluation of a fast-jet Visually Coupled System (VCS) installed in ZD902, the Tornado Integrated Avionics Research Aircraft for the UK MOD. The installed VCS used a Head Steered Forward Looking Infra-Red (HSFLIR) sensor and a Head Tracking system to provide the pilot with an image of the outside world projected onto a Binocular Helmet Mounted Display. In addition to the sensor image, information such as aircraft altitude, attitude, and airspeed were also presented to the pilot through the HMD to eliminate the need to look inside the cockpit for critical flight data. The aim of the VIVIAN trial was to demonstrate by day and night the benefits of a fast-jet integrated HSFLIR and HMD as an aid to low level flight, navigation, target acquisition, take-off and landing. The outcome of this flight test program was very encouraging and, although testing has identified that improvements are necessary, in particular to HSFLIR image quality, Auto Gain Control performance, helmet fit and symbology design, test aircrew endorse the acceptability of a VCS.

  20. Radiation exposure of aircrews.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Wallace; Copeland, Kyle; Duke, Frances E; Nicholas, Joyce S; Darden, Edgar B; O'Brien, Keran

    2002-01-01

    Information is provided about the radiation to which aircrews are exposed and possible health consequences. Recommended radiation exposure limits are given. Crewmembers on commercial aircraft are exposed to higher doses of ionizing radiation than normally received by members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation is galactic cosmic radiation. On infrequent occasions, radiation from the sun leads to an increase in the ionizing radiation at aircraft flight altitudes. Radioactive cargo is another possible source of exposure to ionizing radiation. Crewmembers are exposed to nonionizing radiation in the form of electric and magnetic fields generated by the aircraft s electronic and electrical systems. Other potential sources of nonionizing radiation exposure are microwave radiation from the aircraft's weather radar, laser radiation, and ultraviolet radiation.

  1. The role of the pilot's night vision system (PNVS) and the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in AH-64 Apache accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelle, Jessica A.; Reynolds, Barbara S.; Rash, Clarence E.; Peterson, R. David; Leduc, Patricia A.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), while not new, are a unique method of providing pilotage and targeting imagery to aviators. Although there are a number of HMDs in various phases of design, the AH-64s Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) is currently the Army's only fielded integrated HMD. A number of studies have investigated the visual and perceptual issues associated with the monocular optical design of the IHADSS in combination with the AH-64s forward looking infrared (FLIR) thermal sensor (Pilots Night Vision System - PNVS). While these systems have greatly enhanced the operational effectiveness of the AH-64, they have resulted in reports of physiological complaints, degraded visual cues, and both static and dynamic illusions. This study investigated the possible role the IHADSS HMD and PNVS may have played in AH-64 Apache accidents. A total of 217 AH-64 accidents (FY85-02) were analyzed and assigned causal factors associated with the use of the IHADSS and PNVS. The resulting analysis failed to identify any significant role between these systems and flight-related accidents.

  2. Computational human factors in human-machine engineering - The Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration (A3I) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartzell, E. James; Lakowske, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    The A3I program is a joint US Army-NASA exploratory program to develop a rational predictive methodology for helicopter cockpit system design, including mission requirements and training-system implications, that integrates human factors engineering with other vehicle system design disciplines at an early stage in the development process. The program will produce a prototye human factors/computer-aided engineering (HF/CAE) workstation suite for use by design professionals. This interactive environment will include computational and expert systems for the analysis and estimation of the impact of cockpit design and mission specification on system performance by considering the performance consequences from the human component of the system, especially as an integral part of the overall system operation, and from the very beginning of the design process. The central issues of pilot workload, performance, and training needs, and appropriate uses of automation are interrelated to affect all integrated design considerations in future man-machine systems. The goal is to aid designers in understanding these complex interactions and in optimally matching human capabilities with advanced cockpit systems.

  3. Computational human factors in human-machine engineering - The Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration (A3I) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartzell, E. James; Lakowske, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    The A3I program is a joint US Army-NASA exploratory program to develop a rational predictive methodology for helicopter cockpit system design, including mission requirements and training-system implications, that integrates human factors engineering with other vehicle system design disciplines at an early stage in the development process. The program will produce a prototye human factors/computer-aided engineering (HF/CAE) workstation suite for use by design professionals. This interactive environment will include computational and expert systems for the analysis and estimation of the impact of cockpit design and mission specification on system performance by considering the performance consequences from the human component of the system, especially as an integral part of the overall system operation, and from the very beginning of the design process. The central issues of pilot workload, performance, and training needs, and appropriate uses of automation are interrelated to affect all integrated design considerations in future man-machine systems. The goal is to aid designers in understanding these complex interactions and in optimally matching human capabilities with advanced cockpit systems.

  4. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  5. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  6. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.

  7. Simulation and flight trials of a simple helmet-mounted sight system incorporating an optical helmet tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Steven J.

    1999-07-01

    British Aerospace (BAe) have been involved in a number of Helmet Mounted Display programs over some twenty years. The continuing trials around the globe are indicative of the growing interest in Helmet Mounted Displays and recognition that today's Helmet Systems technology is becoming 'fit for purpose.' In 1997 BAe initiated a series of Simulation and Flight Trials of the latest Helmet System Technology for combat fixed wing aircraft. The focus of the R&D is to evaluate the Helmet System as an integrated part of the aircraft weapon system by establishing quantitative measures of operational performance. The comparison between different levels of sophistication of both aircraft integration and helmet capability in terms of the resultant operational performance will provide hard evidence to ensure that appropriate levels of Helmet System technology are matched to different platform capability. The basis of the 1997 trial was an assessment of the operational effectiveness of a simple Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) system in short range air-to-air combat applicable to high off-boresight missiles such as ASRAAM and was carried out in a BAe Hawk 200 against Hawk target aircraft. Although Helmet Mounted Sights have been flight-tested in the past, the available information has generally been limited to the integration aspects and a qualitative assessment of the technology and less attention was paid towards a quantification of the system operational effectiveness. The 1997 program produced a strong foundation for assessing the cost-benefit of various capabilities of Helmet System planned for subsequent trials. The Flight Trial aircraft incorporated the Pilkington Optronics-Kentron GuardianTM Helmet Mounted Sight System and of particular interest, the Helmet System included the latest Optical Helmet Tracking System technology. The trials included an assessment of the Helmet System technology and specifically, the integration aspects and performance of the Optical Helmet

  8. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  9. Idiopathic hypersomnia in an aircrew member.

    PubMed

    Withers, B G; Loube, D I; Husak, J P

    1999-08-01

    In aviation, it is essential that all aircrew members remain alert and contribute, by their observations and actions, to flight safety. Especially in helicopter operations, crewmembers riding in the rear of the aircraft play an integral role in many aspects of flight, such as take-offs, landings, turns, formation flights, hazard avoidance, situational awareness, military operations, and crew coordination. We present the case of a helicopter crew chief with idiopathic hypersomnia, briefly review the disorder, and give the recent U.S. military aviation experience with sleep disorders. Flight surgeons and aeromedical examiners should be active in considering and diagnosing sleep-related disorders as the aviator or crewmember may not be aware of the disease or may not volunteer the history. A directed history is important in making the diagnosis, as are reports from family and other aircrew members. Referral to a sleep specialist is required in performing objective sleep studies, establishing the diagnosis, recommending treatment, and providing a prognosis. Many sleep disorders are treatable and aeromedically waiverable.

  10. Bicycle helmet - proper usage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Helmets can save lives and prevent trauma, but only if they are worn properly. A helmet should be worn squarely on the top of ... forehead. The chinstrap must be fastened and the helmet should fit snugly and comfortably. The helmet should ...

  11. Research Applications and Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Hindson, William S.

    1996-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by NASA and the US Army for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) and associated imaging systems, and a programmable full-authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. This paper describes the design features of this modern rotorcraft in-flight simulation facility and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included.

  12. Helmet Laws, Helmet Use, and Bicycle Ridership.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D

    2016-09-01

    To assess bicycle helmet laws' effect on helmet and bicycle use among U.S. high school students in urban jurisdictions. Log-binomial models were fit to Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from five jurisdictions. Adjusted helmet and bicycle use proportions were calculated with post-regression marginal effects. Difference-in-differences were estimated, comparing intervention to concurrent controls. A placebo outcome was used to falsify possible confounding or selection effects. In San Diego and Dallas, helmet use increase increased 10.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5 to 14.7, p < .001) and 8.1 (95% CI 4.3 to 12.0, p < .001) percentage points more than out-of-jurisdiction controls. Increases in Florida counties were 5.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 8.2, p = .003) and 4.0 (95% CI -.7 to 8.8, p = .098) points against age-based and out-of-jurisdiction controls, respectively. Bicycle use fell 5.5 points in both San Diego (95% CI -9.8 to -1.1, p = .015) and the Florida counties (95% CI -11.5 to .5, p = .075) against out-of-jurisdiction controls, but other comparisons had no significant changes. The placebo outcome never changed significantly. Laws increased helmet use in all jurisdictions, with limited evidence of reduced cycling. Although sound health policy, laws should be coupled with physical activity promotion. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythmicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    Recent statistical and experimental studies on the role of circadian rhythms in aircrew fatigue and aviation accidents are reviewed from a human-factors perspective, and typical data are presented in extensive graphs. Consideration is given to the biological clock and the limits of endurance, circadian desynchronization, sleep and sleepiness, short-haul and long-haul operational studies, and the potential advantages of cockpit automation.

  14. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program: Phase 4 A(3)I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software detailed design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Constantine, Betsy; Murray, Jerry; Neukom, Christian; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated suite of software components that constitutes a prototype workstation to aid designers in applying human factors principles to the design of complex human-machine systems. MIDAS is intended to be used at the very early stages of conceptual design to provide an environment wherein designers can use computational representations of the crew station and operator, instead of hardware simulators and man-in-the-loop studies, to discover problems and ask 'what if' questions regarding the projected mission, equipment, and environment. This document is the Software Product Specification for MIDAS. Introductory descriptions of the processing requirements, hardware/software environment, structure, I/O, and control are given in the main body of the document for the overall MIDAS system, with detailed discussion of the individual modules included in Annexes A-J.

  15. Liquid-cooled liner for helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Elkins, W.

    1974-01-01

    Liner acts as coolant tubing, manifold, and supporting structures. Fabric of waffle-design is made of several integrated channels (or capillaries) through which coolant liquid can flow. Thin and light-weight liner can be incorporated into any type of helmet or head gear.

  16. Christa McAuliffe removing helmet after egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe, 51-L citizen observer/payload specialist, prepares to remove her helmet after participating in emergency egress training in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  17. Christa McAuliffe removing helmet after egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe, 51-L citizen observer/payload specialist, prepares to remove her helmet after participating in emergency egress training in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  18. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  19. Helmet weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R.; Hall, A. C.; Clark, C. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A device for providing acceleration cues to the helmet of a simulator pilot is described. Pulleys are attached to both shoulders of the pilot. A cable is attached to both sides of the helmet and extends through the pulleys to a takeup reel that is controlled by a torque motor. Control signals are applied to a servo system including the torque motor, the takeup reel and a force transducer which supplies the feedback signal. In one embodiment of the invention the force transducer is in the cable and in another it is in the takeup reel.

  20. Lacrosse Helmet Designs and the Effects of Impact Forces

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Deivert, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of repetitive impact forces on lacrosse helmets and increase awareness of helmet safety standards about reconditioning and recertification practices. Design and Setting: The independent variables for this study consisted of 4 lacrosse helmets of various design: 2 contemporary helmets (Sport Helmets Cascade and Cascade Air) and 2 traditional helmets (Sport Helmets Ultralite and Bacharach Ultralite). The dependent variable was attenuation of impact forces as measured by the Gadd Severity Index (GSI). Helmets were tested at an independent testing facility certified by the National Athletic Equipment Reconditioners Association. Measurements: Helmets were raised to 152 cm and released onto an anvil padded with a 1.27-cm rubber modular elastomer programmer. Ten treatments to a front (FD) and right rear boss drop site (RD) were performed. A triaxial accelerometer within the head form measured impact force. Peak acceleration data were integrated into the GSI. We performed a 1-way analysis of variance and calculated descriptive statistics and the Tukey post hoc test. Results: A statistically significant difference was seen in FD GSI score (F3,36 = 9.680, P < .05) and in the RD GSI score (F3,36 = 28.140, P < .05) between helmet types. Mean GSI scores were 1166.1, 1117.6, 857, and 1222.8 for the FD and 974.5, 1022.1, 1376.3, and 1496.5 for the RD for Sport Helmets Cascade, Cascade Air, Ultralite, and Bacharach Ultralite, respectively. With repetitive drops, GSI scores increased, indicating a greater chance for cerebral injury. Percentage increases in GSI scores from drops 1 to 10 were 48.8, 54.3, 45.6, and 18.8 on the FD and 22.6, 35.9, 71.7, and 57.4 on the RD for the Sport Helmets Cascade, Cascade Air, Ultralite, and Bacharach Ultralite, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings indicate differences between helmets at the 2 drop sites and decreasing capacity of the helmets to dissipate forces with repetitive impacts. PMID:12937430

  1. Nutrition, Metabolic Disorders and Lifestyle of Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    SUR SEINE FRANCE Paper Reprinted from AGARD Conference Proceedings 533 Nutrition , Metabolic Disorders and Lifestyle of Aircrew (Les Desordres...Ed.), "Psychobiology of As discussed above, caffeine, when it is consumed in doses Human Eating and Nutritional Behaviour", Chichester, found in many...aircrew members. 8. Graham, D.M.. "Caffeine -- Its Identity, Dietary Sources, Intake and Biological Effects", Nutrition Reviews, Therefore, it is not

  2. Injury Control Recommendations for Bicycle Helmets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents guidelines for organizations planning head injury prevention programs for bicyclists. The guidelines examine the magnitude of the problem and potential impact of helmet use, characteristics of helmets, barriers to increasing helmet use, and approaches to increasing helmet use. Bicycle helmet legislation and community educational campaigns…

  3. Helmet-mounted sight and display testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Schreyer, Herbert; Schranner, R.

    1991-08-01

    The results of tests conducted with helmet-mounted sights (HMS) and helmet- mounted displays (HMD) are presented. To compare the accuracy of the different HMS systems (on a magnetic, acoustic, or optical basis) the authors find and unify a test procedure for verification. The test conditions vary, depending on the principle of the HMS system. Magnetic systems should be tested with the influence of magnetic disturbances, ultrasonic systems with the occurrence of noise and changing characteristics of the dispersion medium, and optical systems under high luminance to check saturation effects of the sensors. Modern integrated helmets (IH) consist of CRTs for displaying binocular images of TV--or infrared--cameras and superimposed symbology and a second channel with image intensifier tubes (IIT). Important points for checking CRTs are the resolution, distortion, homogeneity, and brightness in day and night. The most important test for the IIT channel is the resolution measured as a function of luminance of the test pattern. Tests of the basic helmet regarding head fit, earphone, center of gravity, weight, etc., are also necessary because these properties have an influence on the performance of the complete man-machine system.

  4. Lacrosse Helmet Facemask Removal

    PubMed Central

    Bradney, Debbie A; Bowman, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Context Facemask removal (FMR) is required to access the airway of a catastrophically injured football or ice hockey athlete. However, the best method of caring for the helmeted lacrosse athlete with suspected catastrophic injury remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of sex and grip strength on the speed and ease of use of various FMR methods across different lacrosse helmet types. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Athletic training laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fourteen athletic trainers (7 men, 7 women). Intervention(s) Removal method (cordless screwdriver [CSD], Face Mask Extractor 2 [FMX], pruner, Trainer's Angel [TA]), helmet type (Cascade CPX, Cascade Pro7, Riddell Revolution, Brine Triumph, Warrior Venom), and sex. Main Outcome Measure(s) Facemask removal time and participant-reported ease of use of the removal method (6-point Likert scale). Results We found a 2-way interaction for removal method and sex only for the ease-of-use scores (F3,246 = 4.67, P = .01). A main effect for removal method for time (F3,200 = 19.41, P < .001) and ease of use (F3,200 = 53.78, P < .001) was seen. The fastest times (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) and highest ease-of-use scores (4.94 ± 0.30) were recorded for the CSD. We noted a main effect for helmet type only for time (F4,200 = 5.34, P < .001), with the fastest removal times (72.75 ± 74.67 seconds) recorded for the CPX. We discovered a main effect for sex only for time (F1,200 = 17.57, P < .001), with slower times recorded for women (115.51 ± 110.80 seconds) than men (75.71 ± 83.87 seconds). We found correlations between FMR time and grip strength only when using the FMX (r = −0.40, P = .001), pruner (r = −0.26, P = .04), and TA (r = −0.26, P = .047). Conclusions Based on our results, FMR of lacrosse helmets should be attempted with a CSD. We recommend carrying a pruner as a backup cutting tool in case the CSD fails, practicing FMR regularly, and inspecting helmets for faulty hardware to

  5. Motorcycle helmets and traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Dee, Thomas S

    2009-03-01

    Between 1997 and 2005, the number of annual motorcyclist fatalities doubled. Motorcyclist fatalities now account for over 10 percent of all traffic-related fatalities. However, over the last three decades, states have generally been eliminating laws that require helmet use among all motorcyclists. This study examines the effectiveness of helmet use and state laws that mandate helmet use in reducing motorcyclist fatalities. Within-vehicle comparisons among two-rider motorcycles indicate that helmet use reduces fatality risk by 34 percent. State laws requiring helmet use appear to reduce motorcyclist fatalities by 27 percent. Fatality reductions of this magnitude suggest that the health benefits of helmet-use laws are not meaningfully compromised by compensating increases in risk-taking by motorcyclists.

  6. Flow optimization in diving helmets

    SciTech Connect

    Camperman, J.M.; Tennant, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    Improved carbon dioxide transport from the annular space between the head and helmet is necessary to reduce fresh gas flow and associated noise. This paper gives an overview of new techniques for investigating this transport, and for optimizing helmet flow to remove CO{sub 2}. An analytical model predicts inhaled carbon dioxide fraction in terms of helmet and respiration characteristics. Fundamental behavior over a wide range of helmet parameters is computed. An experimental model uses Reynolds scaling with water and dye to simulate fresh gas and carbon dioxide respectively. The water/dye model supports measurement of inhaled dye concentration, and flow visualization. Detailed behavior is investigated for one helmet with air/CO{sub 2} and water/dye experiments. Results support validity of the analytic and water models, provide new insight to CO{sub 2} transport mechanisms, and suggest directions for optimizing helmet design.

  7. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  8. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  9. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  10. Dynamics Control Approaches to Improve Vibratory Environment of the Helicopter Aircrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh Kanchana

    Although helicopter has become a versatile mode of aerial transportation, high vibration levels leads to poor ride quality for its passengers and aircrew. Undesired vibration transmitted through the helicopter seats have been known to cause fatigue and discomfort to the aircrew in the short-term as well as neck strain and back pain injuries due to long-term exposure. This research study investigated the use of novel active as well as passive methodologies integrated in helicopter seats to mitigate the aircrew exposure to high vibration levels. Due to significantly less certification effort required to modify the helicopter seat structure, application of novel technologies to the seat is more practical compared to flight critical components such as the main rotor to reduce aircrew vibration. In particular, this research effort developed a novel adaptive seat mount approach based on active vibration control technology. This novel design that incorporated two stacked piezoelectric actuators as active struts increases the bending stiffness to avoid the low frequency resonance while generating forces to counteract higher harmonic vibration peaks. A real-time controller implemented using a feed-forward algorithm based on adaptive notches counteracted the forced vibration peaks while a robust feedback control algorithm suppressed the resonance modes. The effectiveness of the adaptive seat mount system was demonstrated through extensive closed-loop control tests on a full-scale helicopter seat using representative helicopter floor vibration profiles. Test results concluded that the proposed adaptive seat mount approach based on active control technology is a viable solution for the helicopter seat vibration control application. In addition, a unique flight test using a Bell-412 helicopter demonstrated that the aircrew is exposed to high levels of vibration during flight and that the whole body vibration spectrum varied substantially depending on operating conditions as

  11. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  12. Brittle Fracture of Crash Helmets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    reinforced plastic (GRP) commonly refered to as ’fibreglass’. --1 |I FIG. 1 POLYCARBONATE HELMET WHICH SHATTERED IN A FATAL ACCIDENT SHOWN REASSEMBLED 2 (d...application referred to, pigment had been added to give an opaque white shell. It was not reinforced. Helmet shells are also made from glass fibre

  13. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  14. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Coffey, Brendan; Albert, Wayne J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective. Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

  15. Mixed Media Filters for Aircrew Breathing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    F AD-AiLT1 382 UMPQUA RESEARCH CO MYRTLE CREEK OR F/S 6/11 I MIXED MEDIA FILTERS FOR AIRCREW BREATHING SYSTEMS. CU) IDEC 80 G V COLOMBO F33615-76-C...O603 UNCLASSIFIED SAMTR-60-27 NL C Report SAM-TR-80.27 00 lot MIXED MEDIA FILTERS FOR AIRCREW BREATHING SYSTEMS Gerald V. Colombo, M.S. Umpqua Research...Texas 78235 0 ’: 0 010 T .A NOTICES This final report was submitted by Umpqua Research Company, Myrtle Creek, Oregon 97457, under contract F33615-76-C

  16. Barriers to bicycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, J T; Laskowski, E R; Altman, K L; Diehl, N N

    2001-07-01

    To determine why people do or do not wear helmets while bicycling. A survey was conducted from August through October 1999. Two survey areas were chosen for this study: local public schools and paved bicycle trails. For the school arm of the study, 3 public elementary, middle, and high schools were selected from 3 different regions of Rochester, Minnesota, for participation in the study. For the bicycle arm of the study, 3 paved trails located in southeastern Minnesota were selected. A total of 2970 surveys were distributed to the public school system, and 463 surveys were collected from bicyclists on the paved bicycle trails. The survey population was split into 3 age categories for analysis: child (7-10), adolescent (11-19), and adult (older than 19). Of the 2970 surveys distributed to Rochester public schools, 2039 (69%) were returned for analysis. Seventy-eight of the surveys that were completed in the public school system were discarded for the following reasons: age <10 years (35), insufficient completion (24), and selection of every reason for not wearing a bicycle helmet (19). A total of 463 surveys were completed on the 3 paved bicycle trails. One survey from the paved bicycle trail arm of the study was discarded because of insufficient completion. The total number of surveys used for statistical analysis was 2424. The distribution of male (52.7%) and female (47.3%) participants was similar. No significant difference in bicycle helmet use was found between genders. The age groups with the highest rate of bicycle helmet use were 50 to 59 years (62%) and older than 59 years (70%). The age groups with the lowest rate of bicycle helmet use were 11 to 19 years (31%) and 30 to 39 years (30%). The most common reasons given for not wearing a bicycle helmet were "uncomfortable," "annoying," "it's hot," "don't need it," and "don't own one." Bicycle helmet use was significantly influenced by peer helmet use in all 3 age groups. Children also were more likely to wear

  17. Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Of 516 bicyclists interviewed, 19 percent owned helmets but only eight percent were wearing them. Riders wearing helmets were more highly educated and reported higher car seat belt use. Helmets afford protection from bicycling head injuries. (Author/BJV)

  18. Bicyclists, Helmets and Head Injuries: A Rider-Based Study of Helmet Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Of 516 bicyclists interviewed, 19 percent owned helmets but only eight percent were wearing them. Riders wearing helmets were more highly educated and reported higher car seat belt use. Helmets afford protection from bicycling head injuries. (Author/BJV)

  19. Low back pain: considerations for rotary-wing aircrew.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Steven John

    2012-09-01

    Low back pain remains a significant issue among helicopter aircrew. There is a considerable body of scientific literature devoted to the problem, including epidemiologic and experimental studies addressing prevalence, characteristics, primary etiology, and contributing factors. It is endemic and multinational, with a prevalence ranging from 50-92%. Archetypal pain begins with flight or within hours of flight, is mostly targeted in the low back/lumbar region and/or buttocks, is transient, and is commonly described as dull and achy. A minority develop chronic, persistent pain that is variously described with dissimilar characteristics. The pernicious effects of back pain or discomfort while piloting may affect flight performance and safety, including reduced operational effectiveness and lost duty time, occupational attrition, curtailed or cancelled missions, compromised emergency egress, and performance deficits during critical phases of flight. The majority of etiologic studies have focused on the pathophysical posture adopted by pilots for aircraft control and exposure to whole body vibration. With more evidence for the former, it remains likely that both, as well as other factors, may have a contributory and perhaps integrative or concerted role. Corrective and mitigation strategies have addressed lumbar support, seat and cockpit ergonomic redesign, and improved aircrew health. Flight surgeons should be familiar with this prevalent issue and future research must address longitudinal cohort studies with clear definitions, relevant and valid exposure data, dose-response detail, and control for contributing factors and confounders.

  20. Aircrew and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heller, Simon R; Nicholson, Anthony N

    2006-04-01

    The most stringent clinical criteria cannot guarantee that individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) will preserve awareness of an impending hypoglycemic episode or that a hypoglycemic episode can be prevented. Further, cognition may be impaired for a considerable period of time beyond the correction of any episode. These observations and their implications to operational aircrew with Type 1 DM are discussed.

  1. An analysis of aircrew communication patterns and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Randall L.; Prince, Carolyn; Morgan, Ben B., Jr.; Simpson, Steven S.

    1991-09-01

    The findings reported here represent a detailed analysis of tactical rotary-wing aircrew communication patterns and content. This research is part of an extensive effort to investigate the nature of tactical aircrew coordination and to develop effective mission-oriented aircrew coordination training. The primary objectives of this research were to answer the following questions: (1) What specific communication patterns and content are demonstrated by different helicopter crewmembers (i.e., Helicopter Aircraft Commander - HAC and Helicopter 2nd Pilot - H2P)? (2) Do tactical aircrew communication patterns and content vary as a function of the performance demands and requirements of different flight conditions (i.e., routine and non-routine)? (3) Are the communication patterns and content of more effective aircrews different from those of less effective aircrews? (4) What similarities exist between the communication patterns and content of military rotary-wing aircrews and commercial fixed-wing aircrews? and (5) Can the results of the communication analyses have an impact on aircrew coordination training?

  2. Motorcycle helmet use in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Hayda, Roman A; Adams, Charles A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Born, Christopher T

    2013-12-03

    Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern and place economic stresses on the health care system. Helmets have been shown to reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Universal motorcycle helmet laws in other states have shown to be effective at increasing helmet use. The current Rhode Island motorcycle helmet law does not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review.

  3. Sports helmets now and in the future.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Greenwald, Richard; Kleiven, Svein; Turner, Michael; Varese, Massimo; McCrory, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The paper reports on a symposium on sports helmets and presents a synthesis of information and opinion from a range of presenters and disciplines. A review of the literature shows that helmets play an important role in head injury prevention and control. Helmets have been shown to be very efficacious and effective in a range of sports and in preventing specific head injury risks, especially moderate to severe head injury. The symposium emphasised the importance of helmet standards and the need for further development. There are calls for helmets that address the needs of competitive (elite) athletes separate to helmets for recreational athletes. Deficiencies in the evidence base for head injury risks and helmet efficacy and effectiveness were identified in some sports. Issues in designing helmets that are suitable to prevent severe head injuries and concussion were discussed and explained from biomechanical and engineering perspectives. The need to evaluate helmet performance in oblique impacts and incorporate this into standards was covered in a number of presentations. There are emerging opportunities with in-helmet technology to improve impact performance or to measure impact exposure. In-helmet technology as it matures may provide critical information on the severity of the impact, the location of the injured athlete, for example, snowboarder, and assist in the retrieval and immediate, as well as the long-term medical management of the athlete. It was identified that athletes, families and sports organisations can benefit from access to information on helmet performance. The importance of selecting the appropriate-sized helmet and ensuring that the helmet and visor were adjusted and restrained optimally was emphasised. The translation pathway from the science to new and better helmets is the development of appropriate helmet standards and the requirement for only helmets to be used that are certified to those standards.

  4. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  5. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  6. Helmets for Motorcyclists a No Brainer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a crash occurs. Since Michigan eased its helmet laws, the number of skull fractures and other head ... study finds. Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in 2012. The new law allows riders to ...

  7. Children and Cycle Helmets: The Case For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibert, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon a review of the literature, claims that bicycle helmets help prevent injury and should be mandated by legislation. Provides evidence of the effectiveness of helmets as well as problems associated with using them. Contains 17 references. (MOK)

  8. Bicycle helmet size, adjustment, and stability.

    PubMed

    Thai, Kim T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Pang, Toh Yen

    2015-01-01

    One of the main requirements of a protective bicycle helmet is to provide and maintain adequate coverage to the head. A poorly fitting or fastened helmet may be displaced during normal use or even ejected during a crash. The aims of the current study were to identify factors that influence the size of helmet worn, identify factors that influence helmet position and adjustment, and examine the effects of helmet size worn and adjustment on helmet stability. Recreational and commuter cyclists in Sydney were surveyed to determine how helmet size and/or adjustment affected helmet stability in the real world. Anthropometric characteristics of the head were measured and, to assess helmet stability, a test analogous to the requirements of the Australian bicycle helmet standard was undertaken. Two hundred sixty-seven cyclists were recruited across all age groups and 91% wore an AS/NZS 2063-compliant helmet. The main ethnic group was Europeans (71%) followed by Asians (18%). The circumferences of the cyclists' heads matched well the circumference of the relevant ISO headform for the chosen helmet size, but the head shapes differed with respect to ISO headforms. Age and gender were associated with wearing an incorrectly sized helmet and helmet adjustment. Older males (>55 years) were most likely to wear an incorrectly sized helmet. Adult males in the 35-54 year age group were most likely to wear a correctly adjusted helmet. Using quasistatic helmet stability tests, it was found that the correctness of adjustment, rather than size, head dimensions, or shape, significantly affected helmet stability in all test directions. Bicycle helmets worn by recreational and commuter cyclists are often the wrong size and are often worn and adjusted incorrectly, especially in children and young people. Cyclists need to be encouraged to adjust their helmets correctly. Current headforms used in standards testing may not be representative of cyclists' head shapes. This may create challenges to

  9. Lightweight Helmet For Eye/Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcstravick, M. Catherine; Proctor, David R.; Wood, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    Lightweight helmet serves as mounting platform for stimulus and sensor modules in experiments on role of vestibulo-ocular reflex in motion sickness and space-adaptation syndrome. Fitted liner and five inflatable air bladders stabilize helmet with respect to subject's head. Personal bite board attached to chin-bar assembly makes hard palate in subject's mouth serve as final position reference for helmet.

  10. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  11. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  12. Parenting influences on bicycle helmet rules and estimations of children's helmet use.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Brinson, Margaret Kay; Ross, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the potential relationship between parenting variables and estimations of children's bicycle helmet use. Parents (N = 121) completed surveys asking about parental monitoring and questions about their bicycle habits and attitudes, as well as their expectations for their children to wear a helmet and their estimation of how often their children wear a helmet. Parents reported stronger helmet rules for their children who are beginning cyclists rather than experienced cyclists, and rules for experienced cyclists were more strongly endorsed among parents who reported more parental monitoring as well. Parents who wear helmets themselves endorsed stronger helmet rules for their experienced riders, compared to parents who do not wear helmets. Parents without helmet rules reported more peer pressure in that they were more likely to agree that their friends do not make their kids wear helmets and that their child's friends do not wear helmets. In addition, believing other parents do not wear helmets and believing one's child's friends do not wear helmets were both associated with a lower likelihood that their children wear a helmet. This appears to be the first study linking perceptions of parental peer pressure with helmet rules and use. For public health reasons, it is imperative to examine parental factors that may establish children's helmet wearing.

  13. A survey of hearing loss in Army aircrew.

    PubMed

    Owen, M J

    1996-02-01

    Military aircrew are exposed to excessive noise at work, with the concurrent risks of acquiring Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Past studies have related aircrew NIHL to a variety of factors; however, no clear causal relationship has been shown. The difficulty of establishing NIHL due to flying remains when many other confounders are present, especially age and exposure to firearms noise in the military environment. A cross sectional prevalence study of hearing loss in Army Air Corps aircrew has been undertaken. One hundred and twenty one aircrew who had more than ten years flying experience were studied and the results show that there appears to be a threshold shift in excess of that expected from the ISO levels for otologically normal males of the same age. The hearing threshold shift was found to correlate with the number of years flying and aircrew age, with the number of flying hours being less significant.

  14. Presentation of IR pictures on helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarotti, Giorgio; Fiori, Lorenzo; Malfagia, Roberto

    1994-06-01

    The head tracking systems for helmet mounted displays (HMD) have actually achieved a high degree of accuracy, thus allowing the precise control of the line of sight (LOS) of electrooptical vision sensors. Therefore, the possibility to fly day and night having on the helmet visors the pictures generated by a steerable infrared (IR) sensor slaved to the pilot's head becomes nowadays realistic. The paper describes the results of a technical analysis performed on a system based on a steerable IR sensor integrated with an advanced HMD for navigation aid purpose in a modern fighter. Integration aspects and human engineering factors are also widely analyzed. This paper considers the parameters which lead to an imperfect static or dynamic overlay of the generated IR picture with the external world, as seen by the pilot through the helmet visors, and the effects of such misalignment. The finite angular excursion of the IR sensor LOS, due to the gimbals limits, has been taken into account, and the necessary transitions to and from the LLTVs integrated within the helmet, suitable to cover all possible head motions, have been investigated. An approach for the fusion of information generated by the LLTVs and the IR sensor is also reported. The limits and constraints of navigation using steerable IR sensors are also highlighted with respect to safety aspects.

  15. Helmet latching and attaching ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, E. W.; Viikinsalo, S. J. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A neck ring releasably secured to a pressurized garment carries an open-ended ring normally in the engagement position fitted into an annular groove and adapted to fit into a complementary annular groove formed in a helmet. Camming means formed on the inner surface at the end of the helmet engages the open-ended ring to retract the same and allow for one motion donning even when the garment is pressurized. A projection on the end of the split ring is engageable to physically retract the split ring.

  16. Bicycle helmet use among American children, 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.; Russell, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate ownership and use of bicycle helmets among children in the US in 1994. METHODS: As part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households, adult respondents reported data on bicycle helmet ownership and helmet use among 1,645 child bicyclists. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: It is estimated that 72.7% of children 5-14 year olds ride bicycles, that is, 27.7 million child bicyclists. Of the bicyclists, 50.2% have a helmet and 25.0% reportedly always wore their helmet when cycling. Reported helmet ownership and use increased with income and educational level and decreased with age. Among regions of the US, those with the highest proportion of states with helmet use laws in 1994 also had the highest proportion of helmet use among children. Among child bicyclists who had been seen by a health care provider in the preceding 12 months, 43.9% of those counseled to wear a bicycle helmet were reported to comply compared with 19.1% of those seen by a provider but not so counseled (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To meet the year 2000 objective of 50% of bicyclists wearing helmets, use among American children will have to double. Concerted and increased efforts to promote the wearing of bicycle helmets are necessary. PMID:9346104

  17. Investigating Helmet Promotion for Cyclists: Results from a Randomised Study with Observation of Behaviour, Using a Semi-Automatic Video System

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. Methods We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18–75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of “helmet only”, “helmet and information” or “information only”, and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Results Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the “helmet only” group (OR = 7.73 [2.09–28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Conclusion Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure. PMID:22355384

  18. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    PubMed

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  19. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Butler, A; Pierre, M

    2002-01-01

    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H x (10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events.

  20. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew.

  1. Night vision imaging systems design, integration, and verification in military fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Cantiello, Maurizio; Toscano, Mario; Fiorini, Pietro; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-04-01

    rear cockpits at the various stages of the test campaign. This process allowed a considerable enhancement of the TORNADO NVIS configuration, giving a good medium-high level NVG operational capability to the aircraft. Further developments also include the design, integration and test of internal/external lighting for the Italian TORNADO "Mid Life Update" (MLU) and other programs, such as the AM-X aircraft internal/external lights modification/testing and the activities addressing low-altitude NVG operations with fast jets (e.g., TORNADO, AM-X, MB-339CD), a major issue being the safe ejection of aircrew with NVG and NVG modified helmets. Two options have been identified for solving this problem: namely the modification of the current Gentex HGU-55 helmets and the design of a new helmet incorporating a reliable NVG connection/disconnection device (i.e., a mechanical system fully integrated in the helmet frame), with embedded automatic disconnection capability in case of ejection.

  2. Aircrew Inflight Physiological Data Acquisition System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    MOORE UKMLASSIFIED AFITIGE/EE/8O-6 N iiiiinoomminm 1 ImE.m E ....I-EE~hiEEEEEE I-EEElillliI AFIT/GE/EE/80-6 II It AIRCREW INFLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA...criteria for new breathing systems and ,.nvironmental control systems can be developed, and assess ! e , phiysiological cost of flying operations (Ref 1...G suit pressure d. mask pressure e inspired flow rate f. inspired oxygen concentration g. expired flow rate h. expired oxygen concentration i. body

  3. An analysis of aircrew procedural compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, J. E.; Giffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the relationships between aircrew compliance with procedures and operator errors. The data for this analysis were generated by reexamination of a 1976 experiment in full mission simulation conducted by Dr. H. P. Ruffell Smith (1979) for the NASA-Ames Research Center. The character of individual operators, the chemistry of crew composition, and complex aspects of the operational environment affected procedural compliance by crew members. Associations between enumerated operator errors and several objective indicators of crew coordination were investigated. The correspondence among high operator error counts and infrequent compliance with specific crew coordination requirements was most notable when copilots were accountable for control of flight parameters.

  4. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Under Instrument Flight Rules, pilots are not permitted to make changes to their approved trajectory without first receiving permission from Air Traffic Control (ATC). Referred to as "user requests," trajectory change requests from aircrews are often denied or deferred by controllers because they have awareness of traffic and airspace constraints not currently available to flight crews. With the introduction of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and other information services, a rich traffic, weather, and airspace information environment is becoming available on the flight deck. Automation developed by NASA uses this information to aid flight crews in the identification and formulation of optimal conflict-free trajectory requests. The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines ADS-B and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of ATC approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR may improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting the air traffic controller. This paper describes the TASAR concept of operations, its enabling automation technology which is currently under development, and NASA s plans for concept assessment and maturation.

  5. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  6. Frequency Domain Evaluation of Helmet Padding Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    F717 [8] have been used to evaluate helmets including motorcycle, football , and hockey helmets to ensure a basic level of protection. These standards...injury, including concussion and traumatic brain injury. These topics are outside the scope of this research and will not be addressed in this paper. The...Document. [6] Moss, W. C., and King, M. J., 2011. Impact response of us army and national football league helmet pad systems. Tech. rep., DTIC Document. [7

  7. Hybrid Helmet Cure Cycle Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Distribution List 11 iv List of Figures Figure 1. DSC scans of cured and uncured carbon fiber-epoxy prepreg ...thermoplastic fabrics, molded with thermoset prepregs was designed at ARL. Proposed manufacturing of the helmet involved pressure molding a number...of plies of aramid fabric with a thermoplastic film, and two plies of carbon fiber-epoxy prepreg , BT250-E (Bryte Technologies, Inc.) that would add

  8. Emergency space-suit helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. A. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A frusto-conically shaped distensible component is described which inflates to encircle a portion of the wearer's head and carries a collapsible member which automatically extends over the remaining portion of the head. A pulley arrangement secured between the walls of the distensible component automatically extends and retracts the collapsible member. When deflated, the unit is carried on the back of the wearer so as to provide an automatic emergency space suit helmet.

  9. The Impact of Wearing Ballistic Helmets on Sound Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Facility (ALF) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). Localization response measurements were collected for subjects wearing the TC2001, MICH ...LW Fast, Sentry, and MICH helmet to understand the effect helmets may have on the user’s ability to localize sounds. Results indicate that helmets...subjects were wearing the TC2001 helmet, followed by the MICH LW Fast, Sentry, and finally the MICH helmet. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic helmet

  10. Helmet mounted display flight symbology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Seery, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Screen/head stabilized MIL-STD 1295 helmet mounted display (HMD) flight symbology as integrated on the Apache helicopter was compared to world referenced/stabilized flight symbology. Simulation test results indicate that pilots perform significantly better using world-stabilized conformal attitude symbology. They were accurate to an average of 1/2 degree at estimating terrain relief and aerial target locations. World stabilized conformal symbology was preferred while performing contour flight tasks. They reported that the use of climb-dive-marker during contour flight greatly reduced pilot work load under conditions tested. Cyclic input errors occurred when using both 1295 hover symbology and test symbology indicating that a better approach for depicting hover symbology is warranted. The magnitude of cyclic input and spatial estimation errors increased as the off-axis viewing angle became larger.

  11. Mandatory bicycle helmet use--Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    1993-05-14

    On July 1, 1990, the first statewide law in Australia requiring wearing of an approved safety helmet by all bicyclists became effective in Victoria (1989 population: approximately 4.3 million) (Figure 1). Implementation of the law was preceded by a decade-long campaign to promote helmet use among the estimated 2.2 million persons who ride bicycles; the campaign included educational programs; mass media publicity; financial incentives; and efforts by professional, community, and bicycle groups (1,2). This report assesses helmet law enforcement, helmet use, and injuries related to bicycling in Victoria.

  12. Impact performance of modern football helmets.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impact tests were conducted on 17 modern football helmets. The helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with the neck attached to a sliding table. The head was instrumented with an array of 3-2-2-2 accelerometers to determine translational acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HIC. Twenty-three (23) different impacts were conducted on four identical helmets of each model at eight sites on the shell and facemask, four speeds (5.5, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/s) and two temperatures (22.2 and 37.8 °C). There were 1,850 tests in total; 276 established the 1990 s helmet performance (baseline) and 1,564 were on the 17 different helmet models. Differences from the 1990 s baseline were evaluated using the Student t test (p < 0.05 as significant). Four of the helmets had significantly lower HICs and head accelerations than the 1990 s baseline with average reductions of 14.6-21.9% in HIC, 7.3-14.0% in translational acceleration, and 8.4-15.9% in rotational acceleration. Four other helmets showed some improvements. Eight were not statistically different from the 1990 s baseline and one had significantly poorer performance. Of the 17 helmet models, four provided a significant reduction in head responses compared to 1990 s helmets.

  13. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  14. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.

  15. Pharmacologic Agents for the Management of Asthma in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    inhaled agents have a minor role in non fast-jet aircrew, stability of bronchial reactivity acute episodes. Long-acting beta-agonists are used and full...patients followed with ECGs and Holter ( salbutamol ). Administered by MDI, these agents monitoring.6,15 In a group of patients with mild have a rapid onset...in high-G well result in stabilization and normalization of operations, and their use in fast-jet aircrew airway function, including airway

  16. Nonverbal Communication and Aircrew Coordination in Army Aviation: Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Ergonomics, 5(1), 37- 57. Kanki, B. G. & Foushee, H. C. (1989, May). Communication as Group Process Media of Aircrew Performance. Retrieved August 12...Although spoken language is clearly a very important medium for the creation of representations, in complex work settings, it is one of several such media ...Society. A-49 Title: Communication As Group Process Media Of Aircrew Performance Author: Kanki, B. G., & Foushee, H. C. Date 1989 Publication: http

  17. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  18. Aircrew decision-making behavior in hazardous weather avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T

    1991-02-01

    In-flight encounters with hazardous weather represent one of the most significant safety issues in civil aviation operations. Aircrew judgment is often cited as the probable cause of incidents and accidents involving weather, although lack of information is also a factor. The present study examines how information, presented at different times and in different forms, affects the awareness and decision-making behavior of aircrews in a flight simulation study of a recent microburst/windshear incident. In order to examine the influence of enhanced information transfer on aircrew behavior, intracrew communications and approach-to-land decisions were evaluated with conventional ATC communications and with automated cockpit alerting and display of weather information. Results of the study revealed that aircrews provided only with conventional ATC transmissions of weather information had difficulty discriminating conditions conducive to microburst events from less hazardous windshear events. Improved situation awareness for microburst events was found when ground-based convective weather information was provided in real time to aircrews. Avoidance decision-making was found to be less efficient with conventional ATC alert transmissions when compared to the performance of crews provided with a visual display of microburst events. The importance of information transfer on aircrew situation awareness and decision-making in hazardous weather avoidance is discussed.

  19. Evaluation of cricket helmet performance and comparison with baseball and ice hockey helmets.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; Janda, D

    2003-08-01

    Protective helmets in sport are important for reducing the risk of head and facial injury. In cricket and other sports with projectiles, national test standards control the minimum helmet performance. However, there are few field data showing if helmets are effective in reducing head injury. (a) To examine the performance of cricket helmets in laboratory tests; (b) to examine performance with regard to test standards, game hazards, and helmet construction; (c) to compare and contrast these findings with baseball and ice hockey helmets. Impact tests were conducted on a selection of helmet models: five cricket, two baseball, and two ice hockey. Ball to helmet impacts at speeds of 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s were produced using an air cannon and a Hybrid III dummy headform and neck unit. Free fall drop tests with a rigid headform on to a selection of anvils (flat rigid, flat deformable, and hemispherical rigid) were conducted. Resultant headform acceleration was measured and compared between tests. At the lower speed impacts, all helmets produced a good reduction in headform acceleration, and thus injury risk. At the higher speed impacts, the effectiveness was less. For example, the mean maximum headform accelerations for all cricket helmets at each speed were: 67, 160, 316, and 438 g for 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s ball speeds respectively. Drop tests on to a hemispherical anvil produced the highest accelerations. The variation in performance increased as the magnitude of the impact energy increased, in both types of testing. The test method used for baseball helmets in which the projectile is fired at the helmet may be superior to helmet drop tests. Cricket helmet performance is satisfactory for low speed impacts, but not for impacts at higher, more realistic, speeds. Baseball and ice hockey helmets offer slightly better relative and absolute performance at the 27 m/s ball and puck impacts.

  20. Evaluation of cricket helmet performance and comparison with baseball and ice hockey helmets

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A; Janda, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Protective helmets in sport are important for reducing the risk of head and facial injury. In cricket and other sports with projectiles, national test standards control the minimum helmet performance. However, there are few field data showing if helmets are effective in reducing head injury. Objectives: (a) To examine the performance of cricket helmets in laboratory tests; (b) to examine performance with regard to test standards, game hazards, and helmet construction; (c) to compare and contrast these findings with baseball and ice hockey helmets. Methods: Impact tests were conducted on a selection of helmet models: five cricket, two baseball, and two ice hockey. Ball to helmet impacts at speeds of 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s were produced using an air cannon and a Hybrid III dummy headform and neck unit. Free fall drop tests with a rigid headform on to a selection of anvils (flat rigid, flat deformable, and hemispherical rigid) were conducted. Resultant headform acceleration was measured and compared between tests. Results: At the lower speed impacts, all helmets produced a good reduction in headform acceleration, and thus injury risk. At the higher speed impacts, the effectiveness was less. For example, the mean maximum headform accelerations for all cricket helmets at each speed were: 67, 160, 316, and 438 g for 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s ball speeds respectively. Drop tests on to a hemispherical anvil produced the highest accelerations. The variation in performance increased as the magnitude of the impact energy increased, in both types of testing. Conclusions: The test method used for baseball helmets in which the projectile is fired at the helmet may be superior to helmet drop tests. Cricket helmet performance is satisfactory for low speed impacts, but not for impacts at higher, more realistic, speeds. Baseball and ice hockey helmets offer slightly better relative and absolute performance at the 27 m/s ball and puck impacts. PMID:12893718

  1. The failure analysis of composite material flight helmets as an aid in aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Caine, Y G; Bain-Ungerson, O; Schochat, I; Marom, G

    1991-06-01

    Understanding why a flying helmet fails to maintain its integrity during an accident can contribute to an understanding of the mechanism of injury and even of the accident itself. We performed a post-accident evaluation of failure modes in glass and aramid fibre-reinforced composite helmets. Optical and microscopic (SEM) techniques were employed to identify specific fracture mechanisms. They were correlated with the failure mode. Stress and energy levels were estimated from the damage extent. Damage could be resolved into distinct impact, flexure and compression components. Delamination was identified as a specific mode, dependent upon the matrix material and bonding between the layers. From the energy dissipated in specific fracture mechanisms we calculated the minimum total energy imparted to the helmet-head combination and the major injury vector (MIV) direction and magnitude. The level of protection provided by the helmet can also be estimated.

  2. Christa McAuliffe removing helmet after egress training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-01-08

    S86-25182 (for release January 1986) --- Sharon Christa McAuliffe, STS-51L citizen observer/payload specialist, prepares to remove her helmet after participating in emergency egress training in the shuttle mock-up and integration lab at the Johnson Space Center. McAuliffe will represent the Teacher-in-Space Project aboard the Challenger when it launches in late January. The photo was taken by Keith Meyers of the New York Times. Photo credit: NASA

  3. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    PubMed

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory.

  4. Tanker avionics and aircrew complement evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moss, R W; Barbato, G J

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes an effort to determine control and display criteria for operating SAC's KC-135 tanker with a reduced crew complement. The Tanker Avionics and Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE) Program was a four-phase effort addressing the control and display design issues associated with operating the tanker without the navigator position. Discussed are: the mission analysis phase, during which the tanker's operational responsibilities were defined and documented; the design phase, during which alternative crew station design concepts were developed; the mockup evaluation phase, which accomplished initial SAC crew member assessment of cockpit designs; and the simulation phase, which validated the useability of the crew system redesign. The paper also describes a recommended crew station configuration and discusses some of the philosophy underlying the selection of cockpit hardware and systems.

  5. Protecting Helmets And Visors From Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Thin layer of polysulfone on polycarbonate safety helmets and visors protects them from attack by chemicals. Useful in industrial safety helmets. Highly resistant to creep under tension load. Retains dimensional stability when exposed to moisture. Does not adversely affect optical properties of polycarbonate visors. Configuration varied to accommodate such special requirements as high impact strength or protection against moving particles and debris.

  6. Helmet system broadcasts electroencephalograms of wearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Zuccaro, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    EEG monitoring system consisting of nonirritating sponge-type electrodes, amplifiers, and a battery-powered wireless transmitter, all mounted in the subjects helmet, obtains electroencephalograms /EEGs/ of pilots and astronauts performing tasks under stress. After a quick initial fitting, the helmet can be removed and replaced without adjustments.

  7. Protecting Helmets And Visors From Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Thin layer of polysulfone on polycarbonate safety helmets and visors protects them from attack by chemicals. Useful in industrial safety helmets. Highly resistant to creep under tension load. Retains dimensional stability when exposed to moisture. Does not adversely affect optical properties of polycarbonate visors. Configuration varied to accommodate such special requirements as high impact strength or protection against moving particles and debris.

  8. Comparative study of musculoskeletal injuries in transport aircrew.

    PubMed

    Gaona, Kasie L

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal (MS) injuries causally associated with aircraft or aircrew positions pose a threat to safety and readiness. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast MS injury rates between C-5 and C-17 aircrew members at Travis Air Force Base. Data were collected retrospectively from the Duties Not to Include Flying (DNIF) log maintained at the Flight Medicine Clinic. Active duty C-5 and C-17 aircrew MS injuries documented in the log from May 2008 to May 2009 were analyzed. A total of 63 injuries were identified in a 12-mo period that resulted in DNIF status. Of the total, 12 (19.1%) were pilots, 13 (20.6%) were flight engineers, 37 (58.7%) were loadmasters; 58 (92.1%) were men and 5 (7.9%) were women. C-5 aircrew represented 57.1% of the reported injuries; C-17 aircrew represented 42.9% of the reported injuries. The findings did not indicate a difference between C-5 and C-17 aircrew MS injuries; however, loadmasters were at an increased risk. Increased age and body mass index also correlated to an increased risk of MS injuries in the C-5 and C-17 community. C-5 and C-17 loadmasters are at an increased risk of MS injury based on aircrew position. However, 67.6% of loadmaster's injuries were reported as not duty-related, suggesting that off-duty actions are potentially affecting mission readiness and safety. These findings supported the importance of maintaining good physical condition as a preventative safety measure against MS injuries.

  9. The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2009-05-01

    to those users currently struggling with cumbersome legacy CRT using conventional glass optical lenses. Q-SightTM is configured to fit onto any aircrew helmet in service today, the large eye motion box permitting flexible installation onto loose fitting helmets. The Q-SightTM approach results in design solutions which are fully compatible with all in-service Night Vision Googles (NVGs) and does not require any adaptation to the NVG or its mounting bracket. This approach has distinct advantages that at night the user gets unimpaired Night Vision performance with very high quality symbology.

  10. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  11. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  12. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR=28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r=0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use. PMID:24119233

  13. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions.

  14. Motorcycle helmet fixation status is more crucial than helmet type in providing protection to the head.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Roszalina; Oxley, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    In Malaysia, motorcyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the association between helmet fixation and helmet type with head injury and severity of head injury among Malaysian motorcyclists. The study design was a prospective cross-sectional study. The participants involved injured motorcyclists who were admitted in five selected hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Participants who sustained head injury were selected as the cases while those with injury below the neck (IBN) were selected as the controls. Questionnaire comprising motorcyclist, vehicle, helmet and crash factors was examined. Diagnoses of injuries were obtained from the participants' medical records. The total subjects with head injuries were 404 while those with IBN were 235. Majority of the cases (76.2%) and controls (80.4%) wore the half-head and open-face helmets, followed by the tropical helmets (5.4% and 6.0% of the cases and controls, respectively). Full-face helmets were used by 1.2% of the cases and 4.7% of the controls. 5.7% of the cases and 6.0% of the controls did not wear a helmet. 32.7% of the cases and 77.4% of the controls had their helmets fixed. Motorcyclists with ejected helmets were five times as likely to sustain head injury [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.73 (95% CI 3.38-9.73)] and four times as likely to sustain severe head injury [AOR of 4.83 (95% CI 2.76-8.45)]. The half head and open face helmets had AOR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.10-0.56) for severe head injury when compared to motorcyclists who did not wear a helmet. Helmet fixation is more effective than helmet type in providing protection to the motorcyclists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  16. Measuring community bicycle helmet use among children.

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, R. A.; Sacks, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Bicycling is a popular recreational activity and a principal mode of transportation for children in the United States, yet about 300 children die and 430,000 are injured annually. Wearing a bicycle helmet is an important countermeasure, since it reduces the risk of serious brain injury by up to 85%. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have funded state health departments to conduct bicycle helmet programs, and their effectiveness has been evaluated by monitoring community bicycle helmet use. Although it would appear that measuring bicycle helmet use is easy, it is actually neither simple nor straightforward. The authors describe what they have learned about assessing helmet use and what methods have been most useful. They also detail several key practical decisions that define the current CDC position regarding helmet use assessment. Although important enough in their own right, the lessons learned in the CDC's bicycle helmet evaluation may serve as a model for evaluating other injury prevention and public health programs. PMID:11847297

  17. Heat transfer variations of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, P A; Buyan, M; Huber, R; Bogerd, C P; Sznitman, J; Graf, S F; Rösgen, T

    2006-09-01

    Bicycle helmets exhibit complex structures so as to combine impact protection with ventilation. A quantitative experimental measure of the state of the art and variations therein is a first step towards establishing principles of bicycle helmet ventilation. A thermal headform mounted in a climate-regulated wind tunnel was used to study the ventilation efficiency of 24 bicycle helmets at two wind speeds. Flow visualization in a water tunnel with a second headform demonstrated the flow patterns involved. The influence of design details such as channel length and vent placement was studied, as well as the impact of hair. Differences in heat transfer among the helmets of up to 30% (scalp) and 10% (face) were observed, with the nude headform showing the highest values. On occasion, a negative role of some vents for forced convection was demonstrated. A weak correlation was found between the projected vent cross-section and heat transfer variations when changing the head tilt angle. A simple analytical model is introduced that facilitates the understanding of forced convection phenomena. A weak correlation between exposed scalp area and heat transfer was deduced. Adding a wig reduces the heat transfer by approximately a factor of 8 in the scalp region and up to one-third for the rest of the head for a selection of the best ventilated helmets. The results suggest that there is significant optimization potential within the basic helmet structure represented in modern bicycle helmets.

  18. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working.

  19. FOAM-IN-PLACE FORM FITTING HELMET LINERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A urethane foam formulation has been developed to produce foamed-in-place helmet liners for Air Force crash or flying helmets. High density urethane...foam helmet liners has been foamed-in-place directly on the flying crew member’s head, producing a perfectly fitting helmet liner with a minimum of...time, labor and inconvenience. These liners were produced at an extremely modest cost. Design and fabrication of a suitable mold in which the helmet

  20. Evaluation of a bicycle helmet giveaway program--Texas, 1995.

    PubMed

    Logan, P; Leadbetter, S; Gibson, R E; Schieber, R; Branche, C; Bender, P; Zane, D; Humphreys, J; Anderson, S

    1998-04-01

    To determine the effect of a bicycle helmet giveaway program on helmet use among children. In 1995, a bicycle helmet giveaway program was conducted in two rural towns in Texas. Helmets were given to all 403 school children in kindergarten through grade 8. Helmet education, a bicycle rodeo, and incentives to increase helmet use were part of the program. Observations of helmet use were made before the helmet program began and after the program at several intervals throughout the school year and during the summer. A self-reported survey questionnaire was administered to children in grades 4 through 8 before the helmet program began and at several intervals during the school year to determine their attitudes about helmet use, safety perceptions, and peer pressure. A questionnaire also was administered to the parents of these children to determine attitudes and bicycle helmet use among parents. Helmet use increased from 3% before the giveaway to 38% at the end of the school year, 7 months later. However, during the subsequent summer, helmet use decreased to 5%. Helmet use among 7th- and 8th-grade students was 0% at all observations periods after the giveaway. Even though 96% of all students thought that helmet use increased riding safety and 68% thought helmets should be worn at all times when riding, only 25% thought that their friends would approve of helmet use. Most parents also believed that helmets increased riding safety and should be worn, but only 23% reported always wearing one when riding a bicycle. Bicycle helmet giveaway programs can increase helmet use temporarily, but they may not be sufficient to sustain it. This program was not effective among 7th- and 8th-grade students.

  1. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  2. Bicycle helmet effectiveness is not overstated.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Radun, Igor

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this study was to discuss the challenges in estimating bicycle helmet effectiveness from case-control studies of injured cyclists and to estimate helmet effectiveness from cases and available exposure data. Data were extracted from studies of cyclists in Seattle; Victoria and New South Wales, Australia; and The Netherlands. Estimates of helmet use were used as exposure to compute relative risks for Seattle and Victorian data. Cycling distance data are routinely collected in The Netherlands; however, these data cannot be disaggregated by helmet use, which makes it unsuitable for estimating helmet effectiveness. Alternative controls were identified from larger cohorts for the Seattle and New South Wales cases. Estimates of helmet effectiveness were similar from odds ratios (ORs) using hospital controls or from relative risks (RRs) using helmet use estimates (Seattle: OR = 0.339, RR = 0.444; Victoria: OR = 0.500, RR = 0.353). Additionally, the odds ratios using hospital controls were similar when controls were taken from a larger cohort for head injury of any severity (Seattle: OR = 0.250, alt OR = 0.257; NSW: OR = 0.446, alt OR = 0.411) and for serious head injury (Seattle: OR = 0.135, alt OR = 0.139; NSW: OR = 0.335, alt OR = 0.308). Although relevant exposure data were unavailable for The Netherlands, the odds ratio for helmet effectiveness of those using racing, mountain, or hybrid bikes was similar to other estimates (OR = 0.371). Despite potential weaknesses with case-control study designs, the best available evidence suggests that helmet use is an effective measure of reducing cycling head injury.

  3. Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  4. Helmets in sport: fact and fallacy.

    PubMed

    Gammons, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries and the prevention of both the short-term and long-term consequences have received heightened awareness in recent years. Education and legislative efforts have promoted both appropriate treatment of concussion and pushed the use of helmets for protection from head injuries. Current scientific data would suggest that helmets are effective at decreasing the risk of serious head injuries. However there is no evidence to suggest that helmets are protective against concussive injuries or the long-term impact of repetitive head trauma.

  5. Factors affecting motorcycle helmet use: size selection, stability, and position.

    PubMed

    Thai, Kim T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Pang, Toh Yen

    2015-01-01

    One of the main requirements of a protective helmet is to provide and maintain appropriate and adequate coverage to the head. A helmet that is poorly fitted or fastened may become displaced during normal use or even ejected during a crash. Observations and measurements of head dimensions, helmet position, adjustment, and stability were made on 216 motorcyclists. Helmet details were recorded. Participants completed a questionnaire on helmet usability and their riding history. Helmet stability was assessed quasistatically. Differences between the dimensions of ISO headforms and equivalent sized motorcyclists' heads were observed, especially head width. Almost all (94%) of the helmets were labeled to be compliant with AS/NZS 1698 (2006). The majority of riders were satisfied with the comfort, fit, and usability aspects of their helmets. The majority of helmets were deemed to have been worn correctly. Using quasistatic pull tests, it was found that helmet type (open-face or full-face) and the wearing correctness were among factors that affected the loads at which helmets became displaced. The forces required to displace the helmet were low, around 25 N. The size of the in-use motorcycle helmets did not correspond well to the predicted size based on head dimensions, although motorcyclists were generally satisfied with comfort and fit. The in vivo stability tests appear to overpredict that helmets will come off in a crash, based on the measured forces, tangential forces measured in the oblique impact tests, and the actual rate of helmet ejection.

  6. Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cody S; Thomas, Andrea M; Singleton, Michael; Gaichas, Anna M; Smith, Tracy J; Smith, Gary A; Peng, Justin; Bauer, Michael J; Qu, Ming; Yeager, Denise; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Cook, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System's General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department $1987 vs. $1443; inpatient $31,506 vs. $25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states.

  7. Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cody S; Thomas, Andrea M; Singleton, Michael; Gaichas, Anna M; Smith, Tracy J; Smith, Gary A; Peng, Justin; Bauer, Michael J; Qu, Ming; Yeager, Denise; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Cook, Lawrence J

    Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System's General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department $1987 vs. $1443; inpatient $31,506 vs. $25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states.

  8. Smart helmet: Monitoring brain, cardiac and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the assessment of the injuries following a road-traffic accident involving motorcyclists is absolutely crucial, particularly in the events with head trauma. Standard apparatus for monitoring cardiac activity is usually attached to the limbs or the torso, while the brain function is routinely measured with a separate unit connected to the head-mounted sensors. In stark contrast to these, we propose an integrated system which incorporates the two functionalities inside an ordinary motorcycle helmet. Multiple fabric electrodes were mounted inside the helmet at positions featuring good contact with the skin at different sections of the head. The experimental results demonstrate that the R-peaks (and therefore the heart rate) can be reliably extracted from potentials measured with electrodes on the mastoids and the lower jaw, while the electrodes on the forehead enable the observation of neural signals. We conclude that various vital sings and brain activity can be readily recorded from the inside of a helmet in a comfortable and inconspicuous way, requiring only a negligible setup effort.

  9. Effects of pyridostigmine bromide on in-flight aircrew performance.

    PubMed

    Gawron, V J; Schiflett, S G; Miller, J C; Slater, T; Ball, J F

    1990-02-01

    The effects of a chemical defense pretreatment drug, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), on in-flight aircrew performance were assessed using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft. TIFS was used to supply appropriate control dynamics, handling characteristics, and cockpit instrumentation for a tactical transport airdrop simulation. Twenty-one C-130 pilots flew two familiarization and four data flights. During two data flights PB was given to both members of the aircrew using the dosage regimen of 30 mg/8 h prescribed by the U.S. Air Force surgeon general. The drug was administered using a double-blind technique. The results indicated that (1) aircrews successfully completed their assigned mission, (2) airdrop inaccuracies and navigation errors in time and distance were not specifically related to PB, (3) performance and crew coordination were not affected by PB, (4) PB and pilot/copilot not discriminate beyond chance between PB and placebo conditions.

  10. Chemoprophylaxis in US Naval aircrew transiting malaria endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A

    1998-07-01

    The role of chemoprophylaxis in aircrew transiting malaria endemic regions has been, and remains, a point of controversy. The recent emergence of multi-drug resistant parasites and pesticide-resistant mosquitoes have made malaria prevention and control even more challenging and complex. The primary purpose was to review the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis (as compared with no chemoprophylaxis) in U.S. Naval aircrew traveling to malaria endemic areas for short periods of time on a frequent, infrequent, or isolated basis. A secondary purpose was to generate chemoprophylaxis guidelines based on the outcomes of this review. A comprehensive MEDLINE database search was performed for the interval from January 1966 to April 1997. Additional resources were obtained from references cited in relevant journal articles, monographs, textbooks, and U. S. government publications. Pertinent U. S. Navy publications were also reviewed. Selection criteria were developed and applied to the data. The investigation failed to identify any analytic studies that met selection criteria regarding the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Naval aircrew or aircrew surrogates transiting malaria endemic areas. The data were therefore used to qualitatively assess the risks/benefits of chemoprophylaxis and generate chemoprophylaxis guidelines. Based on the results of this review, the decision to prescribe chemoprophylaxis was strongly dependent on the following risk factors: a) geographic region; b) transmission risk; c) duration of nighttime exposure; and d) aircrew, aircraft, and mission profiles. Studies of adequate analytic design are needed to delineate the role of chemoprophylaxis in aircrew transiting malaria endemic areas and to validate the chemoprophylaxis guidelines suggested in this review.

  11. Phobic fear of flying in aircrews: epidemiological aspects and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Medialdea, Jesus; Tejada, Francisco Rios

    2005-06-01

    Phobic fear of flying may affect aircrew members during any phase of their flying careers. Symptoms are beyond voluntary control and may lead patients to avoid flying and seek medical advice. Of 1101 psychiatric files from our institute for 1985-2002, 150 represented cases of fliers who suffered from phobic fear of flying. Data collected from those files included assessment of fear-evoking situations, type of aircraft, class of aircrew duties, aircraft accident history, past medical history, age, and associated psychiatric comorbidity. We compared a group of 56 pilots with 94 other aircrew members. Results included 143 cases of flight phobia behavior and 7 cases of anxiety about parachuting. Flight phobia was less frequent among pilots (37.4%) than the other aircrew members (62.6%). We found a history of aircraft accident to the patient or an acquaintance in 25% of the cases. Observed comorbid psychiatric disorders (54%) consisted of depressive disorders (22%), anxiety disorders (16%), and personality disorders (7.4%). Fixed-wing pilots and aircrews members had a higher incidence of depression than did rotary-wing pilots and crewmembers (p < 0.05). Rotary-wing pilots and crewmembers had a higher rate of anxiety disorders (p < 0.05). Flight phobia encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical origins that may lead pilots or other aircrew members to refuse to fly. We recommend a careful psychiatric evaluation and close follow-up to adequately diagnose fliers with flight phobic reactions, as well as establishing adequate medical and/or psychological treatment.

  12. G-tolerance standards for aircrew training and selection.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, K K

    1987-10-01

    G tolerance widely among individuals. It stands to reason that aircrew with higher G tolerance are less likely to experience symptoms of G stress in flight than are those with lower G tolerance, and that they can fly highly maneuverable aircraft with greater safety and effectiveness. To assure that aircrew with abnormally low G tolerance are not assigned to aircraft that operate in the high-G environment, a G-tolerance standard and the means to implement that standard are necessary. Since 1977, for human centrifuge operations, the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine has used an informal G-tolerance standard for selecting experimental subjects, evaluating medically disqualified aircrew, and ensuring efficacy of high-G training for aircrew. That standard consists of the subject's being able to sustain a rapidly applied +7-Gz load for 15 s, without totally losing peripheral vision or losing consciousness, while wearing a functioning anti-G suit, performing an anti-G straining maneuver, and sitting in a conventionally configured fighter aircraft seal. Inability to tolerate a 7-G, 15-s, rapid-onset G profile in a centrifuge is also the basis of internationally recognized (NATO, ASCC) definitions of low G tolerance. The rationale for choosing the 7-G, 15-s standard is discussed. Experience with use of this standard, and the equivalent standard of 8 G for 15 s when the F-16-configured seat is used, reveals that fewer than 1% of actively flying aircrew are unable to meet the standard. Eventually a formal, more stringent, G-tolerance standard may become a valuable component of the means of selecting and training aircrew for high-performance fighter aircraft.

  13. Heat stress of helicopter aircrew wearing immersion suit.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Michel B

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to define the lowest ambient air and cabin temperatures at which aircrews wearing immersion protection are starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress during flight operations, and to characterize during a flight simulation in laboratory, the severity of the heat stress during exposure to a typical northern summer ambient condition (25 degrees C, 40% RH). Twenty male helicopter aircrews wearing immersion suits (insulation of 2.2 Clo in air) performed 26 flights within an 8-month period at ambient temperatures ranging between -15 and 25 degrees C, and cabin temperatures ranging between 3 and 28 degrees C. It was observed based on thermal comfort ratings that the aircrews were starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient and cabin air conditions above 18 degrees C and at a WBGT index of 16 degrees C. In a subsequent study, seven aircrews dressed with the same clothing were exposed for 140 min to 25 degrees C and 40% RH in a climatic chamber. During the exposure, the aircrews simulated pilot flight maneuvers for 80 min followed with backender/flight engineer activities for 60 min. By the end of the 140 min exposure, the skin temperature, rectal temperature and heart rate had increased significantly to 35.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C, 38.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C and between 110 and 160 beats/min depending on the level of physical activity. The body sweat rate averaged 0.58 kg/h and the relative humidity inside the clothing was at saturation by the end of the exposure. It was concluded that aircrews wearing immersion suits during the summer months in northern climates might experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient or cabin air temperature as low as 18 degrees C.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in Military Aircrew Using a Candidate Definition.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Chandrashekar, A M; Singh, Vishal

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Indian population varies from 31.6 to 41.1%. Indians, without being conventionally obese, but inherently insulin resistant, have higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since military aircrew, belonging to the same ethnic pool, may reflect similar prevalence of MetS as the general Indian populace, this study was undertaken to find the prevalence of MetS among Indian military aircrew using one candidate definition. In this cross sectional descriptive study, 210 military aircrew voluntarily participated. Besides demographic and lifestyle related details, their anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and skin fold thickness were recorded. Body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were deduced from the recorded measurements. Resting heart rate and blood pressure were recorded and appropriate laboratory investigations were undertaken. Prevalence of MetS, as per chosen definition, was 33.3% (N = 70), which had moderate, fair, and slight agreement with NCEP ATP III (k = 0.43), IDF (k = 0.27), and WHO (k = 0.15) definitions, respectively. Decadal prevalence of MetS was found to be highest in the fourth decade (46.8%), followed by the third decade (41.3%). Reported prevalence of MetS highlights an urgent need to define preventive strategies to minimize loss of trained manpower among military aircrew. Flight surgeons have an important role to play to educate aircrew about modifying their lifestyle to reduce morbidity and mortality among themselves in the future. Sharma S, Chandrashekar AM, Singh V. Metabolic syndrome in military aircrew using a candidate definition. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):790-794.

  15. Characterisation of bubble detectors for aircrew and space radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Bennett, L G I; Lewis, B J; Tume, P; Andrews, H R; Noulty, R A; Ing, H

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere acts as a natural radiation shield which protects terrestrial dwellers from the radiation environment encountered in space. In general, the intensity of this radiation field increases with distance from the ground owing to a decrease in the amount of atmospheric shielding. Neutrons form an important component of the radiation field to which the aircrew and spacecrew are exposed. In light of this, the neutron-sensitive bubble detector may be ideal as a portable personal dosemeter at jet altitudes and in space. This paper describes the ground-based characterisation of the bubble detector and the application of the bubble detector for the measurement of aircrew and spacecrew radiation exposure.

  16. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport..

  17. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  18. Evaluation of Comfort Liners for Pilot Helmets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    coated open-cell foam system called a Thermoformed Liner (TFL) by Kaiser Electronics. Coefficient of friction, compression and creep data are generated on each of the II helmet comfort liner materials.

  19. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Liu, B C; Ivers, R; Norton, R; Boufous, S; Blows, S; Lo, S K

    2008-01-23

    Motorcycle crash victims form a high proportion of those killed or injured in road traffic crashes. Injuries to the head, following motorcycle crashes, are a common cause of severe morbidity and mortality. It seems intuitive that helmets should protect against head injuries but it has been argued that motorcycle helmet use decreases rider vision and increases neck injuries. This review will collate the current available evidence on helmets and their impact on mortality, and head, face and neck injuries following motorcycle crashes. To assess the effects of wearing a motorcycle helmet in reducing mortality and head and neck injury following motorcycle crashes. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (up to April 2007), EMBASE (up to April week 16, 2007), CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2003), TRANSPORT (up to issue 12, 2006) (TRANSPORT combines the following databases: Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) International Transport Research Documentation (ITRD) formerly International Road Research Documentation (IRRD), ATRI (Australian Transport Index) (1976 to Feb 2003), Science Citation Index were searched for relevant articles. Websites of traffic and road safety research bodies including government agencies were also searched. Reference lists from topic reviews, identified studies and bibliographies were examined for relevant articles. We considered studies that investigated a population of motorcycle riders who had crashed, examining helmet use as an intervention and with outcomes that included one or more of the following: death, head, neck or facial injury. We included any studies that compared an intervention and control group. Therefore the following study designs were included: randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. Ecological and case series studies were

  20. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  1. Aeroacoustic sources of motorcycle helmet noise.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Adetifa, O; Carley, M; Holt, N; Walker, I

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of noise in the riding of motorcycles has been a source of concern to both riders and researchers in recent times. Detailed flow field information will allow insight into the flow mechanisms responsible for the production of sound within motorcycle helmets. Flow field surveys of this nature are not found in the available literature which has tended to focus on sound pressure levels at ear as these are of interest for noise exposure legislation. A detailed flow survey of a commercial motorcycle helmet has been carried out in combination with surface pressure measurements and at ear acoustics. Three potential noise source regions are investigated, namely, the helmet wake, the surface boundary layer and the cavity under the helmet at the chin bar. Extensive information is provided on the structure of the helmet wake including its frequency content. While the wake and boundary layer flows showed negligible contributions to at-ear sound the cavity region around the chin bar was identified as a key noise source. The contribution of the cavity region was investigated as a function of flow speed and helmet angle both of which are shown to be key factors governing the sound produced by this region.

  2. Compliance with the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, J F; Peek, C; Williams, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate helmet use in California before and after the introduction of an unrestricted helmet use law on January 1, 1992, observations of motorcycles and their riders were made at 60 locations in seven California counties, twice before and four times after the law was introduced. Helmet use increased from about 50% in 1991 to more than 99% throughout 1992. Compliance was achieved despite variations in helmet use by motorcycle design and road type. Seven percent of riders used nonstandard helmets after the law. With adequate enforcement, unrestricted helmet use laws can achieve almost 100% compliance and reduce the number of people riding motorcycles. PMID:7832270

  3. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  4. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  5. Bicycle helmet legislation for the uptake of helmet use and prevention of head injuries.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alison; Spinks, Anneliese

    2008-07-16

    Evidence exists to suggest that bicycle helmets may reduce the risk of head injuries to cyclists, however helmets are not uniformly worn by all bicycle users. Legislation has been enacted in some countries to mandate helmet use by cyclists, however the issue remains controversial with opponents arguing that this may inhibit people from bicycle riding and thus from gaining the associated health benefits, or that other countermeasures may have been responsible for decline in head injuries. To assess the effects of bicycle helmet legislation on bicycle-related head injuries and helmet use, and the occurrence of unintended adverse consequences. We searched CENTRAL, the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TRANSPORT and other specialist electronic databases, up to February 2006. In addition we searched government websites, handsearched selected journals and examined the reference lists of selected publications. We included studies that reported changes in either the number of head injuries, helmet use or bicycle use post- versus pre-legislation. Only studies that included a concurrent control group and which reported on the effect of legislation implemented at either the country, state or province wide level were included. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. The data were not appropriate for meta-analysis, thus the results of the included studies have been reviewed narratively. Five studies, all from North America, met the inclusion criteria. For each of the studies, bicycle helmet legislation had been enacted for children only. Adults were used as controls in four of the studies, whilst jurisdictions with no helmet legislation were used as controls in the fifth. Three of the studies reported on changes in head injury rates and three reported on changes in helmet use. There were no included studies reporting change in bicycle use or other adverse consequences of legislation. In two studies

  6. Effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation to increase helmet use: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karkhaneh, M; Kalenga, J‐C; Hagel, B E; Rowe, B H

    2006-01-01

    Background Head injuries related to bicycle use are common and can be serious. They can be prevented or reduced in severity with helmet use; however, education has resulted in modest helmet use in most developed countries. Helmet legislation has been proposed as a method to increase helmet wearing; while this social intervention is thought to be effective, no systematic review has been performed. Objectives This review evaluates the scientific evidence for helmet use following legislation to identify the effectiveness of legislative interventions to increase bicycle helmet use among all age groups. Search strategy Comprehensive searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, British Education Index, LILACS Database, TRIS (Transport Research Information Service), the grey literature, reference lists, and communication with authors was performed to identify eligible studies. Selection criteria Eligible studies for this review were community based investigations including cohort studies, controlled before‐after studies, interrupted time series studies, non‐equivalent control group studies Data collection and analysis Two reviewers extracted the data regarding the percentage of helmet use before and after legislation from each study. Individual and pooled odds ratios were calculated along with 95% confidence intervals. Main results Out of 86 prescreened articles, 25 were potentially relevant to the topic and 11 were finally included in the review. Of 11 studies, eight were published articles, two were published reports, and one was an unpublished article. One additional survey was incorporated following personal communication with the author. While the baseline rate of helmet use among these studies varied between 4% and 59%, after legislation this range changed to 37% and 91%. Helmet wearing proportions increased less than 10% in one study, 10–30% in four studies, and more than 30% in seven studies. While the effectiveness of bicycle helmet

  7. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report and deliverable 30 of Contract No. NNL12AA06C, the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) contract awarded via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA). It documents the accomplishments of the contract, the evolution of its role in the overall TASAR project, and lessons learned from its execution.

  8. Trends Shaping Advanced Aircrew Training Capabilities through the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Brooks, & Singleton, 1982; Polzella . 1983; Ricard, Crosby, & Lambert, 1982; Semple, Cotton, & Sullivan, 1981.) The paper Is oriented toward the...Williams AFI, AZ: Operations Training Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory. Polzella , D.J. (1983). Aircrew training devices: Utility and

  9. Low Back Pain: Considerations for Rotary-Wing Aircrew (Reprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    known to aircrew; it was described almost 50 yr ago ( 82 ). Pelham and colleagues ( 61 ) provide a succinct, kinesiology -based breakdown of the...advocated that future changes should incorporate better vibration attenuation/isolation features and posture/ kinesiology -based principles (described

  10. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  11. Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Renu B. Rastogi a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 22 19b. TELEPHONE...warfighters or tactical law enforcement personnel concurrently wear respiratory and ballistic protective equipment. Current personal protective

  12. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  13. Ski patrollers: reluctant role models for helmet use.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. The questions addressed included helmet use rates, prior TBI experiences, perceptions of helmet risks and benefits and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios (OR) were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Ninety-three ski patrollers participated and the main outcome was self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15-32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84-96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86-98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29-49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7-25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14-29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27-25.42); and belief that role modelling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29-12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were eight times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.58). Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programmes should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modelling as a professional responsibility.

  14. Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

    1995-05-01

    The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

  15. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    PubMed

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  16. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  17. Professional aircrews' attitudes toward infectious diseases and aviation medical issues.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Macias-Moriarity, Lilia Z; Schelling, Joerg

    2012-12-01

    Air carrier and professional corporate aircrews provide a unique and highly distinct population in which to examine potential transport and transmission of infectious diseases (ID). This study sought to assess frequency of flying while acutely ill, identify clinical triggers in self-grounding, determine employer support for self-grounding, examine rates of influenza vaccination, and identify unmet needs for current information on ID issues related to extensive travel required of professional aircrews. Anonymous questionnaires were completed by select European mainline, U.S. regional airline, and professional corporate aircrews on ID topics such as flying while ill, flying with ill crewmembers, receipt of influenza vaccination, disinfection, and other aviation medical issues. Data were analyzed and reported as composite and stratified by airline vs. corporate aviation respondents. Aircrews often flew while ill (or with ill crewmembers); 52% flew until fever reached 38 degrees C (100.4 degrees F) and an additional 37% flew up to 38.89 degrees C (102 degrees F). Rate of annual influenza vaccination was quite low for all groups, but especially so for airline crews (21-27%), even given potential occupational exposure risk. Crews also had strongly differing perceptions of employer views on self-grounding, depending upon employment setting. There were sizable disparities between aircrew flying for U.S. regional, European mainline, and large corporate aviation departments with respect to self-grounding when ill and routinely receiving a seasonal influenza vaccination. All study groups reported a pressing need for enhanced anonymous access to current ID and medical information.

  18. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  19. Evolution of a successful community bicycle helmet campaign.

    PubMed

    Rouzier, P; Alto, W A

    1995-01-01

    Bicycling injuries claim more than 900 lives each year in the United States, and the major cause of deaths is head injuries. Bicycle helmets can prevent head and brain injuries, yet helmet use rate remains low. Helmets are expensive, and their cost can be prohibitive. This study asks the question, "If bicycle helmets are made affordable, will they be worn?" A multifaceted bicycle helmet campaign was begun in Grand Junction, Colorado, population 76,000, in 1992 and was evaluated after its first 2 years. The educational component involved presentations in local schools and at community functions, physician education, and media promotions. A discount helmet program was established through community donations, which allowed helmets to be sold to low-income families for $5 and to middle- and upper-income families for $15; approximately 2400 helmets were sold. One year later a local retailer sold helmets for $12.99; approximately 4000 helmets were sold. Twenty-three locations were surveyed in 3 consecutive years by observers looking for bicycle riders and the presence or absence of helmets. The base-line overall use rate in 1992 was 9.9 percent, which increased to 20.9 percent in 1993 and to 37.1 percent in 1994. There were increases in helmet use in all age groups. A community bicycle helmet campaign that combines affordable helmets with appropriate education can effect an increase in helmet use. A major key to a successful program is a local retailer willing to sacrifice profits to promote helmet sales and use.

  20. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets.

  1. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets. PMID:8153282

  2. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  3. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  4. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties.

  5. Helmets for Kids: evaluation of a school-based helmet intervention in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ederer, David J; Bui, Truong Van; Parker, Erin M; Roehler, Douglas R; Sidik, Mirjam; Florian, Michael J; Kim, Pagna; Sim, Sophal; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyses helmet use before and after implementing Helmets for Kids, a school-based helmet distribution and road safety programme in Cambodia. Nine intervention schools (with a total of 6721 students) and four control schools (with a total of 3031 students) were selected using purposive sampling to target schools where students were at high risk of road traffic injury. Eligible schools included those where at least 50% of students commute to school on bicycles or motorcycles, were located on a national road (high traffic density), had few or no street signs nearby, were located in an area with a history of crash injuries and were in a province where other Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative activities occur. Programme's effectiveness at each school was measured through preintervention and postintervention roadside helmet observations of students as they arrived or left school. Research assistants conducted observations 1-2 weeks preintervention, 1-2 weeks postintervention, 10-12 weeks postintervention and at the end of the school year (3-4 months postintervention). In intervention schools, observed student helmet use increased from an average of 0.46% at 1-2 weeks preintervention to an average of 87.9% at 1-2 weeks postintervention, 83.5% at 10-12 weeks postintervention and 86.5% at 3-4 months postintervention, coinciding with the end of the school year. Increased helmet use was observed in children commuting on bicycle or motorcycle, which showed similar patterns of helmet use. Helmet use remained between 0.35% and 0.70% in control schools throughout the study period. School-based helmet use programmes that combine helmet provision and road safety education might increase helmet use among children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Cycle helmets--when is legislation justified?

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N C

    1996-01-01

    The issue of mandatory cycle helmets is highly contentious. The aim of this paper is not to argue for or against legislation but to suggest criteria on which the debate should focus. This is done by attempting to answer the question: 'What criteria must be met before cycle helmet wearing is enforced?' Consideration is given to principles, precedents and consequences and four criteria are suggested. The criteria are to do with effectiveness, personal liberty, public acceptability and the promotion of the public health benefits of cycling. PMID:8932724

  7. Barriers to bicycle helmet use among Dutch paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Villamor, E; Hammer, S; Martinez-Olaizola, A

    2008-11-01

    In the Netherlands, bicycle helmet wearing rates are very low and perceived social barriers to helmet use are important. We aimed to determine why Dutch paediatricians do or do not wear helmets while bicycling and whether their personal behaviour is influencing their position about the promotion of helmet use. Attendants to the annual meeting of the Dutch Paediatric Society (7-9 November 2006) were surveyed about bicycle riding frequency, helmet use, reasons for not wearing a helmet, helmet use among their own children and personal position about the promotion and legislation of bicycle helmet use. Of the 1110 paediatricians who are active in the Netherlands, 258 answered the survey. Ninety-six per cent of the respondents ride a bicycle (68% more than once a week). Bicycle was used as a mean of transport (32%), as a recreation/sport (11%) or with both purposes (57%). When cycling for transportation, 94% never wear a helmet and 2% always wear it. When cycling for recreation, 70% never wear a helmet and 18% always wear it. The most common reasons given for not wearing a helmet were: 'I never thought about that' (43%), 'Poor appearance' (31%), 'Nobody uses it in the Netherlands' (27%) and 'Uncomfortable' (25%). A majority (91%) of the respondents agreed that bicycle helmets are effective in reducing the rate of head injury to bicyclists and that they should be advised to children (82%) and adolescents (54%). Our results indicate that among Dutch paediatricians, cycling rate is high and helmet wearing rate is very low and that they experience numerous personal barriers to bicycle helmet use. This might explain why bicycle helmet promotion campaigns are scarcely supported by Dutch paediatricians.

  8. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  9. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  10. The international standardization of the medical certification of civil aircrew.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W R

    1984-05-01

    The extremely heterogeneous nature of the various peoples and states of today's world makes the development of a satisfactory set of medical standards for the certification of civil aircrew extremely difficult. This difficulty is compounded by the varying roles aviation plays in different parts of the world. Essential to the understanding of this difficulty is a comprehension of the concept of the sovereignty of nations. Emphasis on aviation medical standards is affected by the variation in health care priorities seen amongst the worldwide community of nations. Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation sets regulations and recommendations for aircrew licensure. The capability of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to enforce regulations is restricted by the same factors which restrict the power of any supernational organization. Nonetheless ICAO remains the most effective means available for achieving the diplomatic consensus so essential to the development of international standards.

  11. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C. Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A.; Carter, Patrick M.; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B.

    2017-01-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012–14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. PMID:27448519

  13. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle riders in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hung, D V; Stevenson, M R; Ivers, R Q

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the rate of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Hai Duong province of Vietnam during winter/spring 2005, and to compare the rates of helmet use by road types. Method Population‐based observational surveys. Results 16 560 motorcyclists were observed across 37 road sites (incorporating 5 road categories). The overall weighted average of helmet use for motorcyclists was 29.94%, with male drivers more likely to wear helmets than female drivers (odds ratio (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53 to 1.76). Male pillion passengers were less likely to wear helmets than female pillion passengers (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85). The number of adult drivers using helmets is larger as compared with that of young drivers (OR 8.56, 95% CI 5.93 to 12.19). The rates of helmet use were significantly higher (p<0.001) on compulsory roads and were 59.01%, 39.97%, 24.22%, 12.7% and 9.54% for national, provincial, district, commune and Hai Duong inner‐city roads, respectively. Conclusion Helmet legislation has increased the rate of helmet use by motorcycle drivers on compulsory roads. Elsewhere, rate of helmet use is very low, indicating that in the absence of legislation and enforcement, motorcyclists in Vietnam will not wear a helmet. PMID:17170192

  14. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Helmet efficacy against concussion and traumatic brain injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Sone, Je Yeong; Kondziolka, Douglas; Huang, Jason H; Samadani, Uzma

    2017-03-01

    Helmets are one of the earliest and most enduring methods of personal protection in human civilization. Although primarily developed for combat purposes in ancient times, modern helmets have become highly diversified to sports, recreation, and transportation. History and the scientific literature exhibit that helmets continue to be the primary and most effective prevention method against traumatic brain injury (TBI), which presents high mortality and morbidity rates in the US. The neurosurgical and neurotrauma literature on helmets and TBI indicate that helmets provide effectual protection against moderate to severe head trauma resulting in severe disability or death. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on helmet efficacy against concussion in both civilian and military aspects. The objective of this literature review was to explore the historical evolution of helmets, consider the effectiveness of helmets in protecting against severe intracranial injuries, and examine recent evidence on helmet efficacy against concussion. It was also the goal of this report to emphasize the need for more research on helmet efficacy with improved experimental design and quantitative standardization of assessments for concussion and TBI, and to promote expanded involvement of neurosurgery in studying the quantitative diagnostics of concussion and TBI. Recent evidence summarized by this literature review suggests that helmeted patients do not have better relative clinical outcome and protection against concussion than unhelmeted patients.

  16. Military Aircrew Seating: a Human Factors Engineering Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    injuries and discomfort. Lower back pain (LBP) is not a new issue. Studies indicate that LBP has been responsible Lor a significant amount of the lost...Congleton, 1983), aircraft aircrew members experience muscular fatigue and discomfort during long duration flights in the: 1. Neck 2. Upper back 3. Mid...degrees tend to rotate the pelvis to the rear, reduce the forward 8 moment of the spine and tend to effectively move the CG aft. B. Width of the seat pan 1

  17. U.S. Air Force Aircrew Flight Protective Eyewear Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    from the vertical centerline. 4.0 FITTING OF PERSONAL FLYING EQUIPMENT It is essential that aircrew have their eyewear devices properly fitted...practical, provided the performance requirements are met. The materials used in the eyewear shall be resistant to mildew . The eyewear lenses shall maximize...MIL-DTL-32000), fire-resistant hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-46170), petroleum-based hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-6083), gasoline (87% octane), motor oil

  18. Aircrew Stabilization Improvement Task Windblast Tests With Tekscan Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    ARLHFE-WP-TR-2OO6-OQO5 STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Airerew Stabilization Improvement Task Windblast Tests wi Tekscan Evaluation Joseph...Interim Report APRIL 2000 - MAY 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Aircrew Stabilization Improvement Task Windblast Tests with Tekscan ...and test support to the ASIT effort during the testing of these deflector concepts, as well as an evaluation of the Tekscan pressure measurement system

  19. Instructor/Operator Station Design Handbook for Aircrew Training Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    concept which emerged is presented from the viewpoints of instructional design, operational instruction, and performance measurement design. Polzella , D.J...capabilities of future ATDs and the need for empirical research aimed at determining the principles of effective AIF use. Polzella , D.J., & Hubbard...and design deficiencies. The perceived training value of a feature was the most important determiner of its use. Polzella , D.J. (1985). Aircrew training

  20. Maximizing Tactical Fighter Aircrew Experience in Combat Ready Units.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified ISa . DECL ASSI FICATION/DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION...which has a primary mission of conducting formal aircrew training courses and does not have a commitment to go to war. Replacement Training Unit ( RTU ...percentages shown for the 26 2T total weapon system since the training wings (TFTSs and RTUs ) are manned with only experienced pilots to serve as

  1. Aircrew Modified Equipment Leading to Increased Accommodation (AMELIA) Survey Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-07

    survival training (Le., refresher physiology and water survival training) every 4 years, questionnaires were sent to the 12 Aviation Survival Training...4) wider range of sizes (i.e., narrow to extra wide), 5) water resistant uppers and seams, 6) tread for winter/icy conditions, 7) quick donning...used more than one type of UCD. The relief tube was used most often (52.9%). Other items aircrews used as UCDs during flight were soda cans/ drink

  2. Human Factors Research in Aircrew Performance and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Project Director * Dr. Kathleen A. O’Donnell, Project Director e Dr. John W. Ruffner, Project Director e Mr. Daniel T. Wick, Project Director * Mr...34".,-". . .’ .. . . .". "’ IWWI VALIDATION OF AIRCREW TRAINING MANUAL REQUIREMENTS Dr. John W. Ruffner, Project Director BACKGROUND r With the passage of the Aviation...Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development, and Acquisition, Dr. J. R. Sculley , requested that 1 Commander, Development and Readiness

  3. Cognitive Performance Decrement in U.S. Army Aircrews.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-31

    PERFORMANCE DECREMENT IN U.S. ARMY AIRCREWS Joseph I. Peters Mark A. Archer Michael J. Moyer Science Applications International Corporation P.O. Box 1303...Science Applications (if applicable) Director International Corporation Defense Nuclear Agency 6c ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City...Technology Division of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Biomedical Effects Directorate of the Defense Nuclear Agency under

  4. Advanced Aircrew Display Symposium (3rd), 19-20 May.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    unique attributes of these displays. We are not at the cross roads where the man, with his tremendous innovative and adaptive capabilities, may be the... accidents , increased training requirements and mission ineffectiveness from the aircrew’s inability to assimilate, evaluate, react to, and judge cockpit...Enhancement of safety c. Minimum for mission accomplishment d. Enhancement of mission, accomplishment B. How it is to be displayed 1. By sensory channel a

  5. A Search for a New Aircrew Spectacle Frame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    replacement frames for the HGIJ-4/P spectacle frame. The optometry chiefs of the Air Force and Navy met in fo rmal ly wi th a Fort Rucker —based...to determine which manufacturer had the best product . The Navy and Air Force optometry chiefs did not concur because of perceived drawbacks in...KY - 50 Charleston AFB SC - 100 Canal Zone, Panama - 50 Ft Richardson AK - 50 Volunteers in aircrew fli ght support status agreed to wear their

  6. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Kulanthayan, S; Umar, R S; Hariza, H A; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.

  7. Predicting bicycle helmet wearing intentions and behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Frances V; Nausbaum, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Cycling accidents in Australia, especially those resulting in head injuries, are a substantive cause of death and disability; but despite legislation and evidence that helmets reduce the risk of head injury, few adolescents wear them. This study employed a revised version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211]) to investigate the determinants of helmet use among a sample of adolescents. Participants in the initial data collection were 294 high school students in Year 8 and Year 11, with 266 completing a follow-up questionnaire measuring behavior over the previous two weeks. Social norms, perceptions of control, and past behavior significantly predicted intentions to use helmets and perceptions of control and past behavior predicted actual helmet use. Strengthening the routine of helmet use and building young people's confidence that they can overcome any perceived barriers to helmet use will improve adherence to helmet wearing behavior.

  8. Smart Helmet: Wearable Multichannel ECG and EEG

    PubMed Central

    Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Sharp, David; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2016-01-01

    Modern wearable technologies have enabled continuous recording of vital signs, however, for activities such as cycling, motor-racing, or military engagement, a helmet with embedded sensors would provide maximum convenience and the opportunity to monitor simultaneously both the vital signs and the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end, we investigate the feasibility of recording the electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, and EEG from face-lead locations, by embedding multiple electrodes within a standard helmet. The electrode positions are at the lower jaw, mastoids, and forehead, while for validation purposes a respiration belt around the thorax and a reference ECG from the chest serve as ground truth to assess the performance. The within-helmet EEG is verified by exposing the subjects to periodic visual and auditory stimuli and screening the recordings for the steady-state evoked potentials in response to these stimuli. Cycling and walking are chosen as real-world activities to illustrate how to deal with the so-induced irregular motion artifacts, which contaminate the recordings. We also propose a multivariate R-peak detection algorithm suitable for such noisy environments. Recordings in real-world scenarios support a proof of concept of the feasibility of recording vital signs and EEG from the proposed smart helmet. PMID:27957405

  9. Laboratory evaluation of RACAL airstream helmet

    SciTech Connect

    Treaftis, H.N.; Tomb, T.F.; Carden, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recently, a new airstream safety helmet designed to provide head, face and respiratory protection in dust-laden environments, has been marketed. Because the helmet offers the potential of providing acceptable personal protection in certain mine operations where technology is not available to reduce dusts to acceptable levels, a laboratory study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of its use in selected mining operations. The efficiency of the helmet's filtration systems was determined using test aerosols of silica and coal dust ranging in total dust concentration from 9.4 to 175.9 mg/m/sup 3/ and 9.5 to 37.6 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively. The efficiency of the unit for removing particulates from coal and silica dust aerosols was found to be 100 and 99 percent, respectively. Although the helmet would provide adequate protection from particulates generated during typical coal mining operations, adequate protection may not be provided when used in atmospheres with high silica content.

  10. Williams with EMU helmet in Quest airlock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-07

    ISS014-E-13499 (7 Feb. 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, works with the helmet of her Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station as she prepares for the final of three sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) in nine days, scheduled for Feb. 8.

  11. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  12. Children and Helmets: the Case Against.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a child-centered approach to thinking about child cycling accidents. Helmets instill a false sense of safety in children and adults, while a profound change in the habits of adults is the only strategy that can protect children from accidents. Suggests steps for local analysis of the problem of cycling accidents. (MOK)

  13. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  14. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL.

  15. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    suspension kit consists of seven (nine with the XXL helmet) pads: one round pad (placed on the crown of the helmet), two trapezoidal pads (placed on...the front and back of the helmet), and four (six for XXL helmets) oblong pads (distributed around the perimeter of the helmet to achieve comfort and

  16. Current and future concepts in helmet and sports injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Post, Andrew; Oeur, R Anna; Brien, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Since the introduction of head protection, a decrease in sports-related traumatic brain injuries has been reported. The incidence of concussive injury, however, has remained the same or on the rise. These trends suggest that current helmets and helmet standards are not effective in protecting against concussive injuries. This article presents a literature review that describes the discrepancy between how helmets are designed and tested and how concussions occur. Most helmet standards typically use a linear drop system and measure criterion such as head Injury criteria, Gadd Severity Index, and peak linear acceleration based on research involving severe traumatic brain injuries. Concussions in sports occur in a number of different ways that can be categorized into collision, falls, punches, and projectiles. Concussive injuries are linked to strains induced by rotational acceleration. Because helmet standards use a linear drop system simulating fall-type injury events, the majority of injury mechanisms are neglected. In response to the need for protection against concussion, helmet manufacturers have begun to innovate and design helmets using other injury criteria such as rotational acceleration and brain tissue distortion measures via finite-element analysis. In addition to these initiatives, research has been conducted to develop impact protocols that more closely reflect how concussions occur in sports. Future research involves a better understanding of how sports-related concussions occur and identifying variables that best describe them. These variables can be used to guide helmet innovation and helmet standards to improve the quality of helmet protection for concussive injury.

  17. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contracting with children and helmet distribution in the emergency department to improve bicycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Bishai, David; Qureshi, Asma; Cantu, Noelia; Parks, Cheryl

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether injury prevention counseling and behavioral counseling delivered in the emergency department (ED) could result in increases in self-reported bicycle helmet use. The authors undertook a trial of counseling in 222 children recruited in an urban ED between August 2000 and October 2001. All consenting patients in the ED aged 5 to 15 years who did not have life-threatening conditions were eligible. One hundred nine children were assigned to the control group on the basis of attendance on an odd-numbered day, and they received a photocopied photograph of the hospital. One hundred thirteen children were assigned to the intervention group, and they received a personal counseling session and signed a contract promising to wear their bicycle helmets. In addition, 57 of the intervention children were assigned (based on having an even-numbered birthday) to be fitted with helmets if they did not already own them. Parents were telephoned four weeks after the ED encounter for follow-up. Follow-up data were obtained for 148 children (67% follow-up rate), of whom only 69 reported riding a bicycle in the four weeks after their ED visit. Of the final sample of 69 children, 38 belonged to one of the intervention groups, and 25 of these (66%) reported always wearing a helmet while cycling during the four weeks after their ED visit, versus 13 of 31 (42%) in the control group (odds ratio, 2.66; p < 0.05). The effect of the intervention was independent of whether the children owned a helmet at baseline. Injury prevention counseling in the ED using "The Injury Prevention Program" (TIPP) sheet, behavioral contracting, and helmet distribution may have a significant effect on reports of subsequent bike helmet use.

  19. A Field Evaluation of the Compatibility of the Protective Integrated Hood Mask with ANVIS Night Vision Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Mask (PIH11) with the Aviator’s Might Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS). The PIHM is worn under a standard HGU-55/P helmet and is designed to protect USAF... Image ", Intensifiersl 26 Tran3M133iVitY Visual Acuity 14. PRIC coot Visual Perception ANVIS P1KM ______ 117. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY...determine its compatibility with the Aviator’s Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). PIHM will be used by tanker, transport, and bomber aircrews for

  20. Variability and Sampling Inspection in the NOCSAE Standards for Football Helmets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, G. Rex; Barker, Ruel M.

    1984-01-01

    The variability in the testing procedures of football helmets is examined in this article. Inadequacies in standards for recertifying helmets indicates the probability of unsafe helmets being used. (Author/DF)

  1. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  2. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  3. Helmets, head injury and concussion in sport.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S

    2015-07-01

    Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.

  4. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for <1% of all vehicle miles traveled. Helmet use consistently has been shown to reduce motorcycle crash-related injuries and deaths, and the most effective strategy to increase helmet use is enactment of universal helmet laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  5. Methodologies for Blunt Trauma Assessment in Military Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    impacts. A single ballistic shell manufacturer was used to reduce potential variability. All five fielded helmet sizes (S, M, L, XL, and XXL ) were...reduce potential variability. All five fielded helmet sizes (S, M, L, XL, and XXL ) were included in the study, and impacts were conducted at three...headforms. Testing was conducted at three accredited commercial laboratories on all five current helmet sizes (S, M, L, XL, and XXL ). However, a single

  6. Bicycle helmet use by adults: the impact of companionship.

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, A L; Coté, T R; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Lipsitz, C M; Schmidt, E R

    1993-01-01

    Most of the nearly 1,000 fatal bicycle-related injuries annually could be prevented if riders used safety helmets. Helmet use by adult bicyclists has received relatively little attention because educational campaigns to promote helmet use generally focus on children. Helmet use by adult and child bicyclists at 120 suburban and rural sites in three Maryland counties was observed on two Saturdays in 1990-91 during an evaluation of the impact of a mandatory helmet law. Concordance or discordance of helmet use within various groups of bicyclists--adults only, adults with children, and children only--was recorded. Helmet use among 2,068 adult bicyclists was 49 percent, 51 percent, and 74 percent in the three counties. In two counties combined, 52 percent (365 of 706) of solo adult bicyclists wore helmets compared with only 5 percent (5 of 94) of solo child bicyclists (P < .001). Helmet use or nonuse was concordant among 87 percent of 277 adult-adult pairs, 94 percent of 50 child-child pairs, and 91 percent of 32 adult-child pairs of bicyclists observed. Concordance rates of helmet use or nonuse were similarly high among pairs of adult bicyclists of the same or mixed sexes. These data are consistent with the concept that both adults and children tend to adopt the helmet-wearing behaviors of their companions. Public health efforts focused on adults should encourage helmet use by adult bicyclists both to prevent head injuries and to provide a role model for children. PMID:8464978

  7. Method for Determining the Center of Mass of Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-08

    lowered (+), in relation to the Center of Mass of the head (0). 8. Center of Mass of motorcyclist helmets with faceshield 9 attached (+) and removed...protection against impact or blunt trauma , it must now provide ballistic protection as well as support ancillary equipment such as communications (earcups...Moto-Star II Parachutist, PASGT Motorcyclist Helmet w/visor and Commun- ications equipment (5) Helmet, Combat, M-1 (5) Bell: Moto-3 Motorcyclist w/liner

  8. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Materials and Construction for Improved Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    8217 P. PhllleP VA’MI I sk: (’uslketJtl|sciellon. Co.ni O)• AA (46,?| .(𔃾W1,.•, hmail HquelW~, AIMUR(* ("I R 74.1-1, 1 qtituary’ 1 4. 0 1w etual H is nrm.a...strength was used asthe %criterion fur selecting the precure and molding conditions. MOLDING OF TEST IAMINATES AND HELMETS A. XP ’ra or i~oi* ind

  10. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  11. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  12. Helmet-Mounted Display For Infantry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew J.

    1987-04-01

    A generic sensor/display/soldier interface concept is described for potential application as a helmet or headdress mounted infantry display system. A compact, lightweight infrared camera mounted on a rifle is expected to provide the video image. The objective for the head-mounted display is to increase the soldier's personal safety and functional performance by remotely displaying an image that is generated by a boresighted camera and to reduce eye fatigue.

  13. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  14. Visual processing: implications for helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J. L.; Cornum, Rhonda L. S.; Stephens, Robert L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1990-10-01

    A study was conducted to compare the performance of AH-64 (Apache) pilots to other Army pilots on visual tasks. Each pilot was given a task presented monocularly to the right eye, a task presented monocularly to the left eye, and a task presented to both eyes simultaneously in a dichoptic task. Results indicated no performance difference between the groups of pilots on the dichoptic task, but indicated better performance on the left monocular task for the AH-64 pilots. These results indicate that AH-64 pilots who are required to switch their attention from their left eyes to their right eyes in order to obtain needed information are capable of processing information efficiently and effectively using only one eye. The implications of these results for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) are discussed.

  15. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Mustafa; Metin, Süleyman; Balta, Şevket; Öztürk, Cengiz; Demirkol, Sait; Çakmak, Tolga; İnal, Satılmış; Çelik, Turgay; İyisoy, Atilla; Ünlü, Murat; Şen, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD) is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG) examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  17. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  18. Bicycle helmets: overcoming barriers to use and increasing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Rezendes, Jennifer L

    2006-02-01

    Bicycle riding is a popular recreational activity among children, yet it is not without potential severe consequences such as traumatic brain injury and death. Despite available information attesting to the benefits of the use of bicycle safety helmets, many children still do not wear them. There are several promoting and discouraging factors that influence wearing bicycle helmets. The purposes of this article are to (1) explore current research and discuss these promoting and obstructing factors to child bicycle helmet use and to (2) provide recommendations for improving the compliance of bicycle helmet use among children. Results of the literature review have significant implications for improving the safety of children.

  19. Helmets for skiers and snowboarders: an injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Levy, A Stewart; Hawkes, Allison P; Rossie, George V

    2007-07-01

    The authors' Level I trauma center has advocated the use of ski helmets for several years and in 1998, undertook a social-marketing campaign and a helmet loaner program to increase helmet use among skiers and snowboarders. The loaner program's effect on helmet acceptance was measured by comparing helmet acceptance in participating rental stores with acceptance in nonparticipating stores during 3 years. For the 1998-1999 season, 13.8% of renters in the participating stores accepted a helmet compared to 1.38% in the nonparticipating stores (p < .01); for 2000-2001, 33.5% to 3.93% (p < .01); and for 2001-2002, 30.3% to 4.48% (p < .01). The authors believe that efforts to increase helmet use--by increasing education and public awareness and decreasing barriers, such as through helmet loaner programs or routinely including helmets in rental packages--have significant potential to decrease the incidence and severity of brain injuries from skiing and/or snowboarding accidents in Colorado.

  20. 2013 aircrew, avionics, and operations survey, part 1.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Air medical transport services (AMTS) depend on the teamwork of aviation professionals, medical caregivers, communications specialists, maintenance staff, and administrative personnel to facilitate the safe medical transportation and care to critically ill and injured patients across the world. Consisting of respondents based in the United States, this 2013 survey revisits contemporary AMTS aircrew (pilot, aviator) experience, compensation, benefits, training, and safety in the industry compared to a survey conducted in 2000. Copyright © 2013 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  2. The Impact of Mandatory Helmet-Use Legislation on the Frequency of Cycling to School and Helmet Use Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the frequency of cycling to school and helmet wearing after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law, and attempts to identify factors associated with the acceptance of helmet use. A mixed-method study was designed with a 7-month follow-up period (April 2014 to November 2014). The initial sample included 262 students (aged 12 to 16 years) from Valencia, Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire and 2 focus-group interviews were conducted. No significant changes in cycling-to- school behavior were found during the study period. Cycle helmet use improved, especially among boys, those who used their own bike, and among adolescents who lived within 2 km of school (P < .05 in all cases). The most common reasons given for not using a helmet were social factors. Peer-group pressure had a negative influence on helmet use among adolescents. Participants also indicated that helmet use is inconvenient, in particular among students who used the public bicycle-sharing program. The implementation of the helmet-use law did not have a negative impact on the frequency of cycling to school. Our findings provide an empirical basis for designing educational interventions and programs to increase helmet use among adolescents.

  3. STS-48 Pilot Reightler adjusts his helmet prior to JSC egress exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), adjusts his launch and entry helmet (LEH) neck ring prior to post-landing emergency egress exercises. Reightler, along with his fellow crewmembers, will board JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) for the training session. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  4. Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Mathieu; North, Thibault; Bourquin, Stéphane; Kilcher, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact binocular head-up display for integration in a motorcycle helmet. A 2D MEMS-mirror reflecting laser beams enables the formation of a bright image superimposed on the user vision by means of retinal scanning. A 3d-printed prototype including the required optical components is presented and characterized. It fits the morphology of most users thanks to several degrees of freedom accessible to the user for fine-tuning.

  5. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    PubMed

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  6. Impact attenuation capabilities of football and lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Bowman, Thomas G; Nauman, Eric A

    2016-09-06

    Although the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standards are similar for football and lacrosse helmets, it remains unknown how helmets for each sport compare on drop tests. Due to the increased concern over head injury in sport and the rapid growth in lacrosse participation, it is useful to compare the performance of various football and lacrosse helmets. Therefore, the goal of this study was to document the impact attenuation properties of football and lacrosse helmets and to identify the relative performance between helmets for the two sports. Six models of football and six models of lacrosse helmets were tested using a drop tower at three prescribed velocities and six locations on the helmets. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effect of sport on Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores and linear accelerations. The interaction between location and sport was significant at the low (F2.64,89.71=7.68, P<.001, η(2)=.025), medium (F2.85,96.85=16.78, P<.001, η(2)=.085), and high (F2.96,100.69=16.67, P<.001, η(2)=.093) velocities for GSI scores. When comparing peak acceleration results, we found a significant interaction between location and sport for the medium (F3.40,115.616=5.57, P=.001, ω(2)=.031) and high (F3.46,117.50=6.4(2), P<.001, ω(2)=.047) velocities. Features of football helmet design provide superior protection compared to lacrosse helmets. Further investigation of helmet design features across sports will yield insight into how design features influence helmet performance during laboratory testing.

  7. Defining combat helmet coverage for protection against explosively propelled fragments.

    PubMed

    Breeze, John; Baxter, D; Carr, D; Midwinter, M J

    2015-03-01

    Prevention against head wounds from explosively propelled fragments is currently the Mark 7 general service combat helmet, although only limited evidence exists to define the coverage required for the helmet to adequately protect against such a threat. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine was tasked by Defence Equipment and Support to provide a framework for determining the optimum coverage of future combat helmets in order to inform the VIRTUS procurement programme. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify potential solutions to three components felt necessary to define the ideal helmet coverage required for protection against explosively propelled fragments. The brain and brainstem were identified as the structures requiring coverage by a helmet. No papers were identified that directly defined the margins of these structures to anatomical landmarks, nor how these could be related to helmet coverage. We recommend relating the margins of the brain to three identifiable anatomical landmarks (nasion, external auditory meatus and superior nuchal line), which can in turn be related to the coverage provided by the helmet. Early assessments using an anatomical mannequin indicate that the current helmet covers the majority of the brain and brainstem from projectiles with a horizontal trajectory but not from ones that originate from the ground. Protection from projectiles with ground-originating trajectories is reduced by helmets with increased stand-off from the skin. Future helmet coverage assessments should use a finite element numerical modelling approach with representative material properties assigned to intracranial anatomical structures to enable differences in projectile trajectory and helmet coverage to be objectively compared. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P < .01) and Glasgow Coma Score (P < .01) and they had lower survival probability (P = .01). The unhelmeted patients were more likely to be smokers (P < .01), to drink alcohol (P < .01), to use drugs (P < .01), and to be involved in crashes at night (P = .03). Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P < .01). Helmets reduced the risk of injury to the head by at least two thirds (P < .01) and to the cervical spine by at least half (P = .03). Helmeted patients were less likely to require mechanical ventilation or intensive care or to have infections. They were discharged an average of 3 days earlier (P < .01) and were less likely to be discharged to a care facility for additional institutional care (P = .02). Total hospital cost savings exceeded $20,000 (P = .02) per helmeted patient. Helmets protect patients from head and neck injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  9. Measurement of Impact Acceleration: Mouthpiece Accelerometer Versus Helmet Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Halstead, P. David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Barlow, David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Instrumented helmets have been used to estimate impact acceleration imparted to the head during helmet impacts. These instrumented helmets may not accurately measure the actual amount of acceleration experienced by the head due to factors such as helmet-to-head fit. Objective: To determine if an accelerometer attached to a mouthpiece (MP) provides a more accurate representation of headform center of gravity (HFCOG) acceleration during impact than does an accelerometer attached to a helmet fitted on the headform. Design: Single-factor research design in which the independent variable was accelerometer position (HFCOG, helmet, MP) and the dependent variables were g and Severity Index (SI). Setting: Independent impact research laboratory. Intervention(s): The helmeted headform was dropped (n = 168) using a National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop system from the standard heights and impact sites according to NOCSAE test standards. Peak g and SI were measured for each accelerometer position during impact. Main Outcome Measures: Upon impact, the peak g and SI were recorded for each accelerometer location. Results: Strong relationships were noted for HFCOG and MP measures, and significant differences were seen between HFCOG and helmet g measures and HFCOG and helmet SI measures. No statistically significant differences were noted between HFCOG and MP g and SI measures. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between HFCOG and MP measures but not between HFCOG and helmet measures. Conclusions: Upon impact, MP acceleration (g) and SI measurements were closely related to and more accurate in measuring HFCOG g and SI than helmet measurements. The MP accelerometer is a valid method for measuring head acceleration. PMID:17597937

  10. Mission, physical, and war stressors' impact on aircrew psychological strain.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Thomas A; Stetz, Melba C; Turner, David D

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the relative impact of the organization of missions on aircrew well-being. Using an occupational stress model we investigate a previously little studied concept of mission stressors and determine its relative impact in comparison to physical and war stressors in the prediction of four strains in deployed aircrews. Questionnaires were completed by 272 deployed in-aircraft crewmembers. Three new stressors were developed for this study: mission stressors, physical stressors, and war stressors. In addition, four strains were measured: PTSD, depression, sleepiness, and nervousness. Regression analyses were used to examine the relative impact of each stressor on the four strain measures while controlling for age and occupation. All three stressors played a significant role in the prediction strains with the total explained variance in the analyses ranging from 15% and 39%. Interestingly, mission stressors played the most important role in the prediction of strains possessing the largest partial eta squared in each analysis. The second most important stressor was physical stressors followed by war stressors. The importance of mission stressors may be because current training is designed to inoculate crewmembers to stressors such as the physical/environmental conditions and violent war actions, but there is no training or acknowledgment of the importance of dealing with mission stressors. Our findings suggest it might be beneficial for commanders to address these stressors, as it may improve short-term psychological well-being, which may ultimately impact mission success and safety.

  11. F18 Life Support: APECS and EDOX Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Two systems are currently being integrated into the F18 Hornet support aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The first system is the Aircrew Personal Environmental Control System (APECS). The system is designed to increase aircrew performance by combating heat stress in the cockpit. The second system is the Extended Duration Oxygen System (EDOX). This system will provide additional redundancy and oxygen system duration to the F18 without extensive modification to the current system.

  12. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  13. Mandatory bicycle helmet use following a decade of helmet promotion in Victoria, Australia--an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, M H; Vulcan, A P; Finch, C F; Newstead, S V

    1994-06-01

    On July 1, 1990, a law requiring wearing of an approved safety helmet by all bicyclists (unless exempted) came into effect in Victoria, Australia. Some of the more important steps that paved the way for this important initiative (believed to be the first statewide legislation of its type in the world) are described, and the initiative's effects are analysed. There was an immediate increase in average helmet-wearing rates from 31% in March 1990 to 75% in March 1991, although teenagers continued to show lower rates than younger children and adults. The number of insurance claims from bicyclists killed or admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury decreased by 48% and 70% in the first and second years after the law, respectively. Analysis of the injury data also showed a 23% and 28% reduction in the number of bicyclists killed or admitted to hospital who did not sustain head injuries in the first and second post-law years, respectively. For Melbourne, where regular annual surveys of helmet wearing have been conducted, it was possible to fit a logistic regression model that related the reduction in head injuries to increased helmet wearing. Surveys in Melbourne also indicated a 36% reduction in bicycle use by children during the first year of the law and an estimated increase in adult use of 44%.

  14. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (<10 years)-57% aged 10-12 years, 20% aged 13-17 years and 9% adults-wore helmets in the absence of a policy. Support for a helmet policy was high from public health, medical, political and community perspectives. Helmet policies in relation to cycling have demonstrated increases in helmet use and reduction of head injuries without decreasing physical activity. However, no known studies have examined the effect of indoor ice skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (<11 years of age) and those with limited skating experience at indoor rinks during public skating sessions was developed, implemented and evaluated. Supportive activities such as discount coupons, promotional materials, a media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations.

  16. Helmet-mounted display technology on the VISTA NF-16D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Gregory P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Markman, Steve

    1997-06-01

    Wright Laboratory's Variable-Stability In-Flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA) NF-16D is the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. A unique research aircraft, it will perform a multitude of missions: to develop and evaluate flight characteristics of new aircraft that have not yet flown, and perform research in the areas of flying qualities, flight control design, pilot-vehicle interface, weapons and avionics integration, and to train new test pilots. The VISTA upgrade will enhance the simulation fidelity and research capabilities by adding a programmable helmet-mounted display (HMD) and head-up display (HUD) in the front cockpit. The programmable HMD consists of a GEC- Marconi Avionics Viper II Helmet-Mounted Optics Module integrated with a modified Helmet Integrated Systems Limited HGU-86/P helmet, the Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant tracker, and a GEC-Mounted Tolerant tracker, and a GEC- Marconi Avionics Programmable Display Generator. This system will provide a real-time programmable HUD and monocular stroke capable HMD in the front cockpit. The HMD system is designed for growth to stroke-on-video, binocular capability. This paper examines some of issues associated with current HMD development, and explains the value of rapid prototyping or 'quick-look' flight testing on the VISTA NF-16D. A brief overview of the VISTA NF-16D and the hardware and software modifications made to incorporate the programmable display system is give, as well as a review of several key decisions that were made in the programmable display system implementation. The system's capabilities and what they mean to potential users and designers are presented, particularly for pilot-vehicle interface research.

  17. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  18. One-piece transparent shell improves design of helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.

  19. Helmet-Mounted Visual Display For Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Helmet-mounted visual display system provides pilot with broad range of visual information for flight simulation. Offers nearly unlimited field of regard. Optical fibers transmit wide-angle images in response to motions of head. Two "pancake" lenses mounted on lightweight helmet. Cable of optical fibers carries images to each lens. "Light-valve" projectors deliver computer-generated binocular images to cables.

  20. The Effect of Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Bicycling Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren; Rutner, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of states passed legislation in the 1990s requiring youths to wear helmets when riding bicycles. The effect of this legislation on bicycling fatalities is examined by subjecting data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System to a panel analysis, using a control-group methodology. A helmet law reduces fatalities by about 15 percent in…

  1. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...This final rule amends the Federal motor vehicle safety standard that specifies performance requirements for motorcycle helmets to reduce traumatic brain injury and other types of head injury. Some of the amendments will help to increase the benefits of that standard by making it easier for State and local law enforcement officials to enforce State laws requiring the use of helmets meeting......

  2. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  3. Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners’ respirable dust exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cecala, A.B.; Reed, W.R.; Joy, G.J.; Westmoreland, S.C.; O’Brien, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker’s activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker’s personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data, and the NIOSH-developed EVADE software will be available for download at no cost on the NIOSH website. PMID:26380529

  4. Bicycle injuries and safety helmets in children. Review of research.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Sherrilyn

    2003-01-01

    Bicycle injuries are the most common cause of serious head injury in children, and most of these injuries are preventable. The protective effect of bicycle helmets is well documented, but many child bicyclists do not wear them. This article summarizes the current state of research on bicycle injuries and helmet use and examines the effectiveness of legislation and injury-prevention strategies. Current studies indicate that children who wear helmets experience fewer head injuries and decreased severity of injury. Community-wide helmet-promotion campaigns combined with legislation are most successful in increasing helmet use and decreasing injury. Nurses can participate both at the institutional level and in community advocacy groups to promote bicycle safety for children.

  5. Helmet Sensor - Transfer Function and Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    d   CG  A cc el er at io n  (g ’s ) Peak Helmet...Crown Acceleration (g’s) FOCUS PMHS 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 H ea d   CG  A cc el er at io n  (g ’s ) Peak...or the PMH dform, an in side and rea response fo stantial diff ly the differ d rear orien ransmission iple configu nd input con pleted 52 c

  6. Timing considerations of Helmet Mounted Display performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; French, Lloyd; Lai, Steve; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system developed in our lab should be a useful teleoperator systems display if it increases operator performance of the desired task; it can, however, introduce degradation in performance due to display update rate constraints and communication delays. Display update rates are slowed by communication bandwidth and/or computational power limitations. We used simulated 3D tracking and pick-and-place tasks to characterize performance levels for a range of update rates. Initial experiments with 3D tracking indicate that performance levels plateau at an update rate between 10 and 20 Hz. We have found that using the HMD with delay decreases performance as delay increases.

  7. Timing considerations of Helmet Mounted Display performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; French, Lloyd; Lai, Steve; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system developed in our lab should be a useful teleoperator systems display if it increases operator performance of the desired task; it can, however, introduce degradation in performance due to display update rate constraints and communication delays. Display update rates are slowed by communication bandwidth and/or computational power limitations. We used simulated 3D tracking and pick-and-place tasks to characterize performance levels for a range of update rates. Initial experiments with 3D tracking indicate that performance levels plateau at an update rate between 10 and 20 Hz. We have found that using the HMD with delay decreases performance as delay increases.

  8. Management of neck pain in Royal Australian Air Force fast jet aircrew.

    PubMed

    Netto, Kevin; Hampson, Gregory; Oppermann, Brett; Carstairs, Greg; Aisbett, Brad

    2011-01-01

    To examine the type and effectiveness of various strategies used by Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fast jet (FJ) aircrew in self-referral and management of flight-related neck pain, a 6-section, 18-question survey tool was distributed to 86 eligible RAAF aircrew. Selective results from the sections evaluating aircrew demographics, incidence of flight-related neck pain, and the self-referral strategies of aircrew to manage these injuries are presented here. Eighty-two RAAF FJ aircrew responded to the survey. Ninety-five percent of the respondents experienced flight-related neck pain. The most commonly sought treatment modalities were on-base medical and physiotherapy services. Many respondents reported that currently provided on-base treatment and ancillary services such as chiropractic therapy are the most effective in alleviating symptoms. Further investigation into the effectiveness and safety of these ancillary therapies needs to be performed to allow appropriate consideration of their place in the management of neck pain in FJ aircrew.

  9. Motorcycle helmet use in Calicut, India: User behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Karuppanagounder, Krishnamurthy; Vijayan, Arjun V

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study include assessing the motorcycle helmet use pattern in Calicut, India, and analyzing the factors influencing helmet use including motorcyclists' perceptions. Field observational studies at 15 locations were conducted to determine the helmet use rate among motorcyclists and pillion passengers. A structured questionnaire interview survey was conducted with 709 motorcyclists to evaluate the users' perceptions and opinions regarding the use of motorcycle helmets. There was a considerable difference in the level of motorcycle helmet use observed between the locations within and outside the city limits, where different levels of helmet law enforcement were exercised. The helmet use was observed at a maximum of 89% within the city and a minimum of 23% in some locations outside the city. The decreasing percentage of helmet use while moving toward the locations outside the city was confirmed statistically through t tests (t = 1.771, df = 13, P < .05). It was found that only 42% of users revealed that helmets are comfortable and 42% expressed that helmets affect hearing ability. It is important to note that 57% of users are of the opinion that there is no need to use a helmet if you drive slowly and carefully. The price of the helmet was not a deterrent for helmet use. In addition, it was observed that only 45% of helmets used by the motorist were standard helmets with an Indian Standards Institute (ISI) mark. The widely varying helmet use pattern observed in the study area may be attributed due to the users' behaviors; that is, using a helmet only when the helmet law is strictly enforced rather than using a helmet as a protective device. Further, some of the problems and beliefs associated with helmet use prevent motorcyclists from using a helmet. Hence, the road safety of motorcyclists can be improved only through addressing the identified measures comprehensively.

  10. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  11. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  12. Promoting Use of Bicycle Helmets among Children: A School and Community-Based Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A community-wide and preschool bicycle helmet program was developed to educate the public about the importance of helmets for children and to offer helmets at reduced prices. Results of the project showed that education efforts in conjunction with an incentive component led to increases in the purchasing of helmets. (SM)

  13. Moving Targets: Bicycle-Related Injuries and Helmet Use among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Lynne; Becker, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Study evaluated bicycling habits and helmet use in 100 university students. Only 31 owned helmets, and 17 wore them during most trips. Helmet ownership was most strongly associated with previous injuries. Ethnicity and possession of bicycle injury insurance were also factors. Perceived risk was an important factor in helmet use. (SM)

  14. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  15. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  16. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and umbilical that closes readily and positively; (2) An exhaust...

  17. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  18. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  19. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  20. Disruption of Helmet Streamers by Current Emergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, W. P.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamic response of a coronal helmet streamer to the emergence from below of a current with its magnetic field in a direction opposite to the overlying streamer field. Once the emerging current moves into the closed region of the streamer, a current sheet forms between the emerging field and the streamer field, because the preexisting field and the newly emerging field have opposite polarities. Thus magnetic reconnection will occur at the flanks of the emerged structure where the current density is maximum. If the emerging current is large enough, the energy contained in the current and the reconnection will promptly disrupt the streamer. If the emerging current is small, the streamer will experience a stage of slow evolution. In this stage, slow magnetic reconnection occurring at the flanks of the emerged structure leads to the degeneration of the emerged current to a neutral point. Above this point, a new magnetic bubble will form. The resulting configuration resembles an inverse-polarity prominence. Depending on the initial input energy of the current, the resulting structure will either remain in situ, forming a quasi-static structure, or move upward, forming a coronal transient similar to coronal jets. The numerical method used in this paper can be used to construct helmet streamers containing a detached magnetic structure in their closed field region. The quasi-static solution may serve as a preevent corona for studying coronal mass ejection initiation.

  1. Disruption of Helmet Streamers by Current Emergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, W. P.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamic response of a coronal helmet streamer to the emergence from below of a current with its magnetic field in a direction opposite to the overlying streamer field. Once the emerging current moves into the closed region of the streamer, a current sheet forms between the emerging field and the streamer field, because the preexisting field and the newly emerging field have opposite polarities. Thus magnetic reconnection will occur at the flanks of the emerged structure where the current density is maximum. If the emerging current is large enough, the energy contained in the current and the reconnection will promptly disrupt the streamer. If the emerging current is small, the streamer will experience a stage of slow evolution. In this stage, slow magnetic reconnection occurring at the flanks of the emerged structure leads to the degeneration of the emerged current to a neutral point. Above this point, a new magnetic bubble will form. The resulting configuration resembles an inverse-polarity prominence. Depending on the initial input energy of the current, the resulting structure will either remain in situ, forming a quasi-static structure, or move upward, forming a coronal transient similar to coronal jets. The numerical method used in this paper can be used to construct helmet streamers containing a detached magnetic structure in their closed field region. The quasi-static solution may serve as a preevent corona for studying coronal mass ejection initiation.

  2. Attitudes toward bicycle helmet ownership and use by school-age children.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C G; Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D

    1990-01-01

    To identify attitudes toward bicycle helmet ownership and use, questionnaires were sent to parents of 2178 third-graders; 1057 (48.5%) returned valid responses. Of 931 children who had bicycles, 24% owned helmets, but only 56% of children who owned helmets wore them. Helmet ownership, but not use, was associated with higher parental education. Fifty-one percent of 704 parents of bicycle owners who had not purchased helmets said they had never thought of it, 29% thought helmets were too costly, and 20% felt their children would not wear them. Of 792 children who did not wear helmets, 25% said they did not wear them because their friends did not; 22% never thought about wearing helmets; and 16% found them uncomfortable. Efforts to increase the wearing of helmets should address helmet design, awareness, peer pressure, and cost.

  3. Subjective stress factors in centrifuge training for military aircrews.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Wang, Jenhung; Li, Shih-Chin

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates stress-influence factors perceived by military aircrews undergoing centrifuge training, which lowers the incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) for the crews of high-performance combat aircrafts. We used questionnaires to assess the subjective stress-influence factors of crews undergoing centrifuge training. Professionals in aviation physiology identified attributes measuring the perceived stress induced by centrifuge training, which were segmented into three constructs by factor analysis, theory lecture, centrifuge equipment, and physical fitness. Considerable interpenetration was discernible between these factors and military rank, age, length of service, flight hours accrued, and type of aircraft piloted. Identifying and quantifying the perceived stressors experienced in human-use centrifuge training enables aviators, astronauts, and air forces of the world to determine which constructs perceptibly increase or alleviate the perceived stress undergone by trainees when partaking in centrifuge training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  5. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  6. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed.

  7. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  8. Mandatory bicycle helmet use: experience in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vulcan, A P; Cameron, M H; Watson, W L

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1990, the legislation requiring wearing of an approved bicycle (safety) helmet by all pedal cyclists, unless exempted, came into effect in Victoria, Australia. The paper describes the more important activities which paved the way for this initiative and presents some preliminary information about the effect of the legislation on wearing rates and head injuries. Since 1980 there has been promotion of helmet use through bicycle education in schools, mass media publicity, support by professional organizations and community groups, bulk purchase schemes, and government rebates for helmet purchases. The Australian Standard for bicycle safety helmets has also been changed to meet community demands for lighter helmets with more provision for ventilation. There has been a steady increase in voluntary helmet use in Melbourne from 1983 to March 1990, as follows: 5% to 70% in primary school children; 2% to 20% in secondary students; and 27% to 40% in adults. In the period after the legislation, with relatively little enforcement, these three groups have shown substantial increases in helmet use rates, rising to 70-90% in most cases. Preliminary data show that the numbers of bicyclists with a head injury have dropped in the period since the legislation came into effect. The possible contributions to this reduction, of less bicycle use and lower risk of head injury in an accident, are discussed.

  9. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. Design: A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Setting: Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Participants: Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Outcome measures: Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Results: Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14–60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. Conclusions: The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages. PMID:12966016

  10. Radiant heat transfer of bicycle helmets and visors.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, Paul A

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets.

  11. Employee perception of a mandated helmet policy at Vail Resorts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Recreational helmet use as a predictor of noncranial injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Habib, Amro; Attabib, Najmedden; Hurlbert, R John

    2012-05-01

    The effect of helmet use in the prevention of head injury has been clearly shown. However, the relationship between helmet compliance and other bodily (noncranial) injury has not been explored, yet may have important impact on strategies for injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine helmet use in an injured population to evaluate its association with noncranial trauma. All entries in the Canadian National Trauma Registry were surveyed from 2000 to 2004 and limited to injuries sustained in recreational sports associated with helmet use. Over the 5-year period, 2,205 injuries met inclusion criteria. Cycling-related injuries were most frequent (43.5%). Alcohol consumption correlated significantly with lack of helmet use. Nonhelmeted individuals suffered significantly more noncranial injuries (85% vs. 68%, p < 0.0001) and had twice as many severe head injuries (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-3.37) or any abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.55-2.47). While controlling for age, sex, or type of sport activity performed, multivariate regression confirmed a reduction in associated noncranial injuries when helmets were used (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.83-0.89). Within an injured population from sports-related activities, helmet use is associated with fewer noncranial injuries of all types suggesting reduced overall risk of injury in this group. In addition, use of helmets is associated with less frequent and less severe head injury. Alcohol consumption is related to increased risk of injury and is more prevalent in injured individuals who abstain from helmet use. III, prognostic study.

  13. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  14. Bicycle helmet legislation: can we reach a consensus?

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L

    2007-01-01

    Debate continues over bicycle helmet laws. Proponents argue that case-control studies of voluntary wearing show helmets reduce head injuries. Opponents argue, even when legislation substantially increased percent helmet wearing, there was no obvious response in percentages of cyclist hospital admissions with head injury-trends for cyclists were virtually identical to those of other road users. Moreover, enforced laws discourage cycling, increasing the costs to society of obesity and lack of exercise and reducing overall safety of cycling through reduced safety in numbers. Countries with low helmet wearing have more cyclists and lower fatality rates per kilometre. Cost-benefit analyses are a useful tool to determine if interventions are worthwhile. The two published cost-benefit analyses of helmet law data found that the cost of buying helmets to satisfy legislation probably exceeded any savings in reduced head injuries. Analyses of other road safety measures, e.g. reducing speeding and drink-driving or treating accident blackspots, often show that benefits are significantly greater than costs. Assuming all parties agree that helmet laws should not be implemented unless benefits exceed costs, agreement is needed on how to derive monetary values for the consequences of helmet laws, including changes in injury rates, cycle-use and enjoyment of cycling. Suggestions are made concerning the data and methodology needed to help clarify the issue, e.g. relating pre- and post-law surveys of cycle use to numbers with head and other injuries and ensuring that trends are not confused with effects of increased helmet wearing.

  15. Do ski helmets affect reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    PubMed

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Herzog, Simone; Schöpf, Stephanie; Anewanter, Pia; Geiger, Astrid; Burtscher, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ski helmet use has steadily increased worldwide over the last 10 years in part as a result of preventive helmet campaigns but also in part as a result of increased media coverage after fatal injuries involving celebrities. However, a commonly reported reason for nonuse is impaired vision. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether ski helmet use affects reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A randomized controlled trial using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test (CTT) was conducted in a laboratory situation. This test measures reaction time to peripheral stimuli during a tracking task and was carried out by 10 males and 10 females (age: 22.1 ± 2.5 years) during 4 conditions in a randomized order: (A) with a ski cap; (B) with a ski helmet; (C) with a ski cap and ski goggles; and (D) with a ski helmet and ski goggles. Friedman-tests revealed significant differences in reaction times (ms) between the 4 conditions (p=.031). The lowest mean reaction time (± standard error) was measured for cap only use (477.3 ± 16.6), which was not different than helmet-only use (478.5 ± 19.1, p=0.911). However, reaction time was significantly longer for cap + goggles use (514.1 ± 20.8, p=0.005) and for helmet + goggles use (497.6 ± 17.3, p=0.017) when compared to cap-only use. Our results showed that ski helmet use did not increase reaction time to peripheral stimuli. This information should be implemented in future preventive campaigns to increase helmet use in skiers and snowboarders. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A descriptive study of bicycle helmet use in Montreal, 2011.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Tara; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Boulva, Kerianne; Drudi, Laura; Feyz, Mitra; Rodrigue, Nathalie; Tze, Nancy; Fata, Paola; Khwaja, Kosar; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to describe bicycle helmet use among Montreal cyclists as a step towards injury prevention programming. Using a cross-sectional study design, cyclists were observed during 60-minute periods at 22 locations on the island of Montreal. There were 1-3 observation periods per location. Observations took place between August 16 and October 31, 2011. Standard statistical methods were used, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 4,789 cyclists were observed. The helmet-wearing proportion of all cyclists observed was 46% (95% CI 44-47). Women had a higher helmet-wearing proportion than men (50%, 95% CI 47-52 vs. 44%, 95% CI 42-45, respectively). Youth had the highest helmet-wearing proportion (73%, 95% CI 64-81), while young adults had the lowest (34%, 95% CI 30-37). Visible minorities were observed wearing a helmet 29% (95% CI 25-34) of the time compared to Caucasians, 47% (95% CI 46-49). BIXI (bike sharing program) riders were observed wearing a helmet 12% (95% CI 10-15) of the time compared to riders with their own bike, 51% (95% CI 49-52). Although above the national average, bicycle helmet use in Montreal is still considerably low given that the majority of cyclists do not wear a helmet. Injury Prevention Programs could target the entire cyclist population, but special attention may be warranted in specific groups such as young men, visible minorities, BIXI riders, and those riding in tourist areas. Additionally, a collaborative enterprise with the bicycle sharing system BIXI Montreal™ could prove to be fruitful in addressing the availability of bike helmets for BIXI riders.

  17. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children.

  18. Archaeometallurgical characterization of the earliest European metal helmets

    PubMed Central

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kovács, Imre; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Káli, György; Szilágyi, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14–12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and Eastern Europe. Analyses were carried out using light and dark field microscopy, SEM–EDXS, PIXE, TOF-ND and PGAA. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process, the differences between the cap of the helmets and their knobs (i.e. alloy composition) and the joining technique of the two parts. PMID:26523114

  19. Archaeometallurgical characterization of the earliest European metal helmets.

    PubMed

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kovács, Imre; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Káli, György; Szilágyi, Veronika

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14-12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and Eastern Europe. Analyses were carried out using light and dark field microscopy, SEM-EDXS, PIXE, TOF-ND and PGAA. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process, the differences between the cap of the helmets and their knobs (i.e. alloy composition) and the joining technique of the two parts.

  20. Helmet fit and cervical spine motion in collegiate men's lacrosse athletes secured to a spine board.

    PubMed

    Petschauer, Meredith A; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Crossover study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization.

  1. Factors associated with bicycle helmet use among young adolescents in a multinational sample

    PubMed Central

    Klein, K; Thompson, D; Scheidt, P; Overpeck, M; Gross, L; the, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors associated with variation in bicycle helmet use by youth of different industrialized countries. Design: A multinational cross sectional nationally representative survey of health behaviors including symptoms, risk taking, school setting, and family context. Setting: School based survey of 26 countries. Subjects: School students, ages 11, 13, and 15 years totaling 112 843. Outcome measures: Reported frequency of bicycle helmet use among bicycle riders. Results: Reported helmet use varied greatly by country from 39.2% to 1.9%, with 12 countries reporting less than 10% of the bicycle riders as frequent helmet users and 14 countries more than 10%. Reported helmet use was highest at 11 years and decreased as children's age increased. Use was positively associated with other healthy behaviors, with parental involvement, and with per capita gross domestic product of the country. It is negatively associated with risk taking behaviors. Countries reported to have interventions promoting helmet use, exemplified by helmet giveaway programmes, had greater frequency of reported helmet use than those without programmes. Conclusions: Bicycle helmet use among young adolescents varies greatly between countries; however, helmet use does not reach 50% in any country. Age is the most significant individual factor associated with helmet for helmet using countries. The observation that some helmet promotion programmes are reported for countries with relatively higher student helmet use and no programmes reported for the lowest helmet use countries, suggests the possibility of a relation and the need for objective evaluation of programme effectiveness. PMID:16203837

  2. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  3. The Impact of Michigan's Partial Repeal of the Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law on Helmet Use, Fatalities, and Head Injuries.

    PubMed

    Carter, Patrick M; Buckley, Lisa; Flannagan, Carol A C; Cicchino, Jessica B; Hemmila, Mark; Bowman, Patrick J; Almani, Farideh; Bingham, C Raymond

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan's universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk. Helmet use decreased in crash (93.2% vs 70.8%; P < .001) and trauma data (91.1% vs 66.2%; P < .001) after the repeal. Although fatalities did not change overall (3.3% vs 3.2%; P = .87), head injuries (43.4% vs 49.6%; P < .05) and neurosurgical intervention increased (3.7% vs 6.5%; P < .05). Male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.65), helmet nonuse (AOR = 1.84), alcohol intoxication (AOR = 11.31), intersection crashes (AOR = 1.62), and crashes at higher speed limits (AOR = 1.04) increased fatality risk. Helmet nonuse (AOR = 2.31) and alcohol intoxication (AOR = 2.81) increased odds of head injury. Michigan's helmet law repeal resulted in a 24% to 27% helmet use decline among riders in crashes and a 14% increase in head injury.

  4. Parental attitudes and behaviours concerning helmet use in childhood activities: rural focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel W; Lang, Brittany D; Schaefer, Joelle M

    2014-09-01

    Previous research demonstrates the importance of parents in ensuring that their children practice proper helmet use. Parents encourage helmet use by setting an example when they wear helmets, as well as establishing rules that the children are expected to follow. Research in the area of helmet use predominantly focuses on bicycle helmets, but there are a number of childhood activities for which a helmet is required. The purpose of this research was to examine rural parents' attitudes toward helmet use and investigate when, and for what activities, they require their children to wear helmets. Rural parents were selected as there is evidence that helmet use is less frequent among children in rural settings. Expanding on the literature, an exploratory qualitative methodology was used to gather data. Eight focus groups were held in rural Saskatchewan to explore what influences parents' decisions to wear helmets themselves, and when and why they enforce helmet rules with their children. A thematic analysis was subsequently conducted on the data. The results suggest that parents recognize that their rules and their example influence their children. Participants mentioned being consistent, establishing rules and using positive reinforcement as ways to encourage helmet use among their children. Helmet costs and lack of awareness of helmet necessity in particular activities were barriers to helmet use. Specific barriers to helmet use in rural areas included the difficulty in finding proper helmets, the lack of exposure to helmet promotion initiatives, and the perception that activities in rural areas were safer than in the city. Parents tended to make their own helmet decisions based on personal experience and threat perception of the activity. This reasoning was the basis for when and why they established helmet rules. It is important to raise awareness of the risks of head injury and the benefits of wearing a helmet in other activities besides bicycling. More effort is

  5. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  6. TRISTAR III: helmet-mounted display symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Lee, Alan G.

    1995-05-01

    The US Army Aviation RDEC's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) in cooperation with the Department of Defense Flight Symbology Working Group, the United Kingdom's Defense Research Agency (DRA), and The Technology Cooperative Program Helicopter Technical Panel 6 (HTP6), conducted a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) symbology investigation using AFDD's Crew Station Research and Development Facility helicopter simulator located at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The objectives of the experiment were to examine HMD symbology stabilization, pitch ladders, flight path presentations, and tasks and measures that capture objective and subjective performance differences. Symbology presentation techniques closely modeled specific presentations found in the US Army's AH- 64D Apache helicopter and proposed symbology techniques for the RAH-Comanche and Longbow Apache rotorcraft. Eight helicopter pilots from DOD and DRA participated in the study flying simulated low-altitude rotorcraft maneuvers. This paper describes the simulation flight tests, test results, implications of test findings and recommendations for future HMD investigations.

  7. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the eye sockets (Figure 1) of a reference headform (Figure 2) or test headform. Helmet positioning... applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards. This symbol shall appear on the outer surface, in a color...

  8. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Disruption of a helmet streamer by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    1995-01-01

    Helmet streamers on the Sun have been observed to be the site of coronal mass ejections, dynamic events that eject coronal plasma and magnetic fields into the solar wind. We develop a two-dimensional (azimuthally symmetric) helmet streamer configuration by computing solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, and we investigate the evolution of the configuration when photospheric shearing motions are imposed. We find that the configuration disrupts when a critical shear is exceeded, ejecting a plasmoid into the solar wind. The results are similar to the case of a sheared dipole magnetic field in a hydrostatic atmosphere (Mikic & Linker 1994). However, the presence of the outflowing solar wind makes the disruption significantly more energetic when a helmet streamer is sheared. Our resutls suggest that shearing of helmet streamers may initiate coronal mass ejections.

  10. 120. Iron worker wearing white protective suit with ventilating helmet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. Iron worker wearing white protective suit with ventilating helmet for use while installing armature and sandblasting, March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  11. Lightweight helmet-mounted eye movement measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The helmet-mounted eye movement measuring system, weighs 1,530 grams; the weight of the present aviators' helmet in standard form with the visor is 1,545 grams. The optical head is standard NAC Eye-Mark. This optical head was mounted on a magnesium yoke which in turn was attached to a slide cam mounted on the flight helmet. The slide cam allows one to adjust the eye-to-optics system distance quite easily and to secure it so that the system will remain in calibration. The design of the yoke and slide cam is such that the subject can, in an emergency, move the optical head forward and upward to the stowed and locked position atop the helmet. This feature was necessary for flight safety. The television camera that is used in the system is a solid state General Electric TN-2000 with a charged induced device imager used as the vidicon.

  12. Disruption of a helmet streamer by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    1995-01-01

    Helmet streamers on the Sun have been observed to be the site of coronal mass ejections, dynamic events that eject coronal plasma and magnetic fields into the solar wind. We develop a two-dimensional (azimuthally symmetric) helmet streamer configuration by computing solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, and we investigate the evolution of the configuration when photospheric shearing motions are imposed. We find that the configuration disrupts when a critical shear is exceeded, ejecting a plasmoid into the solar wind. The results are similar to the case of a sheared dipole magnetic field in a hydrostatic atmosphere (Mikic & Linker 1994). However, the presence of the outflowing solar wind makes the disruption significantly more energetic when a helmet streamer is sheared. Our resutls suggest that shearing of helmet streamers may initiate coronal mass ejections.

  13. Fatigue and stimulant use in military fighter aircrew during combat operations.

    PubMed

    Gore, Russell K; Webb, Timothy S; Hermes, Eric D A

    2010-08-01

    Fatigue in military aviation is a significant safety and operational problem resulting in diminished alertness and performance. Research demonstrates that stimulant medications maintain alertness and performance in sleep-deprived aircrew. However, these studies control many of the variables present during combat operations. Few studies have evaluated fatigue or the factors and effects associated with stimulant use in fighter aircrew during combat operations. The study consisted of three questionnaires administered to 29 deployed F-1 5E aircrew participants. An initial questionnaire compiled demographic and sleep behavior data. Pre- and postflight questionnaires for each sortie collected substance use, fatigue, and physical symptoms data. Regression analysis identified variables associated with in-flight stimulant use. Surveys were completed for 111 sorties averaging 7.6 h in duration. Stimulants were used on 35% of sorties an average of 2.8 h after takeoff. Stimulant use was associated with a decrease in in-flight and postflight fatigue without significant differences in postflight symptoms. Sorties airborne during the circadian trough, longer sortie durations, and preflight hypnotic use displayed statistically significant associations with in-flight stimulant use. In-flight stimulants decrease fatigue during combat operations without significant postflight symptoms. During combat, stimulants were used earlier, at lower doses, and on shorter sorties than previously thought. The factors associated with stimulant use are potentially modifiable by improving training and aircrew scheduling practices. Furthermore, current policies authorizing stimulant use, based primarily on sortie duration, should also consider hypnotic use, inconsistent aircrew scheduling, and circadian disruption.

  14. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  15. Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, John C; Beattie, Tricia L; Culligan, Christopher

    2002-03-05

    About 50 Canadian children and adolescents die each year from bicycle-related injuries, and 75% of all bicycle-related deaths are due to head injuries. Although the use of helmets can reduce the risk of head injury by 85%, the rate of voluntary helmet use continues to be low in many North American jurisdictions. We measured compliance before, during and after 1997, when legislation making the use of helmets mandatory for cyclists was enacted in Nova Scotia. In the summers and autumns of 1995 through 1999, trained observers who had a direct view of oncoming bicycle traffic recorded helmet use, sex and age group of cyclists in Halifax on arterial, residential and recreational roads. Sampling was done during peak traffic times of sunny days. We abstracted data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database on bicycle-related injuries treated during the same period at the Emergency Department of the IWK Health Centre, Halifax. The rate of helmet use rose dramatically after legislation was enacted, from 36% in 1995 and 38% in 1996, to 75% in 1997, 86% in 1998 and 84% in 1999. The proportion of injured cyclists with head injuries in 1998/99 was half that in 1995/96 (7/443 [1.6%] v. 15/416 [3.6%]) (p = 0.06). Police carried out regular education and enforcement. There were no helmet-promoting mass media education campaigns after 1997. Rates of helmet use rose rapidly following the introduction of legislation mandating the use of helmets while bicycling. The increased rates were sustained for 2 years afterward, with regular education and enforcement by police.

  16. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  17. Binocular Rivalry and Attention in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    AFRL-HE-AZ-TP-2007-06 BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND ATTENTION IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY APPLICATIONS Marc D. Winterbottom Air Force Research...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...SUBTITLE BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND ATTENTION IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY APPLICATIONS Presented at the 2006 Human Factors and Ergonomics Conference 5c

  18. Evaluation of Helmet Retention Systems Using a Pendulum Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    USAARL Report No. 89-27 00 Evaluation of Helmet Retention Systems Using a Pendulum Device By Peter Vyrnwy-Jones Charles R. Paschal, Jr. Ronald W...Pendulum Device 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Peter Vvrnwv-Jones. Charles R. Paschal, Jr., and Ronald W. Palmer 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...of Transportation testing device proved to be a simple and efficient means of differentiating between the various helmets. This method should have a

  19. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  20. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  1. Prevalence and predictors of bicycle helmet use in a southeastern, US city.

    PubMed

    Cathorall, Michelle L; Schulz, Mark; Dingman, Deirdre A; Pelligra, Kyle; Keyworth, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Fatalities and head injuries from bicycle-related crashes remain a concern in the United States. Despite legislation in many states, helmet use remains low. This observational study examined the helmet use and related factors in a North Carolina city. The sample consisted of 2088 observations of bicyclists. The objectives were to (1) determine helmet use; (2) describe other safe bicycling practices; and (3) examine the relationship of demographic variables and safe riding practices with helmet use. Helmet use was observed for 25% of the sample. Demographic factors related to helmet use were being female (OR = 1.32), 26 years old or older (OR = 4.94), and White (OR = 2.17). Bicyclists riding on the road with traffic were more likely to wear a helmet than bicyclists riding on the sidewalk (OR = 2.04). Findings indicate that helmet use remains low in the city. Research to monitor, better understand, and promote helmet use is needed.

  2. Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n=15) as peer agents. These agents provided bicycle helmet information and asked fellow bicyclists to sign a pledge card to wear a helmet. They gave a coupon for a free helmet to those who pledged to wear a helmet. The authors received a total of 379 pledge cards and distributed 259 helmets. Bicycle helmet use rose from a baseline mean of 27.6% to a mean of 49.3% by the last week of the intervention.

  3. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use Among Middle-school Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Louis Malenfant, J.E

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data collection of correct helmet use, education on how to wear a bicycle helmet correctly, peer goal setting, public posting of the percentage of correct helmet use, and shared reinforcers, all of which were implemented by the school resource officer, increased afternoon helmet use and afternoon correct helmet use in all three schools. Probe data collected a distance from all three schools indicated that students did not remove their helmets once they were no longer in close proximity to the school, and probe data collected in the morning at two of the schools showed that the behavior change transferred to the morning. PMID:17624065

  4. Attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons concerning protective bicycle-helmet use.

    PubMed

    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2010-05-01

    Wearing protective helmets decreases the risk of incurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) in bicycle accidents. In 2007, the German Neurosurgical Society advocated compulsory use of bicycle helmets. Although neurosurgeons are the specialists who primarily treat patients with TBI in Europe, the distribution of helmet users among neurosurgeons (NS), as well as factors that influence the decision to wear helmets and whether professional knowledge or experience in TBI influences the use or attitude concerning bicycle helmets, remains unclear. A total of 55 neurosurgical departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were contacted and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires concerning helmet use and TBI experience. To compare the neurosurgical attitude with that of a "non-neurosurgical, non-TBI-educated" control group, people of the general public (PUB) were interviewed. A total of 465 NS and 546 PUB returned questionnaires, with 49.7% of the NS and 44.5% of PUB indicated that they wear helmets while bicycling. Trauma experience did effect the personal decision of whether to wear bicycle helmets. Support of compulsory use was influenced by TBI experience. Furthermore, the incidence of helmet use in children was correlated to actual helmet use and disposition of their parents to make helmet use compulsory. NS and PUB behaved in similar ways. Only half wear protective helmets, while the others show cognitive dissonant behavior. With respect to compulsory helmet use, NS are also split in half. Experience with TBI and trauma education has effects. However, education alone does not suffice in promoting the use of bicycle helmets.

  5. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  6. Bicycle helmets work when it matters the most.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Azim, Asad; Haider, Ansab A; Kulvatunyou, Narong; O'Keeffe, Terence; Hassan, Ahmed; Gries, Lynn; Tran, Emily; Latifi, Rifat; Rhee, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Helmets are known to reduce the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after bicycle-related accidents. The aim of this study was to assess the association of helmets with severity of TBI and facial fractures after bicycle-related accidents. We performed an analysis of the 2012 National Trauma Data Bank abstracted information of all patients with an intracranial hemorrhage after bicycle-related accidents. Regression analysis was also performed. A total of 6,267 patients were included. About 25.1% (n = 1,573) of bicycle riders were helmeted. Overall, 52.4% (n = 3,284) of the patients had severe TBI, and the mortality rate was 2.8% (n = 176). Helmeted bicycle riders had 51% reduced odds of severe TBI (odds ratio [OR] .49, 95% confidence interval [CI] .43 to .55, P < .001) and 44% reduced odds of mortality (OR .56, 95% CI .34 to .78, P = .010). Helmet use also reduced the odds of facial fractures by 31% (OR .69, 95% CI .58 to .81, P < .001). Bicycle helmet use provides protection against severe TBI, reduces facial fractures, and saves lives even after sustaining an intracranial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-03-15

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

  8. Promoting the use of bicycle helmets during primary care visits.

    PubMed

    Clements, Jennifer L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to communicate ways in which the nurse practitioner (NP) working with the pediatric population can incorporate bicycle helmet use education into the primary care setting. Review of literature on bicycle helmets, safety, and head injury, retrieved from scientific journals and reliable Internet sources. Bicycling has become a popular sport for both children and adults. Despite excellent benefits, bicycling can pose hazards to riders when safety measures are not practiced. Head injury has been cited as the leading cause of death in bicycle-related injuries. The simplest and single most effective device available to reduce head injury and death is the bicycle helmet. NPs working with the pediatric population can have a profound impact on safety and health through promoting bicycle helmet use to both the child and accompanying parent during children's primary care visits. NPs can also become involved beyond the institution and act as role models for children, form coalitions, and serve as community advocates for new or stronger helmet legislation and enforcement of bicycle helmet laws.

  9. Evaporative heat transfer characteristics of industrial safety helmets.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Holmér, I

    1995-04-01

    Thermal discomfort is one of the major complaints from the wearers of industrial safety helmets. While studies have been reported on dry heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) in safety helmets, the investigation of wet heat dissipating (evaporation) properties has not been found in the literature. To evaluate experimentally the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of industrial safety helmets, a method was developed to simulate sweating of a human head on a thermal head manikin, and to use this manikin to assess the wet heat transfer of five industrial safety helmets. A thermal head manikin was covered with a form-fitting cotton stocking to simulate 'skin'. The skin was wetted with distilled water to simulate 'sweating'. A form-fitting perforated polyethylene film was used to cover the wetted stocking to control the skin wettedness at two levels, 0.64 and 1.0. Experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber, under the following conditions: the ambient temperature = head manikin surface temperature = 34 +/- 0.5 degrees C; ambient relative humidity 30% and 60%. Also, the effects of wind and a simulated solar heat load were investigated. The five helmets showed statistically significant difference in evaporative heat transfer under the experimental conditions. Skin wettedness, ambient humidity, wind and solar heat showed significant effects on evaporative heat transfer. These effects were different for the different helmets.

  10. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  11. Effect of an aerodynamic helmet on head temperature, core temperature, and cycling power compared with a traditional helmet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua F; Brown, Skyler R; Lange, Andrew P; Brothers, R Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Nonvented "aerodynamic helmets" reduce wind resistance but may increase head (Th) and gastrointestinal (Tgi) temperature and reduce performance when worn in hot conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that Th and Tgi would be greater during low-intensity cycling (LIC) in the heat while wearing an aero helmet (AERO) vs. a traditional vented racing helmet (REG). This study also tested the hypothesis that Th, Tgi, and finish time would be greater, and power output would be reduced during a self-paced time trial in the heat with AERO vs. REG. Ten highly trained heat-acclimated endurance athletes conducted LIC (50% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LIC) and a high-intensity 12-km self-paced time trial (12-km TT) on a cycle ergometer in 39° C on 2 different days (AERO and REG), separated by >48 hours. During LIC, Th was higher at minute 7.5 and all time points thereafter in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Similarly, during the 12-km TT, Th was higher at minutes 12.5, 15, and 17.5 in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Heart rate (HR) and Tgi increased during LIC and during 12-km TT (both p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction (helmet × time) existed for HR or Tgi at either intensity (all p > 0.05). No group differences existed for finish time or power output during the 12-km TT (both p > 0.05). In conclusion, Th becomes elevated during cycling in the heat with an aero helmet compared with a traditional vented racing helmet during LIC and high-intensity cycling, yet Tgi and HR responses are similar irrespective of helmet type and Th. Furthermore, the higher Th that develops when an aero helmet is worn during cycling in the heat does not affect power output or cycling performance during short-duration high-intensity events.

  12. Quest Airlock Reflected in STS-113 Astronaut Herrington's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, STS-113 astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington participates in the mission's first space walk. The opened hatch of the Quest Airlock can be seen reflected in Herrington's helmet visor. The airlock, located on the starboard side of the Unity Node I on the International Space Station (ISS), makes it easier to perform space walks, and allows both Russian and American space suits to be worn when the Shuttle is not docked with the ISS. American suits will not fit through Russian airlocks at the Station. STS-113, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the ISS, launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. The main mission objective was the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  13. Assessing the safety of anthrax immunization in US Army aircrew members via physical examination.

    PubMed

    Downing, Jill; Greig, Thomas W; Quattlebaum, Martin D; Valentin, Manuel; Heeren, Timothy C; Grabenstein, John D

    2007-10-01

    Anthrax in weaponized form is the bioterrorism agent of most concern. Questions raised about the safety of the anthrax vaccine can be addressed by comparing immunized and unimmunized people in population-based studies. A retrospective evaluation of data from periodic physical examinations collected on anthrax-immunized and -unimmunized US Army aircrew members between 1998 and 2005 was performed to evaluate the safety of anthrax immunization. Mean changes in variables found on physical examination and laboratory analysis were compared by use of t tests. Multiple linear regression predicted change in outcome from baseline characteristics. We compared 6,820 immunized subjects and 4,145 unimmunized controls based on US Army aircrew physical examination and screening laboratory tests. No association between anthrax immunization and a clinically relevant change in a tested physiologic parameter was detected. No attributable risk of anthrax immunization was observed in this group of Army aircrew members.

  14. Corrective lens use and refractive error among United States Air Force aircrew.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steve T; Ivan, Douglas J; Clark, Patrick J; Gooch, John M; Thompson, William

    2010-03-01

    Corrective lens use by military aviators is an important consideration in the design of head-mounted equipment. The United States Air Force (USAF) has periodically monitored lens use by aviators; however, it has been over a decade since the last study. We provide an update on the prevalence of corrective lenses and refractive error among USAF aircrew based on eyeglass orders processed through the Spectacle Request Transmission System (SRTS). Currently, 41% of active duty USAF pilots and 54% of other aircrew require corrective lenses to perform flight duties. Refractive errors are characterized by low to moderate levels of myopia with a mean spherical equivalent power of -1.01 diopters (D) for pilots and -1.68 D for others. Contact lenses, and more recently refractive surgery, reduce the number of aircrew that must rely on spectacles when flying; however, spectacle compatibility remains an important consideration in the cockpit.

  15. Aircrew Eye/Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Respiratory Protection (AERP) and associated clothing and equipment. Two subjects each carried out simulated tanker/transport and fighter/attack scenarios. No...AD A277 288 N•.• AL-TP-1 993-0014 ý’vI~~I~ 11~ II~I AIRCREW EYE/ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (AERP): 16-HOUR EXTENDED WEAR EVALUATION OF R CHEMICAL...S. FUNDING NUMBERS ’Aircrew Eye/ Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended PE - 62202F Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment PR

  16. Night vision goggles, human factors aspects--a questionnaire survey of helicopter aircrew.

    PubMed

    Manton, A G

    2000-02-01

    Night vision goggles have become an essential component of military aviation. They provide superior visual capability over unaided night vision, but there are several inherent limitations associated with human factors and systems limitations. This study used a questionnaire survey of Army helicopter aircrew to investigate the incidence of human factors problems which continued after NVG use, with particular reference to visual problems and neck discomfort. It also looked at hardware interaction problems, such as cockpit lighting, and other aspects of NVG use, such as training and aircrew concerns. The issues are described and analysed, and areas of concern, which may have bearings on operational effectiveness and/or safety, have been highlighted.

  17. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2017-01-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai‘i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play. PMID:28352493

  19. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  20. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Methodology for mapping football head impact exposure to helmet pads for repeated loading testing.

    PubMed

    MacAlister, Anna; Young, Tyler; Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Football helmets have a lifespan of 10 years; however, no work has investigated how helmet padding properties change over time with use. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to control repeated pad loading and quantify changes in energy management. Head impact exposure data for 7-8 year old football players were used to find an average impact magnitude. NOCSAE-style drop tests were performed using an instrumented headform fitted with the same style helmet (Helmet A) used to collect population data to determine the compression depth and rate of the helmet padding during an average impact. Drops from the same height were then conducted for two other helmet types (Helmet B and Helmet C). For the average impact of ~15 g, the compression depth and rate of the pads from Helmet A were found to be 9.8 mm and 0.72 m/s respectively. The compression depths and rates for Helmets B and C were found to be 6.1 mm and 0.71 m/s and 10.7 mm and 0.69 m/s respectively. These parameters were utilized by a material testing system program to impact helmet padding. Repeated helmet pad loading can be tested using a material testing system for populations with known head impact exposure. The energy absorbing characteristics of the padding can be used to develop new safety regulations regarding the lifetime of helmets, affording better protection to athletes.

  2. STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  3. STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  4. Parents' decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Renske M; van Til, Janine A; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; L'Hoir, Monique P; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet therapy is regularly prescribed in infants with positional skull deformation. Evidence on the effectiveness is lacking, which complicates decision making. This study aims to assess the relation between parents' decision for treatment of skull deformation in their infant and their level of anxiety, decisional conflict, expectations of treatment effect, perceived severity of deformation and perceived side effects. Parents of 5-month-old infants with skull deformation were invited to participate in a survey. Data collection included background characteristics, anthropometric assessment, parent-reported outcomes, decision for treatment (helmet therapy or awaiting natural course), decisional conflict scale and questions about perceived (side) effects of helmet therapy. Factors significantly correlated with treatment decision (p < 0.1) were tested in a multiple logistic regression analysis. The results of 186 respondents were included in the analysis. Parental satisfaction with their infant's head shape (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 0.4), expected effect of helmet therapy compared to natural course (aOR 13.4; 95 % CI 5.0 to 36.1) and decision uncertainty (aOR 1.0; 95 % CI 0.9 to 1.0; p = .03) were related to the decision for helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation. With the outcomes of this study, we can better understand parental decision-making for elective 'normalizing' treatments in children, such as helmet therapy in infants with skull deformation. Health care professionals should address the parents' perception of the severity of skull deformation and their expectations of helmet therapy. Furthermore, they can support parents in decision-making by balancing medical information with parents' expectations, values and beliefs.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to all-terrain vehicle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lauren E; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Graham, James

    2013-10-01

    The burden of all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries and deaths in the pediatric population has increased dramatically during the past decade. Brain injuries represent a large proportion of these injuries and are the leading cause of death among those injured. Despite the risk involved in operating these vehicles, helmet use remains low. The aim of this study was to identify and understand common barriers and facilitators to helmet use among ATV users. Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with adolescent and adult ATV users to discuss ATV and safety equipment use. Standard methods of qualitative research were used to interpret focus group data. Moderator guides were framed using the Health Belief Model of behavior change. Transcript-based analysis was used, and data were managed using HyperRESEARCH (version 2.8.3). The transcribed data were coded to identify important themes. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 58 participants, who discussed ATV use patterns, current safety practices, and barriers to helmet use. Major themes were a lack of perceived risk with operating an ATV and lack of perceived severity of injury resulting from ATV crashes. Participants discussed other barriers to helmet use including helmet discomfort and inconvenience. Suggested solutions included passage of helmet laws for riders younger than 18 years, helmet redesign, and development of visual aids/crash simulations to convey the dangers of ATV use. This study identifies a gap in risk perception among ATV users. Injury prevention should focus on education about risks of engaging in unsafe ATV behaviors and the danger of the vehicles themselves.

  6. Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, William C.; Seidel, Wesley F.; Cohen, Suzanne A.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Bliwise, Nancy G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rapid transmeridian flight on sleep and wakefulness were studied in aircrew members before and after flying one of two routes: San Francisco (SFO) to London (LHR) or SFO to Tokyo. After an adaptation night, sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured objectively in SFO and during the first layover (L/O) of the target trip, using the 'core measures' described by Graeber et al. (1986) and respiration parameters, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) described by Carscadon (1982); postsleep questionnaires provided subjective assessments. It was found that baseline sleep is not an ideal basis for subsequent comparison; nevertheless, there was an indication that L/O sleep periods tended to provide either less total sleep or less efficient sleep. During baseline, there was significant midday sleepiness tendency as measured by the MSLT; this tendency occurred at almost the same time on the second L/O day in LHR. Recommendations are offered for the adjustment of flight times and for scheduling times of permitted napping as accommodations for the periods of sleepiness tendency.

  7. Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, William C.; Seidel, Wesley F.; Cohen, Suzanne A.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Bliwise, Nancy G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rapid transmeridian flight on sleep and wakefulness were studied in aircrew members before and after flying one of two routes: San Francisco (SFO) to London (LHR) or SFO to Tokyo. After an adaptation night, sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured objectively in SFO and during the first layover (L/O) of the target trip, using the 'core measures' described by Graeber et al. (1986) and respiration parameters, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) described by Carscadon (1982); postsleep questionnaires provided subjective assessments. It was found that baseline sleep is not an ideal basis for subsequent comparison; nevertheless, there was an indication that L/O sleep periods tended to provide either less total sleep or less efficient sleep. During baseline, there was significant midday sleepiness tendency as measured by the MSLT; this tendency occurred at almost the same time on the second L/O day in LHR. Recommendations are offered for the adjustment of flight times and for scheduling times of permitted napping as accommodations for the periods of sleepiness tendency.

  8. Aerosinusitis: pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and management in passengers and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, K Christopher; Rajapaksa, Suresh; Wormald, Peter-John

    2008-01-01

    Patients presenting before flight with an upper respiratory infection are at risk for aerosinusitis. Prophylaxis of this condition consists of an oral decongestant before flight and nasal decongestant spray during the flight just prior to descent. Evaluation of the patient presenting with aerosinusitis consists of a careful physical exam with emphasis on diagnosing treatable nasal and sinus pathology. Categorization of the patient into the Weissman classification is important for determining prognostic factors for recovery. Management of this condition is based on the Weissman stage. Stage I or II lesions are generally treated conservatively with a 1-wk course of topical sprays, analgesics, a tapering course of steroids, and oral decongestants. Use of antibiotics is reserved for those cases initiated by bacterial sinusitis. Additionally, antihistamines are reserved for cases where allergies were the inciting cause. Stage III lesions are rarely seen in civilian air travelers due to the relatively low fluctuations in ambient air pressure. Aircrew that suffer Stage III aerosinusitis are at risk for recurrent sinus barotrauma that may require an expertly performed functional endoscopic sinus surgery to successfully manage it.

  9. Aircrew exposure monitoring: results of 2001 to 2003 studies.

    PubMed

    Spurný, F; Turek, K; Vlcek, B; Dachev, Ts

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew exposure represents one of the recent subjects of occupational individual dosimetry. Since 1991 many new results have been found; there is however a need to gather further data on this exposure and its variation with geomagnetic position, solar activity and flight route parameters. Since 2001, many individual and six long-term monitoring programmes have been conducted onboard aircraft of Czech Airlines (CSA). In these programmes, a Si-diode spectrometer was fixed in an aircraft. Together with it, passive dosemeters thermoluminescent detector, track-etch based neutron dosemeter linear energy transfer and spectrometer) were exposed. More than 700 regular commercial flights were monitored in this manner. CSA supplied us also with full navigation data, which allowed us to calculate the exposure levels using EPCARD 3.2 and CARI6 codes. Direct experimental readings obtained with the detectors mentioned above were interpreted on the basis of calibrations in on-Earth reference fields and compared with calculated data. A satisfactory correlation between all sets of data was observed.

  10. Astronaut Photographs Helmet Visor During Space Walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, used the pictured still digital camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during the EVA. Also visible in the reflection are thermal protection tiles on Discovery's underside.

  11. Astronaut Photographs Helmet Visor During Space Walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, used the pictured still digital camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during the EVA. Also visible in the reflection are thermal protection tiles on Discovery's underside.

  12. Simulation of Microwave Emissions from Helmet Streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, S. D.; Gary, D. E.; Lee, J.

    2004-05-01

    Helmet streamers are an important magnetic structure on the sun in relation to prominence formation and coronal mass ejections. We investigate some methods by which the magnetic field configuration in a streamer can be reconstructed from observations with the proposed Frequency Agile Solar Radio telescope (FASR). We begin with the global coronal magnetic field model for the forward problem proposed by Judge and Low in 2004. We add a realistic coronal temperature and density model that obeys hydrostatic equilibrium and allows gyroresonance emission to dominate the free-free emission at a selected observing frequency. Theoretical brightness temperature maps are created from the model at multi-frequencies and are then sampled using AIPS to simulate observations with the FASR. The magnetic field structure reconstructed from the simulated observations is compared with the original input configuration as a test of our diagnostics on the magnetic field. This work is supported by the NSF grants AST-0138317 and ATM-0077273 to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  13. Helmet-mounted video display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, Mark W.

    1997-06-01

    The Litton Soldier Vision Sub-system is a lightweight, low power, display system that can be mounted on the soft cap, helmet or bare head, of a soldier in the field. The head mounting approach allows hands-free operation by the soldier, thereby providing the ability to run stand shoot while still being able to observe the computer's display. Likewise, command post staff, maintenance technicians, even firemen, can function in a similar manner. The system contains four major components: HMD, electronics unit, battery housing, and cables. The HMD is a folded path design using a 60 hertz refresh active matrix liquid crystal display, with backlight from an array of six light-emitting diodes. The typical power source is a nominal 9 VDC lithium battery, the BA-5600, but rechargeable batteries can also be used. Extensive design effort has been expended to add the shielding and filters necessary for unimpaired operation in close proximity to tactical radios. The entire system, including battery and cables, weighs approximately 2.3 pounds. Small size, low power, and light weight allow the system to be used in many varied applications, including display of maintenance manuals, remote medical assistance, and field reconnaissance.

  14. The new-concept full-face-type helmet with removable cheek pads.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, M; Shida, M; Ichimura, A; Nakajima, I; Inokuchi, S; Sawada, Y

    1998-08-01

    The American College of Surgeons proposed a method of removing helmets. But the problem with full-face-type helmets is that their shape makes them difficult to remove. A dummy doll was fixed to a smooth bed surface in the supine position, and a full-face-type helmet with a hook attached to the vertex was placed on the doll's head. A spring balance was attached to the hook, traction was applied to the helmet through the spring balance, and the maximum tension needed to completely remove the helmet was measured. A tension of 13.2 +/- 1.8 kg was found. But when cheek pads were removed, the tension required to remove the helmet was 1.7 +/- 0.2 kg. We devised a full-face-type helmet that uses removable cheek pads so that helmet removal can be performed safely by removing only the cheek pads in the event of an accident.

  15. Helmet slippage during visual tracking: the effect of voluntary head movements.

    PubMed

    Neary, C; Bate, I J; Heller, L F; Williams, M

    1993-07-01

    The influence of visual tracking on head movement and on the head/helmet system was investigated for two different helmets (a motorcycle helmet and a flying helmet) under static laboratory conditions. Subjects visually refixated between pairs of illuminated targets located at various horizontal (up to 160 degrees) and vertical (up to 90 degrees) distances apart while head position and helmet slippage were measured in azimuth, pitch, roll, X, Y, and Z using a double magnetic coil system. Results showed that for both helmets, root mean square (RMS) head movement increased with refixation distance, especially in the main axis of refixation, and that RMS helmet slippage can be a function of RMS head motion. Further, large individual differences in the degree of head motion were found. These findings may have implications for designers and investigators of helmet-mounted avionics.

  16. Safety helmets for skiers and snowboarders--efficacy, safety and fitting principles. Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Head trauma is leading cause of mortality after injuries related with skiing and snowboarding. Wearing a helmet is considered to be a primary method to prevent traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among alpine sports participants. This article, based on literature review, determines the efficacy of helmets and safety of their use. It also presents practical principles of proper helmet fitting. A well proven reduction in the risk of TBI connected with helmet use is reported in the literature, ranging from 22 to 60%. Helmet use does not increase the risk of neck and C-spine injury. There is no good evidence to support the claim that use of helmets increases the risk compensation behaviors among participants. Proper fit includes adequate size, non-attenuated peripheral vision and hearing, well adjusted retention system (chinstrap). This factors may influence both efficacy and safety of helmet use. Helmets are recommended for all skiers and snowboarders.

  17. Proof of principle for helmet-mounted display image quality tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Beasley, Howard H.; Martin, John S.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality-testing tool for HMDs. There is currently no such tool. A framework for development of an image quality tester for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used in the U.S. Army's AH-64 was proposed in Hsieh et al. This paper presents the prototype development, summarizes the bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs), and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The prototype consists of hardware (two cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different apertures were mounted in parallel on a rack facing the HDU holder. A handle was designed to allow users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern was then captured. Sensors are used to detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU was angled correctly in relation to the camera. Two sets of unified algorithms were designed to detect features presented by the two cameras. These features include focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of gray-shades. Images of test pattern were captured and analyzed, and used to develop a specification for each inspection feature. Experiments were conducted to verify the robustness of the algorithms. A worst-case scenario for factors such as clock-wise and counterclockwise tilt, degree of focus, magnitude of brightness and contrast, and shifted images were set up and evaluated. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicate that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future work includes development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature

  18. [Helmet use by motorcyclists in four metropolitan areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in four metropolitan areas of Mexico (Guadalajara, León, Monterrey, and Mexico City). In October 2009, helmet use was observed in 26,046 drivers and 3,971 passengers of motorcycles at several zones of busy traffic. The data were analyzed by means of a hierarchical logistic regression model. The adjusted probabilities of helmet use strongly differed among the four metropolitan areas: Mexico City: 79-91%; León: 99%; Guadalajara: 54-58%; Monterrey: 73-95%. The probability is lower in passengers (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.15, with a 95%-confidence interval [CI] of 0.14-0.17) and in drivers who carry some passenger (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.45-0.54, as compared to drivers without passengers), and higher in users of motorcycles for commercial use (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.59-1.96, as compared to private use). Moreover, an estimated 44% of the motorcyclists used a type of helmet that was not officially approved and/or they did not properly adjust the device. This study shows that in Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Mexico City it is appropriate to start initiatives to promote helmet use in motorcyclists, particularly for passengers and drivers who transport one or more passengers.

  19. Determinants of safety helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Muttappillymyalil, Jayakumary; Divakaran, Binoo; C Haran, Jeesha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Motorcycles account for a large proportion of road traffic accidents in India and the riders of these vehicles run a high risk of injuries or death. This study aims to explore the determinants of helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in Kerala, India, over a period of six months. 309 motorcyclists in Kerala were interviewed for this study using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Among 309 motorcyclists, 80% were less than 40 years of age, and only 24% were females. Among the total, only 31.4% used a helmet. There was a statistically significant association between the use of helmet and gender, marital status, drunken driving, use of alcohol and attitude towards implementing legislative measures. Odds Ratios observed were 5.3 for female gender compared to male, 4.5 for those with a positive attitude towards the implementation of legislative measures on helmet use, 3.7 for those who were not drunk while driving and 2.3 for unmarried compared to married persons. Conclusions: The study concludes that the determinants associated with the practice of helmet use were gender, drunken driving, marital status and positive attitude towards legal measures. PMID:21483198

  20. A pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Walter T; Richards, Kirsten; Redhed, James; Papay, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was o determine the efficacy of a newly developed pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly. The design was retrospective and the setting was a tertiary care center. Subjects were all patients in whom positional plagiocephaly has been diagnosed and who have been fitted by the Orthotics and Prosthetics Department for the helmet. Diagonal cranial lengths and widths were measured at each visit. Analysis included the calculation of the ratio change in oblique diameters compared with time, patient's age, and head circumference. Seventy-five patients met inclusion criteria (50 boys, 25 girls). Patients with pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet therapy had significantly improved outcomes as compared with pretreatment measurements (P < or = 0.0001). The helmet did not limit cranial growth as evidenced by significant normalization of the oblique measurement ratio when compared with increasing cranial circumference and age (P = 0.0003, P < or = 0.0001, respectively). The pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet successfully corrects positional plagiocephaly and does not hinder cranial growth.

  1. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of iron oxide fume inside and outside of welding helmets

    SciTech Connect

    Goller, J.W.; Paik, N.W.

    1985-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare the iron oxide fume concentrations inside and outside the helmets of welders. Airborne iron oxide fume concentrations were determined simultaneously at four body locations - the left front shoulder, right front shoulder, front chest, and inside the helmet - during welders' normal activity. Results indicate that the fume concentrations at the actual breathing zone inside helmets are reduced to 36% - 71% of concentrations outside the helmets, depending on the type of welding and employees' postures.

  3. Comparisons between Shikoro-type helmet with no hood and typical fire protective helmets with hood in a hot and humid environment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yoon Jeong; Jung, Dahee; Son, Su-Young; Lee, Joo-Young

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiological and subjective responses while wearing the Shikoro-type helmet for firefighters when compared to typical helmets. Eight firefighters conducted a 30-min exercise at a 5 km h(-1) in three helmet conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C with 70%RH. The results showed that no significant differences in rectal, mean skin temperature and physiological strain index among the three conditions were found during exercise and recovery. Skin temperatures on the cheek, ear and neck during exercise were significantly lower for the Shikoro-type condition (p < 0.05), but forehead temperature was greater for the Shikoro-type helmet when compared to the other conditions (p < 0.05). Statistical differences in thermal sensation and thermal comfort for overall and local body regions were not found among the three conditions. These results imply that the Shikoro-type helmet had local advantages in reducing skin temperatures on the face and neck. Practitioner Summary: Firefighters wear their helmet with its hood to protect the head and neck but a Shikoro type helmet has no fire protective hood. This study aimed to evaluate the comfort function of Shikoro helmet along with typical helmets. The results demonstrated thermal benefits of the Shikoro helmet on the head.

  4. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Hundley, Jonathan C; Kilgo, Patrick D; Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hensberry, Rebecca A; Meredith, J Wayne; Hoth, J Jason

    2004-11-01

    Helmet laws remain controversial. Opponents believe negative findings are a result of biased statistical analyses that fail to account for the impact of alcohol and drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect that helmet use had upon injury severity, outcome controlling for alcohol or drug use, resource utilization, and financial burden using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Two groups of patients, helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, were identified using the NTDB over an 8-year period. Group differences were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for dichotomous outcomes. To evaluate the effect that alcohol or drug use had on mortality, logistic regression models were created. A total of 9,769 patients were identified by the NTDB of which 6756 (69.2%) were helmeted and 3013 (30.8%) were non-helmeted. Helmet use was associated with lower injury severity, mortality, and resource utilization. Non-helmeted motorcyclists accrued greater hospital charges and were significantly less likely to have health insurance. When controlling for alcohol or drug use, mortality continued to be significantly associated with non-helmet use. Non-helmeted motorcyclists have worse outcomes than their helmeted counterparts independent of the use of alcohol or drugs. Furthermore, they monopolize more hospital resources, incur higher hospital charges, and as non-helmeted motorcyclists frequently do not have insurance, reimbursement in this group of patients is poor. Thus, the burden of caring for these patients is transmitted to society as a whole.

  5. Molding Helmet Liners from Nylon Cloth Made from 1050 Denier Type 700 Nylon Yarns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Helmet liners were satisfactorily molded from 14 ounce, 2 x 2 basket- weave nylon fabric made of 1050 denier, 168 filaments, 3 to 4 Z turns per inch...type 700 nylon yarn. These helmets liners satisfied the autoclave and the ballistics resistant requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-41800, Liner , Soldier’s Steel Helmet, 1 May 1961.

  6. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use among Middle-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data…

  7. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n…

  8. Payload specialist Christa McAuliffe briefed on launch/entry helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Christa McAuliffe is briefed on launch/entry helmets by crew systems technician Alan M. Rochford in JSC's crew systems lab (40029); McAuliffe trys on her launch/entry helmet with Rochford's help (40030); As other technicians watch, Rochford and McAuliffe test out the helmets systems (40031).

  9. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide...

  10. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n…

  11. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  12. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide...

  13. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  14. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  15. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  16. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide...

  17. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  18. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  19. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide...

  20. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  1. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide...

  2. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision which...

  3. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  4. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  6. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  7. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  9. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  11. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  12. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  16. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  17. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or helmet...

  18. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at...

  19. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use among Middle-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data…

  20. Testing the risk compensation hypothesis for safety helmets in alpine skiing and snowboarding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michael D; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Voeks, Jennifer H; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R

    2007-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of helmet use by alpine skiers and snowboarders was estimated and self‐reports on risk taking were assessed to test for potential risk compensation when using helmets in these sports. Setting Skiers and snowboarders were observed and interviewed at 34 resorts in the western United States and Canada. Subjects Respondents were 1779 adult skiers and snowboarders in the 2003 ski season. Outcome measures Observations of helmet use and questions about perceived speed and degree of challenge when not wearing a helmet (helmet wearers) or in previous ski seasons (non‐helmet wearers). Results Helmet wearers reported that they skied/snowboarded at slower speeds (OR = 0.64, p<0.05) and challenged themselves less (OR = 0.76, p<0.05) than non‐helmet wearers. Adoption of safety helmets in 2003 (23%) continued to increase over 2002 (OR = 0.46, p<0.05) and 2001 (OR = 0.84, p<0.05). Conclusions No evidence of risk compensation among helmet wearers was found. Decisions to wear helmets may be part of a risk reduction orientation. Helmet use continues to trend upwards but adoption may be slowing. PMID:17567972

  1. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied helmets and masks. (a) Each surface-supplied helmet or mask must have— (1) A nonreturn valve at the...

  2. Payload specialist Christa McAuliffe briefed on launch/entry helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Christa McAuliffe is briefed on launch/entry helmets by crew systems technician Alan M. Rochford in JSC's crew systems lab (40029); McAuliffe trys on her launch/entry helmet with Rochford's help (40030); As other technicians watch, Rochford and McAuliffe test out the helmets systems (40031).

  3. Measuring neuromuscular fatigue in cervical spinal musculature of military helicopter aircrew.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick; Albert, Wayne J; Kuruganti, Usha; Croll, James C; Chancey, V Carol; Bumgardner, Bradley A

    2009-11-01

    Neck pain and muscle function in aircrew have received considerable attention. We hypothesized normalized electromyography (EMG) frequency would provide insight into appropriate methods to assess muscle fatigue in helicopter aircrew. 40 helicopter aircrew performed isometric testing that included maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 70% MVC endurance protocols of extension, flexion, and left and right lateral flexion for cervical muscles. Bilateral muscle activity in the splenius capitis, sternocleidomastoid, and upper trapezius was monitored with EMG. Normalized mean EMG frequency was calculated for each muscle at the start and end of the 70% MVC trials to determine which muscles fatigued and limited force maintenance during each isometric movement. For extension, the left and right splenius capitis fatigued by approximately 21-22% (p < 0.01); for flexion, the left and right sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 11-14% (p < 0.01); for right flexion, the right sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 15% (p < 0.01); for left flexion, the left spenus capitis and left sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 7.2% (p = 0.02) and approximately 11.2% (p = 0.03), respectively; in no trials did the trapezius muscles display fatigue as measured by EMG. The smaller agonist muscles were the most susceptible to fatigue during submaximal isometric endurance movements in the cervical muscles of helicopter aircrew.

  4. Crew resource management: a simulator study comparing fixed versus formed aircrews.

    PubMed

    Barker, J M; Clothier, C C; Woody, J R; McKinney, E H; Brown, J L

    1996-01-01

    Most airline and military transport planes are flown by crews that have been teamed together for a short amount of time before disbanding and becoming part of a different crew (formed crew concept). Some military operations use a fixed crew concept, pairing crewmembers together for an indefinite period. This research investigated the effect of crew formation policy on aircrew performance during missions in U.S. Air Force KC-135 (tanker) simulators. The performance of fixed aircrews is compared to formed aircrews flying the same simulator mission scenario, which included an in-flight emergency. Cockpit resource management (CRM) behavioral data and error data were collected by trained observers for 17 crews (9 fixed and 8 formed). The results show that fixed crews committed more minor errors (4.4 per mission) than formed crews (2.6 per mission), t(14) = 2.32, p = 0.036. No differences were found concerning major errors or CRM behavioral indicators. The results suggest the possibility of a "familiarity decline," where aircrew performance declines when crewmembers become too familiar with each other and may affect flight safety.

  5. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  6. Total Aircrew Workload Study for the AMST. Volume II. Comm/Nav Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    AFFDL-TR-79- 3080,VOL.1I - LEVEL’ Itr TOTAL AIRCREW WORKLOAD STUDY FOR THE AMST VOLUME II, COMM/ NAV DESCRIPTION *THE S LUNKER JZA:10 CORPOIZATION ELE...16 SB. Detailed Description . .. .......... . . . . 19 TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 NAV MANAGEMENT SYSTEM l............... 2 NAV ...MANAGEMENT CDU .................... 3 3 NAV MANAGEMENT CDU PAGES ............. 9........ 4 4 FLIGHT PLAN PAGE ..... ...................... 6 - 5 WAYPOINT

  7. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum...

  8. Measuring the ability of military aircrews to adapt to perceived stressors when undergoing centrifuge training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenhung; Lin, Pei-Chun; Li, Shih-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of military aircrews to adapt to stressors when undergoing centrifuge training and determined what equipment items caused perceived stress and needed to be upgraded. We used questionnaires and the Rasch model to measure aircrew personnel's ability to adapt to centrifuge training. The measurement items were ranked by 611 military aircrew personnel. Analytical results indicated that the majority of the stress perceived by aircrew personnel resulted from the lightproof cockpit without outer reference. This study prioritized the equipment requiring updating as the lightproof cockpit design, the dim lighting of the cockpit, and the pedal design. A significant difference was found between pilot and non-pilot subjects' stress from the pedal design; and considerable association was discernible between the seat angle design and flight hours accrued. The study results provide aviators, astronauts, and air forces with reliable information as to which equipment items need to be urgently upgraded as their present physiological and psychological effects can affect the effectiveness of centrifuge training.

  9. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum and...

  10. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Hjaltalin, O

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. Results: The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. Conclusion: There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure. PMID:14573711

  11. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population.

    PubMed

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Olafsson, J Hjaltalin

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure.

  12. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  13. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  14. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  15. Increasing the use of bicycle helmets: lessons from behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy J; Sleet, David; Sacks, Jeffrey J

    2002-03-01

    Bicycle helmet purchase, use, consistent use, and correct use are determined by a complex set of factors. Behavioral theory suggests that they are influenced by the reciprocal association between individual characteristics such as, expectations, skills, attitudes, and beliefs; social influences such as social norms and peer pressure; and environmental factors such as availability, accessibility, and cost. These factors can be influenced through counseling and other interventions. While a review of the literature suggests that many bicycle helmet programs have not been planned using behavioral models and knowledge from the behavioral sciences, many studies include information that supports behavioral principles. This paper describes the behavioral principles and their application to the problem of increasing bicycle helmet use. Recommendations for practitioners are included.

  16. Methods for estimating radiation doses received by commercial aircrew.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Pierre; Fuller, Nicolas; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2003-07-01

    Radiation doses received onboard aircraft are monitored in Europe to protect aircrew in accordance with a European Union directive. The French Aviation Authorities have developed a system called SIEVERT, using calculation codes to monitor effective radiation doses. For the galactic cosmic ray component, a 3-D world map of effective dose rates is computed using available operational codes. Detailed flight plans are used to ensure sufficient precision. For the solar particle event component, a semi-empirical model called SiGLE has been developed to calculate a time-dependent map of effective dose rates in the course of the event. SiGLE is based on particle transport code results and measurements during solar particle events onboard Concorde airplanes. We present a comparison of the calculated effective radiation dose and measured dose equivalent for various flights onboard Air France aircraft. The agreement is within 15%, which is about the precision of the state-of-the-art dosimetric measurements. Meteorological effects on the dose calculation appear to be negligible. Preliminary results based on solar particle events observed since 1942 with ionization chambers and neutron monitors are given. The present analysis shows that for the galactic cosmic ray component, monthly world maps based on neutron monitor observations are sufficient to ensure a precision of about 20% on the dose estimate for each flight. For the past 40 yr, according to the model SiGLE, none of the solar events has given an effective radiation dose larger than 1 mSv for flights on the most exposed routes.

  17. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    PubMed

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-09-07

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  18. Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Bazargan, Shahrzad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    Background Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. Methods Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants were 28 male motorcyclists who never used a safety helmet during rides, and 4 male police officers. All transcripts, codes and categories were read for several times to exhaust identifiable major themes. During this process data were reduced from text to codes and themes. Results Five major themes emerged from the data analyses, including themes related to the following: (1) circumventing or dodging police officers; (2) simulating a helmet wearing behavior; (3) accepting the probability of receiving a ticket; (4) taking advantage of the police neglect and carelessness; and (5) using a cheap or convenient helmet. Conclusion Our findings suggest certain levels of reckless driving among the participating motorcyclists in this study. They also point to a system of law enforcement that operates haphazardly and fails to consistently penalize those who deviate from it. Further studies are needed to investigate how "risks" are perceived and relate to "reactions", and how a 'culture of masculinity' may encourage risk tolerance and a disposition toward lawlessness and carelessness among male motorcyclists. Also, there is a need for the development and implementation of multidimensional interventions that would offer socio-culturally sensitive educational and motivational messages to the motorcyclists and the in-service traffic-enforcement officers in Iran. PMID:19843325

  19. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-09-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  20. Body-worn optical wireless link to helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, David W.; Watson, Malcolm A.; White, Henry J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a prototype demonstration of a high bandwidth data link between the fuselage of an aircraft and a helmet mounted display. A single data receiver, powered by battery and equipped with a light-collecting optical antenna to increase optical gain, is worn on the body of the pilot, with a fast-modulated laser transmitter mounted in the pilot's seat area. The combination covered the expected range of body movement that a pilot typically undergoes during a flight. Uncompressed, {140Mbps video data is streamed over the free-space link to a BAE Systems helmet mounted display (Q-Sight™) worn by the pilot.

  1. Design of a Catadioptric VCASS Helmet-Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    mounted on an extra large Air Force flight helmet, type HGU-2A/P (see Figure 1). Since a single size of helmet must be adapted to all wearers (see sizing...in our discussions with the Government. We believe that distortion in itself can be adapted to if it is consistent over a period of time so that the...6, 627-643. Porac, Clare, and Stanley Coren, "Suppressive processes in binocular vision: ocular dominance and amblyopia ." Am. J. Optom. and Physiol

  2. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  3. Age has a Minimal Effect on the Impact Performance of Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Chimich, Dennis D; Bakal, Jeff A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-08-01

    Helmet manufacturers recommend replacing a bicycle helmet after an impact or after anywhere from 2 to 10 years of use. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of helmet age on peak headform acceleration during impact attenuation testing of field-used bicycle helmets. Helmets were acquired by donation from consumers and retail stores, and were included in the study if they were free of impact-related damage, had a legible manufacture date label, and were certified to at least one helmet standard. Helmets (n = 770) spanning 0-26 years old were drop tested to measure peak linear headform acceleration during impacts to the right and left front regions of the helmets at two impact speeds (3.0 and 6.2 m/s). General linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and three covariates (helmet style, size and certification impact speed) on peak acceleration. Overall, age was related to either no difference or a statistically significant but small increase (≤0.76 g/year of helmet age) in peak headform acceleration. Extrapolated across 20 years, age-related differences were less than both style- (traditional vs. BMX) and size-related differences. The age-related differences were also less than the variability observed between different helmets after accounting for style, size and certification effects. These findings mean that bicycle helmets (up to 26-year-old traditional helmets and 13-year-old BMX helmets) do not lose their ability to attenuate impacts with age; however, other helmet features that may change with age were not evaluated in this study.

  4. Pediatric bicycle injury prevention and the effect of helmet use: the West Virginia experience.

    PubMed

    Bergenstal, John; Davis, Stephen M; Sikora, Rosanna; Paulson, Debra; Whiteman, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was evaluation of the injury pattern of children 14 years old or less involved in bicycle accidents and comparison of the differences between those wearing a helmet and not wearing a helmet. This was a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients involved in bicycle crashes from 2008 through 2010 who were treated within the West Virginia Trauma System. A case was selected for further analysis if "bicycle" and "blunt cause of injury" were present in the Mechanism of Injury field and if age was 14 years old or less. Descriptive statistics were calculated on all variables. Differences between the helmeted and un-helmeted cohorts were tested using the Wilcoxon test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all cases an alpha of 0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance. The helmeted group had a concussion rate of 19.4% while concussions were noted in 37.4% of the un-helmeted group (p = 0.0509). Additionally, there was a significant difference in the rate of skull fractures seen. Skull fractures occurred in 3.2% of the helmeted and 17.4% of the un-helmeted (p = 0.0408) riders. The rate of intra-cranial hemorrhage was 0% in helmeted riders and 17.4% in un-helmeted riders (p = 0.0079). Finally, perhaps the largest indicator of the effectiveness of helmets in the pediatric bicycle population is the mortality rate. While not statistically different, 100% (n = 2) of the deaths occurred in the un-helmeted group. This study of the West Virginia pediatric population demonstrates findings similar to prior studies looking at the effectiveness of helmets in preventing injuries during a bicycle crash. Bicycle helmets were shown to significantly reduce the rates of both skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage. Based on this, the expanded use of helmets within the pediatric population should continue to be encouraged both from an educational and legislative standpoint.

  5. Using baseline and formative evaluation data to inform the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Naumann, Rebecca B; Mutatina, Boniface; Nakitto, Mable; Mwanje, Barbara; Brondum, Lotte; Blanchard, Claire; Baldwin, Grant T; Dellinger, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Motorcycles are an important form of transportation in Uganda, and are involved in more road traffic injuries than any other vehicle. The majority of motorcycles in Uganda are used as motorcycle taxis, better known locally as boda bodas. Research shows that a motorcycle helmet is effective at reducing a rider's risk of death and head injury. As part of the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative (UHVI), researchers collected baseline and formative evaluation data on boda boda operators' helmet attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to inform UHVI activities. Researchers collected data on motorcycle helmet-related attitudes and beliefs through focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews, and researchers conducted roadside observations to collect data on helmet-wearing behaviors. Of the 12,189 motorcycle operators and passengers observed during roadside observations, 30.8% of drivers and <1% of passengers were wearing helmets. The most commonly reported helmet-wearing barriers from the focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews were: (1) 'Helmet is uncomfortable', (2) 'Helmet is too hot', (3) 'Helmet is too expensive', and (4) 'Helmet is of low quality'. Researchers incorporated findings from the formative research into the UHVI campaign to increase motorcycle helmet use. Radio messages addressing helmet comfort and cost were widely aired throughout Kampala, Uganda. In addition, campaign staff held nine boda boda operator workshops, covering approximately 900 operators, in which the facilitator addressed barriers and facilitators to helmet use. Each workshop participant received a high-quality tropical motorcycle helmet. UHVI will continue to use a data-driven approach to future campaign activities.

  6. Helmet Fit and Cervical Spine Motion in Collegiate Men's Lacrosse Athletes Secured to a Spine Board

    PubMed Central

    Petschauer, Meredith A.; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. Objective: To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Intervention(s): Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Results: Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Conclusions: Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization. PMID:20446833

  7. Bicycle helmet use among persons 5years and older in the United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Beck, Laurie F; Taylor, Christopher; Baldwin, Grant

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, injuries to bicyclists accounted for 925 fatalities and 493,884 nonfatal, emergency department-treated injuries in the United States. Bicyclist deaths increased by 19% from 2010 to 2013. The greatest risk of death and disability to bicyclists is head injuries. The objective of this study was to provide estimates of prevalence and associated factors of bicycle riding and helmet use among children and adults in the United States. CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles survey. Adult respondents (18+years) were asked about bicycle riding and helmet use in the last 30days for themselves and their children (5 to 17years). For bicycle riders, CDC estimated the prevalence of helmet use and conducted multivariable regression analyses to identify factors associated with helmet use. Among adults, 21% rode bicycles within the past 30days and 29% always wore helmets. Respondents reported that, of the 61% of children who rode bicycles within the past 30days, 42% always wore helmets. Children were more likely to always wear helmets (90%) when their adult respondents always wore helmets than when their adult respondents did not always wear helmets (38%). Children who lived in states with a child bicycle helmet law were more likely to always wear helmets (47%) than those in states without a law (39%). Despite the fact that bicycle helmets are highly effective at reducing the risk for head injuries, including severe brain injuries and death, less than half of children and adults always wore bicycle helmets while riding. States and communities should consider interventions that improve the safety of riding such as policies to promote helmet use, modeling of helmet wearing by adults, and focusing on high risk groups, including Hispanic cyclists, occasional riders, adults, and children ages 10 to 14. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Modeling and Optimization of Airbag Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries in Bicycling.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Mehmet; Laksari, Kaveh; Kuo, Calvin; Grant, Gerald A; Camarillo, David B

    2017-04-01

    Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head. By allowing softer liner medium and larger helmet sizes, this novel approach in helmet design provides the opportunity to achieve much lower acceleration levels during collision and may reduce the risk of brain injury. In this study, we first develop theoretical frameworks to investigate impact dynamics of current EPS helmets and airbag helmets-as a form of expandable helmet design. We compared our theoretical models with anthropomorphic test dummy drop test experiments. Peak accelerations obtained from these experiments with airbag helmets achieve up to an 8-fold reduction in the risk of concussion compared to standard EPS helmets. Furthermore, we construct an optimization framework for airbag helmets to minimize concussion and severe head injury risks at different impact velocities, while avoiding excessive deformation and bottoming-out. An optimized airbag helmet with 0.12 m thickness at 72 ± 8 kPa reduces the head injury criterion (HIC) value to 190 ± 25 at 6.2 m/s head impact velocity compared to a HIC of 1300 with a standard EPS helmet. Based on a correlation with previously reported HIC values in the literature, this airbag helmet design substantially reduces the risks of severe head injury up to 9 m/s.

  9. Bicycle helmet use among persons 5 years and older in the United States, 2012☆

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Amy; Beck, Laurie F.; Taylor, Christopher; Baldwin, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2013, injuries to bicyclists accounted for 925 fatalities and 493,884 nonfatal, emergency department-treated injuries in the United States. Bicyclist deaths increased by 19% from 2010 to 2013. The greatest risk of death and disability to bicyclists is head injuries. The objective of this study was to provide estimates of prevalence and associated factors of bicycle riding and helmet use among children and adults in the United States. Method CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles survey. Adult respondents (18+ years) were asked about bicycle riding and helmet use in the last 30 days for themselves and their children (5 to 17 years). For bicycle riders, CDC estimated the prevalence of helmet use and conducted multivariable regression analyses to identify factors associated with helmet use. Results Among adults, 21% rode bicycles within the past 30 days and 29% always wore helmets. Respondents reported that, of the 61% of children who rode bicycles within the past 30 days, 42% always wore helmets. Children were more likely to always wear helmets (90%) when their adult respondents always wore helmets than when their adult respondents did not always wear helmets (38%). Children who lived in states with a child bicycle helmet law were more likely to always wear helmets (47%) than those in states without a law (39%). Conclusions Despite the fact that bicycle helmets are highly effective at reducing the risk for head injuries, including severe brain injuries and death, less than half of children and adults always wore bicycle helmets while riding. Practical application States and communities should consider interventions that improve the safety of riding such as policies to promote helmet use, modeling of helmet wearing by adults, and focusing on high risk groups, including Hispanic cyclists, occasional riders, adults, and children ages 10 to 14. PMID:27846992

  10. Analysis of Seating and Restraint Limitations Restricting Total Body Weight for Aircrew and Passengers on U.S. Army Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    largest available flight suit (size 48L), SRU-21/P survival vest, and webbing restraints accommodate a 47-inch waist circumference . Aviation Life Support Equipment, Restraint, Aircrew, Helicopters, Aircraft seats, Survival vest

  11. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  12. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Anthony M.; Claiborne, Tina L.; Thompson, Gregory B.; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Context: The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. Objective: To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. Main Outcome Measure(s): The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. Results: The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). Conclusions: The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of

  13. Bicycle helmets in Israel: observed change in usage following a nationwide campaign.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, B; Tamir, D

    1996-02-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of injury and death among bicycle riders. The use of bicycle helmets could reduce the rate of serious head trauma among bicyclists involved in accidents. A nationwide survey was conducted in Israel to determine the usage of such helmets. This survey preceded a media campaign encouraging the use of bicycle helmets. A second survey compared the rates of helmet usage following the media campaign with those rates prior to the campaign. A modest but significant increase in the use of bicycle helmets was observed. In order to further increase this rate, additional educational campaigns are needed and possibly the enactment of legislation.

  14. Dynamics of Head Protection (Impact Protective Comparison of the SPH-4 Flight Helmet to a Commercial Motorcycle Helmet)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Biomechanics of Trauma . pp. 1-10. 27 APPENDIX A List of Manufacturers Kistler Instrument Corporation 75 John Glenn Drive Amherst, NY 14120 Nicolet...aviation helmets were of the same type as motorcyclists ’ helmets,’designed primarily to give protection against wind "blast. Later, as expanded plastic...18 Since it may be expected that motorcyclists may fall or be thrown from heights of 1.6 m up to 3.0 m, it is clear that riders could receive various

  15. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in size and impact performance of football helmets from the 1970s to 2010.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Halstead, David

    2012-01-01

    Linear impactor tests were conducted on football helmets from the 1970s-1980s to complement recently reported tests on 1990 s and 2010 s helmets. Helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with an array of accelerometers to determine translational and rotational acceleration. Impacts were at four sites on the helmet shell at 3.6-11.2 m/s. The four generations of helmets show a continuous improvement in response from bare head impacts in terms of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), peak head acceleration and peak rotational acceleration. Helmets of 2010 s weigh 1.95 ± 0.2 kg and are 2.7 times heavier than 1970s designs. They are also 4.3 cm longer, 7.6 cm higher, and 4.9 cm wider. The extra size and weight allow the use of energy absorbing padding that lowers forces in helmet impacts. For frontal impacts at 7.4 m/s, the four best performing 2010 s helmets have HIC of 148 ± 23 compared to 179 ± 42 for the 1990 s baseline, 231 ± 27 for the 1980s, 253 ± 22 for the 1970s helmets, and 354 ± 3 for the bare head. The additional size and padding of the best 2010 s helmets provide superior attenuation of impact forces in normal play and in conditions associated with concussion than helmets of the 1970s-1990 s.

  17. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Current bicycle helmet ownership, use and related factors among school-aged children in metropolitan Toronto.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Wesson, D E; Parkin, P C; Chipman, M L; Spence, L J

    1994-01-01

    A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted to examine bicycle helmet ownership, use and related factors among 707 children in Metropolitan Toronto. The ownership rate was 22% and use rate 12%. Although ownership was similarly distributed by age and sex, helmet use varied considerably across age strata among boys; only about one fifth of teenaged boys who owned a helmet wore it regularly. Both parental education and annual family income were significantly associated with ownership and use. Past bicycle injuries, although increasing helmet ownership, had no positive impact on use. The strength of a parental role model was reflected in the fact that when parents owned and used a helmet, 93% of their children had a helmet and more than 80% of them always wore it. Since about half of parents are cyclists themselves, helmet promotion activities are likely to maximize their effect if they target both parents and children.

  19. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: absolute distance perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Patrick; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the side of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. The increased separation of the cameras induces hyperstereopsis - the exaggeration of the stereoscopic disparities that support the perception of relative depth around the point of fixation. Increased camera separation may also affect absolute depth perception, because it increases the amount of vergence (crossing) of the eyes required for binocular fusion, and because the differential perspective from the viewpoints of the two eyes is increased. The effect of hyperstereopsis on the perception of absolute distance was investigated using a large-scale stereoscopic display system. A fronto-parallel textured surface was projected at a distance of 6 metres. Three stereoscopic viewing conditions were simulated - hyperstereopsis (four times magnification), normal stereopsis, and hypostereopsis (one quarter magnification). The apparent distance of the surface was measured relative to a grid placed in a virtual "leaf room" that provided rich monocular cues, such as texture gradients and linear perspective, to absolute distance as well as veridical sterescopic disparity cues. The different stereoscopic viewing conditions had no differential effect on the apparent distance of the textured surface at this viewing distance.

  20. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists.

  1. Unilateral Pterional Polycraniosynostosis Treated with Craniectomy and Helmet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marucci, Damian D.; Gates, Robert J.; Fowler, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the cranial sutures have fused prematurely, affecting the growth pattern and contours of the infant skull. The pterion is the junction of temporal, frontal, parietal, and sphenoid bones of the skull. We present a case of unilateral pterional craniosynostosis, which was treated with strip craniectomy and helmet therapy. PMID:28280680

  2. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  3. Comfortable, lightweight safety helmet holds radio transmitter, receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, N. D.

    1964-01-01

    For two-way radio communication where safety gear is required, a lightweight helmet with few protrusions has been designed. The electronics components and power supply are mounted between the inner and outer shells, and resilient padding is used for the lining.

  4. Vinogradovs helmet during Ex;pedition 13 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-02

    ISS013-E-29011 (1 June 2006) --- A close-up view shows the face of cosmonaut Pavel V. Vinogradov, Expedition 13 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, through his helmet visor during the first session of extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by the Expedition 13 crew during their six-month mission. Vinogradov was attired in a Russian Orlan spacesuit.

  5. Astrobnaut Cooper - Pre-Helmet Removal - Altitude Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-01-01

    S63-03984 (1963) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, is pictured just after his helmet had been removed. He has just spent approximately five hours in the spacecraft during altitude chamber tests. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Advances in rotary-wing helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, David; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the US Marine corps AH-1Z attack helicopter. This paper presents an overview of the design solution, as well as details of the rational behind the design and some of the lesson learnt. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth.

  7. Physicians promoting bicycle helmets for children: a randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, R; James, W; Waclawik, H

    1991-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of death and serious morbidity in bicycle accidents. There is good evidence to recommend helmets, yet few children wear them. We evaluated helmet promotion in a randomized trial targeting children presenting to primary care settings for routine ambulatory care. The intervention consisted of physician counseling and take-home pamphlets. The study involved 339 families, 167 in the intervention group and 172 in the control group. In a follow-up telephone call, 2 to 3 weeks later, only 7.2% of the intervention group had purchased helmets, compared with 7.0% of the control group (chi 2 = 0.0056, P = .94). During the latter half of the study, bicycle safety received considerable media attention in Ottawa, and the provincial medical society sponsored a $5 discount campaign. Therefore both groups were subject to community "co-intervention." Nonetheless, we were surprised that physician counseling made no additional impact. Our results and the success of certain community programs suggest that physicians interested in helmet promotion would do better to participate in the design and implementation of multidisciplinary campaigns. PMID:1853997

  8. Development of a Spectra Fabric PASGT-Type Personnel Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    STRUCTURAL FORMS) PASGT(PERSONAL ARMOR SYSTEM FOR GROUND TROOPS) This page intentionally...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/021 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECTRA FABRIC PASGT- TYPE PERSONNEL HELMET...OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01-06-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES

  9. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  10. Effects of ventilated safety helmets in a hot environment

    Treesearch

    G.A. Davis; E.D. Edmisten; R.E. Thomas; R.B. Rummer; D.D. Pascoe

    2001-01-01

    Forest workers are likely to remove head protection in hot and humid conditions because of thermal discomfort. However, a recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation revision requires all workers in logging operations to wear safety helmets, thus creating a compliance problem. To determine which factors contribute to forest workers’ thermal...

  11. A comparison of observed and self-reported helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in Hyderabad city, India.

    PubMed

    Wadhwaniya, S; Gupta, S; Mitra, S; Tetali, S; Josyula, L K; Gururaj, G; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    India has a high burden of fatal road traffic injuries (RTIs). A large proportion of fatal RTIs in India are among motorcyclists. The overall goal of this study is to assess and compare observed and self-reported prevalence of helmet use; and to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting in Hyderabad city, India. Roadside knowledge, attitude and practice interviews. Six rounds of roadside interviews were conducted with motorcyclists (drivers and pillion riders) between July 2011 and August 2013 using a structured tool developed for this study. Observations on helmet use were recorded and respondents were also asked if they 'always wear a helmet'. Prevalence of helmet use was calculated and a paired t-test was used to compare observed and self-reported helmet use proportions. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to identify factors associated with helmet use and over-reporting. A total of 4872 respondents participated in the roadside interview. The response rate was 94.4%. The overall observed helmet use was 34.5% and 44.5% of respondents reported that they 'always wear a helmet'. As the observed helmet use increased, the over-reporting of helmet use was found to decrease. However, factors associated with observed and self-reported helmet use are similar. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), a lower level of education and non-ownership of helmet were associated with a higher risk of not wearing helmets. Male gender, youth (≤24 years), no schooling, riding a lower engine capacity motorcycle and using a motorcycle for purposes other than travelling to school/work were associated with over-reporting of helmet use. Self-reports provide an overestimate of helmet use that lessens as actual helmet use increases. Interviews also allow identification of factors associated with helmet use. Increasing helmet ownership and enhanced enforcement may help increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  12. Helmet Use Among Personal Bicycle Riders and Bike Share Users in Vancouver, BC.

    PubMed

    Zanotto, Moreno; Winters, Meghan L

    2017-06-29

    Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC's all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    the F-35 Lightning II Generation II (Gen II) Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) flight helmet. SI performance measurements were also collected with EAR ...JSF performance specification requirements were being met: ≥ 75%. The SI scores for all configurations that included an EAR Classic foam earplug in...HMD (right) .................................. 3 Figure 3. CEPs with Comply™ Canal Tips (left) & EAR Classic Foam Earplug (right) . 3 Figure 4

  14. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost.

  15. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-09-03

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  16. Potential see-through performance deficits in U.S. Army developmental helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Army has several helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) under development, all with unique characteristics and designs. For example, the now cancelled RAH-66 Comanche HIDSS (Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System) uses miniature liquid crystal displays as sources, and Microvision, Inc., of Bothel, Washington, is developing several prototype HMDs for the Army that incorporate a scanning laser or lasers as their source. Gone are new HMD designs that use cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as sources. A potential problem for see-through displays lies in the fact that the MTF (modulation transfer function) of flat panel displays is characterized by a good high-spatial frequency response. Although this seems counterintuitive, this high frequency response may impact the see-through detection and identification of high-spatial frequency targets because of visual masking and/or spatial frequency adaptation. A similar problem exists with the HMDs being developed by Microvision, Inc., where a high-spatial frequency noise pattern is present due to the inclusion of a diffractive exit pupil expander. Simple blurring of the HMD imagery would reduce this potential problem. In an earlier investigation, we found that a little blurring of flat panel displays does not affect small letter acuity even near threshold. Thus, it is possible to reduce the potential for see-through deficits while still maintaining maximum HMD fidelity.

  17. In-flight evaluation of a fiber optic helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Gubbels, Arthur W.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg

    1998-08-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in conjunction with the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is investigating the use of helmet-mounted displays (HMD) to improve pilot situational awareness in all-weather search and rescue helicopter operations. The National Research Council has installed a visually coupled HMD system in the NRC Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. Equipped with a full authority fly-by-wire control system, the Bell 205 has variable stability characteristics, which makes the airborne simulator the ideal platform for the integrated flight testing of HMDs in a simulated operational environment. This paper presents preliminary results from flight test of the NRC HMD. These results are in the form of numerical head tracker data, and subjective handling qualities ratings. Flight test results showed that the HMD degraded handling qualities due to reduced acuity, limited field-of-view, time delays in the sensor platform, and fatigue caused by excessive helmet inertia. Some evidence was found to support the hypothesis of an opto-kinetic cervical reflex whereby a pilot pitches and rolls his head in response to aircraft movements to maintain a level horizon in their field-of- view.

  18. Motorcyclists, full-face helmets and neck injuries: can you take the helmet off safely, and if so, how?

    PubMed Central

    Branfoot, T

    1994-01-01

    Injured motorcyclists may have a damaged and unstable cervical spine (C-spine). This paper looks at whether a helmet can be safely removed, how and when should this be done? The literature is reviewed and the recommendations of the Trauma Working party of the Joint Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee are presented. PMID:7921566

  19. Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren. Impact of a community education program and a cycling fatality.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a community bicycle helmet education and subsidy program and the further effect of a bicycle rodeo on helmet ownership and use among elementary schoolchildren. The unanticipated effect of a child cyclist fatality was also measured. DESIGN: Helmet ownership and use were measured in two ways: a questionnaire was sent to all elementary schoolteachers asking about helmet ownership and use by their students; and volunteers counted the children riding their bicycles to school. SETTING: Elementary schools in the town of Goderich, population 7400, and the town of Kincardine, population 6227, both on Lake Huron in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: More than 80% of the 1050 elementary school students in Goderich and, for comparison, more than 90% of the 1439 elementary school students in Kincardine. INTERVENTIONS: An extensive education campaign with programs, assemblies, teaching aids, speakers, and a colouring and poster contest, coupled with a discount helmet offer in October 1991. Incentives to helmet use, such as bicycle rodeos, took place in May 1992 and 1993. A child cyclist not wearing a helmet was fatally injured in September 1992. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Teachers polled students on helmet use and student volunteers counted children riding bicycles and noted helmet use. RESULTS: A total of 250 helmets were purchased, and helmet use was observed to increase among 5- to 14-year-old children from 0.75% to 12.8% during 9 months. Program effect was significantly greater on younger children, and girls used helmets more often than boys did. The cycling fatality in Goderich was associated with a dramatic increase in helmet use (to more than 50%), a significantly higher rate than in Kincardine. A second subsidy and rodeo did not further increase helmet use. CONCLUSIONS: A small community with limited resources can mount a bicycle helmet education and incentive program with high exposure and participation rates by children. Despite an

  20. Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren. Impact of a community education program and a cycling fatality.

    PubMed

    Rourke, L L

    1994-06-01

    To assess the effect of a community bicycle helmet education and subsidy program and the further effect of a bicycle rodeo on helmet ownership and use among elementary schoolchildren. The unanticipated effect of a child cyclist fatality was also measured. Helmet ownership and use were measured in two ways: a questionnaire was sent to all elementary schoolteachers asking about helmet ownership and use by their students; and volunteers counted the children riding their bicycles to school. Elementary schools in the town of Goderich, population 7400, and the town of Kincardine, population 6227, both on Lake Huron in southwestern Ontario. More than 80% of the 1050 elementary school students in Goderich and, for comparison, more than 90% of the 1439 elementary school students in Kincardine. An extensive education campaign with programs, assemblies, teaching aids, speakers, and a colouring and poster contest, coupled with a discount helmet offer in October 1991. Incentives to helmet use, such as bicycle rodeos, took place in May 1992 and 1993. A child cyclist not wearing a helmet was fatally injured in September 1992. Teachers polled students on helmet use and student volunteers counted children riding bicycles and noted helmet use. A total of 250 helmets were purchased, and helmet use was observed to increase among 5- to 14-year-old children from 0.75% to 12.8% during 9 months. Program effect was significantly greater on younger children, and girls used helmets more often than boys did. The cycling fatality in Goderich was associated with a dramatic increase in helmet use (to more than 50%), a significantly higher rate than in Kincardine. A second subsidy and rodeo did not further increase helmet use. A small community with limited resources can mount a bicycle helmet education and incentive program with high exposure and participation rates by children. Despite an initial 17-fold increase in observed helmet use, more than 87% of cyclists still did not wear helmets. The

  1. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    PubMed

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  2. Determinants and barriers of helmet use in Iranian motorcyclists: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad; Rezapour, Ramin; Abedi, Leili

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Helmet use by motorcyclists decreases the incidence and severity of an injury and its related death. Unfortunately, the helmet use rate is not in an acceptable level in Iran. This study aimed to systematically identify the determinants and barriers of helmet use among Iranian motorcyclists. Methods: A systematic search of literature was done using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of knowledge databases for English literature and SID for Persian articles by specified keywords. Manual searching and reference of references were used to improve the articles identification. Articles published before 1995 and those which did not report the barriers and determinants of helmet use were excluded. Data were extracted using an extraction table. Results: Out of 49 retrieved articles, 13 articles were included in the study. Most of them (70%) had a cross-sectional design. Personal factors (such as older age, marital status and education) and motorcyclist's attitude and beliefs about the helmet effectiveness were reported as important determinants of helmet use. Helmet weight and its visual and audial limitation for motorcyclists were known as the main reported barriers to use a helmet. Conclusions: Interventions affecting the motorcyclists' attitude must be employed along with the legal interventions. Moreover, cost-effective engineering improvements in helmet production remain an important policy to improve the compliance of helmet use. PMID:28042961

  3. A proposal for the mandatory inclusion of helmets with new children's bicycles.

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, A L; Vernick, J S

    1993-01-01

    To reduce bicycle-related head injuries in children, we propose new regulations be established that mandate the inclusion of approved helmets with the sale of all new children's bicycles. Currently, purchasing a helmet is a separate economic decision that acts as a barrier to helmet ownership and use. The inclusion of a helmet with the bicycle would markedly increase helmet ownership. The increased demand would reduce the manufacturing cost per helmet, so the cost of the bicycle with the helmet would be lower than the current retail price of the two separately. This proposal could potentially be implemented by federal or state legislation, a Consumer Product Safety Commission regulation, or voluntary adoption of a practice or standard by bicycle manufacturers. Increased helmet ownership is necessary but not sufficient to raise helmet use rates. The increased ownership generated by this proposal, complemented by enhanced educational, promotional, and legal interventions, is probably the most practical and cost-effective public health strategy available to increase helmet usage and prevent bicycle-related head injuries in children. PMID:8484441

  4. A proposal for the mandatory inclusion of helmets with new children's bicycles.

    PubMed

    Dannenberg, A L; Vernick, J S

    1993-05-01

    To reduce bicycle-related head injuries in children, we propose new regulations be established that mandate the inclusion of approved helmets with the sale of all new children's bicycles. Currently, purchasing a helmet is a separate economic decision that acts as a barrier to helmet ownership and use. The inclusion of a helmet with the bicycle would markedly increase helmet ownership. The increased demand would reduce the manufacturing cost per helmet, so the cost of the bicycle with the helmet would be lower than the current retail price of the two separately. This proposal could potentially be implemented by federal or state legislation, a Consumer Product Safety Commission regulation, or voluntary adoption of a practice or standard by bicycle manufacturers. Increased helmet ownership is necessary but not sufficient to raise helmet use rates. The increased ownership generated by this proposal, complemented by enhanced educational, promotional, and legal interventions, is probably the most practical and cost-effective public health strategy available to increase helmet usage and prevent bicycle-related head injuries in children.

  5. Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Thélot, Bertrand; Beck, François

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to analyse helmet use in France, as a voluntary behaviour rather than a legal requirement, promoted by public awareness campaigns. It aims to investigate the determinants of helmet wearing and to explore its evolution from 2000 to 2010. The analysis relies on data from a series of general population surveys called "Health Barometers": 2000 (n=13,163), 2005 (n=25,651) and 2010 (n=8573). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with helmet use and time trends. Nearly half of the 15-75 year olds surveyed reported that they rode a bicycle, and among these cyclists, 22.0% reported that they wore a helmet on their last ride. Further analysis by gender reveals that twice as many men than women wore helmets. Over the last decade, helmet use among cyclists has clearly increased, from 7.3% in 2000 to 22.0% in 2010, whereas the influence of social and economic factors, such as unemployment and wage disparities, appears to have decreased. Several determinants of bicycle helmet use were highlighted. To improve the effectiveness of further public information campaigns on helmet use, the key target groups should include women, under 25 year olds and people living in urban areas. Promoting the wearing of helmets among families should also be enhanced, given the higher rate of helmet use by parents as well as children.

  6. Economic disparity in bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of legislation.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, A K; Macarthur, C; To, T M; Chipman, M L; Wright, J G; Parkin, P C

    2006-08-01

    Studies evaluating the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation often focus on short term outcomes. The long term effect of helmet legislation on bicycle helmet use is unknown. To examine bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of the law, and the influence of area level family income on helmet use. The East York (Toronto) health district (population 107,822) was divided into income areas (designated as low, mid, and high) based on census tract data from Statistics Canada. Child cyclists were observed at 111 preselected sites (schools, parks, residential streets, and major intersections) from April to October in the years 1995-1997, 1999, and 2001. The frequency of helmet use was determined by year, income area, location, and sex. Stratified analysis was used to quantify the relation between income area and helmet use, after controlling for sex and bicycling location. Bicycle helmet use in the study population increased from a pre-legislation level of 45% in 1995 to 68% in 1997, then decreased to 46% by 2001. Helmet use increased in all three income areas from 1995 to 1997, and remained above pre-legislation rates in high income areas (85% in 2001). In 2001, six years post-legislation, the proportion of helmeted cyclists in mid and low income areas had returned to pre-legislation levels (50% and 33%, respectively). After adjusting for sex and location, children riding in high income areas were significantly more likely to ride helmeted than children in low income areas across all years (relative risk = 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 4.3)). Over the long term, the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation varies by income area. Alternative, concurrent, or ongoing strategies may be necessary to sustain bicycle helmet use among children in mid and low income areas following legislation.

  7. Rethinking bicycle helmets as a preventive tool: a 4-year review of bicycle injuries.

    PubMed

    Joseph, B; Pandit, V; Zangbar, B; Amman, M; Khalil, M; O'Keeffe, T; Orouji, T; Asif, A; Katta, A; Judkins, D; Friese, R S; Rhee, P

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability in bicycle riders. Preventive measures including bicycle helmet laws have been highlighted; however, its protective role has always been debated. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of bicycle helmets in prevention of intra-cranial hemorrhage. We hypothesized that bicycle helmets are protective and prevent the development of intra-cranial hemorrhage. We performed a 4-year (2009-2012) retrospective cohort analysis of all the patients who presented with traumatic brain injury due to bicycle injuries to our level 1 trauma center. We compared helmeted and non-helmeted bicycle riders for differences in the patterns of injury, need for intensive care unit admissions and mortality. A total of 864 patients were reviewed of which, 709 patients (helmeted = 300, non-helmeted = 409) were included. Non-helmeted bicycle riders were more likely to be young (p < 0.001) males (p = 0.01). There was no difference in the median ISS between the two groups (p = 0.3). Non-helmeted riders were more likely to have a skull fracture (p = 0.01) and a scalp laceration (p = 0.01) compared to the helmeted riders. There was no difference in intra-cranial hemorrhage between the two groups (p = 0.1). Wearing a bicycle helmet was not independently associated (p = 0.1) with development of intra-cranial hemorrhage. Bicycle helmets may have a protective effect against external head injury but its protective role for intra-cranial hemorrhage is questionable. Further studies assessing the protective role of helmets for intra-cranial hemorrhage are warranted.

  8. Economic disparity in bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of legislation

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A K; Macarthur, C; To, T M; Chipman, M L; Wright, J G; Parkin, P C

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation often focus on short term outcomes. The long term effect of helmet legislation on bicycle helmet use is unknown. Objective To examine bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of the law, and the influence of area level family income on helmet use. Methods The East York (Toronto) health district (population 107 822) was divided into income areas (designated as low, mid, and high) based on census tract data from Statistics Canada. Child cyclists were observed at 111 preselected sites (schools, parks, residential streets, and major intersections) from April to October in the years 1995–1997, 1999, and 2001. The frequency of helmet use was determined by year, income area, location, and sex. Stratified analysis was used to quantify the relation between income area and helmet use, after controlling for sex and bicycling location. Results Bicycle helmet use in the study population increased from a pre‐legislation level of 45% in 1995 to 68% in 1997, then decreased to 46% by 2001. Helmet use increased in all three income areas from 1995 to 1997, and remained above pre‐legislation rates in high income areas (85% in 2001). In 2001, six years post‐legislation, the proportion of helmeted cyclists in mid and low income areas had returned to pre‐legislation levels (50% and 33%, respectively). After adjusting for sex and location, children riding in high income areas were significantly more likely to ride helmeted than children in low income areas across all years (relative risk = 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 4.3)). Conclusion Over the long term, the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation varies by income area. Alternative, concurrent, or ongoing strategies may be necessary to sustain bicycle helmet use among children in mid and low income areas following legislation. PMID:16887944

  9. Noise Attenuation Performance of the Lightning II Generation II Helmet When Worn in Combination with the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM)-Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    measurements for participating subjects Subject ID Anthropometric Head and Neck Measurements (cm) Head Circumference Head Length Head Width Nasal...Root to Supramentale Neck Circumference 1438* 57.7 19.4 15.5 88.9 36.1 1524* 57.0 19.3 15.5 82.5 40.5 1526* 57.0 19.4 16.0 82.0 42.5 1572* 62.5...3 Table 2. Anthropometric head and neck measurements for participating subjects* ...................... 4 Table 3. Gen

  10. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    dominance can switch depending on viewing distance or visual task (Crider, 1944; Salmon , van de Pol and Rash, 2009). During the first years of fielding...U.S. Army Aviation Digest. Professional Bulletin, 1-93-1. Jan/Feb: 13-16. Salmon , T. O., van de Pol, C., and Rash, C. E. 2009. Visual function

  11. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots Four-Year Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    conventional Snellen charts (Bailey and Lovie, 1976). This test was conducted monocularly for both left and right eyes using the habitual correction...from logMAR to Snellen acuity (20/xx) is accomplished using the formula to determine the Snellen denominator: xx = 20 x 10 logMAR. For the...last measurement cycle, values were available for all 23 control subjects. For the right eye, the mean visual acuity was 0.08 logMAR ( Snellen

  12. A Model for Prediction of Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Commercial Aircrew

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Lewis; M. J. McCall; A. R. Green; L. G. I. Bennett

    2000-11-12

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently recommended that aircrews be considered as occupationally exposed. An extensive study was therefore carried out to measure the cosmic radiation exposure on commercial flights. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) was used to obtain 20 000 (ambient) total dose equivalent rates at 1-min intervals on 36 flights and a cumulative route dose on 25 flights from September 1998 to October 1999. These flights covered various altitudes from 4.5 to 12.4 km and geomagnetic latitudes of -45 to 85 deg that provided a full coverage of the cutoff rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field between 0 and 17 GV. These data can be encapsulated into a model for calculation of the route dose for any global flight at any period in the solar cycle. Thus, this work may find application for aircrew monitoring in light of possible regulatory requirements in various countries around the world.

  13. Bicycle helmet laws and persistent racial and ethnic helmet use disparities among urban high school students: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D

    2016-12-01

    Bicycle helmet laws generally increase helmet usage, but few studies assess whether helmet laws reduce disparities. The objective of this study is to assess changes in racial/ethnic disparities in helmet use among high school students in urban jurisdictions where laws were previously determined to increase overall helmet use. Log-binomial models were fit to four districts' 1991-2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. Post-regression predictive margins were used to calculate adjusted bicycle helmet use proportions, assess before-to-after changes in race/ethnicity specific helmet use, and estimate changes in disparities from jurisdictions' white subpopulations. Helmet use among white students increased by 10.2 percentage points in two Florida counties (p < 0.001), 20.1 points in Dallas (p < 0.001), and 24.4 points in San Diego (p < 0.001). Increases among African Americans were 6.1 percentage points in the Florida counties (p < 0.001), 8.2 points in Dallas (p < 0.001), and 6.3 points in San Diego (p = 0.070). Use increased among Latino students in the Florida counties (4.3 percentage points, p = 0.016) and Dallas (6.2, p = 0.002), but not significantly in San Diego. San Diego helmet use among Asian students increased by 12.8 percentage points (p < 0.001). Because helmet use increased more for white students, helmet laws were associated with increased disparities. In the Florida counties, disparities increased significantly by 5.9 percentage points for Latino students (p = 0.045). San Diego disparities worsened by 18.1 (p < 0.001), 21.3 (p < 0.001), and 11.6 (p = 0.013) percentage points among African American, Latino, and Asian students respectively. Dallas disparities increased by 11.9 (p = 0.015) and 14.0 (p = 0.003) percentage points among African American and Latino students. Increased disparities generally persisted for follow-up time of at least a decade. Main study limitations include the

  14. Fatigue Assessment in Camp Mirage CC130 Aircrew: Recommendations for Pharmacologic Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-20

    deployment among aircrews conducting tactical airlift between Camp Mirage (CM) and Kabul. This acute fatigue issue is due to jet-lag-induced sleep ...2 nights of sleep at CM. Thus, they undertake their first mission with an acute sleep deficit. In spite of the fact that the arriving relief crew...average of 6.3 hours. The very low sleep -efficiency (47%) in Crew A the night before their first mission was a serious flight safety concern, especially

  15. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Strategic Aircraft (SA): Noise Attenuation Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-25

    matrix Subject ID Head Circumference (mm) Width (mm) Length (mm) SNR (mm) Neck Circumference (mm) JSAM-SA Size 1550 560 140 195 87...LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Subjects’ anthropometric head measurements and sizing matrix ................ 5 Table 2. Passive noise attenuation...communication headsets with and without the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM)-Strategic Aircraft (SA), M53 CB hood with M50 head harness. A newer version of

  16. Aircrew Life Support, AFSC 122X0(1T1X1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    ensemble size data for aircrew members 69 G280 Perform minor maintenance on life support equipment in aircraft 69 M456 Assemble, inspect, and pack... G280 Perform minor maintenance on life support equipment in aircraft 69 E158 Attach AFTO Forms 255 (Notice Certification Void When Seal is Broken) to...orders 61 0497 Inhpect passenger oxygen masks 57 K437 Remove, nrpace, or install life preservers in aircraft 54 G280 Perform minor maintenance on life

  17. A Review of the US Army Experience Using Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    post-partum depression, dysmenorrhea, and pre - menstrual dysphoric disorder , conditions unique to female reproductive health. A surprising number of...Martin.quattlebaum@amedd.army.mil ABSTRACT As many as 300,000 soldiers may suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or anxiety...aircrew, and that the diagnosis, treatment, and waiver of such disorders remain a relatively rare event, we provide our analysis of current trends

  18. Subjective health complaints, work-related stress and self-efficacy in Norwegian aircrew.

    PubMed

    Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C

    2017-03-01

    The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P < 0.05). In total, 20% reported high stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups.

  19. Corrective Lens Use and Refractive Error Among United States Air Force Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    myopia with a mean spherical equivalent power of -1.01 diopters (D) for pilots and -1.68 D for others. Contact lenses, and more recently refractive surgery...importance has been the incremental relaxation of vision and refractive error standards required for USAF aircrew applicants , exem- plified by the changes...to pilot applicant standards reported in Table II. United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, 2507 Kennedy Circle, Brooks City-Base, TX

  20. Aeromedical Aspects of Aircrew Training (les Aspects aeromedicaux de la formation des equipages)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    theoretical questionnaire completed by aircrew attending AMTC, and phase of the training provided, these data have been used to try to ensure that the...Table I : Current Gyro-1 Profiles circumstances as similar as possible to those highlighted in the questionnaire . Thus, by awareness and experience, we...of SD, although it could be performed by specially experienced the sortie and gave their opinion in questionnaires . Results: The following conclusions