Science.gov

Sample records for aircrew radiation exposure

  1. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  2. What Aircrews Should Know About Their Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    aircrews, and their children irradiated in utero , the principal health concern is a small increase in the lifetime risk of fatal cancer . For both of...from cancer : adults, p.301; all ages, p.303. — Risks from irradiation in utero , p.302. — Inherited genetic defects from parental...Aircrews, Ionizing Radiation, Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Cancer Risk, Hereditary Risks, Radiation Exposure Limits Springfield, Virginia 22161 19

  3. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Butler, A; Pierre, M

    2002-01-01

    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H x (10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events.

  4. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Lewis, B J; Boudreau, M; Al Anid, H; Bennett, L G I

    2007-01-01

    Correlations have been developed for implementation into the semi-empirical Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) to account for effects of extremum conditions of solar modulation and low altitude based on transport code calculations. An improved solar modulation model, as proposed by NASA, has been further adopted to interpolate between the bounding correlations for solar modulation. The conversion ratio of effective dose to ambient dose equivalent, as applied to the PCAIRE calculation (based on measurements) for the legal regulation of aircrew exposure, was re-evaluated in this work to take into consideration new ICRP-92 radiation-weighting factors and different possible irradiation geometries of the source cosmic-radiation field. A computational analysis with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended Code was further used to estimate additional aircrew exposure that may result from sporadic solar energetic particle events considering real-time monitoring by the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite. These predictions were compared with the ambient dose equivalent rates measured on-board an aircraft and to count rate data observed at various ground-level neutron monitors.

  5. Galactic cosmic radiation exposure of pregnant aircrew members II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-10-01

    This report is an updated version of a previously published Technical Note in the journal Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. The main change is that improved computer programs were used to estimate galactic cosmic radiation. The calculation...

  6. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  7. Evaluation of new cosmic radiation monitors designed for aircrew exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, B. J.; Bennett, B.; Dyer, C. S.; Hands, A. D. P.; Duldig, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of next generation aircraft designs capable of ultralong-range flight and extended flight endurance, new experimental dosimetry equipment has been specifically designed to enable aircrew to monitor and respond to airborne alerts of potential doses that exceed recommended limits. The new QinetiQ QDOS/Rayhound monitor and designer-specific Liulin 4SA both provide real-time monitoring and readout with both audible and visual alert functions. The potential advantage to pilots and airlines is a more rational response to an alert by minimizing the altitude descent and time at lower levels in response to a significant event. This not only protects passengers and crew from solar particle events but provides a "greener" option to fuel burn at lower altitudes when events have abated. Thus, it will allow the crew to determine safer optimum flight levels during and after the event. These monitors were flown on numerous high- and low-latitude flights in combination with a "Hawk" tissue equivalent proportional counter acting as the reference instrument as it measured the total ambient dose equivalent H*(10). An FH 41B Eberline monitor and bubble detectors were also used in the comparison.

  8. Characterisation of neutron-sensitive bubble detectors for application in the measurement of jet aircrew exposure to natural background radiation.

    PubMed

    Tume, P; Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G; Cousins, T

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the natural background dose equivalent received by Canadian Forces aircrew was conducted using neutron-sensitive bubble detectors (BDs) as the primary detection tool. Since this study was a new application for these detectors, the BD response to neutron dose equivalent (RD) was extended from thermal to 500 MeV in neutron energy. Based upon the extended RD, it was shown that the manufacturer's calibration can be scaled by 1.5 +/- 0.5 to give a BD sensitivity that takes into account recently recommended fluence-to-neutron dose equivalent conversion functions and the cosmogenic neutron spectrum encountered at jet altitudes. An investigation of the effects of systematic bias caused by the cabin environment (i.e., temperature, pressure and relative humidity) on the in-flight measurements was also conducted. Both simulated and actual aircraft climate tests indicated that the detectors are insensitive to the pressure and relative humidity variations encountered during routine jet aircraft operations. Long term conditioning tests also confirmed that the BD-PND model of detector is sensitive to variations in temperature to within +/- 20%. As part of the testing process, the in-flight measurements also demonstrated that the neutron dose equivalent is distributed uniformly throughout a Boeing 707 jet aircraft, indicating that both pilots and flight attendants are exposed to the same neutron field intensity to within experimental uncertainty.

  9. Occupational Ocular UV Exposure in Civilian Aircrew.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Adrian C; Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Benwell, Martin J; Evans, Bruce J W; Higlett, Michael P; Khazova, Marina; O'Hagan, John B

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases with altitude; however, there are a number of other factors which may influence ocular exposure during flight. The aim of this study was to assess ocular UVR exposure of pilots in airline and off-shore helicopter operations on different aircraft types and to compare with exposure in a typical office environment. In-flight data were captured on equipment including a CCD array spectroradiometer on five return sector European airline flights and one transatlantic flight from London Gatwick in addition to four helicopter flights from Aberdeen Dyce airport. Further data were collected in an office environment from three workstations during summer and winter months. A wide variation in ocular UVA dose was found during flights. The main factor influencing exposure was the UVR transmission of the windshield, which fell into two distinct profile types. In an aircraft with good UVA blocking properties, ocular exposure was found to be equivalent to office exposure and did not exceed international guideline limits regardless of external conditions or flight time. Most aircraft assessed had poor UVA blocking windshields which resulted in an ocular exposure to the unprotected eye in excess of international guideline limits (up to between 4.5 to 6.5 times greater during one flight). No significant UVB dose was found. Pilots should be warned of the potential high UVA exposure during flight and advised on the use of sunglasses. A windshield labeling system would allow the pilot to tailor their eye protection practices to that particular aircraft.

  10. Cosmic Ray Modulation and Radiation Dose of Aircrews During Possible Grand Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Kataoka, R.; Sato, T.; Imada, S.; Miyahara, H.; Shiota, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueno, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is exhibiting low solar activity levels since the descending phase of the last solar cycle, and it is likely to be continued as well as in the case of the past grand solar minima. The cosmic-ray modulation, which is the variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum caused by the heliospheric environmental change, is basically anti-correlated with the solar activity. In the recent weak solar cycle, we thus expect that the flux of GCRs is getting higher than that in the previous solar cycles, leading to the increase in the radiation exposure in the space and atmosphere. In order to quantitatively evaluate the possible solar modulation of GCRs and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude, we have developed the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic-ray modulation. Our model can give the flux of GCRs anywhere in the heliosphere by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), and its tilt angle. We solve the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs in the HMF, and therefore reproduce the 22-year variation of the cosmic-ray modulation. We also calculate the neutron monitor counting rate and the radiation dose of aircrews at flight altitude, by the air-shower simulation performed by PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System). In our previous study [1], we calculated the radiation dose at a flight altitude during the coming solar cycle by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed and the strength of the HMF expressed by sinusoidal curve, and obtained that an annual radiation dose of aircrews in 5 years around the next solar minimum will be up to 19% higher than that at the last cycle. In this study, we predict the new model of the heliospheric environmental change on the basis of a prediction model for the sunspot number. The quantitative predictions of the cosmic-ray modulation and the radiation dose at a flight altitude during possible Grand Minimum considering

  11. Prediction of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays and radiation dose of aircrews up to the solar cycle 26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Kataoka, R.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which is the variation of the terrestrial GCR flux caused by the heliospheric environmental change, is basically anti-correlated with the solar activity with so-called 11-year periodicity. In the current weak solar cycle 24, we expect that the flux of GCRs is getting higher than that in the previous solar cycles, leading to the increase in the radiation exposure in the space and atmosphere. In order to quantitatively evaluate the possible solar modulation of GCRs and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude during the solar cycles 24, 25, and 26, we have developed the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the solar modulation of GCRs. Our model can give the flux of GCRs anywhere in the heliosphere by assuming the variation of the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, and its tilt angle. We solve the curvature and gradient drift motion of GCRs in the heliospheric magnetic field, and therefore reproduce the 22-year variation of the solar modulation of GCRs. It is quantitatively confirmed that our model reproduces the energy spectra observed by BESS and PAMELA. We then calculate the variation of the GCR energy spectra during the solar cycles 24, 25, and 26, by extrapolating the solar wind parameters and tilt angle. We also calculate the neutron monitor counting rate and the radiation dose of aircrews at flight altitude, by the air-shower simulation performed by PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System). In this presentation, we report the quantitative forecast values of the solar modulation of GCRs, neutron monitor counting rate, and the radiation dose at flight altitude up to the cycle 26, including the discussion of the charge sign dependence on those results.

  12. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  13. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  14. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  15. Estimated radiation exposure of German commercial airline cabin crew in the years 1960-2003 modeled using dose registry data for 2004-2015.

    PubMed

    Wollschläger, Daniel; Hammer, Gaël Paul; Schafft, Thomas; Dreger, Steffen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2.25 mSv (range 0.01-6.39 mSv). In addition to an inverse association with solar activity, exposure followed age- and sex-dependent patterns related to individual career development and life phases. JEM-derived annual cockpit crew doses agreed with SSR-provided doses for 2004 (correlation 0.90, 0.40 mSv root mean squared error), while the estimated average annual effective dose for cabin crew had a prediction error of 0.16 mSv, equaling 7.2% of average annual dose. Past average annual cabin crew dose can be modeled by exploiting systematic external influences as well as individual behavioral determinants of radiation exposure, thereby enabling future dose-response analyses of the full aircrew cohort including measurement error information.

  16. Cosmic ray modulation and radiation dose of aircrews during the solar cycle 24/25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Shoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Weak solar activity and high cosmic ray flux during the coming solar cycle are qualitatively anticipated by the recent observations that show the decline in the solar activity levels. We predict the cosmic ray modulation and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude by using the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic ray modulation. Our galactic cosmic ray (GCR) model is based on the variations of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field, and the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. We reproduce the 22 year variation of the cosmic ray modulation from 1980 to 2015 taking into account the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs. The energy spectra of GCR protons obtained by our model show good agreement with the observations by the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting magnetic rigidity Spectrometer (BESS) and the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) except for a discrepancy at the solar maximum. Five-year annual radiation dose around the solar minimum at the solar cycle 24/25 will be approximately 19% higher than that in the last cycle. This is caused by the charge sign dependence of the cosmic ray modulation, such as the flattop profiles in a positive polarity.

  17. NASCA Report 2: Longitudinal Study of Relationship of Exposure to Space Radiation and Risk of Lens Opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.

  18. Aircrew team management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  19. NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports

    Science.gov Websites

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Detonations 1945-1962, Vol II: Oceanic Test Series DNA-6041F For the Record - A History of the Nuclear Test

  20. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.

  1. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  2. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Future Hypersonic Flight Missions.

    PubMed

    Koops, L

    2017-06-15

    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, aircrews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant women. Ionizing radiation is the kind of electromagnetic radiation produced by x-ray machines, radioactive isotopes ( ... The reproductive risk of nonionizing radiation, which includes electromagnetic fields emitted from computers, microwave communication systems, microwave ...

  4. Monitoring cosmic radiation on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert D.; Iles, R. H. A.; Jones, J. B. L.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2002-03-01

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic radiation that can be either galactic or solar in origin. At aircraft altitudes, the radiation levels are much higher than at sea level and recent European legislation has classified aircrew as radiation workers. University College London is working with Virgin Atlantic Airways on a 3 year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It will also try to determine whether solar flare activity can cause significant enhancement to the predicted doses.

  5. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  6. Aircrew Sizing Survey 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Resource JSF Joint Strike Fighter JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training System USMC United States Marine Corps USAF United States Air Force LIST...Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) was developed for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The ACSS was intended to replace the JSF-CAESAR...an aircrew sample was made in 2003 by Hudson et al. They extracted a subset, named JSF CAESAR (Joint Strike Fighter), from the Civilian American and

  7. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Corson, J.M.; Li, F.P.

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommonmore » cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered.« less

  8. Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Adopted: January 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures Ionizing radiation is used daily in hospitals and clinics ...

  9. Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rays) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) PDF California Dental Association Nuclear or Radiation Emergencies - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...

  10. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protectionmore » of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.« less

  11. Aircraft Crew Radiation Exposure in Aviation Altitudes During Quiet and Solar Storm Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Peter

    The European Commission Directorate General Transport and Energy published in 2004 a summary report of research on aircrew dosimetry carried out by the EURADOS working group WG5 (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/). The aim of the EURADOS working group WG5 was to bring together, in particular from European research groups, the available, preferably published, experimental data and results of calculations, together with detailed descriptions of the methods of measurement and calculation. The purpose is to provide a dataset for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses and/or to assess the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the experts and the European Commission. Furthermore EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/) started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events. Preliminary results related to the European research project CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces are presented. The major aim of this work is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events, using data from neutron ground level monitors, in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results obtained by different methods or groups, and comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H* (10). This paper gives an overview of aircrew radiation exposure measurements during quiet and solar storm conditions and focuses on dose results using the EURADOS In-Flight Radiation Data Base and published data on solar particle events

  12. Impact of TGF for aircrew dosimetry: analysis of continuous onboard measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompier, Francois; Fuller, Nicolas; Bonnotte, Frank; Desmaris, Gérard; Musso, Angelica; Cale, Eric; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The actual assessment of the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is performed in routine by software based on the crossing of route flight data with dose rate maps of the atmosphere obtained by simulation or elaborated with model based on measured data. In addition of the galactic component, some of these softwares take into account also the possible increase of dose from solar flares. In several publications, terrestrial gamma-rays flashes (TGF) are also investigated as a possible source of exposure of aircrew. Up to now, the evaluation of the impact of TGF in terms of dose onboard aircraft has been performed only by calculation. According to these publications, if the airplane is located in or near the high-field region during the lightning discharge, doses could reach the order of 100 of mSv, which far exceed the annual dose limit for workers (1). To our knowledge, no measured data has been yet reported for such phenomena that could confirm or not the order of magnitude of dose from TGF or the frequency or the probability of occurrence of such phenomena. To investigate further the TGF effect, it is recommended to perform measurements onboard airplanes. Since the beginning of 2013, the Institute of Radiation Protection and nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with Air France is running a campaign of continuous measurements with active devices aiming to measure effect on dose rate of solar flare. These measurements are used to improve models used to estimate the doses from Ground Level Event (GLE). In addition, passive dosimeters were historically installed in Air France airplanes and read out every three months constituting a very large database of dose measurements. All these data will be analyzed to better characterize the possible influence on dose from TGF. The statistical analysis of these data offers the possibility to estimate the order of magnitude of possible additional doses to aircrew due to TGF and/or to evaluate the probability of

  13. Radiation exposure of air carrier crewmembers II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-01-01

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposur...

  14. Cosmic radiation exposure during air travel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    In 1967 the FAA appointed an advisory committee on radiation biology aspects of SST flight. Some of the committee members were subsequently appointed to a working group to study radiation exposure during air travel in conventional jet aircraft. : Pre...

  15. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis in Military Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    vaginal candidiasis - asthenia 52 During the previously cited trial with Israeli (Paluther®), pyronaridine, and benflumentol’ are aircrews in Rwanda,4...of the parasite. Thus, it is active against all four species of Plasmodium. A synergistic action with proguanil has been shown, while an antagonistic

  16. Health effects of prenatal radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela M; Fletcher, Stacy

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency, and electromagnetic waves. In utero exposure to nonionizing radiation is not associated with significant risks; therefore, ultrasonography is safe to perform during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation includes particles and electromagnetic radiation (e.g., gamma rays, x-rays). In utero exposure to ionizing radiation can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic. The effects are directly related to the level of exposure and stage of fetal development. The fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception). Noncancer health effects have not been detected at any stage of gestation after exposure to ionizing radiation of less than 0.05 Gy (5 rad). Spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, and mental retardation may occur at higher exposure levels. The risk of cancer is increased regardless of the dose. When an exposure to ionizing radiation occurs, the total fetal radiation dose should be estimated and the mother counseled about the potential risks so that she can make informed decisions about her pregnancy management.

  17. Professional aircrews' attitudes toward infectious diseases and aviation medical issues.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Macias-Moriarity, Lilia Z; Schelling, Joerg

    2012-12-01

    Air carrier and professional corporate aircrews provide a unique and highly distinct population in which to examine potential transport and transmission of infectious diseases (ID). This study sought to assess frequency of flying while acutely ill, identify clinical triggers in self-grounding, determine employer support for self-grounding, examine rates of influenza vaccination, and identify unmet needs for current information on ID issues related to extensive travel required of professional aircrews. Anonymous questionnaires were completed by select European mainline, U.S. regional airline, and professional corporate aircrews on ID topics such as flying while ill, flying with ill crewmembers, receipt of influenza vaccination, disinfection, and other aviation medical issues. Data were analyzed and reported as composite and stratified by airline vs. corporate aviation respondents. Aircrews often flew while ill (or with ill crewmembers); 52% flew until fever reached 38 degrees C (100.4 degrees F) and an additional 37% flew up to 38.89 degrees C (102 degrees F). Rate of annual influenza vaccination was quite low for all groups, but especially so for airline crews (21-27%), even given potential occupational exposure risk. Crews also had strongly differing perceptions of employer views on self-grounding, depending upon employment setting. There were sizable disparities between aircrew flying for U.S. regional, European mainline, and large corporate aviation departments with respect to self-grounding when ill and routinely receiving a seasonal influenza vaccination. All study groups reported a pressing need for enhanced anonymous access to current ID and medical information.

  18. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  19. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  20. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  1. Monitoring of fetal radiation exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Venita; Dorsey, Chelsea; Reed, Amy B; Shaw, Palma; Banghart, Dawn; Zhou, Wei

    2013-09-01

    One unique concern of vascular surgeons and trainees is radiation exposure associated with increased endovascular practice. The safety of childbearing is a particular worry for current and future women in vascular surgery. Little is known regarding actual fetal radiation exposure. This multi-institutional study aimed to evaluate the radiation dosages recorded on fetal dosimeter badges and compare them to external badges worn by the same cohort of women. All women who declared pregnancy with potential radiation exposure were required to wear two radiation monitors at each institution, one outside and the other inside the lead apron. Maternal (external) and fetal monitor dosimeter readings were analyzed. Maternal radiation exposures prior to, during, and postpregnancy were also assessed to determine any associated behavior modification. Eighty-one women declared pregnancy from 2008 to 2011 and 32 had regular radiation exposure during pregnancy. Maternal whole-body exposures ranged from 21-731 mrem. The average fetal dosimeter recordings for the cohort rounded to zero. Only two women had positive fetal dosimeter recordings; one had a single recording of 3 mrem and the other had a single recording of 7 mrem. There was no significant difference between maternal exposures prior to, during, and postpregnancy. Lack of knowledge of fetal radiation exposure has concerned many vascular surgeons, prompting them to wear double lead aprons during pregnancy, and perhaps prevented numerous other women from entering the field. Our study showed negligible radiation exposure on fetal monitoring suggesting that with the appropriate safety precautions, these concerns may be unwarranted. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  3. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  4. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    PubMed

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  5. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  6. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  7. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  8. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  9. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  10. Monitoring Cosmic Radiation Risk: Comparisons between Observations and Predictive Codes for Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    proton PARMA PHITS -based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere PCAIRE Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure PHITS Particle and...radiation transport code utilized is called PARMA ( PHITS based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere) [36]. The particle fluxes calculated from the...same dose equivalent coefficient regulations from the ICRP-60 regulations. As a result, the transport codes utilized by EXPACS ( PHITS ) and CARI-6

  11. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  12. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Joseph; Dressman, Holly K; Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  13. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  14. Dynamics Control Approaches to Improve Vibratory Environment of the Helicopter Aircrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh Kanchana

    Although helicopter has become a versatile mode of aerial transportation, high vibration levels leads to poor ride quality for its passengers and aircrew. Undesired vibration transmitted through the helicopter seats have been known to cause fatigue and discomfort to the aircrew in the short-term as well as neck strain and back pain injuries due to long-term exposure. This research study investigated the use of novel active as well as passive methodologies integrated in helicopter seats to mitigate the aircrew exposure to high vibration levels. Due to significantly less certification effort required to modify the helicopter seat structure, application of novel technologies to the seat is more practical compared to flight critical components such as the main rotor to reduce aircrew vibration. In particular, this research effort developed a novel adaptive seat mount approach based on active vibration control technology. This novel design that incorporated two stacked piezoelectric actuators as active struts increases the bending stiffness to avoid the low frequency resonance while generating forces to counteract higher harmonic vibration peaks. A real-time controller implemented using a feed-forward algorithm based on adaptive notches counteracted the forced vibration peaks while a robust feedback control algorithm suppressed the resonance modes. The effectiveness of the adaptive seat mount system was demonstrated through extensive closed-loop control tests on a full-scale helicopter seat using representative helicopter floor vibration profiles. Test results concluded that the proposed adaptive seat mount approach based on active control technology is a viable solution for the helicopter seat vibration control application. In addition, a unique flight test using a Bell-412 helicopter demonstrated that the aircrew is exposed to high levels of vibration during flight and that the whole body vibration spectrum varied substantially depending on operating conditions as

  15. Diagnostic radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Marissa A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Locke, Paul; Ziegfeld, Susan; Brown, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The amount of imaging studies performed for disease diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. We examined the amount of radiation exposure that pediatric trauma patients receive because they are an at-risk population. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to high levels of radiation during a single hospital visit. Retrospective review of children who presented to Johns Hopkins Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. Radiographic studies were recorded for each patient and doses were calculated to give a total effective dose of radiation. All radiographic studies that each child received during evaluation, including any associated hospital admission, were included. A total of 945 children were evaluated during the study year. A total of 719 children were included in the analysis. Mean age was 7.8 (±4.6) years. Four thousand six hundred three radiographic studies were performed; 1,457 were computed tomography (CT) studies (31.7%). Average radiation dose was 12.8 (±12) mSv. We found that while CT accounted for only 31.7% of the radiologic studies performed, it accounted for 91% of the total radiation dose. Mean dose for admitted children was 17.9 (±13.8) mSv. Mean dose for discharged children was 8.4 (±7.8) mSv (p<0.0001). Burn injuries had the lowest radiation dose [1.2 (±2.6) mSv], whereas motor vehicle collision victims had the highest dose [18.8 (±14.7) mSv]. When the use of radiologic imaging is considered essential, cumulative radiation exposure can be high. In young children with relatively long life spans, the benefit of each imaging study and the cumulative radiation dose should be weighed against the long-term risks of increased exposure.

  16. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  17. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  18. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  19. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan K; Allen, Barrett D; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K; Chmielewski, Nicole N; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M; Britten, Richard A; Baulch, Janet E; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-10-10

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain.

  20. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates.

  1. Cancer risks after radiation exposure in middle age.

    PubMed

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K; Brenner, David J

    2010-11-03

    Epidemiological data show that radiation exposure during childhood is associated with larger cancer risks compared with exposure at older ages. For exposures in adulthood, however, the relative risks of radiation-induced cancer in Japanese atomic bomb survivors generally do not decrease monotonically with increasing age of adult exposure. These observations are inconsistent with most standard models of radiation-induced cancer, which predict that relative risks decrease monotonically with increasing age at exposure, at all ages. We analyzed observed cancer risk patterns as a function of age at exposure in Japanese atomic bomb survivors by using a biologically based quantitative model of radiation carcinogenesis that incorporates both radiation induction of premalignant cells (initiation) and radiation-induced promotion of premalignant damage. This approach emphasizes the kinetics of radiation-induced initiation and promotion, and tracks the yields of premalignant cells before, during, shortly after, and long after radiation exposure. Radiation risks after exposure in younger individuals are dominated by initiation processes, whereas radiation risks after exposure at later ages are more influenced by promotion of preexisting premalignant cells. Thus, the cancer site-dependent balance between initiation and promotion determines the dependence of cancer risk on age at radiation exposure. For example, in terms of radiation induction of premalignant cells, a quantitative measure of the relative contribution of initiation vs promotion is 10-fold larger for breast cancer than for lung cancer. Reflecting this difference, radiation-induced breast cancer risks decrease with age at exposure at all ages, whereas radiation-induced lung cancer risks do not. For radiation exposure in middle age, most radiation-induced cancer risks do not, as often assumed, decrease with increasing age at exposure. This observation suggests that promotional processes in radiation carcinogenesis

  2. Exposure assessment of aluminum arc welding radiation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-yu; Lan, Cheng-hang; Juang, Yow-jer; Tsao, Ta-ho; Dai, Yu-tung; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chen, Chiou-jong

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure, especially optical radiation levels, and potential health hazard from aluminum arc welding processes based on the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) method. The irradiance from the optical radiation emissions can be calculated with various biological effective parameters [i.e., S(lambda), B(lambda), R(lambda)] for NIR hazard assessments. The aluminum arc welding processing scatters bright light with NIR emission including ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible, and infrared spectra. The UVR effective irradiance (Eeff) has a mean value of 1,100 microW cm at 100 cm distance from the arc spot. The maximum allowance time (tmax) is 2.79 s according to the ACGIH guideline. Blue-light hazard effective irradiance (EBlue) has a mean value of 1840 microW cm (300-700 nm) at 100 cm with a tmax of 5.45 s exposure allowance. Retinal thermal hazard effective calculation shows mean values of 320 mW cm(-2) sr(-1) and 25.4 mW (cm-2) (380-875 nm) for LRetina (spectral radiance) and ERetina (spectral irradiance), respectively. From this study, the NIR measurement from welding optical radiation emissions has been established to evaluate separate types of hazards to the eye and skin simultaneously. The NIR exposure assessment can be applied to other optical emissions from industrial sources. The data from welding assessment strongly suggest employees involved in aluminum welding processing must be fitted with appropriate personal protection devices such as masks and gloves to prevent serious injuries of the skin and eyes upon intense optical exposure.

  3. Radically Reducing Radiation Exposure during Routine Medical Imaging

    Cancer.gov

    Exposure to radiation from medical imaging in the United States has increased dramatically. NCI and several partner organizations sponsored a 2011 summit to promote efforts to reduce radiation exposure from medical imaging.

  4. Radiation in the workplace-a review of studies of the risks of occupational exposure to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Many individuals are, or have been, exposed to ionising radiation in the course of their work and the epidemiological study of occupationally irradiated groups offers an important opportunity to complement the estimates of risks to health resulting from exposure to radiation that are obtained from other populations, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Moreover, workplace exposure to radiation usually involves irradiation conditions that are of direct relevance to the principal concern of radiological protection: protracted exposure to low level radiation. Further, some workers have been exposed to radioactive material that has been inadvertently taken into the body, and the study of these groups leads to risk estimates derived directly from the experience of those irradiated by these 'internal emitters', intakes of alpha-particle-emitters being of particular interest. Workforces that have been the subject of epidemiological study include medical staff, aircrews, radium dial luminisers, underground hard-rock miners, Chernobyl clean-up workers, nuclear weapons test participants and nuclear industry workers. The first solid epidemiological evidence of the stochastic effects of irradiation came from a study of occupational exposure to medical x-rays that was reported in 1944, which demonstrated a large excess risk of leukaemia among US radiologists; but the general lack of dose records for early medical staff who tended to experience the highest exposures hampers the derivation of risks per unit dose received by medical workers. The instrument dial luminisers who inadvertently ingested large amounts of radium-based paint and underground hard-rock miners who inhaled large quantities of radon and its decay products suffered markedly raised excess risks of, respectively, bone and lung cancers; the miner studies have provided standard risk estimates for radon-induced lung cancer. The large numbers of nuclear industry

  5. Monitoring Cosmic Radiation Risk: Comparisons Between Observations and Predictive Codes for Naval Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-05

    proton PARMA PHITS -based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere PCAIRE Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure PHITS Particle and Heavy...transport code utilized is called PARMA ( PHITS based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere) [36]. The particle fluxes calculated from the input...dose equivalent coefficient regulations from the ICRP-60 regulations. As a result, the transport codes utilized by EXPACS ( PHITS ) and CARI-6 (PARMA

  6. Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    Dykeman, Ronald; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Smith, Tom; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtemoc Arturo; Piacitelli, Gregory M; Hu, Howard; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

    2002-03-01

    Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers (RRWs), 12 members of their family (4 children and 8 wives), and 36 working controls. RRWs were employed at 4 radiator repair shops in Mexico City and 27 shops in Cuernavaca and surrounding areas. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe samples. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed and detailed questionnaires were administered. Blood lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The mean (SD) values for blood lead of the RRWs, 35.5 (13.5) microg/dl, was significantly greater than the same values for the working controls, 13.6 (8.7) microg/dl; P < 001. After excluding a single outlier (247 microg/m(3)), air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99 microg/m(3) with a mean (SD) value of 19 (23) microg/m(3) (median = 7.9 microg/m(3)). In a final multivariate regression model of elevated blood lead levels, the strongest predictors were smoking (vs. non-smoking), the number of radiators repaired per day on average, and the use (vs. non-use) of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4 microg/dl, 1.95 microg/dl/radiator/day, and 16.4 microg/dl, respectively (all P <.05). Uniform use was probably a risk factor because they were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoir of contamination on which RRWs frequently wiped their hands. Lead exposure is a significant problem of radiator repair work, a small industry that is abundant in Mexico and other developing countries. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Radiation exposures due to fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Harold L.

    The current consensus regarding the potential radiation exposures resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels is examined. Sources, releases and potential doses to humans are discussed, both for power plants and waste materials. It is concluded that the radiation exposure to most individuals from any pathway is probably insignificant, i.e. only a tiny fraction of the dose received from natural sources in soil and building materials. Any small dose that may result from power-plant emissions will most likely be from inhalation of the small insoluble ash particles from the more poorly controlled plants burning higher than average activity fuel, rather than from direct or indirect ingestion of food grown on contaminated soil. One potentially significant pathway for exposure to humans that requires further evaluation is the effect on indoor external γ-radiation levels resulting from the use of flyash in building materials. The combustion of natural gas in private dwellings is also discussed, and the radiological consequences are concluded to be generally insignificant, except under certain extraordinary circumstances.

  8. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  9. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary

  10. Military aircrew eyewear survey: operational issues.

    PubMed

    Capó-Aponte, José E; Hilber, David J; Urosevich, Thomas G; Lattimore, Morris R; Weaver, Jeffrey L

    2013-08-01

    Army aircrew are required to operate under stressful conditions within a degraded visual environment. To gain an understanding of current eyewear mission needs, we surveyed aircrew regarding operational issues associated with the current U.S. Army-issue aircrew eyewear. An anonymous online survey was completed by 976 U.S. Army aircrew personnel recruited through an invitational e-mail. Of the respondents, 34% reported wearing corrective lenses. Nearly 50% of them reported dissatisfaction with the HGU-4/P Aviator spectacles. The leading problems reported were discomfort (15%), "hot spots" around the ears (13%), and break of the earcup seal (11%). Nearly 41% of the respondents wore multifocal lenses and, of those, 16% reported that the HGU-4/P's restricted field of view (FOV) adversely affected duty performance. Of those who wore Modified HGU-4/P Apache spectacles, 79% had an unacceptable FOV with the helmet display unit. A similar number of aircrew modified the Apache eyewear to increase the FOV. In addition, wind and dust created eye discomfort or affected the vision of 46% of all respondents when performing flight duties. Over 82% expressed the need for an improved aircrew spectacles and 73% desired aviation-compatible protective eyewear. The current Army HGU-4/P Aviator and the Modified HGU-4/P Apache spectacles have significant operational deficiencies and compatibility issues. Such deficiencies have led to poor wear compliance and unauthorized modification of the Army-issue Aviator eyewear, posing readiness and safety issues. The results of this survey formally identify the need for military combat eye protection that is compatible with flight systems.

  11. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  13. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Goldhagen, P; Rafnsson, V; Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Friedberg, W

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  14. Comparison of the effective dose rate to aircrew members using hybrid computational phantoms in standing and sitting postures.

    PubMed

    Alves, M C; Galeano, D C; Santos, W S; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Hunt, John G; da Silva, A X; Carvalho, A B

    2016-12-01

    Aircraft crew members are occupationally exposed to considerable levels of cosmic radiation at flight altitudes. Since aircrew (pilots and passengers) are in the sitting posture for most of the time during flight, and up to now there has been no data on the effective dose rate calculated for aircrew dosimetry in flight altitude using a sitting phantom, we therefore calculated the effective dose rate using a phantom in the sitting and standing postures in order to compare the influence of the posture on the radiation protection of aircrew members. We found that although the better description of the posture in which the aircrews are exposed, the results of the effective dose rate calculated with the phantom in the sitting posture were very similar to the results of the phantom in the standing posture. In fact we observed only a 1% difference. These findings indicate the adequacy of the use of dose conversion coefficients for the phantom in the standing posture in aircrew dosimetry. We also validated our results comparing the effective dose rate obtained using the standing phantom with values reported in the literature. It was observed that the results presented in this study are in good agreement with other authors (the differences are below 30%) who have measured and calculated effective dose rates using different phantoms.

  15. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  16. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed Central

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level. PMID:2817174

  17. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  18. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A controlmore » group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.« less

  19. [Creation of a crystalline lens radiation exposure defense cover and the effect of radiation exposure decrease on neuro-interventions].

    PubMed

    Take, Toshio; Sato, Kaori; Kiuchi, Katsunori; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2007-11-20

    A variety of radiation hazards resulting from interventional radiology (IVR) have been reported in recent years. Particularly affected are the skin and the crystalline lens, with their high radiation sensitivity. During neurological interventions, the radiological technologist should consider decreasing radiation exposure. We found exposure projections where the exposure dose became a radiation hazard for the crystalline lens, and examined an efficient method of cover for the exposure projections used for neurological interventions. The exposure projection for maximum crystalline lens radiation exposure was a lateral projection. In the crystalline lens the maximum exposure to radiation was on the X-ray tube side. The method of defense adopted was that of installing a lead plate of the appropriate shape on the surface of the X-ray tube collimator. In other exposure projections, this cover did not become a redundant shadow. With the cover that was created, the X-ray side crystalline lens lateral projection could be defended effectively.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Jahangir-Blourchian, Mahdi

    2005-10-01

    UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to UVR during their use of UV-transilluminators. The levels of irradiance of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were determined for 29 UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 6, 25, 62, and 125 cm from the center of the UV-transilluminator's filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The operators (faculty, research staff, and graduate students) worked within 62 cm of the transilluminators, with most subjects commonly working at < or =25 cm from the UV-transilluminator's filter surface. Daily exposure time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Actinic hazard (effective irradiance level of UVR) was also determined for three representative UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm from these sets' filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The allowable exposure time for these instruments was less than 20 sec within 15 cm, less than 35 sec within 25 cm, and less than 2 min within 50 cm from the UV-transilluminators' filter surface. The results of this study suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding, and/or personal protective equipment.

  1. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a

  2. Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Denis; Barbieri, Massimo; Parisoli, Francesco; Moro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study was to quantify patient radiation exposure during two different techniques of kyphoplasty (KP), which differ by a cement delivery method, in order to assess whether or not one of the two used methods can reduce the patient dose. Twenty patients were examined for this investigation. One X-ray fluoroscopy unit was used for localization, navigation and monitoring of cement delivery. The patient biometric data, the setting of the fluoroscope, the exposure time and the kerma-area product (KAP) were monitored in all the procedures for anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LL) fluoroscopic projections in order to assess the range of radiation doses imparted to the patient. Theoretical entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) were calculated from intraoperatively measured KAP. An average ET per procedure was 1.5±0.5 min for the manual injection technique (study A) and 1.4±0.4 min for the distance delivery technique (study B) in the AP plane, while 3.2±0.7 and 5.1±0.6 min in the lateral plane, respectively. ESD was estimated as an average of 0.10±0.06 Gy for study A and 0.13±0.13 Gy for study B in the AP or/and 0.59±0.46 and 1.05±0.36 Gy in the lateral view, respectively. The cumulative mean E was 1.9±1.0 mSv procedure(-1) for study A and 3.6±0.9 mSv procedure(-1) for study B. Patient radiation exposure and associated effective dose from KP may be considerable. The technique of distance cement delivery appears to be slower than the manual injection technique and it requires a more protracted fluoroscopic control in the lateral projection, so that this system entails a higher amount of dose to the patient.

  3. Creation of Prototype Aircrew Protection Equipment Based on Face Anthropometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    AD-A273 865 AFIT/GSE/ENY/93D-2AD 27 86 DTIC ELECTE SDE.C 161993 A : CREATION OF PROTOTYPE AIRCREW PROTECTION EQUIPMENT BASED ON FACE ANTHROPOMETRY ...AIRCREW PROTECTION EQUIPMENT BASED ON FACE ANTHROPOMETRY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute...trans- form anthropomorphic surfaces into a prototype mask mold. xix CREATION OF PROTOTYPE AIRCREW PROTECTION EQUIPMENT BASED ON FACE ANTHROPOMETRY L

  4. FLUKA simulation of TEPC response to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Rollet, S; Villari, R

    2005-01-01

    The aircrew exposure to cosmic radiation can be assessed by calculation with codes validated by measurements. However, the relationship between doses in the free atmosphere, as calculated by the codes and from results of measurements performed within the aircraft, is still unclear. The response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has already been simulated successfully by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Absorbed dose rate and ambient dose equivalent rate distributions as functions of lineal energy have been simulated for several reference sources and mixed radiation fields. The agreement between simulation and measurements has been well demonstrated. In order to evaluate the influence of aircraft structures on aircrew exposure assessment, the response of TEPC in the free atmosphere and on-board is now simulated. The calculated results are discussed and compared with other calculations and measurements.

  5. Radiation dose predictions for SPE events during solar cycle 23 from NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Blattnig, Steve; Slaba, Tony; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Solomon, Stan

    NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code is a deterministic model for rapid and accurate calculations of the particle radiation fields in the space environment. HZETRN is used to calculate dosimetric quantities on the International Space Station (ISS) and assess astronaut risk to space radiations, including realistic spacecraft and human geometry for final exposure evaluation. HZETRN is used as an engineering design tool for materials research for radiation shielding protection. Moreover, it is used to calculate HZE propagation through the Earth and Martian atmospheres, and to evaluate radiation exposures for epidemiological studies. A new research project has begun that will use HZETRN as the transport engine for the development of a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure for both background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure and radiation exposure during solar particle events (SPE) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model, which utilizes real-time observations from ground-based, atmospheric, and satellite measurements. In this paper, we compute the global distribution of atmospheric radiation dose for several SPE events during solar cycle 23, with particular emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure.

  6. An analysis of aircrew communication patterns and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Randall L.; Prince, Carolyn; Morgan, Ben B., Jr.; Simpson, Steven S.

    1991-09-01

    The findings reported here represent a detailed analysis of tactical rotary-wing aircrew communication patterns and content. This research is part of an extensive effort to investigate the nature of tactical aircrew coordination and to develop effective mission-oriented aircrew coordination training. The primary objectives of this research were to answer the following questions: (1) What specific communication patterns and content are demonstrated by different helicopter crewmembers (i.e., Helicopter Aircraft Commander - HAC and Helicopter 2nd Pilot - H2P)? (2) Do tactical aircrew communication patterns and content vary as a function of the performance demands and requirements of different flight conditions (i.e., routine and non-routine)? (3) Are the communication patterns and content of more effective aircrews different from those of less effective aircrews? (4) What similarities exist between the communication patterns and content of military rotary-wing aircrews and commercial fixed-wing aircrews? and (5) Can the results of the communication analyses have an impact on aircrew coordination training?

  7. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl; Bol, Martine E., E-mail: m.bol@maastrichtuniversity.nl

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding wasmore » used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.« less

  8. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Wenzler, David L.; Abbott, Joel E.; Su, Jeannie J.; Shi, William; Slater, Richard; Miller, Daniel; Siemens, Michelle J.; Sur, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at two academic institutions. This was collected using the Instadose™ dosimeter and reported both continuously and categorically as high and low dose using a 10 mrem dose threshold, the approximate amount of radiation received from one single chest X-ray. Predictors of increased radiation exposure were determined using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 91 PNL cases in 66 patients were reviewed. Median surgery duration and fluoroscopy time were 142 (38–368) min and 263 (19–1809) sec, respectively. Median attending urologist, urology resident, anesthesia, and nurse radiation exposure per case was 4 (0–111), 4 (0–21), 0 (0–5), and 0 (0–5) mrem, respectively. On univariate analysis, stone area, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery duration, and fluoroscopy time were associated with high attending urologist and resident radiation exposure. Preexisting access that was utilized was negatively associated with resident radiation exposure. However, on multivariate analysis, only fluoroscopy duration remained significant for attending urologist radiation exposure. Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury. PMID:28216931

  9. Low back pain in Norwegian helicopter aircrew.

    PubMed

    Hansen, O B; Wagstaff, A S

    2001-03-01

    The size and consequences of low back pain (LBP) in Norwegian helicopter aircrew has been investigated in a retrospective and prospective survey. With 50.5% reporting such pain in a 2-yr period, and Sea King aircrew reporting LBP on on almost half (49.3%) of the missions flown, the magnitude of the problem equals that reported from other air forces. Pilots reported LBP six times more often than other crewmembers and almost half (48.6%) felt the pain influenced the quality of work. This could have flight safety implications. Crewmembers with total flying time over 2,000 h have a significantly higher incidence of sick leave than those with less than 2,000 h. Only 1 pilot out of 10 with total flying time under 500 h had had flight-related LBP.

  10. Exposing exposure: automated anatomy-specific CT radiation exposure extraction for quality assurance and radiation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sodickson, Aaron; Warden, Graham I; Farkas, Cameron E; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    To develop and validate an informatics toolkit that extracts anatomy-specific computed tomography (CT) radiation exposure metrics (volume CT dose index and dose-length product) from existing digital image archives through optical character recognition of CT dose report screen captures (dose screens) combined with Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine attributes. This institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study was performed in a large urban health care delivery network. Data were drawn from a random sample of CT encounters that occurred between 2000 and 2010; images from these encounters were contained within the enterprise image archive, which encompassed images obtained at an adult academic tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated sites, including a cancer center, a community hospital, and outpatient imaging centers, as well as images imported from other facilities. Software was validated by using 150 randomly selected encounters for each major CT scanner manufacturer, with outcome measures of dose screen retrieval rate (proportion of correctly located dose screens) and anatomic assignment precision (proportion of extracted exposure data with correctly assigned anatomic region, such as head, chest, or abdomen and pelvis). The 95% binomial confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for discrete proportions, and CIs were derived from the standard error of the mean for continuous variables. After validation, the informatics toolkit was used to populate an exposure repository from a cohort of 54 549 CT encounters; of which 29 948 had available dose screens. Validation yielded a dose screen retrieval rate of 99% (597 of 605 CT encounters; 95% CI: 98%, 100%) and an anatomic assignment precision of 94% (summed DLP fraction correct 563 in 600 CT encounters; 95% CI: 92%, 96%). Patient safety applications of the resulting data repository include benchmarking between institutions, CT protocol quality control and optimization, and cumulative

  11. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and

  12. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  13. Aircrew ejection experience: questionnaire responses from 20 survivors.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Narinder; Pinto, Leslie J; Dogra, Manmohan

    2005-07-01

    Published studies on ejection have focused predominantly on the injuries sustained by aircrew and discussed their preventive measures from an aeromedical perspective. However, studies have not discussed aircrew experiences related to ejection or how they would like to advise other aircrew to successfully handle ejection as an event. Such information can assist in designing realistic indoctrination and training programs. This study was conducted to fill gaps in our understanding of aircrew perspectives of successful ejections. Aircrew reporting to the Institute of Aerospace Medicine (IAM), Indian Air Force, for post-ejection evaluation during the period of May 2003 to January 2005 completed a questionnaire that was designed for the study. A total of 20 aircrew completed this questionnaire. The mean age of the aircrew was 30.25 +/- 4.45 yr. Most of them had logged more than 500 flying hours. Some aircrew described their initial moments of ejection as "blacked out," "dazed, yet conscious," or as "a shock that gradually decreased." Practicing ejection drills on the ground, being prepared at all times, making a timely decision to eject, and assuming correct posture were identified as the most important factors for success. Descriptions of ejection as an event suggest intense emotional arousal could occur following ejection. This study provides first hand inputs into the psychological processes accompanying ejections. Such information could be very useful in understanding the critical factors that influence successful ejection.

  14. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Immanuel K H; Cash, Brooks D; Cohen, Henry; Hanauer, Stephen B; Inkster, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Maher, Michael M; Rex, Douglas K; Saad, Abdo; Singh, Ajaypal; Rehani, Madan M; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  15. Radiation exposure of the anesthesiologist in the neurointerventional suite.

    PubMed

    Anastasian, Zirka H; Strozyk, Dorothea; Meyers, Philip M; Wang, Shuang; Berman, Mitchell F

    2011-03-01

    Scatter radiation during interventional radiology procedures can produce cataracts in participating medical personnel. Standard safety equipment for the radiologist includes eye protection. The typical configuration of fluoroscopy equipment directs radiation scatter away from the radiologist and toward the anesthesiologist. This study analyzed facial radiation exposure of the anesthesiologist during interventional neuroradiology procedures. Radiation exposure to the forehead of the anesthesiologist and radiologist was measured during 31 adult neuroradiologic procedures involving the head or neck. Variables hypothesized to affect anesthesiologist exposure were recorded for each procedure. These included total radiation emitted by fluoroscopic equipment, radiologist exposure, number of pharmacologic interventions performed by the anesthesiologist, and other variables. Radiation exposure to the anesthesiologist's face averaged 6.5 ± 5.4 μSv per interventional procedure. This exposure was more than 6-fold greater (P < 0.0005) than for noninterventional angiographic procedures (1.0 ± 1.0) and averaged more than 3-fold the exposure of the radiologist (ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.5). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the exposure of the anesthesiologist was correlated with the number of pharmacologic interventions performed by the anesthesiologist and the total exposure of the radiologist. Current guidelines for occupational radiation exposure to the eye are undergoing review and are likely to be lowered below the current 100-150 mSv/yr limit. Anesthesiologists who spend significant time in neurointerventional radiology suites may have ocular radiation exposure approaching that of a radiologist. To ensure parity with safety standards adopted by radiologists, these anesthesiologists should wear protective eyewear.

  16. Exposing Exposure: Automated Anatomy-specific CT Radiation Exposure Extraction for Quality Assurance and Radiation Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Graham I.; Farkas, Cameron E.; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an informatics toolkit that extracts anatomy-specific computed tomography (CT) radiation exposure metrics (volume CT dose index and dose-length product) from existing digital image archives through optical character recognition of CT dose report screen captures (dose screens) combined with Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine attributes. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant study was performed in a large urban health care delivery network. Data were drawn from a random sample of CT encounters that occurred between 2000 and 2010; images from these encounters were contained within the enterprise image archive, which encompassed images obtained at an adult academic tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated sites, including a cancer center, a community hospital, and outpatient imaging centers, as well as images imported from other facilities. Software was validated by using 150 randomly selected encounters for each major CT scanner manufacturer, with outcome measures of dose screen retrieval rate (proportion of correctly located dose screens) and anatomic assignment precision (proportion of extracted exposure data with correctly assigned anatomic region, such as head, chest, or abdomen and pelvis). The 95% binomial confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for discrete proportions, and CIs were derived from the standard error of the mean for continuous variables. After validation, the informatics toolkit was used to populate an exposure repository from a cohort of 54 549 CT encounters; of which 29 948 had available dose screens. Results: Validation yielded a dose screen retrieval rate of 99% (597 of 605 CT encounters; 95% CI: 98%, 100%) and an anatomic assignment precision of 94% (summed DLP fraction correct 563 in 600 CT encounters; 95% CI: 92%, 96%). Patient safety applications of the resulting data repository include benchmarking between institutions, CT protocol quality

  17. Radiation exposure to sonographers from nuclear medicine patients: A review.

    PubMed

    Earl, Victoria Jean; Badawy, Mohamed Khaldoun

    2018-06-01

    Following nuclear medicine scans a patient can be a source of radiation exposure to the hospital staff, including sonographers. Sonographers are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure as they do not commonly interact with radioactive patients or other sources of ionizing radiation. This review aims to find evidence relating to the risk and amount of radiation the sonographer is exposed to from nuclear medicine patients. It is established in the literature that the radiation exposure to the sonographer following diagnostic nuclear medicine studies is low and consequently the risk is not significant. Nevertheless, it is paramount that basic radiation safety principles are followed to ensure any exposure to ionizing radiation is kept as low as reasonably achievable. Practical recommendations are given to assist the sonographer in radiation protection. Nuclear medicine therapy procedures may place the sonographer at higher risk and as such consultation with a Radiation Safety Officer or Medical Physicist as to the extent of exposure is recommended. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. The relationship between ultraviolet radiation exposure and vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Ola

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations.

  19. Decreasing radiation exposure on pediatric portable chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Hawking, Nancy G; Sharp, Ted D

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether additional shielding designed for pediatric patients during portable chest exams that ascertain endotracheal tube placement would significantly decrease the amount of scatter radiation. Children aged 24 months or younger were intubated and received daily morning chest radiographs to determine endotracheal tube placement. For each measurement, the amount of scatter radiation decreased by more than 20% from a nonshielded exposure to a shielded exposure. There was a significant decrease in scatter radiation when using the lead shielding device along with appropriate collimation vs appropriate collimation alone. These results suggest that applying additional shielding to appropriately collimated chest radiographs could significantly reduce scatter radiation and therefore the overall dose to young children.

  20. Approximating the Probability of Mortality Due to Protracted Radiation Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    syndrome of acute radiation sickness. In the MARCELL model, radiation exposure dynamically depletes the bone marrow cell population, the underpinning of...Protracted Radiation Exposures DTRA-TR-16-054 HDTRA1-14-D-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street...Celsius (oC) degree Fahrenheit (oF) [T(oF) + 459.67]/1.8 kelvin (K) Radiation curie (Ci) [activity of radionuclides] 3.7 × 1010 per second (s–1

  1. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and the High Speed Civil Transport. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Jones, I. W.; Goldhagen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is produced by extraterrestrial radiations incident on the Earth's atmosphere. These extraterrestrial radiations are of two sources: ever present galactic cosmic rays with origin outside the solar system and transient solar particle events that are at times very intense events associated with solar activity lasting several hours to a few days. Although the galactic radiation penetrating through the atmosphere to the ground is low in intensity, the intensity is more than two orders of magnitude greater at commercial aircraft altitudes. The radiation levels at the higher altitudes of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) are an additional factor of two higher. Ionizing radiation produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. Protection standards against low levels of ionizing radiation are based on limitation of excess cancer mortality or limitation of developmental injury resulting in permanent damage to the offspring during pregnancy. The crews of commercial air transport operations are considered as radiation workers by the EPA, the FAA, and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The annual exposures of aircrews depend on the latitudes and altitudes of operation and flight time. Flight hours have significantly increased since deregulation of the airline industry in the 1980's. The FAA estimates annual subsonic aircrew exposures to range from 0.2 to 9.1 mSv compared to 0.5 mSv exposure of the average nuclear power plant worker in the nuclear industry. The commercial aircrews of the HSCT may receive exposures above recently recommended allowable limits for even radiation workers if flying their allowable number of flight hours. An adequate protection philosophy for background exposures in HSCT commercial airtraffic cannot be developed at this time due to current uncertainty in environmental levels. In addition, if a large solar particle event

  2. Fluoroscopic radiation exposure: are we protecting ourselves adequately?

    PubMed

    Hoffler, C Edward; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-05-06

    While traditional intraoperative fluoroscopy protection relies on thyroid shields and aprons, recent data suggest that the surgeon's eyes and hands receive more exposure than previously appreciated. Using a distal radial fracture surgery model, we examined (1) radiation exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and hands of a surgeon mannequin; (2) the degree to which shielding equipment can decrease exposure; and (3) how exposure varies with fluoroscopy unit size. An anthropomorphic model was fit with radiation-attenuating glasses, a thyroid shield, an apron, and gloves. "Exposed" thermoluminescent dosimeters overlaid the protective equipment at the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and index finger while "shielded" dosimeters were placed beneath the protective equipment. Fluoroscopy position and settings were standardized. The mini-c-arm milliampere-seconds were fixed based on the selection of the kilovolt peak (kVp). Three mini and three standard c-arms scanned a model of the patient's wrist continuously for fifteen minutes each. Ten dosimeter exposures were recorded for each c-arm. Hand exposure averaged 31 μSv/min (range, 22 to 48 μSv/min), which was 13.0 times higher than the other recorded exposures. Eye exposure averaged 4 μSv/min, 2.2 times higher than the mean thyroid, chest, and groin exposure. Gloves reduced hand exposure by 69.4%. Glasses decreased eye exposure by 65.6%. There was no significant difference in exposure between mini and standard fluoroscopy. Surgeons' hands receive the most radiation exposure during distal radial plate fixation under fluoroscopy. There was a small but insignificant difference in mean exposure between standard fluoroscopy and mini-fluoroscopy, but some standard units resulted in lower exposure than some mini-units. On the basis of these findings, we recommend routine protective equipment to mitigate exposure to surgeons' hands and eyes, in addition to the thyroid, chest, and groin, during fluoroscopy procedures

  3. Cari Kitahara Explores Medical Radiation Exposures and Thyroid Cancer Etiology

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Cari Kitahara has built a multidisciplinary research program to explore cancer risks from occupational and medical radiation exposures, and to investigate the etiology of radiosensitive tumors, including thyroid cancer.

  4. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  5. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  6. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents.

    PubMed

    Hicks, N; Zack, M; Caldwell, G G; Fernbach, D J; Falletta, J M

    1984-04-15

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affects his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR) = infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit = 1.5; P = 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR = 2.73; P = 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

  7. Radiation exposure from Chest CT: Issues and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Michael M.; Rizzo, Stefania; Kanarek, David; Shephard, Jo-Anne O.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns have been raised over alleged overuse of CT scanning and inappropriate selection of scanning methods, all of which expose patients to unnecessary radiation. Thus, it is important to identify clinical situations in which techniques with lower radiation dose such as plain radiography or no radiation such as MRI and occasionally ultrasonography can be chosen over CT scanning. This article proposes the arguments for radiation dose reduction in CT scanning of the chest and discusses recommended practices and studies that address means of reducing radiation exposure associated with CT scanning of the chest. PMID:15082885

  8. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Under Instrument Flight Rules, pilots are not permitted to make changes to their approved trajectory without first receiving permission from Air Traffic Control (ATC). Referred to as "user requests," trajectory change requests from aircrews are often denied or deferred by controllers because they have awareness of traffic and airspace constraints not currently available to flight crews. With the introduction of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and other information services, a rich traffic, weather, and airspace information environment is becoming available on the flight deck. Automation developed by NASA uses this information to aid flight crews in the identification and formulation of optimal conflict-free trajectory requests. The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines ADS-B and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of ATC approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR may improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting the air traffic controller. This paper describes the TASAR concept of operations, its enabling automation technology which is currently under development, and NASA s plans for concept assessment and maturation.

  9. Idiopathic hypersomnia in an aircrew member.

    PubMed

    Withers, B G; Loube, D I; Husak, J P

    1999-08-01

    In aviation, it is essential that all aircrew members remain alert and contribute, by their observations and actions, to flight safety. Especially in helicopter operations, crewmembers riding in the rear of the aircraft play an integral role in many aspects of flight, such as take-offs, landings, turns, formation flights, hazard avoidance, situational awareness, military operations, and crew coordination. We present the case of a helicopter crew chief with idiopathic hypersomnia, briefly review the disorder, and give the recent U.S. military aviation experience with sleep disorders. Flight surgeons and aeromedical examiners should be active in considering and diagnosing sleep-related disorders as the aviator or crewmember may not be aware of the disease or may not volunteer the history. A directed history is important in making the diagnosis, as are reports from family and other aircrew members. Referral to a sleep specialist is required in performing objective sleep studies, establishing the diagnosis, recommending treatment, and providing a prognosis. Many sleep disorders are treatable and aeromedically waiverable.

  10. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  11. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Event matrix 2. Hematopoietic * Absolute blood counts * Relative blood counts 3. Dosimetry * TLD * EPDQuantitative * Radiation survey * Whole body...EI1 Defence Research and Recherche et developpement Development Canada pour la d6fense Canada DEFENCE •mI•DEFENSE Computer Aided Dosimetry and...Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation Edward Waller SAIC Canada Robert Z Stodilka Radiation Effects Group, Space Systems and

  12. Radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D T

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The revised Directive has been incorporated into laws and regulations in the European Union Member States. Where the assessment of the occupational exposure of aircraft crew is necessary, the preferred approach to monitoring is by the recording of staff flying times and calculated route doses. Route doses are to be validated by measurements. This paper gives the general background, and considers the radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, with the focus on the situation in Europe.

  13. Hypoxia awareness training for aircrew: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Cable, Gordon G; Hampson, Greg V; Pascoe, Glenn D; Corbett, Mark; Smith, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Major hazards associated with hypoxia awareness training are the risks of decompression sickness, barotrauma, and loss of consciousness. An alternate method has been developed which combines exposure to a simulated altitude of 10,000 ft (3048 m) with breathing of a gas mixture containing 10% oxygen and 90% nitrogen. The paradigm, called Combined Altitude and Depleted Oxygen (CADO), places the subjects at a physiological altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) and provides demonstration of symptoms of hypoxia and the effects of pressure change. CADO is theoretically safer than traditional training at a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) due to a much lower risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and has greater fidelity of training for fast jet aircrew (mask-on hypoxia). This study was conducted to validate CADO by comparing it with hypobaric hypoxia. There were 43 subjects who were exposed to two regimens of hypoxia training: hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) and CADO. Subjective, physiological, and performance data of the subjects were collected, analyzed, and compared. There were no significant differences in the frequency and severity of the 24 commonly reported symptoms, or in the physiological response, between the two types of hypoxia exposure. CADO is similar to HH in terms of the type and severity of symptoms experienced by subjects, and appears to be an effective, useful, and safe tool for hypoxia training.

  14. Radiation Exposure Comparisons with Mars Trip Calculation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    Measurements with the MSL RAD on NASA Curiosity Mars rover during the flight to Mars and now on the surface of Mars enable an estimate of the radiation astronauts would be exposed to on an expedition to Mars.

  15. Radiation exposure and lung disease in today's nuclear world.

    PubMed

    Deas, Steven D; Huprikar, Nikhil; Skabelund, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and some antioxidants have shown promise as mitigators, to decrease pneumonitis and fibrosis when given after exposure. Studies of survivors of nuclear catastrophes have shown increased risk for lung cancer, especially in nonsmokers. There is evidence for increased lung cancer risk in industrial radiation workers, especially those who process plutonium and may inhale radioactive particles. There does not seem to be an increased risk of lung cancer in healthcare workers who perform fluoroscopic procedures. High-dose ionizing radiation exposure causes pneumonitis and fibrosis, and more research is needed to develop mitigators to improve outcomes in nuclear catastrophes. Long-term, low-dose occupational radiation may increase lung cancer risk. More research to better define this risk could lead to improved safety protocols and screening programs.

  16. Effect of solar energetic particle (SEP) events on the radiation exposure levels to aircraft passengers and crew: Case study of 14 July 2000 SEP event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Jones, J. B. L.; Taylor, G. C.; Blake, J. B.; Bentley, R. D.; Hunter, R.; Harra, L. K.; Coates, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the circumstances required for aircrew and passengers to experience an increased radiation exposure rate from a solar energetic particle (SEP) event occurring during a flight. The effects of the 14 July 2000 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration S3 class SEP event are examined using ground-based and satellite measurements together with coincident measurements made using a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on board a Virgin Atlantic Airways flight from London Heathrow to Hong Kong. In this paper we present the first measurements made during a SEP event using a TEPC at flight altitudes. Our results indicate that there were no increased radiation levels detected during the flight due to the SEPs, but the measurements agreed well with the CARI-6 model calculations made using a heliocentric potential value derived immediately prior to the SEP event. In addition, a prolonged increase in the >85 MeV particle flux is observed for up to 2 days after the SEP onset by the SAMPEX spacecraft at latitudes >55°.

  17. Back pain in aircrew--an initial survey.

    PubMed

    Sheard, S C; Pethybridge, R J; Wright, J M; McMillan, G H

    1996-05-01

    In the early 1990's staff at a Royal Naval Air Station formed the view that pilots and observers of the Navy Lynx helicopter fleet appeared to have a higher incidence of back pain, to be seeking medical assistance more frequently and to be spending more time medically "unfit to fly" when compared to their counterparts in other helicopters. To quantify the incidence of low back pain in helicopter aircrew by use of a questionnaire. A questionnaire was used to establish the prevalence and nature of back pain in Naval aircrew (161) compared to a control group of randomly selected non-flying military personnel (310). Results show that aircrew (82%) experience significantly more back pain than controls (52%) (p < 0.01) though the nature of pain was similar in both groups. Significantly more aircrew (73%) than controls (49%) (p < 0.01) reported a previous history of back pain and report pain in shoulders (19%), midback (42%), lower back (72%) and across the buttocks (12%). Ergonomic factors were thought to be causative. Of aircrew surveyed, 11 (8%) had been issued with personal lumbar supports which resulted in major subjective improvements in flight-related symptoms. Helicopter aircrew have a higher incidence of back pain. Crew station design was identified as a major contributor to the prevalence of back pain while personal supports reduced the levels of discomfort. While these findings are not new, no significant steps have been taken to redesign the crew station. It is recommended that personal supports are provided to all aircrew and that a more detailed study of crew station ergonomics is indicated following a more comprehensive study of prevalence of back pain in Royal Navy aircrew.

  18. Radiation exposure risks to nuclear well loggers.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, K; Wilson, J A; Ashmore, J P

    1985-04-01

    This report is based on statistical data from the Canadian National Dose Registry (As82) and information obtained from visits to 1 supplier and 9 oil-well service companies in the Province of Alberta. The companies are representative of most in this industry and provide services at the well head from logging, perforating and fracturing to cementing and tracer work. The information obtained indicates that typical exposures can account for an average dose of 1 to 2 mSv/y. The observations of well-logging procedures revealed a number of potentially hazardous situations which could lead to unnecessary exposure and based upon these, several recommendations are included.

  19. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  20. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  1. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  2. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  3. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolantmore » system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.« less

  4. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above thismore » is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.« less

  5. Tanker avionics and aircrew complement evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moss, R W; Barbato, G J

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes an effort to determine control and display criteria for operating SAC's KC-135 tanker with a reduced crew complement. The Tanker Avionics and Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE) Program was a four-phase effort addressing the control and display design issues associated with operating the tanker without the navigator position. Discussed are: the mission analysis phase, during which the tanker's operational responsibilities were defined and documented; the design phase, during which alternative crew station design concepts were developed; the mockup evaluation phase, which accomplished initial SAC crew member assessment of cockpit designs; and the simulation phase, which validated the useability of the crew system redesign. The paper also describes a recommended crew station configuration and discusses some of the philosophy underlying the selection of cockpit hardware and systems.

  6. Radiation exposure during scoliosis screening radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Nottage, W.M.; Waugh, T.R.; McMaster, W.C.

    Screening programs to detect scoliosis in the adolescent population are active in most communities. Two percent of children screened will be referred for treatment or observation. Increasing concern has been voiced regarding the amount of the potential effects of the radiation administered in such screening programs. Radiation dosage was directly measured on 19 children participating in an established school scoliosis screening program, using lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeters. The mean gonadal doses are measured to be 19 mrem in males and estimated at a maximum 95 mrem in females. The mean entrance skin dose was 174 mrem. A lack of uniformitymore » in the radiographic techniques employed by individual technician was identified. The measured doses were within established acceptable limits and are comparable or below the average dose of 100 mrem received annually by the general public from the environment.« less

  7. Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. Studies of electrical and electronic workers are suggestive of such a link, but are subject to the confounding factor ...associations between cancer and electrical installations 108 51 Factors associated with increased risk of childhood cancer in the Denver studies 109 52...It is important in epidemiological studies to make Arenuous efforts to adjust for possible confounding factors , many - in particular the early

  8. Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure using Molecular Biodosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Todd F.; George, K.; Hammond, D. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Current cytogenetic biodosimetry methods would be difficult to adapt to spaceflight operations, because they require toxic chemicals and a substantial amount of time to perform. In addition, current biodosimetry techniques are limited to whole body doses over about 10cGy. Development of new techniques that assess radiation exposure response at the molecular level could overcome these limitations and have important implications in the advancement of biodosimetry. Recent technical advances include expression profiling at the transcript and protein level to assess multiple biomarkers of exposure, which may lead to the development of a radiation biomarker panel revealing possible fingerprints of individual radiation sensitivity. So far, many biomarkers of interest have been examined in their response to ionizing radiation, such as cytokines and members of the DNA repair pathway. New technology, such as the Luminex system can analyze many biomarkers simultaneously in one sample.

  9. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  10. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnaaimi, M.; Alkhorayef, M.; Omar, M.; Abughaith, N.; Alduaij, M.; Salahudin, T.; Alkandri, F.; Sulieman, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with eye lens opacities and cataracts. Radiation workers with heavy workloads and poor protection measures are at risk for vision impairment or cataracts if suitable protection measures are not implemented. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear medicine (NM) department. The annual average effective doses (Hp[10] and Hp[0.07]) were measured using calibrated thermos-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; MCP-N [LiF:Mg,Cu,P]). Five categories of staff (hot lab staff, PET physicians, NM physicians, technologists, and nurses) were included. The average annual eye dose (Hp[3]) for NM staff, based on measurements for a typical yearly workload of >7000 patients, was 4.5 mSv. The annual whole body radiation (Hp[10]) and skin doses (Hp[0.07]) were 4.0 and 120 mSv, respectively. The measured Hp(3), Hp(10), and Hp(0.07) doses for all NM staff categories were below the dose limits described in ICRP 2014 in light of the current practice. The results provide baseline data for staff exposure in NM in Kuwait. Radiation dose optimization measures are recommended to reduce NM staff exposure to its minimal value.

  11. Digital methods for reducing radiation exposure during medical fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Ernest W.; Rowlands, John A.; Hynes, David M.; Toth, B. D.; Porter, Anthony J.

    1990-07-01

    There is increased concern over radiation exposure to the general population from many sources. One of the most significant sources is that received by the patient during medical diagnostic procedures, and of these, the procedure with the greatest potential hazard is fluoroscopy. The legal limit for fluoroscopy in most jurisdictions is SR per minute skin exposure rate. Fluoroscopes are often operated in excess of this figure, and in the case of interventional procedures, fluorocopy times may exceed 20 minutes. With improvements in medical technology these procedures are being performed more often, and also are being carried out on younger age groups. Radiation exposure during fluoroscopy, both to patient and operator, is therefore becoming a matter of increasing concern to regulating authorities, and it is incumbent on us to develop digital technology to minimise the radiation hazard in these procedures. This paper explores the technical options available for radiation exposure reduction, including pulsed fluoroscopy, digital noise reduction, or simple reduction in exposure rate to the x-ray image intensifier. We also discuss educational aspects of fluoroscopy which radiologists should be aware of which can be more important than the technological solutions. A "work in progress" report gives a completely new approach to the implementation of a large number of possible digital algorithms, for the investigation of clinical efficacy.

  12. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF (pre-recovery estimates)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Heinrich, W.; Parnell, T. A.; Armstrong, T. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fishman, G. J.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Wiegel, B.

    1992-01-01

    The long duration exposure facility (LDEF), launched into a 258 nautical mile orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees, remained in space for nearly 6 yr. The 21,500 lb NASA satellite was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF completed 32,422 orbits and carried 57 major experiments representing more than 200 investigators from 33 private companies, 21 universities and nine countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures and power and propulsion. A number of the experiments were specifically designed to measure the radiation environment. These experiments are of specific interest, since the LDEF orbit is essentially the same as that of the Space Station Freedom. Consequently, the radiation measurements on LDEF will play a significant role in the design of radiation shielding of the space station. The contributions of the various authors presented here attempt to predict the major aspects of the radiation exposure received by the various LDEF experiments and therefore should be helpful to investigators who are in the process of analyzing experiments which may have been affected by exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper discusses the various types and sources of ionizing radiation including cosmic rays, trapped particles (both protons and electrons) and secondary particles (including neutrons, spallation products and high-LET recoils), as well as doses and LET spectra as a function of shielding. Projections of the induced radioactivity of LDEF are also discussed.

  13. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    PubMed

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30).

  14. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl; Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCTmore » dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.« less

  15. Prospective Measurement of Patient Exposure to Radiation During Pediatric Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kokorowski, Paul J.; Chow, Jeanne S.; Strauss, Keith; Pennison, Melanie; Routh, Jonathan C.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little data have been reported regarding radiation exposure during pediatric endourologic procedures, including ureteroscopy (URS). We sought to measure radiation exposure during pediatric URS and identify opportunities for exposure reduction. Methods We prospectively observed URS procedures as part of a quality improvement initiative. Pre-operative patient characteristics, operative factors, fluoroscopy settings and radiation exposure were recorded. Our outcomes were entrance skin dose (ESD, in mGy) and midline dose (MLD, in mGy). Specific modifiable factors were identified as targets for potential quality improvement. Results Direct observation was performed on 56 consecutive URS procedures. Mean patient age was 14.8 ± 3.8 years (range 7.4 to 19.2); 9 children were under age 12 years. Mean ESD was 46.4 ± 48 mGy. Mean MLD was 6.2 ± 5.0 mGy. The most important major determinant of radiation dose was total fluoroscopy time (mean 2.68 ± 1.8 min) followed by dose rate setting, child anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, and source to skin distance (all p<0.01). The analysis of factors affecting exposure levels found that the use of ureteral access sheaths (p=0.01) and retrograde pyelography (p=0.04) were significantly associated with fluoroscopy time. We also found that dose rate settings were higher than recommended in up to 43% of cases and ideal C-arm positioning could have reduced exposure 14% (up to 49% in some cases). Conclusions Children receive biologically significant radiation doses during URS procedures. Several modifiable factors contribute to dose and could be targeted in efforts to implement dose reduction strategies. PMID:22341275

  16. Cancer risk estimation caused by radiation exposure during endovascular procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, J. H.; Yun, W. S.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kwon, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the radiation exposure dose of patients, as well as staff caused by fluoroscopy for C-arm-assisted vascular surgical operation and to estimate carcinogenic risk due to such exposure dose. The study was conducted in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular surgical intervention at the division of vascular surgery in the University Hospital from November of 2011 to April of 2012. It had used a mobile C-arm device and calculated the radiation exposure dose of patient (dose-area product, DAP). Effective dose was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence on the radiation protectors of staff who participates in the surgery to measure the radiation exposure dose of staff during the vascular surgical operation. From the study results, DAP value of patients was 308.7 Gy cm2 in average, and the maximum value was 3085 Gy cm2. When converted to the effective dose, the resulted mean was 6.2 m Gy and the maximum effective dose was 61.7 milliSievert (mSv). The effective dose of staff was 3.85 mSv; while the radiation technician was 1.04 mSv, the nurse was 1.31 mSv. All cancer incidences of operator are corresponding to 2355 persons per 100,000 persons, which deemed 1 of 42 persons is likely to have all cancer incidences. In conclusion, the vascular surgeons should keep the radiation protection for patient, staff, and all participants in the intervention in mind as supervisor of fluoroscopy while trying to understand the effects by radiation by themselves to prevent invisible danger during the intervention and to minimize the harm.

  17. A SPACE TRAJECTORY RADIATION EXPOSURE PROCEDURE FOR CISLUNAR MISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cranford, W.; Falkenbury, R.F.; Miller, R.A.

    1962-07-31

    The Space Trajectory Radiation Exposure Procedure (STREP) is designed for use in computing the timeintegrated spectra for any specified trajectory in cislunar space for any combination of the several components of space radiations. These components include Van Allen protons and electrons; solar-flare protons, electrons, heavy particles, and gamma radiation; cosmic protons and heavy particles; albedo neutrons, and aurora borealis gamma radiation. The program can also be used to calculate the accumulated dose behind a thin vehicle skin at any time after the start of the mission. The technique of interpolation for intermediate points along the prescribed space trajectory is describedmore » in detail. The method of representation of the space radiation data as input for the calculation of the dose and time-integrated spectra is discussed. (auth)« less

  18. Occupational radiation exposure experience: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The potential for significant uranium exposure in gaseous diffusion plants is very low. The potential for significant radiation exposure in uranium hexafluoride manufacturing is very real. Exposures can be controlled to low levels only through the cooperation and commitment of facility management and operating personnel. Exposure control can be adequately monitored by a combination of air analyses, urinalyses, and measurements of internal deposition as obtained by the IVRML. A program based on control of air-borne uranium exposure has maintained the internal dose of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workman to less than one-half the RPG dose to the lung (15more » rem/year) and probably to less than one-fourth that dose. (auth)« less

  19. Radiation exposure from fluoroscopy during orthopedic surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, S.A.

    1989-11-01

    The use of fluoroscopy has enabled orthopedic surgeons to become technically more proficient. In addition, these surgical procedures tend to have less associated patient morbidity by decreasing operative time and minimizing the area of the operative field. The trade-off, however, may be an increased risk of radiation exposure to the surgeon on an annual or lifetime basis. The current study was designed to determine the amount of radiation received by the primary surgeon and the first assistant during selected surgical procedures involving the use of fluoroscopy. Five body sites exposed to radiation were monitored for dosage. The results of thismore » study indicate that with appropriate usage, (1) radiation exposure from fluoroscopy is relatively low; (2) the surgeon's dominant hand receives the most exposure per case; and (3) proper maintenance and calibration of fluoroscopic machines are important factors in reducing exposure risks. Therefore, with proper precautions, the use of fluoroscopy in orthopedic procedures can remain a safe practice.« less

  20. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experiencedmore » somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.« less

  1. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  2. Performance deficit produced by partial body exposures to space radiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On exploratory class missions to other planets, astronauts will be exposed to types of radiation (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) that are not experienced in low earth orbit, where the space shuttle operates. Previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles can affect...

  3. Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, Edward T; Shonka, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended.

  4. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure is one of the unique physiological challenges of human spaceflight that is not encountered on earth. While radiation exposure is known to impart physiological stresses and alter normal function, it is unclear how it specifically affects drug metabolism. A major concern is that the actions of medications used in spaceflight may deviate from the expectations formed from terrestrial use. This concern was investigated at the molecular level by analyzing how gamma radiation exposure affected gene expression in the livers of mice. Three different doses of radiation were administered and after various intervals of recovery time, gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR screening arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair. After examining the results of 192 genes total from each of 72 mice, 65 genes were found to be significantly affected by at least one of the doses of radiation. In general, the genes affected are involved in the metabolism of drugs with lipid or steroid hormone-like structures, as well as the maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage.

  5. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  6. Radiation exposure and safety practices during pediatric central line placement

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; Burkhalter, Lorrie S.; Blackburn, Timothy J.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric surgeons routinely use fluoroscopy for central venous line (CVL) placement. We examined radiation safety practices and patient/surgeon exposure during fluoroscopic CVL. Methods Fluoroscopic CVL procedures performed by 11 pediatric surgeons in 2012 were reviewed. Fluoroscopic time (FT), patient exposure (mGy), and procedural data were collected. Anthropomorphic phantom simulations were used to calculate scatter and dose (mSv). Surgeons were surveyed regarding safety practices. Results 386 procedures were reviewed. Median FT was 12.8 seconds. Median patient estimated effective dose was 0.13 mSv. Median annual FT per surgeon was 15.4 minutes. Simulations showed no significant difference (p = 0.14) between reported exposures (median 3.5 mGy/min) and the modeled regression exposures from the C-arm default mode (median 3.4 mGy/min). Median calculated surgeon exposure was 1.5 mGy/year. Eight of 11 surgeons responded to the survey. Only three reported 100% lead protection and frequent dosimeter use. Conclusion We found non-standard radiation training, safety practices, and dose monitoring for the 11 surgeons. Based on simulations, the C-arm default setting was typically used instead of low dose. While most CVL procedures have low patient/surgeon doses, every effort should be used to minimize patient and occupational exposure, suggesting the need for formal hands-on training for non-radiologist providers using fluoroscopy. PMID:25837269

  7. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard C G

    2016-02-21

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn's disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT.

  8. Diagnostic imaging and radiation exposure in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Nekisa; Pollok, Richard CG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However due to the relapsing nature of IBD, there is growing concern that IBD patients may be exposed to potentially harmful cumulative levels of ionising radiation in their lifetime, increasing malignant potential in a population already at risk. In this review we explore the proportion of IBD patients exposed to high cumulative radiation doses, the risk factors associated with higher radiation exposures, and we compare conventional diagnostic imaging with newer radiation-free imaging techniques used in the evaluation of patients with IBD. While computed tomography (CT) performs well as an imaging modality for IBD, the effective radiation dose is considerably higher than other abdominal imaging modalities. It is increasingly recognised that CT imaging remains responsible for the majority of diagnostic medical radiation to which IBD patients are exposed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and small intestine contrast enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) have now emerged as suitable radiation-free alternatives to CT imaging, with comparable diagnostic accuracy. The routine use of MRI and SICUS for the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease is to be encouraged wherever possible. More provision is needed for out-of-hours radiation-free imaging modalities to reduce the need for CT. PMID:26900282

  9. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 grams per square centimeters would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  10. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport..

  11. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  12. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results.

  13. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight. While known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. Three different doses of gamma radiation (50 mGy - 6.05 Gy) and a sham were administered to groups of 6 mice each, and after various intervals of recovery time, liver gene expression was measured with RT-qPCR arrays for drug metabolism and DNA repair enzymes. Results indicated approx.65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. With 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, Cyp17a1 showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days.

  14. Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Meena, Ramovatar; Verma, H N; Kumar, Shivendra

    2013-03-01

    Wireless technologies are ubiquitous today and the mobile phones are one of the prodigious output of this technology. Although the familiarization and dependency of mobile phones is growing at an alarming pace, the biological effects due to the exposure of radiations have become a subject of intense debate. The present evidence on mobile phone radiation exposure is based on scientific research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at radiofrequency (RF)/ electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. The conflict in conclusions is mainly because of difficulty in controlling the affecting parameters. Biological effects are dependent not only on the distance and size of the object (with respect to the object) but also on the environmental parameters. Health endpoints reported to be associated with RF include childhood leukemia, brain tumors, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, infertility and some cardiovascular effects. Most of the reports conclude a reasonable suspicion of mobile phone risk that exists based on clear evidence of bio-effects which with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. The present study summarizes the public issue based on mobile phone radiation exposure and their biological effects. This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Psychosocial factors that influence recovery in aircrew with musculoskeletal disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Narinder

    2010-05-15

    Descriptive questionnaire study. This preliminary study was undertaken to try and develop an understanding of the factors that may affect recovery in aircrew with musculoskeletal disabilities. Clinical recovery from musculoskeletal disabilities is generally achieved after the patient undergoes definitive therapy and rehabilitation. However, a proportion of patients may continue to suffer from morbidity and pain long after clinical and radiological finality has been reached. In these cases, psychosocial factors may have played a contributory role. There has been no research documenting or studying such factors in aviation and pilots in particular. The study was carried out at the Department of Human Engineering from 2004 to 2006. A detailed questionnaire was designed to elicit basic clinical details and psychosocial factors at work and home. A total of 57 male aircrew participated voluntarily in this study. Of these, 41 (71.9%) achieved normal recovery, whereas in the remaining 16 (28.1%), recovery was considered delayed. The mean age of aircrew in the normal recovery group (33.1 +/- 4.6 years) was slightly higher than those in the delayed group (31.0 +/- 3.2 years). All the aircrew who had delayed recovery had a spinal disability, whereas spinal disabilities constituted only 46.3% in the normal recovery group. Of the spinal disabilities in aircrew with delayed recovery, 12 had low backache. Aircraft accidents and ejection accounted for almost one-fifth of the total disabilities (n = 11, 21.9%). The respondents identified multiple sources of emotional support viz., friends, family, and parents. A hypothetical model is proposed that possibly explains to some extent the role of psychosocial factors affecting recovery in aircrew with musculoskeletal disabilities. Further research in psychological and emotional consequences of trauma, in particular ejection and the best means/timings to address these, is recommended.

  16. Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y(-1). The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program.

  17. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    SciTech Connect

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performedmore » on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.« less

  18. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  19. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    ScienceCinema

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2018-02-07

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  20. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2015-03-08

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  1. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  2. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  3. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groupsmore » were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear

  4. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  5. Novel human radiation exposure biomarker panel applicable for population triage.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Jose G; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J; Cooper, David E

    2014-11-01

    To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other radiologic events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Current methods of monitoring radiation exposure from CT.

    PubMed

    Talati, Ronak K; Dunkin, Jared; Parikh, Shrujal; Moore, William H

    2013-09-01

    Increased public and regulatory scrutiny of imaging-related radiation exposure requires familiarity with current dose-monitoring techniques and best practices. CT-related ionizing radiation exposure has been cited as the largest and fastest growing source of population-wide iatrogenic ionizing radiation exposure. Upcoming federal regulations require imaging centers to familiarize themselves with available dose-monitoring techniques and implement comprehensive strategies to track patient dose, with particular emphasis on CT. Because of institution-specific and vendor-specific technologies, there are significant barriers to adoption and implementation. In this article, the authors outline the core components of a universal dose-monitoring strategy and detail a few of the many available commercial platforms. In addition, the authors introduce a cloud-based hybrid model dose-tracking system with the goal of rapid implementation, multicenter scalability, real-time dose feedback for technologists, cumulative dose monitoring, and optional dose communication to patients and into the record; doing so results in improved patient loyalty, referring physician satisfaction, and opportunity for repeat business. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  7. Indirect lead exposure among children of radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Garduño, C; Lacasaña, M; Tellez-Rojo, M M; Aguilar-Madrid, G; Sanin-Aguirre, L H; Romieu, I; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2003-06-01

    Secondary exposure to lead has been identified as a public health problem since the late 1940s; we investigate the risk of lead exposure among families of radiator repair workers. A sample of the wives and children, aged 6 months to 6 years (exposed children) (n = 19), of radiator repair workers and a sample of children whose parents were not occupationally exposed to lead (non-exposed children) (n = 29) were matched for age and residence; their geometric mean blood lead levels are compared. Blood samples were obtained by the finger stick method and environmental dust samples by the wipe method; both were analyzed using a portable anodic stripping voltameter. Dust lead levels were significantly higher in the houses of exposed children (143.8 vs. 3.9 microg/g; P < 0.01). In crude analyses, the highest lead levels were observed among children whose fathers worked in home-based workshops (22.4 microg/dl)(n = 6). Children whose fathers worked in an external workshop (n = 13) also had high levels (14.2 microg/dl) (P < 0.01), while blood lead levels in non-exposed children were significantly lower (5.6 microg/dl)(P < 0.01). The observed differences remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. This study confirms that children of radiator repair workers are at increased risk of lead exposure and public health interventions are needed to protect them. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  9. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  10. Radiation exposure--do urologists take it seriously in Turkey?

    PubMed

    Söylemez, Haluk; Altunoluk, Bülent; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegül, Necmettin; Atar, Murat

    2012-04-01

    A questionnaire was administered to urologists to evaluate attitudes and behaviors about protection from radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided endourological procedures. The questionnaire was e-mailed to 1,482 urologists, including urology residents, specialists and urologists holding all levels of academic degrees, between May and June 2011. The questionnaire administered to study participants was composed of demographic questions, and questions on radiation exposure frequency, and the use of dosimeters and flexible protective clothes. If a respondent reported not using dosimeters or protective clothes, additional questions asked for the reason. Of the 1,482 questionnaires 394 (26.58%) were returned, of which 363 had completed answers. A total of 307 physicians (84.58%) were exposed to ionizing radiation, of whom 79.61% stated that they perform percutaneous nephrolithotomy at the clinic. Fluoroscopy guidance was the initial choice of 96.19% of urologists during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Despite the common use of lead aprons (75.24%) most urologists did not use dosimeters (73.94%), eyeglasses (76.95%) or gloves (66.67%) while 46.44% always used thyroid shields during fluoroscopy. When asked why they did not use protective clothing, the most common answers were that protective clothes are not ergonomic and not practical. Results clearly highlight the lack of use of ionizing radiation protection devices and dosimeters during commonly performed fluoroscopy guided endourological procedures among urologists in Turkey. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  12. Radiation Exposure in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu; Cortis, Kelvin, E-mail: kelvincortis@ismett.edu

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is considered as being one of the most complex procedures in abdominal interventional radiology. Our aim was twofold: quantification of TIPS-related patient radiation exposure in our center and identification of factors leading to reduced radiation exposure.Materials and methodsThree hundred and forty seven consecutive patients underwent TIPS in our center between 2007 and 2014. Three main procedure categories were identified: Group I (n = 88)—fluoroscopic-guided portal vein targeting, procedure done in an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS); Group II (n = 48)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in an IIDS; and Group III (n = 211)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure donemore » in a flat panel detector-based system (FPDS). Radiation exposure (dose-area product [DAP], in Gy cm{sup 2} and fluoroscopy time [FT] in minutes) was retrospectively analyzed.ResultsDAP was significantly higher in Group I (mean ± SD 360 ± 298; median 287; 75th percentile 389 Gy cm{sup 2}) as compared to Group II (217 ± 130; 178; 276 Gy cm{sup 2}; p = 0.002) and Group III (129 ± 117; 70; 150 Gy cm{sup 2}p < 0.001). The difference in DAP between Groups II and III was also significant (p < 0.001). Group I had significantly longer FT (25.78 ± 13.52 min) as compared to Group II (20.45 ± 10.87 min; p = 0.02) and Group III (19.76 ± 13.34; p < 0.001). FT was not significantly different between Groups II and III (p = 0.73).ConclusionsReal-time ultrasound-guided targeting of the portal venous system during TIPS creation results in a significantly lower radiation exposure and reduced FT. Further reduction in radiation exposure can be achieved through the use of modern angiographic units with FPDS.« less

  13. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report and deliverable 30 of Contract No. NNL12AA06C, the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) contract awarded via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA). It documents the accomplishments of the contract, the evolution of its role in the overall TASAR project, and lessons learned from its execution.

  14. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  15. The 1995 Aircrew Operational Vision Survey: Results, Analysis, and Recommendations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-04

    the high 55.4% overall and 60% Active Duty rate of return. Pre-production and Advertising Campaign There were two main goals in the advertising ... strategy . First, aircrew members needed to know that a survey was forthcoming. Also, flight surgeons needed to be prepared to brief entire squadrons

  16. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  17. Reduction of radiation exposure during radiography for scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.E.; Hoffman, A.D.; Peterson, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    To reduce the radiation exposure received by young scoliosis patients during treatment, six changes in technique were instituted: (1) a posteroanterior projection, (2) specially designed leaded acrylic filters, (3) a high-speed screen-film system, (4) a specially designed cassette-holder and grid, (5) a breast-shield, and (6) additional filtration in the x-ray tube the thyroid, breast, and abdominal areas were made on an Alderson phantom. They revealed an eightfold reduction in abdominal exposure for both the posteroanterior and the lateral radiographys. There was a twentyfold reduction in exposure to the thyroid for the posteroanterior radiography from 100 to less than five milliroentgensmore » and for the lateral radiograph there was a 100-fold reduction from 618 to six milliroentgens. For the breasts there was a sixty-ninefold reduction from 344 to less than five milliroentgens for the posteroanterior radiography and a fifty-fivefold reduction from 277 to less than five milliroentgens for the lateral radiograph. These reductions in exposure were obtained without significant loss in the quality of the radiographs and in most instances with an improvement in the over-all quality of the radiograph due to the more uniform exposure.« less

  18. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  19. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Clayton B.; Thompson, Holly M.; Benedict, Stanley H.

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and,more » because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of

  20. Mars Radiation Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Nealy, John E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost-effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is a critical design constraint and a potential 'show stopper'. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the agency's vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. The exposures from ionizing radiation - galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events - and optimized shield design for a swing-by and a long duration Mars mission have been investigated. It is found that the technology of today is inadequate for safe human missions to Mars, and revolutionary technologies need to be developed for long duration and/or deep space missions. The study will provide a guideline for radiation exposure and protection for long duration missions and career astronauts and their safety.

  1. Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  3. Risk of breast cancer following low-dose radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Land, C.E.; Shore, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    Risk of breast cancer following radiation exposure was studied, based on surveys of tuberculosis patients who had multiple fluoroscopic examinations of the chest, mastitis patients given radiotherapy, and atomic bomb survivors. Analysis suggests that the risk is greatest for persons exposed as adolescents, although exposure at all ages carries some risk. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity in all studies. Direct evidence of radiation risk at doses under 0.5 Gy (50 rad) is apparent among A-bomb survivors. Fractionation does not appear to diminish risk, nor does time since exposure (even after 45 years of observation). The interval between exposuremore » and the clinical appearance of radiogenic breast cancer may be mediated by hormonal or other age-related factors but is unrelated to dose. Age-specific absolute risk estimtes for all studies are remarkably similar. The best estimate of risk among American women exposed after age 20 is 6.6 excess cancers/10/sup 4/ WY-Gy (10/sup 6/ WY-rad).« less

  4. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  5. Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies.

    PubMed

    Daniels, R D; Taulbee, T D; Chen, P

    2004-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures of 13,475 civilian nuclear shipyard workers were investigated as part of a retrospective mortality study. Estimates of annual, cumulative and collective doses were tabulated for future dose-response analysis. Record sets were assembled and amended through range checks, examination of distributions and inspection. Methods were developed to adjust for administrative overestimates and dose from previous employment. Uncertainties from doses below the recording threshold were estimated. Low-dose protracted radiation exposures from submarine overhaul and repair predominated. Cumulative doses are best approximated by a hybrid log-normal distribution with arithmetic mean and median values of 20.59 and 3.24 mSv, respectively. The distribution is highly skewed with more than half the workers having cumulative doses <10 mSv and >95% having doses <100 mSv. The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.

  6. Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Risse, J H; Ponath, C; Palmedo, H; Menzel, C; Grünwald, F; Biersack, H J

    2001-07-01

    Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures and equipment. During 20 intra-arterial administrations of 131I-Lipiodol (1110-1924 MBq), radiation dose equivalents (RDE) to the whole body, fingers and eyes of the physician were determined for (a) conventional manual administration through a shielded syringe, (b) administration with an automatic injector and (c) administration with a lead container developed in-house. Administration by syringe resulted in a finger RDE of 19.5 mSv, an eye RDE of 130-140 microSv, and a whole-body RDE of 108-119 microSv. The injector reduced the finger RDE to 5 mSv. With both technique (a) and technique (b), contamination of angiography materials was observed. The container allowed safe transport and administration of the radiopharmaceutical from 4 m distance and reduced the finger RDE to <3 microSv and the eye RDE to <1 microSv during injection. During femoral artery compression, radiation exposure to the fingers reached 170 microSv, but the whole-body dose could be reduced from a mean RDE of 114 microSv to 14 microSv. No more contamination occurred. In conclusion, radiation exposure was high when 131I-Lipiodol was administered by syringe or injector, but was significantly reduced with the lead container.

  7. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  8. Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D

    2007-01-01

    Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution.

  9. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  10. Clinical distinctions of radiation sickness with exposure of different parts of the human body to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaya, G.F.; Abramova, G.M.; Volkova, M.A.

    1982-01-12

    The clinical picture of radiation sickness of 139 radiological patients exposed to local irradition of the head, chest, and stomach with efficient doses of 210 rad was examined. It was found that at fractionated local irraditions the clinical symptom-complex of radiation sickness was identifical to that seen as a result of total-body irradiation. During head irradiation the major symptom was headache and during stomach irradiation nausea. The severity level of radiation damage measured with respect to the clinical symptom-complex as a whole with the aid of the bioinformation model was similar during irradiations of the head and stomach, much highermore » during irradiation of the chest. During head and stomach irradiations the severity level of radiation damage was proportional to the efficient dose. During chest irradiation there was no correlation between the severity level and the exposure to doses of 210 rad.« less

  11. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  12. Evoked bioelectrical brain activity following exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Loganovsky, K; Kuts, K

    2017-12-01

    The article provides an overview of modern physiological evidence to support the hypothesis on cortico limbic sys tem dysfunction due to the hippocampal neurogenesis impairment as a basis of the brain interhemispheric asym metry and neurocognitive deficit after radiation exposure. The importance of the research of both evoked poten tials and fields as a highly sensitive and informative method is emphasized.Particular attention is paid to cerebral sensor systems dysfunction as a typical effect of ionizing radiation. Changes in functioning of the central parts of sensory analyzers of different modalities as well as the violation of brain integrative information processes under the influence of small doses of ionizing radiation can be critical when determining the radiation risks of space flight. The possible long term prospects for manned flights into space, including to Mars, given the effects identified are discussed. Potential risks to the central nervous system during space travel comprise cognitive functions impairment, including the volume of short term memory short ening, impaired motor functions, behavioral changes that could affect human performance and health. The remote risks for CNS are considered to be the following possible neuropsychiatric disorders: accelerated brain aging, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The new radiocerebral dose dependent effect, when applied cog nitive auditory evoked potentials P300 technique with a possible threshold dose of 0.05 Gy, manifesting in a form of disruption of information processing in the Wernicke's area is under discussion. In order to identify neurophys iological biological markers of ionizing radiation further international researches with adequate dosimetry support are necessary. K. Loganovsky, K. Kuts.

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  14. 38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radiation Exposure... Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in 38 CFR 3.309(d)(3), who receives a payment under the...

  15. 38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure... Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in 38 CFR 3.309(d)(3), who receives a payment under the...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an... execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear criticality: Preservation of Individual...

  19. 38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radiation Exposure... Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in 38 CFR 3.309(d)(3), who receives a payment under the...

  20. 38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radiation Exposure... Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in 38 CFR 3.309(d)(3), who receives a payment under the...

  1. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the sources in § 79.43(a) contain a...

  2. 38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radiation Exposure... Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in 38 CFR 3.309(d)(3), who receives a payment under the...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  4. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation Exposure...

  5. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79—Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants Radiation Exposure...

  6. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. [Radiation exposure during spiral-CT of the paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Dammann, F; Momino-Traserra, E; Remy, C; Pereira, P L; Baumann, I; Koitschev, A; Claussen, C D

    2000-03-01

    Determination of the radiation doses in spiral CT of the paranasal sinuses using a variety of mAs values and scan protocols. CT examinations of the paranasal sinuses were performed using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Radiation dose was determined by LiF-TLD at the level of high risk organs in the head and neck region for combinations of different scan parameters (2/3, 3/3, 3/4 mm) and decreasing charges (200, 150, 100, 50, 25 mAs) on a spiral CT. Additional measurements were performed on three other CT scanners using the 2/3 mm protocol at 50 mAs, and a single slice technique (5/5 mm) on one scanner. The lowest dose values found were 1.88 mGy for the eye lenses, 1.35 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.03 mGy for the thyroid gland and 0.1 mGy for the medulla oblongata using 2 mm collimation and 3 mm table feed at 25 mAs. Maximal dose values resulted using the 3/3 mm protocol at 200 mAs (31.00 mGy for the eye lense, 0.65 mGy for the thyroid gland). There were no significant differences found between the different CT scanners. Using up-to-date CT scanners, radiation exposure may be reduced by a factor of 15-20 compared to that of conventional CT technique. Thus, the exposure of the eye lens comes to only a thousandth of the value supposedly inducing a cataract, as published by the ICRP.

  8. Blue Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from Infant Phototherapy Equipment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Bogi, Andrea; Picciolo, Francesco; Stacchini, Nicola; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Bellieni, Carlo V

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is the use of light for reducing the concentration of bilirubin in the body of infants. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of phototherapy applications seems to be necessary for improved clinical practices and outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to Optical Radiation from different types of phototherapy devices in clinical use in Italy. During infant phototherapy the staff monitors babies periodically for around 10 min every hour, and fixation of the phototherapy beam light frequently occurs: almost all operators work within 30 cm of the phototherapy source during monitoring procedures, with most of them commonly working at ≤25 cm from the direct or reflected radiation beam. The results of this study suggest that there is a great variability in the spectral emission of equipments investigated, depending on the types of lamps used and some phototherapy equipment exposes operators to blue light photochemical retinal hazard. Some of the equipment investigated presents relevant spectral emission also in the UVA region. Taking into account that the exposure to UV in childhood has been established as an important contributing factor for melanoma risk in adults and considering the high susceptibility to UV-induced skin damage of the newborn, related to his pigmentary traits, the UV exposure of the infant during phototherapy should be "as low as reasonably achievable," considering that it is unnecessary to the therapy. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees: in particular, protective eyewear can be necessary during newborn assistance activities carried out in proximity of some sources. The engineering design of phototherapy equipment can be optimized. Specific requirements for photobiological safety of lamps used in the phototherapy equipment should be defined in the safety product standard for such

  9. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

  10. Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to wireless devices radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Manta, Areti K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Vekrellis, Konstantinos; Margaritis, Lukas H; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-03-01

    To examine the impact of electromagnetic radiation, produced by GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) mobile phones, Wi-Fi (Wireless-Fidelity) routers and wireless DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) phones, on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We exposed synchronized populations, of different developmental stages, to these wireless devices at E-field levels below ICNIRP's (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines for various lengths of time. WT (wild-type) and aging- or stress-sensitive mutant worms were examined for changes in growth, fertility, lifespan, chemotaxis, short-term memory, increased ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production and apoptosis by using fluorescent marker genes or qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction). No statistically significant differences were found between the exposed and the sham/control animals in any of the experiments concerning lifespan, fertility, growth, memory, ROS, apoptosis or gene expression. The worm appears to be robust to this form of (pulsed) radiation, at least under the exposure conditions used.

  11. Mitigation of lung injury after accidental exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, J; Jelveh, S; Calveley, V; Zaidi, A; Doctrow, S R; Hill, R P

    2011-12-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone.

  12. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Summer L; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed; Zhu, Xiaowei

    2018-02-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation.

  13. Radio frequency radiation exposure of the F-15 crewmember.

    PubMed

    Laughrey, Michael S; Grayson, J Kevin; Jauchem, James R; Misener, Andrea E

    2003-08-01

    In the United States Air Force, pilots of F-15 fighter aircraft use fire control radars to search for enemy targets and to launch beyond visual range radar missiles. The fire control radars must be of a sufficient power output to enable a target return, but pilots are concerned about deleterious health effects from the levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) they are exposed to. Measurement of RFR while actually in flight in the F-15 has never been performed. This study was designed to document the RFR levels that pilots are exposed to on normal missions while in flight with the radar on and active. A hand-held meter was used to measure electromagnetic fields during three F-15 flights. Instrumentation consisted of a Narda Microwave Model 8718 digital survey meter and Model 8723 broadband isotropic E-field probe with a frequency range between 300 MHz and 50 GHz. The measurements were conducted in the rear cockpit of an F-15D aircraft. Three missions were flown representing the standard missions an F-15 pilot flies on an everyday basis. The missions were: night intercepts, offensive basic fighter maneuvers, and defensive basic fighter maneuvers. Based on the data collected during three F-15 missions, all recorded RFR exposure to the crewmember in the F-15 was within the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW x cm(-2). Based on a limited sample, RFR exposures in F-15 cockpits appear to be well below the PEL.

  14. Human Factors Research in Aircrew Performance and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Eisenhower Avenue, PROGRAM PROJECTA - 9Q TASK WORK UNITELEMENT NO. NO. A79. NO 236 ACCESSION NO Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 63731,6373 A793 132 11. TITLE...Fort RucKer, Alabama, is contributing to the effectiveness of Army aviation by con- ducting a comprehensive human factors research program in supporL...of aircrew perrorindnce and training. The ARIARDA research program encompasses the full scope of Army aviation with projects in support of (a) emerging

  15. Causes and Effects of Fatigue in Experienced Military Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    or corporation , or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. The Office of Public...documented in the aviation community since Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic in 1927 (Berg, 1998; Lindbergh, 1953; National Geographic Home Video...base. It took as little as two weeks in the airlift community to as long as four months in the fighter community . Upon completion of the aircrew member’s

  16. Ionizing radiation exposure as a result of diagnostic imaging in patients with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Crowley, M P; O'Neill, S B; Kevane, B; O'Neill, D C; Eustace, J A; Cahill, M R; Bird, B; Maher, M M; O'Regan, K; O'Shea, D

    2016-05-01

    Survival rates among patients with lymphoma continue to improve. Strategies aimed at reducing potential treatment-related toxicity are increasingly prioritized. While radiological procedures play an important role, ionizing radiation exposure has been linked to an increased risk of malignancy, particularly among individuals whose cumulative radiation exposure exceeds a specific threshold (75 millisieverts). Within this retrospective study, the cumulative radiation exposure dose was quantified for 486 consecutive patients with lymphoma. The median estimated total cumulative effective dose (CED) of ionizing radiation per subject was 69 mSv (42-118). However, younger patients (under 40 years) had a median CED of 89 mSv (55-124). This study highlights the considerable radiation exposure occurring among patients with lymphoma as a result of diagnostic imaging. To limit the risk of secondary carcinogenesis, consideration should be given to monitoring cumulative radiation exposure in individual patients as well as considering imaging modalities, which do not impart an ionizing radiation dose.

  17. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  18. Disaster victim identification of military aircrew, 1945-2002.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adrian

    2003-11-01

    Aviation accident fatalities are characterized by substantial tissue disruption and fragmentation, limiting the usefulness of traditional identification methods. This study examines the success of disaster victim identification (DVI) in military aviation accident fatalities in the Australian Defense Force (ADF). Accident reports and autopsy records of aircrew fatalities during the period 1945-2002 were examined to identify difficulties experienced during the DVI process or injuries that would prevent identification of remains using non-DNA methods. The ADF had 301 aircraft fatalities sustained in 144 accidents during the period 1945-2002. The autopsy reports for 117 fatalities were reviewed (covering 73.7% of aircrew fatalities from 1960-2002). Of the 117 victims, 38 (32.4%) sustained injuries which were severe enough to prevent identification by traditional (non-DNA) comparative scientific DVI techniques of fingerprint and dental analysis. Many of the ADF fatalities who could not be positively identified in the past could be identified today through the use of DNA techniques. Successful DNA identification, however, depends on having a reference DNA profile. This paper recommends the establishment of a DNA repository to store reference blood samples to facilitate the identification of ADF aircrew remains without causing additional distress to family members.

  19. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  20. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  1. Radiation Exposure in X-Ray and CT Examinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. See the X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety page for more information. top of page ... and Radiation Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Radiation Dose in X- ...

  2. [Solar radiation exposure in agriculture: an underestimated risk].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F

    2012-01-01

    Solar Radiation (SR) is a major occupational risk in agriculture, mainly related to its ultraviolet (UV) component. Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in agriculture. The role of the Occupational Physician in prevention is fundamental.

  3. Radiation exposures during space flight and their measurement.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Henke, R P

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews radiation exposures recorded during space flights of the US and USSR. Most of the data are from manned missions and include discussion of absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as altitude, inclination, spacecraft type and shielding. Preliminary data exist on the neutron and HZE-particle component, as well as the LET spectra. For low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence upon inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. Complete shielding from the galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations.

  4. Leukemia and exposure to ionizing radiation among German uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Möhner, Matthias; Lindtner, Manfred; Otten, Heinz; Gille, Hans-G

    2006-04-01

    It is well known that uranium miners are at an increased risk of lung cancer. Whether they also have an increased risk for other cancer sites remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine the leukemia risk among miners. An individually matched case-control study of former uranium miners in East Germany was conducted with 377 cases and 980 controls. Using conditional logistic regression models, a dose-response relationship between leukemia risk and radon progeny could not be confirmed. Yet, a significantly elevated risk is seen in the category > or = 400 mSv when combining gamma-radiation and long-lived radionuclides. The results suggest that an elevated risk for leukemia is restricted to employees with a very long occupational career in underground uranium mining or uranium processing. Moreover, the study does not support the hypothesis of an association between exposure to short-lived radon progeny and leukemia risk. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Changes in Liver Metabolic Gene Expression after Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. P.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments.

  6. 21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke; Clowdsley, Martha; Wilson, John; Nealy, John; Luetke, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.

  7. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  8. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight aircrew training program... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and...

  9. A novel radiation protection drape reduces radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided electrophysiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Germano, Joseph J; Day, Gina; Gregorious, David; Natarajan, Venkataraman; Cohen, Todd

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel disposable lead-free radiation protection drape for decreasing radiation scatter during electrophysiology procedures. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of electrophysiology (EP) procedures exposing patients, operators and laboratory staff to higher radiation doses. The RADPAD was positioned slightly lateral to the incision site for pectoral device implants and superior to the femoral vein during electrophysiology studies. Each patient served as their own control and dosimetric measurements were obtained at the examiner's elbow and hand. Radiation badge readings for the operator were obtained three months prior to RADPAD use and three months after introduction. Radiation dosimetry was obtained in twenty patients: 7 electrophysiology studies, 6 pacemakers, 5 catheter ablations, and 2 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Eleven women and nine men with a mean age of 63 +/- 4 years had an average fluoroscopy time of 2.5 +/- 0.42 minutes per case. Mean dosimetric measurements at the hand were reduced from 141.38 +/- 24.67 to 48.63 +/- 9.02 milliroentgen (mR) per hour using the protective drape (63% reduction; p < 0.0001). Measurements at the elbow were reduced from 78.78 +/- 7.95 mR per hour to 34.50 +/- 4.18 mR per hour using the drape (55% reduction; p < 0.0001). Badge readings for three months prior to drape introduction averaged 2.45 mR per procedure versus 1.54 mR per procedure for 3 months post-initiation (37% reduction). The use of a novel radiation protection surgical drape can significantly reduce scatter radiation exposure to staff and operators during a variety of EP procedures.

  10. Radiation exposure from consumer products and miscellaneous sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1977-01-01

    This review of the literature indicates that there is a variety of consumer products and miscellaneous sources of radiation that result in exposure to the U.S. population. A summary of the number of people exposed to each such source, an estimate of the resulting dose equivalents to the exposed population, and an estimate of the average annual population dose equivalent are tabulated. A review of the data in this table shows that the total average annual contribution to the whole-body dose equivalent of the U.S. population from consumer products is less than 5 mrem; about 70 percent of this arisesmore » from the presence of naturally-occurring radionuclides in building materials. Some of the consumer product sources contribute exposure mainly to localized tissues or organs. Such localized estimates include: 0.5 to 1 mrem to the average annual population lung dose equivalent (generalized); 2 rem to the average annual population bronchial epithelial dose equivalent (localized); and 10 to 15 rem to the average annual population basal mucosal dose equivalent (basal mucosa of the gum). Based on these estimates, these sources may be grouped or classified as those that involve many people and the dose equivalent is relative large or those that involve many people but the dose equivalent is relatively small, or the dose equivalent is relatively large but the number of people involved is small.« less

  11. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  12. Risk of radiation induced cataracts: investigation of radiation exposure to the eye lens during endourologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Josefin; Distler, Florian A; Baumueller, Martin; Guni, Ewald; Pahernik, Sascha A; Wucherer, Michael

    2018-06-14

    Due to new radiobiological data, the ICRP recommends a dose limit of 20mSv per year to the eye lens. Therefore, the IAEA International Basic Safety Standard and the EU council directive 2013/59/EURATOM requires a reduction of the annual dose limit from 150mSv to 20mSv. Urologists are exposed to an elevated radiation exposure in the head region during fluoroscopic interventions, due to the commonly used overtable X-ray tubes and the rarely used radiation protection for the head. Aim of the study was to analyze real radiation exposure to the eye lens of the urologist during various interventions during which the patient is in the lithotomy position. The partial body doses (forehead and apron collar) of the urologists and surgical staff were measured over a period of two months. 95 interventions were performed on Uroskop Omnia Max workplaces (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany). Interventions were class-divided in less (stage I) and more complex (stage II) interventions. Two dosimeter-types were applied: well-calibrated electronic personal dosimeter EPD Mk2 and self-calibrated TLD-100H (both Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, USA). The radiation exposure parameters were documented using the dose area product (DAP) and the fluoroscopy time (FT). The correlation between DAP and the apron dose of the urologist was in average 0.07µSv per 1µGym². The more experienced urologists yielded a mean DAP of 166µGym² for stage I and 415µGym² for stage II procedures. The interventionist was exposed with 10µSv in mean outside the lead apron collar. The mean dose value of the eye lenses per intervention was ascertained to 20µSv (mean DAP: 233µGym²). The study setup allows a differentiated and time-resolved measurement of the radiation exposure, which was found heterogeneous depending on intervention and surgeon. In this setting, approximately 1000 interventions can be performed until the annual eye lens dose limit is achieved.

  13. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  14. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL.

  15. Chromosomal aberrations after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Milacic, S

    2009-01-01

    To compare the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in healthy medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) and in non-exposed healthy population. This was a 4-year study with 462 subjects, mean age 42.3 years, occupationally exposed to IR (exposed group - E), and 95 subjects, mean age 35.2 years, not exposed to IR (control group - C), during the same time period and from the same territory. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used for assessment of IR exposure. Modified Moorhead's micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of CA was used for analysis of CA. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase was analysed by immersion light microscope. The average annual absorbed dose measured by TLD was 14.5 mSv in group E and 2.8 mSv in group C exposed to natural level of radioactivity. The incidence of CA was 21.6% in group E and 2.1% in group C (p <0.05), while non-specific chromosomal lesions (gaps, breaks, elongations) were equal in both groups (22%). In group E, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedic surgeons (27.08%). Highly significant difference (p <0.001) was found in the number of aberrant cells and the sum of CA between group E and C. The sum of CA and the number of aberrant cells were positively correlated with the duration of exposure (p < 0.001), and to a lesser degree with age (p < 0.05) in group E. In group C, this correlation was negative and insignificant. In group E, subjects with duration of occupational exposure (DOE) up to 15 years (subgroup E I=327) had significantly less number of aberrant cells and CA in comparison with the subjects with DOE over 15 years (subgroup E II=135) (p < 0.01). Long-term occupational exposure to low doses IR contributes to the development and increased frequency of specific CA (like dicentrics), but varies in relation to different working places. The majority of subjects had no other genetic

  16. Fetal Implications of Diagnostic Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy: Evidence-based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Green, Victoria; Lindsay, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fetal and long-term implications of diagnostic radiation exposure during pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for radiologic imaging modalities utilizing exposure of diagnostic radiation during pregnancy, including conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and contrast-enhanced mammography are described.

  17. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

  2. 75 FR 8375 - Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... radiologic technologists or technologists in other specialties as well as physicians in all medical...] Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public Meeting... Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging.'' The purpose of this meeting is to...

  3. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the surveys required by paragraph (a) of this section in an area(s) where patients or human research... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by...

  4. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the surveys required by paragraph (a) of this section in an area(s) where patients or human research... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by...

  5. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the surveys required by paragraph (a) of this section in an area(s) where patients or human research... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by...

  6. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the surveys required by paragraph (a) of this section in an area(s) where patients or human research... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by...

  7. 10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the surveys required by paragraph (a) of this section in an area(s) where patients or human research... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section... Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition to the surveys required by...

  8. Hand and body radiation exposure with the use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Christopher J; Weikert, Douglas R; Watson, Jeffry T; Lee, Donald H

    2011-04-01

    To determine whole body and hand radiation exposure to the hand surgeon wearing a lead apron during routine intraoperative use of the mini C-arm fluoroscope. Four surgeons (3 hand attending surgeons and 1 hand fellow) monitored their radiation exposure for a total of 200 consecutive cases (50 cases per surgeon) requiring mini C-arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon measured radiation exposure with a badge dosimeter placed on the outside breast pocket of the lead apron (external whole body exposure), a second badge dosimeter under the lead apron (shielded whole body exposure), and a ring dosimeter (hand exposure). Completed records were noted in 198 cases, with an average fluoroscopy time of 133.52 seconds and average cumulative dose of 19,260 rem-cm(2) per case. The total measured radiation exposures for the (1) external whole body exposure dosimeters were 16 mrem (for shallow depth), 7 mrem (for eye depth), and less than 1 mrem (for deep depth); (2) shielded whole body badge dosimeters recorded less than 1 mrem; and (3) ring dosimeters totaled 170 mrem. The total radial exposure for 4 ring dosimeters that had registered a threshold of 30 mrem or more of radiation exposure was 170 mrem at the skin level, for an average of 42.5 mrem per dosimeter ring or 6.3 mrem per case. This study of whole body and hand radiation exposure from the mini C-arm includes the largest number of surgical cases in the published literature. The measured whole body and hand radiation exposure received by the hand surgeon from the mini C-arm represents a minimal risk of radiation, based on the current National Council on Radiation Protection and Management standards of annual dose limits (5,000 mrem per year for whole body and 50,000 mrem per year to the extremities). Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic medical imaging radiation exposure and risk of development of solid and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Berkes, Marschall B; Dy, Christopher J; Bogner, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Limiting patients' exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic imaging is of concern to patients and clinicians. Large single-dose exposures and cumulative exposures to ionizing radiation have been associated with solid tumors and hematologic malignancy. Although these associations have been a driving force in minimizing patients' exposure, significant risks are found when diagnoses are missed and subsequent treatment is withheld. Therefore, based on epidemiologic data obtained after nuclear and occupational exposures, dose exposure limits have been estimated. A recent collaborative effort between the US Food and Drug Administration and the American College of Radiology has provided information and tools that patients and imaging professionals can use to avoid unnecessary ionizing radiation scans and ensure use of the lowest feasible radiation dose necessary for studies. Further collaboration, research, and development should focus on producing technological advances that minimize individual study exposures and duplicate studies. This article outlines the research used to govern safe radiation doses, defines recent initiatives in decreasing radiation exposure, and provides orthopedic surgeons with techniques that may help decrease radiation exposure in their daily practice. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  12. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in femalesmore » and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.« less

  13. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  14. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  15. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radiations (Order 6). 570.57 Section 570.57 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for...

  16. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radiations (Order 6). 570.57 Section 570.57 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for...

  17. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radiations (Order 6). 570.57 Section 570.57 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for...

  18. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produce ionizations directly or indirectly, but does not include electromagnetic radiations other than... radiations (Order 6). 570.57 Section 570.57 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations...

  19. Analysis of Policy and Doctrine Supporting the Management of Operational Exposures to Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    discussion of the various subsyndromes of acute radiation syndrome , such as the hematopoietic syndrome , gastrointestinal syndrome , and neurovascular...Protection (Washington, DC: USAF, September 2011), p. 16. 8 probabilities as a function of acute radiation dose. Paragraph 3.d. discusses Risk... syndrome . It includes the use of dosimetry as well as biodosimetry to estimate radiation exposure and prognosis. It also provides guidance on the

  20. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Only two of the fecal specimens collected inflight during the Apollo 15 mission were returned for analysis. Difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate radiation dose estimates based on the cosmogenic radionuclide content of the specimens was encountered due to the limited sampling. The concentrations of Na-22, K-40, Cr-51, Fe-59, and Cs-137 are reported. The concentrations of 24 major, minor, and trace elements in these two specimens were determined. Most concentrations are typical of those observed previously. Major exceptions are extremely low values for selenium and extraordinarily high values for rare earth elements. The net Po-210 activities in the Apollo 11 and 12 Solar Wind Composition foils and in the Apollo 8 and 12 spacecraft reflective coatings due to lunar exposure have been determined. Equilibrium concentrations of 0.082 + or - 0.012 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Rn-222 in the lunar atmosphere and 0.0238 + or - 0.0035 disintegrations /sq cm sec of Po-210 on the lunar surface have been calculated for Oceanus Procellarum.

  1. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  2. Effects of altitude-related hypoxia on aircrews in aircraft with unpressurized cabins.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia at less than 10,000 ft (3,048 m) has no apparent effect on aircrews. Nevertheless, several hypoxic incidents have been reported in flights below 10,000 ft. A recently introduced pulse oximeter using finger probes allows accurate monitoring of oxygen saturation (SPO2) in the aeromedical environment. Using such a pulse oximeter, in-flight SPO2 levels were evaluated in aircrew in unpressurized aircraft. In addition, career in-flight hypoxic experiences were surveyed. In-flight SPO2 was measured in aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters at up to 13,000 ft, and 338 aircrew members operating unpressurized cabin aircraft were surveyed concerning possible in-flight hypoxic experiences. In aircrews operating UH-60J helicopters, SPO2 decreased significantly at altitudes over 5,000 ft, most markedly at 13,000 ft (vs. ground level). The survey identified three aircrew members with experiences suggesting hypoxemia at below 5,000 ft. Careful attention should be paid to the possibility of hypoxia in aircrews operating unpressurized cabin aircraft.

  3. Mechanisms of Memory Dysfunction during High Altitude Hypoxia Training in Military Aircrew.

    PubMed

    Nation, Daniel A; Bondi, Mark W; Gayles, Ellis; Delis, Dean C

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes. Memory encoding, retention, and retrieval represent critical cognitive functions that may be vulnerable to acute hypoxic/ischemic events and could play a major role in survival of air emergencies, yet these processes have not been studied in the context of high altitude simulation training. In a series of experiments, military aircrew underwent neuropsychological testing before, during, and after brief (15 min) exposure to high altitude simulation (20,000 ft) in a pressure-controlled chamber. Acute exposure to high altitude simulation caused rapid impairment in learning and memory with relative preservation of basic visual and auditory attention. Memory dysfunction was predominantly characterized by deficiencies in memory encoding, as memory for information learned during high altitude exposure did not improve after washout at sea level. Retrieval and retention of memories learned shortly before altitude exposure were also impaired, suggesting further impairment in memory retention. Deficits in memory encoding and retention are rapidly induced upon exposure to high altitude, an effect that could impact life-saving situational awareness and response. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-10).

  4. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, havemore » emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)« less

  5. A study of smart card for radiation exposure history of patient.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Kushi, Joseph F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to undertake a study on developing a prototype of a smart card that, when swiped in a system with access to the radiation exposure monitoring server, will locate the patient's radiation exposure history from that institution or set of associated institutions to which it has database access. Like the ATM or credit card, the card acts as a secure unique "token" rather than having cash, credit, or dose data on the card. The system provides the requested radiation history report, which then can be printed or sent by e-mail to the patient. The prototype system is capable of extending outreach to wherever the radiation exposure monitoring server extends, at county, state, or national levels. It is anticipated that the prototype shall pave the way for quick availability of patient exposure history for use in clinical practice for strengthening radiation protection of patients.

  6. Spatiotemporal exposure modeling of ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    VoPham, Trang; Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Sun, Zhibin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2016-11-24

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation plays a multifaceted role in human health, inducing DNA damage and representing the primary source of vitamin D for most humans; however, current U.S. UV exposure models are limited in spatial, temporal, and/or spectral resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) residual kriging is a geostatistical method that can be used to create a spatiotemporal exposure model by downscaling from an area- to point-level spatial resolution using fine-scale ancillary data. A stratified ATP residual kriging approach was used to predict average July noon-time erythemal UV (UV Ery ) (mW/m 2 ) biennially from 1998 to 2012 by downscaling National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) gridded remote sensing images to a 1 km spatial resolution. Ancillary data were incorporated in random intercept linear mixed-effects regression models. Modeling was performed separately within nine U.S. regions to satisfy stationarity and account for locally varying associations between UV Ery and predictors. Cross-validation was used to compare ATP residual kriging models and NASA grids to UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) measurements (gold standard). Predictors included in the final regional models included surface albedo, aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, ozone, surface incoming shortwave flux, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), year, and interactions between year and surface albedo, AOD, cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, and SO 2 . ATP residual kriging models more accurately estimated UV Ery at UVMRP monitoring stations on average compared to NASA grids across the contiguous U.S. (average mean absolute error [MAE] for ATP, NASA: 15.8, 20.3; average root mean square error [RMSE]: 21.3, 25.5). ATP residual kriging was associated with positive percent relative improvements in MAE (0.6-31.5%) and RMSE (3.6-29.4%) across all regions compared to NASA

  7. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  8. A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Acronyms and Symbols ARA Applied Research Associates, Inc. ARS Acute radiation syndrome d Days DE Differential Evolution DTRA Defense Threat...04-08-2016 Technical Report A Mathematical Model of the Human Small Intestine Following Acute Radiation and Burn Exposures HDTRA1...epithelial cells to acute radiation alone. The model has been modified for improved radiation response, and an addition to the model allows for thermal injury

  9. Mission, physical, and war stressors' impact on aircrew psychological strain.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Thomas A; Stetz, Melba C; Turner, David D

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the relative impact of the organization of missions on aircrew well-being. Using an occupational stress model we investigate a previously little studied concept of mission stressors and determine its relative impact in comparison to physical and war stressors in the prediction of four strains in deployed aircrews. Questionnaires were completed by 272 deployed in-aircraft crewmembers. Three new stressors were developed for this study: mission stressors, physical stressors, and war stressors. In addition, four strains were measured: PTSD, depression, sleepiness, and nervousness. Regression analyses were used to examine the relative impact of each stressor on the four strain measures while controlling for age and occupation. All three stressors played a significant role in the prediction strains with the total explained variance in the analyses ranging from 15% and 39%. Interestingly, mission stressors played the most important role in the prediction of strains possessing the largest partial eta squared in each analysis. The second most important stressor was physical stressors followed by war stressors. The importance of mission stressors may be because current training is designed to inoculate crewmembers to stressors such as the physical/environmental conditions and violent war actions, but there is no training or acknowledgment of the importance of dealing with mission stressors. Our findings suggest it might be beneficial for commanders to address these stressors, as it may improve short-term psychological well-being, which may ultimately impact mission success and safety.

  10. Thermal comparison of aircrew clothing aboard OV-10 aircraft.

    PubMed

    Constable, R; Webster, R L; Nunneley, S A

    1988-12-01

    Thermal evaluation of aircrew clothing in the field usually involves conditions which make it difficult to distinguish clothing effects from other, confounding factors. This paper reports a field study designed to solve this problem. The question concerned possible heat stress effects caused by adding an oxygen mask, an anti-g suit, or both to the usual clothing worn by pilots of OV-10 (twin turboprop) aircraft during 20 hot-weather flights (actual experimental temperatures of Tdb = 28-38 degrees C, rh = 18-20%). The four test ensembles were flown simultaneously, allowing side-by-side comparison to compensate for variations in flight profile and weather. Subjects (n = 10) encountered noticeable heat stress in flight, with rectal temperature = 37.4-37.6 degrees C, skin temperature = 35.0-35.5 degrees C, and weight losses = 2.1-2.4 kg. There were no measurable differences among the four clothing outfits, indicating that the anti-g suit does not present a heat stress problem. The mask and anti-g suit did contribute to aircrew discomfort as their impermeable materials prevented evaporation of sweat and caused 100% skin wetting in covered areas. Under these dry, desert conditions, the body was apparently able to compensate for the loss of evaporative surface area.

  11. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  12. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... “Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86... of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic...

  13. Buccal mucosa micronuclei counts in relation to exposure to low dose-rate radiation from the Chornobyl nuclear accident and other medical and occupational radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Finch, S C; Ilienko, I M; Lyaskivska, O; Dyagil, I; Trotsiuk, N; Gudzenko, N; Chumak, V V; Walsh, K M; Wiemels, J; Little, M P; Zablotska, L B

    2017-06-23

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure. Buccal samples from a group of 111 male workers in Ukraine exposed to ionizing radiation during the cleanup activities at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant were studied. Samples were taken between 12 and 18 years after their last radiation exposure from the Chornobyl cleanup. The frequency of binucleated micronuclei was analyzed in relation to estimated bone marrow dose from the cleanup activities along with a number of environmental/occupational risk factors using Poisson regression adjusted for overdispersion. Among the 105 persons without a previous cancer diagnosis, the mean Chornobyl-related dose was 59.5 mSv (range 0-748.4 mSv). There was a borderline significant increase in micronuclei frequency among those reporting work as an industrial radiographer compared with all others, with a relative risk of 6.19 (95% CI 0.90, 31.08, 2-sided p = 0.0729), although this was based on a single person. There was a borderline significant positive radiation dose response for micronuclei frequency with increase in micronuclei per 1000 scored cells per Gy of 3.03 (95% CI -0.78, 7.65, 2-sided p = 0.1170), and a borderline significant reduction of excess relative MN prevalence with increasing time since last exposure (p = 0.0949). There was a significant (p = 0.0388) reduction in MN prevalence associated with bone X-ray exposure, but no significant trend (p = 0.3845) of MN prevalence with numbers of bone X-ray procedures. There are indications of

  14. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.W.; Mak, H.K.; Lachman, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

  15. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery.

    PubMed

    Herman, M W; Mak, H K; Lachman, R S

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

  16. Method for minimizing the radiation exposure from scoliosis radiographs. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Fritz, S.L.; Asher, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposure resulting from standard scoliosis radiographs was determined for eighteen adolescent girls. The risk of inducing breast cancer was estimated from the skin-exposure doses. The average skin exposure to the breasts was 59.6 millirads (0.59 mGy) for the anteroposterior radiograph. Assuming a total of twenty-two anteroposterior radiographs during a course of treatment, the cumulative exposure would result in a 1.35% relative increase in the risk of development of breast cancer. By utilizing collimation of the x-ray beam and proper selection of grids, films, and screens, the radiation risk of scoliosis radiographs is minimized.

  17. Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jason N; Hornik, Christoph P; Li, Jennifer S; Benjamin, Daniel K; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Reiman, Robert E; Frush, Donald P; Hill, Kevin D

    2014-07-08

    Children with heart disease are frequently exposed to imaging examinations that use ionizing radiation. Although radiation exposure is potentially carcinogenic, there are limited data on cumulative exposure and the associated cancer risk. We evaluated the cumulative effective dose of radiation from all radiation examinations to estimate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer in children with heart disease. Children ≤6 years of age who had previously undergone 1 of 7 primary surgical procedures for heart disease at a single institution between 2005 and 2010 were eligible for the study. Exposure to radiation-producing examinations was tabulated, and cumulative effective dose was calculated in millisieverts. These data were used to estimate lifetime attributable risk of cancer above baseline using the approach of the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII. The cohort included 337 children exposed to 13 932 radiation examinations. Conventional radiographs represented 92% of examinations, whereas cardiac catheterization and computed tomography accounted for 81% of cumulative exposure. Overall median cumulative effective dose was 2.7 mSv (range, 0.1-76.9 mSv), and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer was 0.07% (range, 0.001%-6.5%). Median lifetime attributable risk of cancer ranged widely depending on surgical complexity (0.006%-1.6% for the 7 surgical cohorts) and was twice as high in females per unit exposure (0.04% versus 0.02% per 1-mSv effective dose for females versus males, respectively; P<0.001). Overall radiation exposures in children with heart disease are relatively low; however, select cohorts receive significant exposure. Cancer risk estimation highlights the need to limit radiation dose, particularly for high-exposure modalities. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. The Art of Wing Leadership: Exploring the Influences of Aircrew Morale in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    air combat. This study answers the question: Is it possible to identify those characteristics of leadership that are able to sustain aircrew morale in...1 Leadership and Morale in Air Combat ......................................................................... 1 Methodology

  19. IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates information published by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in 1987. NCRP reports are considered the authoritative reference for the sources and magnitude of average background exposure to the U.S. population.

  20. Factors modifying the response of large animals to low-intensity radiation exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, N. P.; Still, E. T.

    1972-01-01

    In assessing the biological response to space radiation, two of the most important modifying factors are dose protraction and dose distribution to the body. Studies are reported in which sheep and swine were used to compare the hematology and lethality response resulting from radiation exposure encountered in a variety of forms, including acute (high dose-rate), chronic (low dose-rate), combinations of acute and chronic, and whether received as a continuous or as fractionated exposure. While sheep and swine are basically similar in response to acute radiation, their sensitivity to chronic irradiation is markedly different. Sheep remain relatively sensitive as the radiation exposure is protracted while swine are more resistant and capable of surviving extremely large doses of chronic irradiation. This response to chronic irradiation correlated well with changes in radiosensitivity and recovery following an acute, sublethal exposure.

  1. Effect of Radiation Exposure on the Retention of Commercial NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Chen, D.; Friendlich, M.; Carts, M. A.; Seidleck, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We have compared the data retention of irradiated commercial NAND flash memories with that of unirradiated controls. Under some circumstanc es, radiation exposure has a significant effect on the retention of f lash memories.

  2. Suppression of E. multilocularis Hydatid Cysts after Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis. Methododology/Principal Findings LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays. Conclusions These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays. PMID:24205427

  3. A Systems Analysis of Alternative Concepts for Aircrew Cold Weather Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    conclusions of the analysis are listed below. e the insulation (4.3 clo) of the Arctic ensemble, which is the warmest "ensemble in the Army inventory ...satisfying aircrew needs. The warmest boot in the Army inventory (the white vapor barrier boot) cannot keep the toes above the critical temperature of...in the estimates since ARNG aircrew wear Army clothing and fly Army aircraft. The US Army has over 8700 aircraft in its inventory ; of these, about

  4. Corrective Lens Use and Refractive Error Among United States Air Force Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    surgery was approved for aircrew members in August 2000. Initially only photorefractive keratectomy ( PRK ) was approved, but 200 MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol...approval for laser in-situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ), although USAF policy limits CRS treatments on aircrew to no more than 8.00 D of myopia, no more than...Undergraduate Pilot Training Pass/Fail Rate of Spectacled vs . Nonspectacled Student Pilots. Report No. USAFSAM-TR-85-50. Brooks Air Eorce Base, TX, USAE

  5. Speech Intelligibility of Aircrew Mask Communication Configurations in High-Noise Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-28

    ARL-TR-8168 ● Sep 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Speech Intelligibility of Aircrew Mask Communication Configurations in High ...Laboratory Speech Intelligibility of Aircrew Mask Communication Configurations in High -Noise Environments by Kimberly A Pollard and Lamar Garrett...in High - Noise Environments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kimberly A Pollard and Lamar

  6. Human Factors Research in Aircrew Performance and Training: 1990 Annual Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    TRS) . . . . . . . . . 97 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURING BOTH CONSCIOUS AND SUBCONSCIOUS ASPECTS OF AIRCREW COORDINATION IN ARMY HELICOPTER...Perkin-Elmer mini- computer and FORTRAN programming language. The model was later reprogrammed using the TOSS software and an IBM personal computer. The...will be conducted by the UAFDL. 101 44 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURING BOTH CONSCIOUS .AND SUBCONSCIOUS ASPECTS OF AIRCREW COORDINATION IN

  7. Measuring Neuromuscular Fatigue in Cervical Spinal Musculature of Military Helicopter Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    BSct ABSTRACT Neck pain and muscle furiLiion in aircrew have received considerable attention. We hypothesized nor- niali/ed olectromyography (EMG...the literature with aiicrew-specitic publications indicates a growing concern with regard to cervical spinal injuries and pain in the helicop- ter...individual article.’"’’ Regardless of the exact prevalence. Ilight-induced neck pain results in lost working days from highly trained aircrew that negatively

  8. The risk of radiation exposure to the eyes of the interventional pain physician.

    PubMed

    Fish, David E; Kim, Andrew; Ornelas, Christopher; Song, Sungchan; Pangarkar, Sanjog

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eyewear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them.

  9. The Risk of Radiation Exposure to the Eyes of the Interventional Pain Physician

    PubMed Central

    Fish, David E.; Kim, Andrew; Ornelas, Christopher; Song, Sungchan; Pangarkar, Sanjog

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eyewear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them. PMID:22091381

  10. Perioperative patient radiation exposure in the endoscopic removal of upper urinary tract calculi.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Joseph E; Armenakas, Noel A; Sosa, R Ernest; Fracchia, John A

    2011-11-01

    The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) in detailing upper urinary tract calculi is well established. There is no established acceptable annual recommended limit for medical exposure, yet the global accepted upper limit for occupational radiation exposure is <50 millisieverts (mSv) in any one year. We sought to appreciate the CT and fluoroscopic radiation exposure to our patients undergoing endoscopic removal of upper tract calculi during the periprocedure period. All patients undergoing upper urinary endoscopic stone removal between 2005 and 2009 were identified. To calculate the cumulative radiation exposure, we included all ionizing radiation imaging performed during a periprocedure period, which we defined as ≤90 days pre- and post-therapeutic procedure. A total of 233 upper urinary tract therapeutic patient stone procedures were identified; 127 patients underwent ureteroscopy (URS) and 106 patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). A mean 1.58 CTs were performed per patient. Ninety (38.6%) patients underwent ≥2 CTs in the periprocedure period, with an average number in this group of 2.49 CT/patient, resulting in approximately 49.8 mSv of CT radiation exposure. Patients who were undergoing URS were significantly more likely to have multiple CTs (P=0.003) than those undergoing PCNL. Median fluoroscopic procedure exposures were 43.3 mGy for patients who were undergoing PCNL and 27.6 mGy for those patients undergoing URS. CT radiation exposure in the periprocedure period for patients who were undergoing endoscopic upper tract stone removal is considerable. Added to this is the procedure-related fluoroscopic radiation exposure. Urologic surgeons should be aware of the cumulative amount of ionizing radiation received by their patients from multiple sources.

  11. Tracking Cumulative Radiation Exposure in Orthopaedic Surgeons and Residents: What Dose Are We Getting?

    PubMed

    Gausden, Elizabeth B; Christ, Alexander B; Zeldin, Roseann; Lane, Joseph M; McCarthy, Moira M

    2017-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of cumulative radiation exposure received by orthopaedic surgeons and residents in various subspecialties. We obtained dosimeter measures over 12 months on 24 residents and 16 attending surgeons. Monthly radiation exposure was measured over a 12-month period for 24 orthopaedic residents and 16 orthopaedic attending surgeons. The participants wore a Landauer Luxel dosimeter on the breast pocket of their lead apron. The dosimeters were exchanged every rotation (5 to 7 weeks) for the resident participants and every month for the attending surgeon participants. Radiation exposure was compared by orthopaedic subspecialty, level of training, and type of fluoroscopy used (regular C-arm compared with mini C-arm). Orthopaedic residents participating in this study received monthly mean radiation exposures of 0.2 to 79 mrem/month, lower than the dose limits of 5,000 mrem/year recommended by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC). Senior residents rotating on trauma were exposed to the highest monthly radiation (79 mrem/month [range, 15 to 243 mrem/month]) compared with all other specialty rotations (p < 0.001). Similarly, attending orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in trauma or deformity surgery received the highest radiation exposure of their peers, and the mean exposure was 53 mrem/month (range, 0 to 355 mrem/month). Residents and attending surgeons performing trauma or deformity surgical procedures are exposed to significantly higher doses of radiation compared with all other subspecialties within orthopaedic surgery, but the doses are still within the recommended limits. The use of ionizing radiation in the operating room has become an indispensable part of orthopaedic surgery. Although all surgeons in our study received lower than the yearly recommended dose limit, it is important to be aware of how much radiation we are exposed to as surgeons and to take measures to further limit that exposure.

  12. Elevated Radiation Exposure Associated With Above Surface Flat Detector Mini C-Arm Use.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dennis P; Chapman, Talia; Williamson, Christopher; Tinsley, Brian; Ilyas, Asif M; Wang, Mark L

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that: (1) radiation exposure is increased with the intended use of Flat Surface Image Intensifier (FSII) units above the operative surface compared with the traditional below-table configuration; (2) this differential increases in a dose-dependent manner; and (3) radiation exposure varies with body part and proximity to the radiation source. A surgeon mannequin was seated at a radiolucent hand table, positioned for volar distal radius plating. Thermoluminescent dosimeters measured exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, hand, and groin, for 1- and 15-minute trials from a mini C-arm FSII unit positioned above and below the operating surface. Background radiation was measured by control dosimeters placed within the operating theater. At 1-minute of exposure, hand and eye dosages were significantly greater with the flat detector positioned above the table. At 15-minutes of exposure, hand radiation dosage exceeded that of all other anatomic sites with the FSII in both positions. Hand exposure was increased in a dose-dependent manner with the flat detector in either position, whereas groin exposure saw a dose-dependent only with the flat detector beneath the operating table. These findings suggest that the surgeon's hands and eyes may incur greater radiation exposure compared with other body parts, during routine mini C-arm FSII utilization in its intended position above the operating table. The clinical impact of these findings remains unclear, and future long-term radiation safety investigation is warranted. Surgeons should take precautions to protect critical body parts, particularly when using FSII technology above the operating with prolonged exposure time.

  13. Nutrition and Hydration Status of Aircrew Members Consuming The Food Packet, Survival, General Purpose, Improved During A Simulated Survival Scenario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    AD-A25 8 744 AD Tl-93 REPORT NO NUTRITION AND HYDRATION STATUS OF AIRCREW MEMBERS CONSUMING THE FOOD PACKET, SURVIVAL, GENERAL PURPOSE, IMPROVED...TYPE AND DATES COVERED INovember 1992 IFinal: June 1991 - November 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nutrition and hydration status of aircrew ’- 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited.. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximtum 200 words) Adequate nutrition and hydration can be crucial to the survival of downed aircrews. To determine

  14. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nishi, Daisuke; Nakaya, Naoki; Sone, Toshimasa; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Koido, Yuichi

    2012-05-15

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24%) disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6), depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI), and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2%) respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.

  15. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  16. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Hong, Mi-Na; Park, Myung-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H2O2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H2O2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H2O2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H2O2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. PMID:24105709

  17. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” and in supplements to... electromagnetic energy. The SAR limits to be used for evaluation are based generally on criteria published by the... with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” and in supplements to... electromagnetic energy. The SAR limits to be used for evaluation are based generally on criteria published by the... with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE...

  19. Impact of a Disposable Sterile Radiation Shield on Operator Radiation Exposure During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Shorrock, Deborah; Christopoulos, Georgios; Wosik, Jedrek; Kotsia, Anna; Rangan, Bavana; Abdullah, Shuaib; Cipher, Daisha; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-07-01

    Daily radiation exposure over many years can adversely impact the health of medical professionals. Operator radiation exposure was recorded for 124 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed at our institution between August 2011 and May 2013: 69 were chronic total occlusion (CTO)-PCIs and 55 were non-CTO PCIs. A disposable radiation protection sterile drape (Radpad; Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Inc) was used in all CTO-PCI cases vs none of the non-CTO PCI cases. Operator radiation exposure was compared between CTO and non-CTO PCIs. Mean age was 64.6 ± 6.2 years and 99.2% of the patients were men. Compared with non-CTO PCI, patients undergoing CTO-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, to be current smokers, and to have longer lesions, and less likely to have prior PCI and a saphenous vein graft target lesion. CTO-PCI cases had longer procedural time (median: 123 minutes [IQR, 85-192 minutes] vs 27 minutes [IQR, 20-44 minutes]; P<.001), fluoroscopy time (35 minutes [IQR, 19-54 minutes] vs 8 minutes [IQR, 5-16 minutes]; P<.001), number of stents placed (2.4 ± 1.5 vs 1.7 ± 0.9; P<.001), and patient air kerma radiation exposure (3.92 Gray [IQR, 2.48-5.86 Gray] vs 1.22 Gray [IQR, 0.74-1.90 Gray]; P<.001), as well as dose area product (267 Gray•cm² [IQR, 163-4.25 Gray•cm²] vs 84 Gray•cm² [IQR, 48-138 Gray•cm²]; P<.001). In spite of higher patient radiation exposure, operator radiation exposure was similar between the two groups (20 μSv [IQR, 9.5-31 μSv] vs 15 μSv [IQR, 7-23 μSv]; P=.07). Operator radiation exposure during CTO-PCI can be reduced to levels similar to less complicated cases with the use of a disposable sterile radiation protection shield.

  20. Exposure safety standards for nonionizing radiation (NIR) from collision-avoidance radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer-Fortune, Joyce; Brecher, Aviva; Spencer, Paul; Huguenin, Richard; Woods, Ken

    1997-02-01

    On-vehicle technology for collision avoidance using millimeter wave radar is currently under development and is expected to be in vehicles in coming years. Recently approved radar bands for collision avoidance applications include 47.5 - 47.8 GHz and 76 - 77 GHz. Widespread use of active radiation sources in the public domain would contribute to raised levels of human exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation, with potential for adverse health effects. In order to design collision avoidance systems that will pose an acceptably low radiation hazard, it is necessary to determine what levels of electromagnetic radiation at millimeter wave frequencies will be acceptable in the environment. This paper will summarize recent research on NIR (non-ionizing radiation) exposure safety standards for high frequency electromagnetic radiation. We have investigated both governmental and non- governmental professional organizations worldwide.

  1. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology f...

  2. Radiation exposure from work-related medical X-rays at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Robert D; Kubale, Travis L; Spitz, Henry B

    2005-03-01

    Previous analyses suggest that worker radiation dose may be significantly increased by routine occupational X-ray examinations. Medical exposures are investigated for 570 civilian workers employed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) at Kittery, Maine. The research objective was to determine the radiation exposure contribution of work-related chest X-rays (WRX) relative to conventional workplace radiation sources. Methods were developed to estimate absorbed doses to the active (hematopoietic) bone marrow from X-ray examinations and workplace exposures using data extracted from worker dosimetry records (8,468) and health records (2,453). Dose distributions were examined for radiation and non-radiation workers. Photofluorographic chest examinations resulted in 82% of the dose from medical sources. Radiation workers received 26% of their collective dose from WRX and received 66% more WRX exposure than non-radiation workers. WRX can result in a significant fraction of the total dose, especially for radiation workers who were more likely to be subjected to routine medical monitoring. Omission of WRX from the total dose is a likely source of bias that can lead to dose category misclassification and may skew the epidemiologic dose-response assessment for cancers induced by the workplace.

  3. SCALING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: CONSEQUENCES OF BODY SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating...

  4. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  5. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed.

  6. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  7. Subjective stress factors in centrifuge training for military aircrews.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Wang, Jenhung; Li, Shih-Chin

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates stress-influence factors perceived by military aircrews undergoing centrifuge training, which lowers the incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) for the crews of high-performance combat aircrafts. We used questionnaires to assess the subjective stress-influence factors of crews undergoing centrifuge training. Professionals in aviation physiology identified attributes measuring the perceived stress induced by centrifuge training, which were segmented into three constructs by factor analysis, theory lecture, centrifuge equipment, and physical fitness. Considerable interpenetration was discernible between these factors and military rank, age, length of service, flight hours accrued, and type of aircraft piloted. Identifying and quantifying the perceived stressors experienced in human-use centrifuge training enables aviators, astronauts, and air forces of the world to determine which constructs perceptibly increase or alleviate the perceived stress undergone by trainees when partaking in centrifuge training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants. In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work. Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p < 0.0001), (ii) 1500 and 2400 MHz (p < 0.0001) and (iii) 3500 and 8000 MHz (p = 0.0161). The available literature on the effect of RF-EMFs on plants to date observed the significant trend of radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress

  9. Long-Term Follow-up of the Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in Primates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    MV, Katz BP, Smith CP, Jackson W 3rd, Cohen DM, et al. A nonhuman primate model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome plus medical management...subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome : a rhesus macaque model. Health Phys 2012; 103:411–26. 32. Robbins ME, Bourland JD, Cline JM, Wheeler KT, Deadwyler...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0574 TITLE: Long-Term Follow-up of the Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in Primates

  10. Primary water chemistry improvement for radiation exposure reduction at Japanese PWR Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, Eiichi

    1995-03-01

    Radiation exposure during the refueling outages at Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plants has been gradually decreased through continuous efforts keeping the radiation dose rates at relatively low level. The improvement of primary water chemistry in respect to reduction of the radiation sources appears as one of the most important contributions to the achieved results and can be classified by the plant operation conditions as follows

  11. [Telephone consultations on exposure to nuclear disaster radiation].

    PubMed

    Yashima, Sachiko; Chida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. For about six weeks, I worked as a counselor for phone consultations regarding radiation risk. I analyzed the number of consultations, consultations by telephone, and their changing patterns with elapse of time, to assist with consultations about risk in the future. There were a large number of questions regarding the effects of radiation, particularly with regard to children. We believe that counseling and risk communication are the key to effectively informing the public about radiation risks.

  12. Radiation safety protocol using real-time dose reporting reduces patient exposure in pediatric electrophysiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash R; Ganley, Jamie; Zhu, Xiaowei; Rome, Jonathan J; Shah, Maully; Glatz, Andrew C

    2014-10-01

    Radiation exposure during pediatric catheterization is significant. We sought to describe radiation exposure and the effectiveness of radiation safety protocols in reducing exposure during catheter ablations with electrophysiology studies in children and patients with congenital heart disease. We additionally sought to identify at-risk patients. We retrospectively reviewed all interventional electrophysiology procedures performed from April 2009 to September 2011 (6 months preceding intervention, 12 months following implementation of initial radiation safety protocol, and 8 months following implementation of modified protocol). The protocols consisted of low pulse rate fluoroscopy settings, operator notification of skin entrance dose every 1,000 mGy, adjusting cameras by >5 at every 1,000 mGy, and appropriate collimation. The cohort consisted of 291 patients (70 pre-intervention, 137 after initial protocol implementation, 84 after modified protocol implementation) at a median age of 14.9 years with congenital heart disease present in 11 %. Diagnoses included atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (25 %), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (61 %), atrial tachycardias (12 %), and ventricular tachycardia (2 %). There were no differences between groups based on patient, arrhythmia, and procedural characteristics. Following implementation of the protocols, there were significant reductions in all measures of radiation exposure: fluoroscopy time (17.8 %), dose area product (80.2 %), skin entry dose (81.0 %), and effective dose (76.9 %), p = 0.0001. Independent predictors of increased radiation exposure included larger patient weight, longer fluoroscopy time, and lack of radiation safety protocol. Implementation of a radiation safety protocol for pediatric and congenital catheter ablations can drastically reduce radiation exposure to patients without affecting procedural success.

  13. Exposure of luminous marine bacteria to low-dose gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Kudryasheva, N S; Petrova, A S; Dementyev, D V; Bondar, A A

    2017-04-01

    The study addresses biological effects of low-dose gamma-radiation. Radioactive 137 Cs-containing particles were used as model sources of gamma-radiation. Luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum was used as a bioassay with the bioluminescent intensity as the physiological parameter tested. To investigate the sensitivity of the bacteria to the low-dose gamma-radiation exposure (≤250 mGy), the irradiation conditions were varied as follows: bioluminescence intensity was measured at 5, 10, and 20°С for 175, 100, and 47 h, respectively, at different dose rates (up to 4100 μGy/h). There was no noticeable effect of gamma-radiation at 5 and 10°С, while the 20°С exposure revealed authentic bioluminescence inhibition. The 20°С results of gamma-radiation exposure were compared to those for low-dose alpha- and beta-radiation exposures studied previously under comparable experimental conditions. In contrast to ionizing radiation of alpha and beta types, gamma-emission did not initiate bacterial bioluminescence activation (adaptive response). As with alpha- and beta-radiation, gamma-emission did not demonstrate monotonic dose-effect dependencies; the bioluminescence inhibition efficiency was found to be related to the exposure time, while no dose rate dependence was found. The sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene did not reveal a mutagenic effect of low-dose gamma radiation. The exposure time that caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition was suggested as a test parameter for radiotoxicity evaluation under conditions of chronic low-dose gamma irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p<0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p<0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p<0.001) or suspended lead (p=0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p<0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p<0.001). Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxidative Stress in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a dose relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Mice (C57BL/6J; 6 to 8 weeks; female) were irradiated with 2 Gy of γ-rays, a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, and intestinal tissues and IEC were collected 1 year after radiation exposure. Intracellular ROS, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant activity in IEC were studied by flow cytometry and biochemical assays. Oxidative DNA damage, cell death, and mitogenic activity in IEC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Effects of γ radiation were compared to 56Fe radiation (iso-toxic dose: 1.6 Gy; energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon; LET: 148 keV/µm), we used as representative of high-LET radiation, since it's one of the important sources of high Z and high energy (HZE) radiation in cosmic rays. Radiation quality affected the level of persistent oxidative stress with higher elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide in high-LET 56Fe radiation compared to unirradiated controls and γ radiation. NADPH oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane damage, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were greater in 56Fe-irradiated mice. Compared to γ radiation oxidative DNA damage was higher, cell death ratio was unchanged, and mitotic activity was increased after 56Fe radiation. Taken together our results indicate that long-term functional dysregulation of mitochondria and increased NADPH oxidase activity are major contributing factors towards heavy ion radiation-induced persistent oxidative stress in IEC with potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID

  16. Comparison of Some Radiation Exposures to Mars-Trip Level

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-30

    This graphic compares the radiation dose equivalent for several types of experiences, including a calculation for a trip from Earth to Mars based on measurements made by the RAD instrument shielded inside NASA Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft.

  17. Evaluation of radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology examination; availability of final recommendations--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1986-02-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled "Recommendations for Evaluation of Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Radiology Examinations". The recommendations, prepared by FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), encourage diagnostic radiology facilities to take voluntary action to: Become aware of the radiation levels experienced by patients undergoing the projections commonly given in the facility; compare their radiation levels to generally accepted levels for these projections; and bring the exposures back into line if their levels fall consistently outside these generally accepted levels.

  18. Metastatic angiosarcoma of the spleen after accidental radiation exposure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Geffen, D B; Zirkin, H J; Mermershtain, W; Cohen, Y; Ariad, S

    1998-04-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor arising from endothelial cells of blood vessels or lymphatic channels. Therapeutic irradiation, thoriumdioxide administration, pyothorax, and polyvinyl chloride exposure have been shown to be predisposing factors for developing angiosarcoma. Accidental radiation exposure has not been associated with angiosarcoma. We present an unusual case of angiosarcoma of the spleen, with metastases to bone, liver, breast, and bone marrow, in a woman who lived near the Chernobyl nuclear facility in the former Soviet Union at the time of the reactor accident in 1986. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic angiosarcoma after accidental radiation exposure.

  19. Dosimetry for ultraviolet radiation exposure of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-07-01

    The eye is exposed daily to UVR from skylight and ground reflections when outdoors in sunlight. Additional exposure occurs daily from artificial sources such as fluorescent lamps. Some workers, notably welders, are exposed to industrial sources of UVR. The geometry of exposure critically influences the actual UVR dose to the cornea and lens. When exposed to bright light, squinting reduces UVR exposure. the optical properties of the eye and behavioral responses to bright light both contribute to limiting actual UVR exposure. The actual daily dos of UVR is considerably less than what many previous investigators have assumed. The geometrical, as well as temporal and spectral, aspects of ocular dosimetry will be reviewed in order to allow participants a better insight into the practical impact of many laboratory studies of UVR effects upon ocular tissues.

  20. Radiation exposure levels within timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inyang, S. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Egbe, N. O.

    2009-01-01

    The UNSCEAR (2000) observed that there could be some exposure at work which would require regulatory control but is not really considered. This study was, therefore, set up to evaluate the effective dose in timber industries in Calabar, Nigeria to determine if the evaluated dose levels could lead to any radiological health effect in the workers, and also determine if the industries require regulatory control. The gamma ray exposure at four timber industries measured using an exposure meter were converted to effective dose and compared with the public and occupational values. The evaluated effective dose values in the timber industries were below public and occupational exposure limits and may not necessarily result in any radiological health hazard. Therefore, they may not require regulatory control. PMID:20098544

  1. Discovery and Validation of Proteomic Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    1: CDKN IA protein levels as a function radiation dosage, as measured by K. Wilson at Stanford using ELISA kits. We have developed magneto -nano...8217<: ~ 100 0 I o j ! Figu re 3: Sensitivity and dynamic range of CDKNJA radiation marker in magneto -nano sensor and ELTSA, l respectively...Interactions/Transitions Shan Wang gave the following inv ited talks in major meetings: l . S. X. Wang, " Magneto -Nano Protein Chip and Multiplex Sorter

  2. Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Kligman, A.M.

    Repeated exposures to subliminal doses of UVR, given at 24-hr intervals, resulted in a lowering of the erythema threshold dose. At erythemogenically equivalent doses, UV-A was the most effective and UV-C the least. A similar and more pronounced effect was observed following repeated exposures to subthreshold doses of UV-A and topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen. These findings provide quantitative evidence for the cumulative nature of acute UVR damage in human skin.

  3. Decreased Radiation Exposure Among Orthopedic Residents Is Maintained When Using the Mini C-Arm After Undergoing Radiation Safety Training.

    PubMed

    Gendelberg, David; Hennrikus, William L; Sawyer, Carissa; Armstrong, Douglas; King, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The resident curriculum of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery emphasizes radiation safety. Gendelberg showed that, immediately after a program on fluoroscopic safety, residents used less radiation when using the mini C-arm to reduce pediatric fractures. The current study evaluated whether this effect lasted. Residents underwent a new annual 3-hour session on mini C-arm use and radiation. Group A included 53 reductions performed before training. Group B included 45 reductions performed immediately after training. Group C included 46 reductions performed 11 months later. For distal radius fractures, exposure time and amount were 38.1 seconds and 83.1 mR, respectively, for group A; 26.7 seconds and 32.6 mR, respectively, for group B; and 24.1 seconds and 40.0 mR, respectively, for group C. When radiation time and amount were compared between group B and group C, P values were .525 and .293, respectively. When group C and group A were compared, P values were <.05 and <.01, respectively. For both bone forearm fractures, exposure time and amount were 41.2 seconds and 90.9 mR, respectively, for group A; 28.9 seconds and 30.4 mR, respectively, for group B; and 31.2 seconds and 43.6 mR, respectively, for group C. When radiation time and amount were compared between group B and group C, P values were .704 and .117, respectively. When group C and group A were compared, P values were .183 and .004, respectively. No significant difference in radiation exposure was noted immediately after training vs 11 months later. A sustained decrease in radiation exposure occurred after an educational program on safe mini C-arm use. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e788-e792.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent; Vernez, David

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  5. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  6. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    PubMed Central

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  7. Initiation-promotion model of tumor prevalence in mice from space radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Exposures in space consist of low-level background components from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), occasional intense-energetic solar-particle events, periodic passes through geomagnetic-trapped radiation, and exposure from possible onboard nuclear-propulsion engines. Risk models for astronaut exposure from such diverse components and modalities must be developed to assure adequate protection in future NASA missions. The low-level background exposures (GCR), including relativistic heavy ions (HZE), will be the ultimate limiting factor for astronaut career exposure. We consider herein a two-mutation, initiation-promotion, radiation-carcinogenesis model in mice in which the initiation stage is represented by a linear kinetics model of cellular repair/misrepair, including the track-structure model for heavy ion action cross-sections. The model is validated by comparison with the harderian gland tumor experiments of Alpen et al. for various ion beams. We apply the initiation-promotion model to exposures from galactic cosmic rays, using models of the cosmic-ray environment and heavy ion transport, and consider the effects of the age of the mice prior to and after the exposure and of the length of time in space on predictions of relative risk. Our results indicate that biophysical models of age-dependent radiation hazard will provide a better understanding of GCR risk than models that rely strictly on estimates of the initial slopes of these radiations.

  8. Patient and surgeon radiation exposure during spinal instrumentation using intraoperative computed tomography-based navigation.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Daniel; Strelzow, Jason; Dea, Nicolas; Ford, Nancy L; Batke, Juliet; Pennington, Andrew; Yang, Kaiyun; Ailon, Tamir; Boyd, Michael; Dvorak, Marcel; Kwon, Brian; Paquette, Scott; Fisher, Charles; Street, John

    2016-03-01

    Imaging modalities used to visualize spinal anatomy intraoperatively include X-ray studies, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography (CT). All of these emit ionizing radiation. Radiation emitted to the patient and the surgical team when performing surgeries using intraoperative CT-based spine navigation was compared. This is a retrospective cohort case-control study. Seventy-three patients underwent CT-navigated spinal instrumentation and 73 matched controls underwent spinal instrumentation with conventional fluoroscopy. Effective doses of radiation to the patient when the surgical team was inside and outside of the room were analyzed. The number of postoperative imaging investigations between navigated and non-navigated cases was compared. Intraoperative X-ray imaging, fluoroscopy, and CT dosages were recorded and standardized to effective doses. The number of postoperative imaging investigations was compared with the matched cohort of surgical cases. A literature review identified historical radiation exposure values for fluoroscopic-guided spinal instrumentation. The 73 navigated operations involved an average of 5.44 levels of instrumentation. Thoracic and lumbar instrumentations had higher radiation emission from all modalities (CT, X-ray imaging, and fluoroscopy) compared with cervical cases (6.93 millisievert [mSv] vs. 2.34 mSv). Major deformity and degenerative cases involved more radiation emission than trauma or oncology cases (7.05 mSv vs. 4.20 mSv). On average, the total radiation dose to the patient was 8.7 times more than the radiation emitted when the surgical team was inside the operating room. Total radiation exposure to the patient was 2.77 times the values reported in the literature for thoracolumbar instrumentations performed without navigation. In comparison, the radiation emitted to the patient when the surgical team was inside the operating room was 2.50 lower than non-navigated thoracolumbar instrumentations. The average total radiation

  9. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  10. Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

  11. Summary of ionizing radiation analysis on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group (IRSIG) for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was established to perform radiation measurements and analysis not planned in the original experiments, and to assure availability of LDEF analysis results in a form useful to future missions. The IRSIG has organized extensive induced radioactivity measurements throughout LDEF, and a comprehensive program to compare the LDEF radiation measurements to values calculated using environment models. The activities and present status of the Group is described. The ionizing radiation results presented is summarized.

  12. Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure and the Teaching of Radioecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjos, R. M.; Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Estellita, L.; Zanuto, P.; Queiroz, E.; Macario, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an experimental activity that introduces concepts of the natural ionizing radiation and its interaction with our contemporary environment that can be used with students from secondary to college level. The experiment is based on the use of traditional and cheap portable Geiger-Muller detectors as survey meters for "in situ"…

  13. Eye Lens Radiation Exposure in Greek Interventional Cardiology Article.

    PubMed

    Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Askounis, Panagiotis; Datseris, Ioannis; Diamanti, Ramza Anastasia; Papathanasiou, Miltiadis; Carinou, Eleftheria

    2017-07-01

    The lens of the eye is one of the radiosensitive tissues of the human body; if exposed to ionizing radiation can develop radiation-induced cataract at early ages. This study was held in Greece and included 44 Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and an unexposed to radiation control group of 22 persons. Of the note, 26 ICs and the unexposed individuals underwent special eye examinations. The detected lens opacities were classified according to LOCS III protocol. Additionally, the lens doses of the ICs were measured using eye lens dosemeters. The mean dose to the lenses of the ICs per month was 0.83 ± 0.59 mSv for the left and 0.35 ± 0.38 mSv for the right eye, while the annual doses ranged between 0.7 and 11 mSv. Regarding the lens opacities, the two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of either nuclear or cortical lens opacities, whereas four ICs were detected with early stage subcapsular sclerosis. Though no statistically difference was observed in the cohort, the measured doses indicate that the eye doses received from the ICs can be significant. To minimize the radiation-induced risk at the eye lenses, the use of protective equipment and appropriate training on this issue is highly recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  15. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Lene H S; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94-4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation.

  16. Personalized technologist dose audit feedback for reducing patient radiation exposure from CT.

    PubMed

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Eric; Lee, Choonsik; Morin, Richard L; Vanneman, Nicholas; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether providing radiologic technologists with audit feedback on doses from CT examinations they conduct and education on dose-reduction strategies reduces patients' radiation exposure. This prospective, controlled pilot study was conducted within an integrated health care system from November 2010 to October 2011. Ten technologists at 2 facilities received personalized dose audit reports and education on dose-reduction strategies; 9 technologists at a control facility received no intervention. Radiation exposure was measured by the dose-length product (DLP) from CT scans performed before (n = 1,630) and after (n = 1,499) the intervention and compared using quantile regression. Technologists were surveyed before and after the intervention. For abdominal CT, DLPs decreased by 3% to 12% at intervention facilities but not at the control facility. For brain CT, DLPs significantly decreased by 7% to 12% at one intervention facility; did not change at the second intervention facility, which had the lowest preintervention DLPs; and increased at the control facility. Technologists were more likely to report always thinking about radiation exposure and associated cancer risk and optimizing settings to reduce exposure after the intervention. Personalized audit feedback and education can change technologists' attitudes about, and awareness of, radiation and can lower patient radiation exposure from CT imaging. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 ((137)Cs) in Seoul. Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the (137)Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of (137)Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline.

  18. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  19. Management of fear of radiation exposure in carers of outpatients treated with iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Calais, Phillipe J; Page, Andrew C; Turner, J Harvey

    2012-07-01

    To characterise potential fear of radiation exposure in a normal population of individuals who have volunteered to care for a radioactive family member or friend after outpatient radioimmunotherapy (RIT) treatment for cancer, and obtain their knowing and willing acceptance of the risk. Over 750 carers of 300 patients confined to their homes for 1 week following outpatient iodine-131 rituximab RIT of lymphoma were interviewed by a nuclear medicine physicist according to a multi-visit integrated protocol designed to minimise radiation exposure, define risk and gain informed consent. Median radiation exposure of carers was 0.49 mSv (range 0.01-3.7 mSv) which is below the Western Australian regulatory limit of 5 mSv for consenting adult carers of radioactive patients. After signing a declaration of consent, only 2 carers of 750 abrogated their responsibility and none of those who carried out their duties expressed residual concerns at the end of the exit interview with respect to their radiation exposure. Fear of radiation exposure in a normal population may be characterised as a normal emotional response. In the special case of carers of radioactive patients, this fear may be successfully managed by rational, authoritative and empathic explanation to define the risk and gain willing acceptance within the context of domiciliary patient care.

  20. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86, Sections 17.4.1, 17.4.1.1, 17.4.2... Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86, Sections 17.4.1, 17.4.1.1, 17.4.2... Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI...

  2. ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

  3. Effectiveness of Fluorography versus Cineangiography at Reducing Radiation Exposure During Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Mai, Xingchen; Tummala, Lakshmi; Kliger, Chad; Bangalore, Sripal; Miller, Louis H.; Sedlis, Steven P.; Feit, Frederick; Liou, Michael; Attubato, Michael; Coppola, John; Slater, James

    2014-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for defining obstructive coronary disease. However, radiation exposure remains an unwanted hazard. Patients referred for coronary angiography with abdominal circumference <45 inches and glomerular filtration rate >60mL/min were randomized to the Fluorography (n=25) or Cineangiography (n=25) group. Patients in the Fluorography group underwent coronary angiography using retrospectively-stored fluorography with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed for better resolution per operator’s discretion. Patients in the Cineangiography group underwent coronary angiography using routine cineangiography. The primary endpoint was patient radiation exposure measured by radiochromic film. Secondary endpoints included the radiation output measurement of kerma-area product (KAP) and air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r), and operator radiation exposure measured by dosimeter. Patient radiation exposure (158.2mGy [76.5–210.2] vs 272.5mGy [163.3–314.0], p=0.001), KAP (1323μGy m2 [826–1765] vs 3451μGy m2 [2464–4818], p<0.001), and Ka,r (175 mGy [112–252] vs 558 mGy [313–621], p<0.001)was significantly lower in the Fluorography compared with Cineangiography group (42%, 62%, and 69% relative reduction, respectively). Operator radiation exposure trended in the same direction though statistically non-significant (Fluorography 2.35 μGy [1.24–6.30] vs Cineangiography 5.03μGy [2.48–7.80], p=0.059). In conclusion, the use of fluorography in a select group of patients during coronary angiography with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed was efficacious at reducing patient radiation exposure. PMID:24513469

  4. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health.

  5. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  6. Radiation Exposure and Attributable Cancer Risk in Patients With Esophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Yasmine; Baird, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Cases of esophageal carcinoma have been documented in survivors of esophageal atresia (EA). Children with EA undergo considerable amounts of diagnostic imaging and consequent radiation exposure potentially increasing their lifetime cancer mortality risk. This study evaluates the radiological procedures performed on patients with EA and estimates their cumulative radiation exposure and attributable lifetime cancer mortality risk. Medical records of patients with EA managed at a tertiary care center were reviewed for demographics, EA subtype, and number and type of radiological investigations. Existing normative data were used to estimate the cumulative radiation exposure and lifetime cancer risk per patient. The present study included 53 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.7 years. The overall median and maximum estimated effective radiation dose in the neonatal period was 5521.4 μSv/patient and 66638.6 μSv/patient, respectively. This correlates to a median and maximum estimated cumulative lifetime cancer mortality risk of 1:1530 and 1:130, respectively. Hence, radiation exposure in the neonatal period increased the cumulative cancer mortality risk a median of 130-fold and a maximum of 1575-fold in EA survivors. Children with EA are exposed to significant amounts of radiation and an increased estimated cumulative cancer mortality risk. Efforts should be made to eliminate superfluous imaging.

  7. Radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT examinations: how to manage the radiation dose variability.

    PubMed

    Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Dore, Antonio; Aringhieri, Giacomo; Caramella, Davide

    2018-03-01

    To assess the variability of radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT (computed tomography) examinations and to evaluate the influence of different scan parameters on the overall radiation dose. A series of 34 patients (12 men and 22 women with a median age of 34.4 years) with lymphoma, after the initial staging CT underwent repeat follow-up CT examinations. For each patient and each repeat examination, age, sex, use of AEC system (Automated Exposure Control, i.e. current modulation), scan length, kV value, number of acquired scans (i.e. number of phases), abdominal size diameter and dose length product (DLP) were recorded. The radiation dose of just one venous phase was singled out from the DLP of the entire examination. All scan data were retrieved by our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) by means of a dose monitoring software. Among the variables we considered, no significant difference of radiation dose was observed among patients of different ages nor concerning tube voltage. On the contrary the dose delivered to the patients varied depending on sex, scan length and usage of AEC. No significant difference was observed depending on the behaviour of technologists, while radiologists' choices had indirectly an impact on the radiation dose due to the different number of scans requested by each of them. Our results demonstrate that patients affected by lymphoma who undergo repeat whole body CT scanning may receive unnecessary overexposure. We quantified and analyzed the most relevant variables in order to provide a useful tool to manage properly CT dose variability, estimating the amount of additional radiation dose for every single significant variable. Additional scans, incorrect scan length and incorrect usage of AEC system are the most relevant cause of patient radiation exposure.

  8. Cataract frequency and subtypes involved in workers assessed for their solar radiation exposure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-04-16

    Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2)-4.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  10. Limited Internal Radiation Exposure Associated with Resettlements to a Radiation-Contaminated Homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12–30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers’ resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309–1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1–18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10-2-4.1 x 10-2 mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

  11. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants Part I: Quantification of radiation exposure and radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Pape, Yann Le; Remec, Igor

    A large fraction of light water reactor (LWR) construction utilizes concrete, including safety-related structures such as the biological shielding and containment building. Concrete is an inherently complex material, with the properties of concrete structures changing over their lifetime due to the intrinsic nature of concrete and influences from local environment. As concrete structures within LWRs age, the total neutron fluence exposure of the components, in particular the biological shield, can increase to levels where deleterious effects are introduced as a result of neutron irradiation. This work summarizes the current state of the art on irradiated concrete, including a review ofmore » the current literature and estimates the total neutron fluence expected in biological shields in typical LWR configurations. It was found a first-order mechanism for loss of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete is due to radiation-induced swelling of aggregates, which leads to volumetric expansion of the concrete. This phenomena is estimated to occur near the end of life of biological shield components in LWRs based on calculations of estimated peak neutron fluence in the shield after 80 years of operation.« less

  12. Radiation exposure in the young level 1 trauma patient: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Michael B; Bellaire, Laura L; Moore, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular and powerful tool for clinicians managing trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, but the ramifications of increasing radiation burden on individual patients are not insignificant. This study examines a continuous series of 337 patients less than 40 years old admitted to a level 1 trauma center during a 4-month period. Primary outcome measures included number of scans; effective dose of radiation from radiographs and CT scans, respectively; and total effective dose from both sources over patients' hospital stays. Several variables, including hospital length of stay, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score, correlated with greater radiation exposure. Blunt trauma victims were more prone to higher doses than those with penetrating or combined penetrating and blunt trauma. Location and mechanism of injury were also found to correlate with radiation exposure. Trauma patients as a group are exposed to high levels of radiation from X-rays and CT scans, and CT scans contribute a very high proportion (91.3% ± 11.7%) of that radiation. Certain subgroups of patients are at a particularly high risk of exposure, and greater attention to cumulative radiation dose should be paid to patients with the above mentioned risk factors.

  13. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5–18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects. PMID:25359903

  14. DNA Topoisomerase IB as a Potential Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Dose Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Daudee, Rotem; Gonen, Rafi; German, Uzi; Orion, Itzhak; Alfassi, Zeev B; Priel, Esther

    2018-06-01

    In radiation exposure scenarios where physical dosimetry is absent or inefficient, dose estimation must rely on biological markers. A reliable biomarker is of utmost importance in correlating biological system changes with radiation exposure. Human DNA topoisomerase ІB (topo І) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme, which is involved in essential cellular processes, including transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair, and is the target of anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown that the cellular activity of this enzyme is significantly sensitive to various DNA lesions, including radiation-induced DNA damages. Therefore, we investigated the potential of topo I as a biomarker of radiation exposure and dose. We examined the effect of exposure of different human cells to beta, X-ray and gamma radiation on the cellular catalytic activity of topo I. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in the DNA relaxation activity of topo I after irradiation and the level of the reduction was correlated with radiation dose. In normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes, exposure for 3 h to an integral dose of 0.065 mGy from tritium reduced the enzyme activity to less than 25%. In MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and in human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF) cells exposed to gamma radiation from a 60 Co source (up to 2 Gy) or to X rays (up to 2.8 Gy), a significant decrease in topo I catalytic activity was also observed. We observed that the enzyme-protein level was not altered but was partially posttranslational modified by ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme protein that is known to reduce topo I activity. The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the cellular topo I catalytic activity after low-dose exposure to different radiation types may be considered as a novel biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure and dose. For this purpose, a suitable ELISA-based method for large-scale analysis of radiation-induced topo I modification is under development.

  15. Increased exposure of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing of both surface solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and chlorophyll over two decades shows that biologically significant ultraviolet radiation increases began to occur over the Southern Ocean three years before the ozone ``hole'' was discovered. Beginning in October 1983, the most frequent occurrences of enhanced UVR over phytoplankton-rich waters occurred in the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean, impacting 60% of the surface biomass by the late 1990s. These results suggest two reasons why more serious impacts to the base of the marine food web may not have been detected by field experiments: (1) the onset of UVR increases several years before dedicated field work began may have impacted the most sensitive organisms long before such damage could be detected, and (2) most biological field work has so far not taken place in Antarctic waters most extensively subjected to enhanced UVR.

  16. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  17. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Effect of Vascular Access Site Choice on Radiation Exposure During Coronary Angiography: The REVERE Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Vascular Entry Site and Radiation Exposure).

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Samir B; Joshi, Pankaj; Shah, Sanjay; Rao, Sunil V; Bertrand, Olivier F; Patel, Tejas M

    2015-08-17

    This study sought to perform a randomized noninferiority trial of radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization comparing femoral access (FA) with left radial access (LRA) and right radial access (RRA). Increased radiation exposure with radial approach compared with femoral approach remains a controversial issue. This study randomized 1,493 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at a tertiary care center to FA, LRA, and RRA in a 1:1:1 fashion. The primary endpoint was air kerma. The secondary endpoints included dose-area product, fluoroscopy time and operator dose per procedure, number of cineangiograms, and number of catheters. Baseline and procedural characteristics were similar among groups. No significant differences were observed in air kerma (medians: FA: 421 mGy [interquartile range (IQR): 337 to 574 mGy], LRA: 454 mGy [IQR: 331 to 643 mGy], and RRA: 483 mGy [IQR: 382 to 592 mGy], p = 0.146), dose-area product (medians: FA: 25.5 Gy cm(2) [IQR: 19.6 to 34.5 Gy cm(2)], LRA: 26.6 Gy cm(2) [IQR: 19.5 to 37.5 Gy cm(2)], and RRA: 27.7 Gy cm(2) [IQR: 21.9 to 34.4 Gy cm(2)], p = 0.40), or fluoroscopy time (medians: FA: 1.3 min [IQR: 1.0 to 1.7 min], LRA: 1.3 min [IQR: 1.0 to 1.7 min], and RRA: 1.32 min [IQR: 1.0 to 1.7 min], p = 0.19) among the 3 access sites. Median operator exposure was higher in the LRA group (3 mrem [IQR: 2 to 5 mrem], p = 0.001 vs. FA, and p = 0.0001 vs. RRA) compared with the FA (2 mrem [IQR: 2 to 4 mrem] and RRA groups (3 mrem [IQR: 2 to 5 mrem]). Radiation exposure to patients was similar during diagnostic coronary angiography with FA, RRA, and LRA. However, LRA was associated with significantly higher operator radiation exposure than were FA and RRA procedures. (Randomized Evaluation of Vascular Entry Site and Radiation Exposure [REVERE]; NCT01677481). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study.

  20. Radiation Exposure Effects and Shielding Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard; Armendariz, Lupita (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotube materials promise to be the basis for a variety of emerging technologies with aerospace applications. Potential applications to human space flight include spacecraft shielding, hydrogen storage, structures and fixtures and nano-electronics. Appropriate risk analysis on the properties of nanotube materials is essential for future mission safety. Along with other environmental hazards, materials used in space flight encounter a hostile radiation environment for all mission profiles, from low earth orbit to interplanetary space.

  1. Contact lenses and corrective flying spectacles in military aircrew--implications for flight safety.

    PubMed

    Partner, Andrew M; Scott, Robert A H; Shaw, Penny; Coker, William J

    2005-07-01

    Refractive devices used by aviators need to suit the aerospace environment or their failure can have serious implications. A relatively minor visual disability can result in loss of life and aircraft. We surveyed commonly occurring problems with the different types of refractive correction worn by Royal Air Force (RAF) aircrew over the previous 12 mo. We also asked if they had experienced any flight safety incidents (FSI) relating to their refractive correction. A retrospective anonymous questionnaire survey was given to 700 active aircrew occupationally graded as requiring corrective flying spectacles (CFS) or contact lenses (CL) for flying. 63% (443) of the questionnaires were completed. CL were worn by 53% of aircrew; 71% of them used daily disposable CL. CFS were worn by the remaining 47% of aircrew, 14% of whom used multifocal lenses. Of CFS wearers, 83% reported problems including misting, moving, discomfort, and conflict with helmet-mounted devices (HMD). CL-related ocular symptoms were reported in 67% of wearers including cloudy vision, dry eye, photophobia, red eyes, excessive mucus formation, CL movement, itching, and grittiness. No CL-related FSI were reported over the previous 12 mo compared with 5% CFS-related FSI (p < 0.001). The graded performance of CL for vision, comfort, handling, convenience, and overall satisfaction was significantly higher than for CFS. CFS are associated with problems in terms of comfort and safety. CL are well tolerated by aircrew, and deliver improved visual performance.

  2. The Medical Results of Human Exposures to Radio Frequency Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    symptoms that usually include headache , nausea, fatigue, malaise, palpitations , etc. These symptoms can be attributed to an anxiety reaction to the exposure...inches (35.5 cm) from the output port and he essentially looked directly into it. Within seconds the individual experienced intense subjective heating and...subjective heating and was essentially unware of what had transpired until he had climbed down from the antenna and returned to the operations van. The

  3. Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation.

  4. Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio

    The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.

  5. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  6. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nunez, C M; Klitzman, S; Goodman, A

    1993-05-01

    Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education program for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York City. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n = 62) in 89% of the shops tested (n = 24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25 micrograms/dl. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10 micrograms/dl. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.

  7. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24%) disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6), depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI), and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2%) respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers. PMID:22455604

  8. Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Songwon; Lim, Wan Young; Lee, Dal Nim; Kim, Jung Un; Cha, Eun Shil; Bang, Ye Jin; Lee, Won Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2018-03-30

    The cancer risk of radiation exposure in the moderate-to-high dose range has been well established. However, the risk remains unclear at low-dose ranges with protracted low-dose rate exposure, which is typical of occupational exposure. Several epidemiological studies of Korean radiation workers have been conducted, but the data were analysed retrospectively in most cases. Moreover, groups with relatively high exposure, such as industrial radiographers, have been neglected. Therefore, we have launched a prospective cohort study of all Korean radiation workers to assess the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure. Approximately 42 000 Korean radiation workers registered with the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission from 2016 to 2017 are the initial target population of this study. Cohort participants are to be enrolled through a nationwide self-administered questionnaire survey between 24 May 2016 and 30 June 2017. As of 31 March 2017, 22 982 workers are enrolled in the study corresponding to a response rate of 75%. This enrolment will be continued at 5-year intervals to update information on existing study participants and recruit newly hired workers. Survey data will be linked with the national dose registry, the national cancer registry, the national vital statistics registry and national health insurance data via personal identification numbers. Age-specific and sex-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios will be calculated for overall comparisons of cancer risk. For dose-response assessment, excess relative risk (per Gy) and excess absolute risk (per Gy) will be estimated with adjustments for birth year and potential confounders, such as lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. This study has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (IRB No. K-1603-002-034). All participants provided written informed consent prior to enrolment. The findings

  9. Human Space Exploration and Radiation Exposure from EVA: 1981-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, A. R.; Saganti, S. P.; Erickson, G. M.; Saganti, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    There are several risks for any human space exploration endeavor. One such inevitable risk is exposure to the space radiation environment of which extra vehicular activity (EVA) demands more challenges due to limited amount of protection from space suit shielding. We recently compiled all EVA data comprising low-earth orbit (LEO) from Space Shuttle (STS) flights, International Space Station (ISS) expeditions, and Shuttle-Mir missions. Assessment of such radiation risk is very important, particularly for the anticipated long-term, deep-space human explorations in the near future. We present our assessment of anticipated radiation exposure and space radiation dose contribution to each crew member from a listing of 350 different EVA events resulting in more than 1000+ hrs of total EVA time. As of July 12, 2011, 197 astronauts have made spacewalks (out of 520 people who have gone into Earth orbit). Only 11 women have been on spacewalks.

  10. Measurements and simulations of the radiation exposure to aircraft crew workplaces due to cosmic radiation in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Latocha, M; Dorman, L; Pelliccioni, M; Rollet, S

    2007-01-01

    As required by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom, radiation exposure due to natural ionizing radiation has to be taken into account at workplaces if the effective dose could become more than 1 mSv per year. An example of workers concerned by this directive is aircraft crew due to cosmic radiation exposure in the atmosphere. Extensive measurement campaigns on board aircrafts have been carried out to assess ambient dose equivalent. A consortium of European dosimetry institutes within EURADOS WG5 summarized experimental data and results of calculations, together with detailed descriptions of the methods for measurements and calculations. The radiation protection quantity of interest is the effective dose, E (ISO). The comparison of results by measurements and calculations is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H(10). This paper gives an overview of the EURADOS Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database and it presents a new empirical model describing fitting functions for this data. Furthermore, it describes numerical simulations performed with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA-2005 using an updated version of the cosmic radiation primary spectra. The ratio between ambient dose equivalent and effective dose at commercial flight altitudes, calculated with FLUKA-2005, is discussed. Finally, it presents the aviation dosimetry model AVIDOS based on FLUKA-2005 simulations for routine dose assessment. The code has been developed by Austrian Research Centers (ARC) for the public usage (http://avidos.healthphysics.at).

  11. Effects of radiation exposure from cardiac imaging: how good are the data?

    PubMed

    Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-02-07

    Concerns about medical exposure to ionizing radiation have become heightened in recent years as a result of rapid growth in procedure volumes and the high radiation doses incurred from some procedures. This paper summarizes the evidence base undergirding concerns about radiation exposure in cardiac imaging. After classifying radiation effects, explaining terminology used to quantify the radiation received by patients, and describing typical doses from cardiac imaging procedures, this paper will address the major epidemiological studies having bearing on radiation effects at doses comparable to those received by patients undergoing cardiac imaging. These include studies of atomic bomb survivors, nuclear industry workers, and children exposed in utero to x-rays, all of which have evidenced increased cancer risks at low doses. Additional higher-dose epidemiological studies of cohorts exposed to radiation in the context of medical treatment are described and found to be generally compatible with these cardiac dose-level studies, albeit with exceptions. Using risk projection models developed by the U.S. National Academies that incorporate these data and reflect several evidence-based assumptions, cancer risk from cardiac imaging can be estimated and compared with the benefits from imaging. Several ongoing epidemiological studies will provide better understanding of radiation-associated cancer risks. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Radiation Exposure From Cardiac Imaging: How Good Are the Data?

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about medical exposure to ionizing radiation have become heightened in recent years due to rapid growth in procedure volumes and the high radiation doses incurred from some procedures. This article summarizes the evidence base undergirding concerns about radiation exposure in cardiac imaging. After classifying radiation effects, explaining terminology used to quantify the radiation received by patients, and describing typical doses from cardiac imaging procedures, I address the major epidemiological studies having bearing on radiation effects at doses comparable to those received by patients undergoing cardiac imaging. These include studies of atomic bomb survivors, nuclear industry workers, and children exposed in utero to x-rays, all of which have evidenced increased cancer risks at low doses. Additional higher dose epidemiological studies of cohorts exposed to radiation in the context of medical treatment are described and found to be generally compatible with these cardiac-dose-level studies, albeit with exceptions. Using risk projection models developed by the US National Academies that incorporate these data and reflect several evidence-based assumptions, cancer risk from cardiac imaging can be estimated and compared to benefits from imaging. Several ongoing epidemiological studies will provide better understanding of radiation-associated cancer risks. PMID:22300689

  13. Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiation Opens New Horizons in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, SAR; Shojaei-Fard, MB; Haghani, M; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, SMJ

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer.  Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or beneficial effects after exposure to cell phone radiofrequency radiation. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported some beneficial cognitive effects such as decreased reaction time after human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation or occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation. On the other hand, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may have a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. Although the majority of these data come from animal studies that cannot be easily extrapolated to humans, it can be concluded that this memory enhancing approach may open new horizons in treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease. PMID:25505755

  14. Exposure to mobile phone radiation opens new horizons in Alzheimer's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Sar; Shojaei-Fard, Mb; Haghani, M; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, Smj

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia and a progressive neurodegenerative disease, occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. Although there are medications that can help delay the development of Alzheimer's disease, there is currently no cure for this disease. Exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation may cause adverse health effects such as cancer.  Looking at the other side of the coin, there are reports indicating stimulatory or beneficial effects after exposure to cell phone radiofrequency radiation. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported some beneficial cognitive effects such as decreased reaction time after human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation or occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation. On the other hand, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may have a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Although the majority of these data come from animal studies that cannot be easily extrapolated to humans, it can be concluded that this memory enhancing approach may open new horizons in treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease.

  15. Occupational exposure to solar radiation in Australia: who is exposed and what protection do they use?

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Benke, Geza; Driscoll, Timothy R; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is widely recognised as a leading cause of skin cancer, with outdoor workers being particularly at risk. Little is known on a national level about how many workers are exposed to solar radiation, the circumstances in which they are exposed, or their use of protective measures. The Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES) was a cross-sectional telephone survey of 5,023 Australian workers aged 18 to 65. A subset of 1,113 respondents who indicated they worked outdoors was asked about their exposure to solar radiation in terms of the amount of time they spent working outdoors, their working location and their use of sun protective measures. A total of 1,100 respondents (22% overall) were assessed as being exposed to solar radiation at work. Exposure was more likely among males and those residing in lower socioeconomic and regional areas. Sun protection was used by 95% of the respondents, although the level of protection varied among workers, with only 8.7% classified as fully protected. This study provides valuable information regarding solar exposure that has not previously been available. The results of this study will inform strategies for risk reduction. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Evaluation of radiation exposure with Tru-Align intraoral rectangular collimation system using OSL dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Goren, Arthur D; Bonvento, Michael J; Fernandez, Thomas J; Abramovitch, Kenneth; Zhang, Wenjian; Roe, Nadine; Seltzer, Jared; Steinberg, Mitchell; Colosi, Dan C

    2011-03-01

    A pilot study to compare radiation exposure with the Tru-Align rectangular collimation system to round collimation exposures was undertaken. Radiation exposure at various points within the cross sections of the collimators and entrance, intraoral and exit dose measurements were measured using InLight OSL dosimeters. Overall dose reduction with the use of the rectangular collimation system was estimated by taking into account the ratios of collimator openings and the average radiation exposure at the measurement points. Use of the Tru-Align system resulted in an average radiation exposure within the perimeter of the projected outline of the rectangular collimator of 36.1 mR, compared to 148.5 mR with the round collimator. Our calculations indicate a dose reduction by a factor of approximately 3.2 in the case of the Tru-Align system compared to round collimation. The Tru-Align system was easy to use, but in some situations failed to allow Xray coverage of the entire surface of the image receptor, leading to cone cuts.

  17. Exposure of the examiner to radiation during myelography versus radiculography and root block: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kentaro; Kai, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to radiation over many years prompts concerns regarding potential health-related effects, particularly the incidence of cataracts and the development of cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the exposure of the examiner to radiation during myelography versus radiculography and root block. A total of 114 examinations were performed in our institute in the 6 months. Sixty-two examinations were performed during myelography in the first 3 months (MG group), while 52 were performed during radiculography and root block in the last 3 months (RB group). The examiner wore a torso protector, a neck protector, radiation protection gloves, and radiation protection glasses. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter badges were placed on both the inside and the outside of each protector. The dosimeters were exchanged every month. Radiation doses (mSv) were measured as the integrated radiation quantity every month from the OSL dosimeters. The effective dose and the equivalent doses of hand, skin, and eyes were investigated. The mean equivalent doses were significantly lower outside the neck, torso, eye protectors, and inside the torso protector in the RB group than in the MG group. Conversely, the mean equivalent dose was significantly lower outside the hand protector in the MG group than in the RB group. The use of a neck protector significantly decreased the effective dose compared to the non-use of a neck protector in the RB group. The present study showed the standard radiation exposure to the examiner during myelography, radiculography, and root block. Receiving full protection including a neck protector and protection gloves is an easy and reliable means to reduce radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation exposure to patients receiving routine scoliosis radiography measured at depth in an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Dutkowsky, J.P.; Shearer, D.; Schepps, B.

    1990-07-01

    Concern about the amount of radiation received during scoliosis evaluation and treatment led us to measure radiation exposure in an anthropomorphic phantom to determine the increased risk of breast cancer in young women with scoliosis. Assuming that 22 radiographic examinations were performed over the course of scoliosis treatment, the increased relative risk of breast cancer was determined to be 0.22% in these patients.

  19. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures.

  20. Airline Pilot Cosmic Radiation and Circadian Disruption Exposure Assessment from Logbooks and Company Records

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Waters, Martha A.; Yong, Lee C.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Zivkovich, Zachary; Cassinelli II, Rick T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: US commercial airline pilots, like all flight crew, are at increased risk for specific cancers, but the relation of these outcomes to specific air cabin exposures is unclear. Flight time or block (airborne plus taxi) time often substitutes for assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation. Our objectives were to develop methods to estimate exposures to cosmic radiation and circadian disruption for a study of chromosome aberrations in pilots and to describe workplace exposures for these pilots. Methods: Exposures were estimated for cosmic ionizing radiation and circadian disruption between August 1963 and March 2003 for 83 male pilots from a major US airline. Estimates were based on 523 387 individual flight segments in company records and pilot logbooks as well as summary records of hours flown from other sources. Exposure was estimated by calculation or imputation for all but 0.02% of the individual flight segments’ block time. Exposures were estimated from questionnaire data for a comparison group of 51 male university faculty. Results: Pilots flew a median of 7126 flight segments and 14 959 block hours for 27.8 years. In the final study year, a hypothetical pilot incurred an estimated median effective dose of 1.92 mSv (absorbed dose, 0.85 mGy) from cosmic radiation and crossed 362 time zones. This study pilot was possibly exposed to a moderate or large solar particle event a median of 6 times or once every 3.7 years of work. Work at the study airline and military flying were the two highest sources of pilot exposure for all metrics. An index of work during the standard sleep interval (SSI travel) also suggested potential chronic sleep disturbance in some pilots. For study airline flights, median segment radiation doses, time zones crossed, and SSI travel increased markedly from the 1990s to 2003 (Ptrend < 0.0001). Dose metrics were moderately correlated with records-based duration metrics (Spearman’s r = 0.61–0.69). Conclusions: The methods

  1. Airline pilot cosmic radiation and circadian disruption exposure assessment from logbooks and company records.

    PubMed

    Grajewski, Barbara; Waters, Martha A; Yong, Lee C; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Zivkovich, Zachary; Cassinelli, Rick T

    2011-06-01

    US commercial airline pilots, like all flight crew, are at increased risk for specific cancers, but the relation of these outcomes to specific air cabin exposures is unclear. Flight time or block (airborne plus taxi) time often substitutes for assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation. Our objectives were to develop methods to estimate exposures to cosmic radiation and circadian disruption for a study of chromosome aberrations in pilots and to describe workplace exposures for these pilots. Exposures were estimated for cosmic ionizing radiation and circadian disruption between August 1963 and March 2003 for 83 male pilots from a major US airline. Estimates were based on 523 387 individual flight segments in company records and pilot logbooks as well as summary records of hours flown from other sources. Exposure was estimated by calculation or imputation for all but 0.02% of the individual flight segments' block time. Exposures were estimated from questionnaire data for a comparison group of 51 male university faculty. Pilots flew a median of 7126 flight segments and 14 959 block hours for 27.8 years. In the final study year, a hypothetical pilot incurred an estimated median effective dose of 1.92 mSv (absorbed dose, 0.85 mGy) from cosmic radiation and crossed 362 time zones. This study pilot was possibly exposed to a moderate or large solar particle event a median of 6 times or once every 3.7 years of work. Work at the study airline and military flying were the two highest sources of pilot exposure for all metrics. An index of work during the standard sleep interval (SSI travel) also suggested potential chronic sleep disturbance in some pilots. For study airline flights, median segment radiation doses, time zones crossed, and SSI travel increased markedly from the 1990s to 2003 (P(trend) < 0.0001). Dose metrics were moderately correlated with records-based duration metrics (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.69). The methods developed provided an exposure profile of this group

  2. Readout and Data Acquisition for a Liquid Radiator Radiation Exposure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Chad

    2017-09-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) prototype is a tungsten-sampling, oil/quartz radiating calorimeter placed on each side of the interaction point. The ZDC is used in heavy ion runs for centrality measurements. The UIUC group develops a ZDC that is significantly more radiation hard than the currently employed detector. The current ZDC uses scintillating quartz rods placed directly in the beamline whose optical transmission is known to degrade as a function of radiation dosage. Our prototype uses organic wavelength shifters (WLS) dissolved in oil in two stages to take Cherenkov light produced in the oil by the particle shower and guide it to a photodetector. This design allows the quartz rods be located away from the beam center to experience a lower radiation dose, and the oil containing WLS can be replaced periodically to negate radiation damage. Quantum dots are studied as a more radiation hard alternative to WLS. This increase in radiation hardness will allow ATLAS to operate the ZDC after the luminosity upgrades planned for the LHC. A test setup has been developed for the study of radiation hardness of liquid Cherenkov radiators and wavelength shifters. The setup will be described in this presentation with a focus on the readout electronics and data acquisition.

  3. Improvement of Risk Assessment from Space Radiation Exposure for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Atwell, Bill; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Nounu, Hatem; Hussein, Hesham; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from space radiation exposure is an important challenge for mission design and operations for future exploration-class and long-duration missions. Crew members are exposed to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). If sufficient protection is not provided the radiation risk to crew members from SPEs could be significant. To improve exposure risk estimates and radiation protection from SPEs, detailed variations of radiation shielding properties are required. A model using a modern CAD tool ProE (TM), which is the leading engineering design platform at NASA, has been developed for this purpose. For the calculation of radiation exposure at a specific site, the cosine distribution was implemented to replicate the omnidirectional characteristic of the 4 pi particle flux on a surface. Previously, estimates of doses to the blood forming organs (BFO) from SPEs have been made using an average body-shielding distribution for the bone marrow based on the computerized anatomical man model (CAM). The development of an 82-point body-shielding distribution at BFOs made it possible to estimate the mean and variance of SPE doses in the major active marrow regions. Using the detailed distribution of bone marrow sites and implementation of cosine distribution of particle flux is shown to provide improved estimates of acute and cancer risks from SPEs.

  4. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Verreet, Tine; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  5. Radiation Exposure and Health Effects – is it Time to Reassess the Real Consequences?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G.A.; Symonds, P.

    2017-01-01

    Our acceptance of exposure to radiation is somewhat schizophrenic. We accept that the use of high doses of radiation is still one of the most valuable weapons in our fight against cancer, and believe that bathing in radioactive spas is beneficial. On the other hand, as a species, we are fearful of exposure to man-made radiation as a result of accidents related to power generation, even though we understand that the doses are orders of magnitude lower than those we use everyday in medicine. The 70th anniversary of the detonation of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was marked in 2015. The 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident will be marked in April 2016. March 2016 also sees the fifth anniversary of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Perhaps now is an opportune time to assess whether we are right to be fearful of the effects of low doses of radiation, or whether actions taken because of our fear of radiation actually cause a greater detriment to health than the direct effect of radiation exposure. PMID:26880062

  6. Overview on association of different types of leukemias with radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanivska, T S; Rodionova, N K

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with increasing risk of various types of hematological malignancies. The results of major studies on association of leukemias and radiation exposure of large populations in Japan and in Ukraine are analyzed. The patterns of different types of leukemia in 295 Chernobyl clean-up workers diagnosed according to the criteria of up-to-date World Health Organization classification within 10-25 years following Chernobyl catastrophe are summarized. In fact, a broad spectrum of radiation-related hematological malignancies has been revealed both in Life Span Study in Japan and in study of Chernobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine. The importance of the precise diagnosis of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues according to up-to-date classifications for elucidating the role of radiation as a causative factor of leukemias is emphasized. Such studies are of high importance since according to the recent findings, radiation-associated excess risks of several types of leukemias seem to persist throughout the follow-up period up to 55 years after the radiation exposure.

  7. A direct reading exposure monitor for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantz, A. D.; Humpherys, K. C.

    Various plastic films have been utilized to measure radiation fields. In general such films are rugged, easily handled, small enough to cause neligible perturbation on the radiation fields, and relatively inexpensive. The radiachromic materials have been shown to have advantages over other plastic fabrications in stability, reproducibility, equivalent response to electron and gamma ray processing fields, dose rate independence, and ready availability of calibration standards. Using a nylon matrix radiachromic detector, a system of direct read-out of absorbed dose has been developed to facilitate monitoring in the megarad region. When an exposed detector is inserted into the reader, the optical transmission signal is processed through an analog to digital converter. The digitized signal addresses a memory bank where the standard response curve is stored. The corresponding absorbed dose is displayed on a digital panel meter. The variation of relative sensitivity of detectors, the background of unirradiated detectors, environmental parameters, and the capacity of the memory bank are contributing factors to the total precision of the read-out system.

  8. Corrective lens use and refractive error among United States Air Force aircrew.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steve T; Ivan, Douglas J; Clark, Patrick J; Gooch, John M; Thompson, William

    2010-03-01

    Corrective lens use by military aviators is an important consideration in the design of head-mounted equipment. The United States Air Force (USAF) has periodically monitored lens use by aviators; however, it has been over a decade since the last study. We provide an update on the prevalence of corrective lenses and refractive error among USAF aircrew based on eyeglass orders processed through the Spectacle Request Transmission System (SRTS). Currently, 41% of active duty USAF pilots and 54% of other aircrew require corrective lenses to perform flight duties. Refractive errors are characterized by low to moderate levels of myopia with a mean spherical equivalent power of -1.01 diopters (D) for pilots and -1.68 D for others. Contact lenses, and more recently refractive surgery, reduce the number of aircrew that must rely on spectacles when flying; however, spectacle compatibility remains an important consideration in the cockpit.

  9. Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, William C.; Seidel, Wesley F.; Cohen, Suzanne A.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Bliwise, Nancy G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rapid transmeridian flight on sleep and wakefulness were studied in aircrew members before and after flying one of two routes: San Francisco (SFO) to London (LHR) or SFO to Tokyo. After an adaptation night, sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured objectively in SFO and during the first layover (L/O) of the target trip, using the 'core measures' described by Graeber et al. (1986) and respiration parameters, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) described by Carscadon (1982); postsleep questionnaires provided subjective assessments. It was found that baseline sleep is not an ideal basis for subsequent comparison; nevertheless, there was an indication that L/O sleep periods tended to provide either less total sleep or less efficient sleep. During baseline, there was significant midday sleepiness tendency as measured by the MSLT; this tendency occurred at almost the same time on the second L/O day in LHR. Recommendations are offered for the adjustment of flight times and for scheduling times of permitted napping as accommodations for the periods of sleepiness tendency.

  10. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  11. Malfunction of cardiac devices after radiotherapy without direct exposure to ionizing radiation: mechanisms and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Zecchin, Massimo; Morea, Gaetano; Severgnini, Mara; Sergi, Elisabetta; Baratto Roldan, Anna; Bianco, Elisabetta; Magnani, Silvia; De Luca, Antonio; Zorzin Fantasia, Anna; Salvatore, Luca; Milan, Vittorino; Giannini, Gianrossano; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-02-01

    Malfunctions of cardiac implantable electronical devices (CIED) have been described after high-energy radiation therapy even in the absence of direct exposure to ionizing radiation, due to diffusion of neutrons (n) causing soft errors in inner circuits. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of scattered radiation on different types and models of CIED and the possible sources of malfunctions. Fifty-nine explanted CIED were placed on an anthropomorphous phantom of tissue-equivalent material, and a high-energy photon (15 MV) radiotherapy course (total dose = 70 Gy) for prostate treatment was performed. All devices were interrogated before and after radiation. Radiation dose, the electromagnetic field, and neutron fluence at the CIED site were measured. Thirty-four pacemakers (PM) and 25 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) were analysed. No malfunctions were detected before radiation. After radiation a software malfunction was evident in 13 (52%) ICD and 6 (18%) PM; no significant electromagnetic field or photon radiations were detected in the thoracic region. Neutron capture was demonstrated by the presence of the (198)Au((197)Au + n) or (192)Ir((191)Ir + n) isotope activation; it was significantly greater in ICD than in PM and non-significantly greater in damaged devices. A greater effect in St Jude PM (2/2 damaged), Boston (9/11), and St Jude ICD (3/6) and in older ICD models was observed; the year of production was not relevant in PM. High-energy radiation can cause different malfunctions on CIED, particularly ICD, even without direct exposure to ionizing radiation due to scattered radiation of neutrons produced by the linear accelerator. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Summary of ionizing radiation analysis on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The ionizing radiation measurements flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were contained in 15 experiments which utilized passive detectors to pursue objectives in astrophysics and to measure the radiation environment and dosimetric quantities. The spacecraft structure became sufficiently radioactive to permit additional important studies. The induced activity allows extensive radiation mapping in the structure, and independent comparison with experiment dosimetric techniques, and significant studies of secondary effects. The long exposure time, attitude stability, and number and types of measurements produced a unique and critical set of data for low Earth orbit that will not be duplicated for more than a decade. The data allow an unprecedented test, and improvement if required, of models of the radiation environment and the radiation transport methods that are used to calculate the internal radiation and its effects in spacecraft. Results of measurements in the experiments, as well as from radioactivity in the structure, have clearly shown effects from the directional properties of the radiation environment, and progress was made in the dosimetric mapping of LDEF. These measurements have already influenced some Space Station Freedom design requirements. Preliminary results from experiments, reported at this symposium and in earlier papers, show that the 5.8 years exposure considerably enhanced the scientific return of the radiation measurements. The early results give confidence that the experiments will make significant advances in the knowledge of ultra heavy cosmic rays, anomalous cosmic rays, and heavy ions trapped in the radiation belts. Unexpected phenomena were observed, which require explanation. These include stopping iron group ions between the energy ranges anticipated for anomalous and galactic cosmic rays in the LDEF orbit. A surprising concentration of the Be-7 nuclide was discovered on the 'front' surface of LDEF, apparently

  13. Outdoor work and solar radiation exposure: Evaluation method for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Modenese, Alberto; Bisegna, Fabio; Borra, Massimo; Grandi, Carlo; Gugliermetti, Franco; Militello, Andrea; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    The health risk related to an excessive exposure to solar radiation (SR) is well known. The Sun represents the main exposure source for all the frequency bands of optical radiation, that is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging between 100 nm and 1 mm, including infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation. According to recent studies, outdoor workers have a relevant exposure to SR but few studies available in scientific literature have attempted to retrace a detailed history of individual exposure. We propose a new method for the evaluation of SR cumulative exposure both during work and leisure time, integrating subjective and objective data. The former is collected by means of an interviewer administrated questionnaire. The latter is available through the Internet databases for many geographical regions and through individual exposure measurements. The data is integrated into a mathematical algorithm, in order to obtain an esteem of the individual total amount of SR the subjects have been exposed to during their lives. The questionnaire has been tested for 58 voluntary subjects. Environmental exposure data through online databases has been collected for 3 different places in Italy in 2012. Individual exposure by electronic UV dosimeter has been measured in 6 fishermen. A mathematical algorithm integrating subjective and objective data has been elaborated. The method proposed may be used in epidemiological studies to evaluate specific correlations with biological effects of SR and to weigh the role of the personal and environmental factors that may increase or reduce SR exposure. Med Pr 2016;67(5):577-587. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Radiation exposure of patient and surgeon in minimally invasive kidney stone surgery.

    PubMed

    Demirci, A; Raif Karabacak, O; Yalçınkaya, F; Yiğitbaşı, O; Aktaş, C

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are the standard treatments used in the endoscopic treatment of kidney stones depending on the location and the size of the stone. The purpose of the study was to show the radiation exposure difference between the minimally invasive techniques by synchronously measuring the amount of radiation the patients and the surgeon received in each session, which makes our study unique. This is a prospective study which included 20 patients who underwent PNL, and 45 patients who underwent RIRS in our clinic between June 2014 and October 2014. The surgeries were assessed by dividing them into three steps: step 1: the access sheath or ureter catheter placement, step 2: lithotripsy and collection of fragments, and step 3: DJ catheter or re-entry tube insertion. For the PNL and RIRS groups, mean stone sizes were 30mm (range 16-60), and 12mm (range 7-35); mean fluoroscopy times were 337s (range 200-679), and 37s (range 7-351); and total radiation exposures were 142mBq (44.7 to 221), and 4.4mBq (0.2 to 30) respectively. Fluoroscopy times and radiation exposures at each step were found to be higher in the PNL group compared to the RIRS group. When assessed in itself, the fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were stable in RIRS, and the radiation exposure was the highest in step 1 and the lowest in step 3 in PNL. When assessed for the 19 PNL patients and the 12 RIRS patients who had stone sizes≥2cm, the fluoroscopy time in step 1, and the radiation exposure in steps 1 and 2 were found to be higher in the PNL group than the RIRS group (P<0.001). Although there is need for more prospective randomized studies, RIRS appears to be a viable alternate for PNL because it has short fluoroscopy time and the radiation exposure is low in every step. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  16. Molecular pathway activation in cancer and tissue following space radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyrshina, Tatiana A.

    Space radiation exposure is an important safety concern for astronauts, especially since one of the risks is carcinogenesis. This thesis explores the link between lung, colorectal, and breast cancer and iron particles and gamma radiation on a molecular level. We obtained DNA microarrays for each condition from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), a public functional genomics data repository, cleaned up the data, and analysed overexpression and underexpression of pathway analysis. Our results show that pathways which participate in DNA replication appear to be overexpressed in cancer cells and cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

  17. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  18. Measurements of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure at Work and at Leisure in Danish Workers.

    PubMed

    Grandahl, Kasper; Eriksen, Paul; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2018-03-30

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the main cause of skin cancer and may well present an occupational health and safety problem. In Denmark, skin cancer is a common disease in the general population, but detailed data on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers are lacking. The aim of this study was to provide objective measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on working days and at leisure and compare levels of exposure between groups of mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers. To this end, UV-B dosimeters with an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector were used to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation exposure of 457 workers in the Danish summer season. Presented as semi-annual standard erythemal dose (SED) on working days, respectively, at leisure, the results are for mainly outdoor workers 214.2 SED and 64.8 SED, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor workers 131.4 SED and 64.8 SED, indoor workers 55.8 SED and 57.6 SED. The daily SED by month is significantly different (α = 0.05) between mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers and across professional groups; some of which are exposed at very high levels that is roofers 361.8 SED. These findings substantiate that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is indeed an occupational health and safety problem in Denmark. © 2018 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Photobiology.

  19. CT Coronary Angiography vs. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for the Occupational Assessment of Military Aircrew.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain; Pavitt, Chris; Chamley, Rebecca; d'Arcy, Jo; Nicol, Ed

    2017-02-01

    To ensure flight safety military aircrew undergo regular clinical and occupational assessment. Coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) has been established as an imaging modality to noninvasively assess coronary artery disease (CAD). CT coronary angiography (CTCA) potentially offers a more accurate assessment of CAD, but has not been formally assessed in military aircrew. This retrospective cohort study is designed to compare the theoretical differences in downstream investigations and occupational outcomes in aircrew with suspected CAD comparing CTCA with existing CACS pathways. A 2-yr retrospective cohort study of consecutive UK military patients who underwent a CTCA and CACS was undertaken. Patient demographics, CTCA and CACS results, and initial and final occupational restrictions were analyzed comparing current UK, Canadian, and U.S. pathways. There were 44 patients who underwent CACS and CTCA. The commonest indication for a CTCA was a positive exercise ECG. Increasing CACS, stenosis severity, and stenosis burden were associated with significantly greater likelihood of occupational restriction (P = < 0.01). Following CTCA, 26/44 (59%) patients were found to have evidence of CAD, with 13/44 (30%) having at least a single vessel stenosis ≥50%. All of these patients had subsequent occupational restrictions. Two patients with a calcium score ≤10 had at least 1 single vessel stenosis ≥50%. A CTCA pathway is potentially a better discriminator of CAD burden in aircrew when compared with CACS and may reduce downstream testing, allowing a more efficacious approach to CAD assessment in military aircrew.Parsons I, Pavitt C, Chamley R, d'Arcy J, Nicol E. CT coronary angiography vs. coronary artery calcium scoring for the occupational assessment of military aircrew. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):76-81.

  20. Project SOLWIND: Space radiation exposure. [evaluation of particle fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A special orbital radiation study was conducted for the SOLWIND project to evaluate mission-encountered energetic particle fluxes. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model, extrapolated to the tentative spacecraft launch epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations for circular flight paths were performed with the latest proton and electron environment models, using new improved computational methods. Temporal variations in the ambient electron environment are considered and partially accounted for. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluences are given for a one year mission duration at selected integral energies ranging from E greater than 10 to E greater than 100 MeV; the predicted annual fluence is found to relate to the period of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form; they are analyzed, explained, and discussed.

  1. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The concentrations of 23 major, minor, and trace elements in the fecal samples from the Apollo 12 and 13 astronauts are reported. Most elemental excretion rates are comparable to rates reported for earlier missions. Exceptions are noted for calcium, iron, and tin. Body calcium and iron losses appear to be reduced during the Apollo 12 and 13 missions such that losses now seem to be insignificant. Refined measurements of tin excretion rates agree with normal dietary intakes. Earlier reported tin values are in error. A new passive dosimetry canister was designed which contains foils of tantalum, copper, titanium, iron, cobalt, aluminum, and scandium. By measuring the concentrations of the various products of nuclear reactions in these metals after space exposure, the characteristics of the incident cosmic particles can be determined.

  2. Intercellular Communication of Tumor Cells and Immune Cells after Exposure to Different Ionizing Radiation Qualities.

    PubMed

    Diegeler, Sebastian; Hellweg, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can affect the immune system in many ways. Depending on the situation, the whole body or parts of the body can be acutely or chronically exposed to different radiation qualities. In tumor radiotherapy, a fractionated exposure of the tumor (and surrounding tissues) is applied to kill the tumor cells. Currently, mostly photons, and also electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles such as carbon ions, are used in radiotherapy. Tumor elimination can be supported by an effective immune response. In recent years, much progress has been achieved in the understanding of basic interactions between the irradiated tumor and the immune system. Here, direct and indirect effects of radiation on immune cells have to be considered. Lymphocytes for example are known to be highly radiosensitive. One important factor in indirect interactions is the radiation-induced bystander effect which can be initiated in unexposed cells by expression of cytokines of the irradiated cells and by direct exchange of molecules via gap junctions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the indirect effects observed after exposure to different radiation qualities. The different immune cell populations important for the tumor immune response are natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the modulation of their functions due to ionizing radiation exposure of tumor cells. After radiation exposure, cytokines are produced by exposed tumor and immune cells and a modulated expression profile has also been observed in bystander immune cells. Release of damage-associated molecular patterns by irradiated tumor cells is another factor in immune activation. In conclusion, both immune-activating and -suppressing effects can occur. Enhancing or inhibiting these effects, respectively, could contribute to modified tumor cell killing after radiotherapy.

  3. Reduction in operator radiation exposure during transradial coronary procedures using a simple lead rectangle.

    PubMed

    Osherov, Azriel B; Bruoha, Sharon; Laish Farkash, Avishag; Paul, Gideon; Orlov, Ian; Katz, Amos; Jafari, Jamal

    2017-02-01

    Transradial access for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduces procedural complications however, there are concerns regarding the potential for increased exposure to ionizing radiation to the primary operator. We evaluated the efficacy of a lead-attenuator in reducing radiation exposure during transradial PCI. This was a non-randomized, prospective, observational study in which 52 consecutive patients were assigned to either standard operator protection (n = 26) or the addition of the lead attenuator across their abdomen/pelvis (n = 26). In the attenuator group patients were relatively older with a higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (67.9 vs 58.7 p = 0.0292 and 12% vs 7.6% p < 0.001 respectively). Despite similar average fluoroscopy times (12.3 ± 9.8 min vs. 9.3 ± 5.4 min, p = 0.175) and average examination doses (111866 ± 80790 vs. 91,268 ± 47916 Gycm 2 , p = 0.2688), the total radiation exposure to the operator, at the thyroid level, was significantly lower when the lead-attenuator was utilized (20.2% p < 0.0001) as compared to the control group. Amongst the 26 patients assigned to the lead-attenuator, there was a significant reduction in measured radiation of 94.5% (p < 0.0001), above as compared to underneath the lead attenuator. Additional protection with the use of a lead rectangle-attenuator significantly lowered radiation exposure to the primary operator, which may confer long-term benefits in reducing radiation-induced injury. This is the first paper to show that a simple lead attenuator almost completely reduced the scattered radiation at very close proximity to the patient and should be considered as part of the standard equipment within catheterization laboratories.

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  5. AN ESTIMATION OF THE EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION OF ISRAEL TO NATURAL SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Haquin, G; Orion, I

    2017-11-01

    The radiation dose to the population of Israel due to exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation was assessed. The main contributor to the dose is radon that accounts for 60% of the exposure to natural sources. The dose due to radon inhalation was assessed by combining the results of a radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a survey in apartments in multi-storey buildings. The average annual dose due to radon inhalation was found to be 1.2 mSv. The dose rate due to exposure to cosmic radiation was assessed using a code that calculates the dose rate at different heights above sea level, taking into account the solar cycle. The annual dose was calculated based on the fraction of time spent indoors and the attenuation provided by buildings and was found to be 0.2 mSv. The annual dose due to external exposure to the terrestrial radionuclides was similarly assessed. The indoor dose rate was calculated using a model that takes into account the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in building materials, the density and the thickness of the walls. The dose rate outdoors was calculated based on the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in different geological units in Israel as measured in an aerial survey and measurements above ground. The annual dose was found to be 0.2 mSv. Doses due to internal exposure other than exposure to radon were also calculated and were found to be 0.4 mSv. The overall annual exposure of the population of Israel to natural sources of ionizing radiation is therefore 2 mSv and ranges between 1.7 and 2.7 mSv. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Effect of Topography on the Exposure of Airless Bodies to Space Radiation: Phobos Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwadron, N.; Cooper, J. F.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Spence, H. E.; Jordan, A.; Sturner, S. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wilson, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies, such as the Moon and Phobos (innermost Martian moon), are directly exposed to the surrounding space environment, including energetic particle radiation from both the ever-present flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and episodic bursts of solar energetic particles (SEPs). Characterizing this radiation exposure is critical to our understanding of the evolution of these bodies from space weathering processes, such as radiation damage of regolith, radiolysis of organics and volatiles, and dielectric breakdown. Similarly, this also has important implications for the long-term radiation exposure of future astronauts and equipment on the surface. In this study, the focus is the influence of Phobian topography on the direct exposure of Phobos to space radiation. For a given point on its surface, this exposure depends on: (i) the solid angle subtended by the sky, (ii) the solid angle of the sky blocked by Mars, and (iii) the energy and angular distributions of ambient energetic particle populations. The sky solid angle, determined using the elevation of the local horizon calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM), can be significantly reduced around topographic lows, such as crater floors, or increased near highs like crater rims. The DEM used in this study was produced using images from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and has the highest available spatial resolution ( 100m). The proximity of Phobos to Mars means the Martian disk appears large in the Phobian sky, but this only effects the moon's near side due its tidally locked orbit. Only isotropic distributions of energetic particles are initially considered, which is typically a reasonable assumption for GCRs and sometimes for SEPs. Observations of the radiation environments on Mars by Curiosity's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), and the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon

  7. Aircrew Eye/Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Respiratory Protection (AERP) and associated clothing and equipment. Two subjects each carried out simulated tanker/transport and fighter/attack scenarios. No...AD A277 288 N•.• AL-TP-1 993-0014 ý’vI~~I~ 11~ II~I AIRCREW EYE/ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (AERP): 16-HOUR EXTENDED WEAR EVALUATION OF R CHEMICAL...S. FUNDING NUMBERS ’Aircrew Eye/ Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended PE - 62202F Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment PR

  8. Interleukin-12 Preserves the Cutaneous Physical and Immunological Barrier after Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Scott A.; Cummings, Ryan J.; Judge, Jennifer L.; Barlow, Margaret L.; Nanduri, Julee; Milano Johnson, Doug E.; Palis, James; Pentland, Alice P.; Lord, Edith M.; Ryan, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    The United States continues to be a prime target for attack by terrorist organizations in which nuclear detonation and dispersal of radiological material are legitimate threats. Such attacks could have devastating consequences to large populations, in the form of radiation injury to various human organ systems. One of these at risk organs is the cutaneous system, which forms both a physical and immunological barrier to the surrounding environment and is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. Therefore, increased efforts to develop medical countermeasures for treatment of the deleterious effects of cutaneous radiation exposure are essential. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) was shown to elicit protective effects against radiation injury on radiosensitive systems such as the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In this article, we examined if IL-12 could protect the cutaneous system from a combined radiation injury in the form of sublethal total body irradiation and beta-radiation burn (β-burn) directly to the skin. Combined radiation injury resulted in a breakdown in skin integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss, size of β-burn lesion and an exacerbated loss of surveillant cutaneous dendritic cells. Interestingly, intradermal administration of IL-12 48 h postirradiation reduced transepidermal water loss and burn size, as well as retention of cutaneous dendritic cells. Our data identify IL-12 as a potential mitigator of radiation-induced skin injury and argue for the further development of this cytokine as a radiation countermeasure. PMID:25564716

  9. 75 FR 48274 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act: Allowance for Costs and Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... survivors) who have contracted certain cancers and other serious diseases following exposure to radiation... economic impact on a substantial number of small entities for the following reasons: The rule affects claimants or beneficiaries in their individual capacity only. It does not affect small entities as that term...

  10. CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 100-MHZ (CW) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary approach was employed to assess the possible biological effects of chronic exposure of rats to 100-MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency (RF) radiation. A group of 20 time-bred rats were exposed in a transverse electronmagnetic mode (TEM) transmission line t...

  11. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, L A A; Silva, I M S; Fernandes, T S; Nogueira, R A

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR.

  12. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, L.A.A.; Silva, I.M.S.; Fernandes, T.S.; Nogueira, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR. PMID:26445335

  13. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of...; (2) Certified copies of records of the owner or operator of a uranium mine in the specified states... employment in a uranium mine that a claimant establishes under § 79.43(c) as to which paragraph (d) of this...

  14. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of...; (2) Certified copies of records of the owner or operator of a uranium mine in the specified states... employment in a uranium mine that a claimant establishes under § 79.43(c) as to which paragraph (d) of this...

  15. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of...; (2) Certified copies of records of the owner or operator of a uranium mine in the specified states... employment in a uranium mine that a claimant establishes under § 79.43(c) as to which paragraph (d) of this...

  16. MICRONUCLEI IN BINUCLEATED LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to investigate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) after in vitro or in vivo exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. or the in vitro experiments, 4 ml of blood from male C57BL/6J mice were either irradiated in 6 ml Fa...

  17. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of... paragraph a valid study is one which: (i) Has adequately described the study design and methods of data... studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies...

  18. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of... paragraph a valid study is one which: (i) Has adequately described the study design and methods of data... studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies...

  19. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of... paragraph a valid study is one which: (i) Has adequately described the study design and methods of data... studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies...

  20. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of... paragraph a valid study is one which: (i) Has adequately described the study design and methods of data... studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies...

  1. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of... paragraph a valid study is one which: (i) Has adequately described the study design and methods of data... studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies...

  2. BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

  3. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours: Interphone study group, Germany.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schüz, Joachim

    2007-09-01

    The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. We used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.48-0.83), 1.08 (95% CI=0.80-1.45) and 0.97 (95% CI=0.54-1.75) for glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma, respectively. Elevated ORs were found for meningioma (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 0.90-5.96) and acoustic neuroma (OR 6.45, 95% CI: 0.62-67.16) for radiotherapy to the head and neck regions. We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation.

  4. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  5. 28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Miners § 79.44 Proof of...; (2) Certified copies of records of the owner or operator of a uranium mine in the specified states... employment in a uranium mine that a claimant establishes under § 79.43(c) as to which paragraph (d) of this...

  6. 47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... their effective radiated power (ERP) is 1.5 watts or more, or if they operate at frequencies above 1.5 GHz and their ERP is 3 watts or more. Unlicensed personal communications service devices, unlicensed... exposure prior to equipment authorization or use if their ERP is 3 watts or more or if they meet the...

  7. COMPARATIVE THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO PASSIVE HEAT LOADING BY EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colonic and tail skin temperature of the unrestrained Fischer rat were measured immediately after a 90 min exposure to 600 MHz radiofrequency radiation in a waveguide-type system. Ambient temperature (Ta) was maintained at either 20, 28, or 35 C. The specific absorption rate (SAR...

  8. Acute effects of exposure to space radiation on CNS function and cognitive performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On exploratory class missions, such as a mission to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (cosmic rays) that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the Space Shuttle and International Space Station operate. Exposure to cosmic rays produces changes in neuronal functi...

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PHYSICIAN AND PATIENT RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING RADIAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTIES.

    PubMed

    Tarighatnia, Ali; Mesbahi, Asghar; Alian, Amir Hossein Mohammad; Koleini, Evin; Nader, Nader

    2018-03-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate radiation exposure levels in conjunction with operator dose implemented, patient vascular characteristics, and other technical angiographic parameters. In total, 756 radial coronary angioplasties were evaluated in a major metropolitan general hospital in Tabriz, Iran. The classification of coronary lesions was based on the ACC/AHA system. One interventional cardiologist performed all of the procedures using a single angiography unit. The mean kerma-area product and mean cumulative dose for all cases was 5081 μGy m2 and 814.44 mGy, respectively. Average times of 26.16 and 9.1 min were recorded for the overall procedure and fluoroscopy, respectively. A strong correlation was demonstrated between types of lesions, number of stents and vessels treated in relation to physician radiation exposure. It was determined that operator radiation exposure levels for percutaneous coronary interventions lesions (complex) were higher than that of simple and moderate lesions. In addition, operator radiation exposure levels increased with the treatment of more coronary vessels and implementation of additional stents.

  10. Development of a software based automatic exposure control system for use in image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Daniel R.

    Modern image guided radiation therapy involves the use of an isocentrically mounted imaging system to take radiographs of a patient's position before the start of each treatment. Image guidance helps to minimize errors associated with a patients setup, but the radiation dose received by patients from imaging must be managed to ensure no additional risks. The Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) does not have an automatic exposure control system and therefore requires exposure factors to be manually selected. Without patient specific exposure factors, images may become saturated and require multiple unnecessary exposures. A software based automatic exposure control system has been developed to predict optimal, patient specific exposure factors. The OBI system was modelled in terms of the x-ray tube output and detector response in order to calculate the level of detector saturation for any exposure situation. Digitally reconstructed radiographs are produced via ray-tracing through the patients' volumetric datasets that are acquired for treatment planning. The ray-trace determines the attenuation of the patient and subsequent x-ray spectra incident on the imaging detector. The resulting spectra are used in the detector response model to determine the exposure levels required to minimize detector saturation. Images calculated for various phantoms showed good agreement with the images that were acquired on the OBI. Overall, regions of detector saturation were accurately predicted and the detector response for non-saturated regions in images of an anthropomorphic phantom were calculated to generally be within 5 to 10 % of the measured values. Calculations were performed on patient data and found similar results as the phantom images, with the calculated images being able to determine detector saturation with close agreement to images that were acquired during treatment. Overall, it was shown that the system model and calculation

  11. Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Radiation Exposure on Osteoclast Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Zhang, Ye; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Clanton, Ryan; Rohde, Larry H; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sibonga, Jean D; Wu, Honglu

    2017-11-18

    The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic. Bone is continuously renewed through the resorption of old bone by osteoclast cells and the formation of new bone by osteoblast cells. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of microgravity and radiation by evaluating the maturation of a hematopoietic cell line to mature osteoclasts. RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage cells were cultured in rotating wall vessels that simulate microgravity on the ground. Cells under static 1g or simulated microgravity were exposed to γ rays of varying doses, and then cultured in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) for the formation of osteoclast giant multinucleated cells (GMCs) and for gene expression analysis. Results of the study showed that radiation alone at doses as low as 0.1 Gy may stimulate osteoclast cell fusion as assessed by GMCs and the expression of signature genes such as tartrate resistant acid phosphatase ( Trap ) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein ( Dcstamp ). However, osteoclast cell fusion decreased for doses greater than 0.5 Gy. In comparison to radiation exposure, simulated microgravity induced higher levels of cell fusion, and the effects of these two environmental factors appeared additive. Interestingly, the microgravity effect on osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein ( Ocstamp ) and Dcstamp expressions was significantly higher than the radiation effect, suggesting that radiation may not increase the

  12. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth.

  13. Survival of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms after exposure to UV-C, ionizing radiation and desiccation.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Kristina; Douki, Thierry; Schmalz, Gottfried; Rachel, Reinhard; Wirth, Reinhard; Huber, Harald; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of several (hyper-) thermophilic Archaea and phylogenetically deep-branching thermophilic Bacteria to survive high fluences of monochromatic UV-C (254 nm) and high doses of ionizing radiation, respectively. Nine out of fourteen tested microorganisms showed a surprisingly high tolerance against ionizing radiation, and two species (Aquifex pyrophilus and Ignicoccus hospitalis) were even able to survive 20 kGy. Therefore, these species had a comparable survivability after exposure to ionizing radiation such as Deinococcus radiodurans. In contrast, there was nearly no difference in survival of the tested strains after exposure to UV-C under anoxic conditions. If the cells had been dried in advance of UV-C irradiation, they were more sensitive to UV-C radiation compared with cells irradiated in liquid suspension; this effect could be reversed by the addition of protective material like sulfidic ores before irradiation. By exposure to UV-C, photoproducts were formed in the DNA of irradiated Archaea and Bacteria. The distribution of the main photoproducts was species specific, but the amount of the photoproducts was only partly dependent on the applied fluence. Overall, our results show that tolerance to radiation seems to be a common phenomenon among thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

  14. UV-B radiation and photosynthetic irradiance acclimate eggplant for outdoor exposure.

    PubMed

    Latimer, J G; Mitchell, C A; Mitchell, G A

    1987-06-01

    Treatment of greenhouse-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings with supplemental photosynthetically active radiation from cool-white fluorescent lamps increased growth of plants subsequently transferred outdoors relative to growth of plants that received no supplemental radiation or were shaded to 45% of solar irradiation in the greenhouse before transfer outdoors. Eggplant seedlings transferred outdoors were placed under plastic tarps either to provide relative protection from solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) using Mylar film or to allow exposure to UV-B using cellulose acetate. Protection of seedlings from UV-B radiation resulted in greater leaf expansion than for UV-B-exposed seedlings, but no change in leaf or shoot dry weight occurred after 9 days of treatment. Specific leaf weight increased in response to UV-B exposure outdoors. Exposure of eggplant to UV-B radiation from fluorescent sunlamps in the greenhouse also decreased leaf expansion and leaf and shoot dry weight gain after 5 days of treatment. However, there were no differences in leaf or shoot dry weight relative to control plants after 12 days of UV-B treatment, indicating that UV-B treated plants had acclimated to the treatment and actually had caught up with non-UV-B-irradiated plants in terms of growth.

  15. The Thermal and Radiation Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) of seven lunar meteorites in order to examine their crystallization, irradiation, and recent thermal histories. Lunar meteorites have induced TL properties similar to Apollo samples of the same provenance (highland or mare), indicating similar crystallization and metamorphic histories. MacAlplne Hills 88104/5 has experienced the greatest degree of impact/regolith processing among the highland-dominated meteorites. The basaltic breccia QUE 94281 is dominated by mare component but may also contain a significant highland component. For the mare-dominated meteorites, EET 87521 may have a significant highland impact-melt component, while Asuka 881757 and Y-793169 have been heavily shocked. The thermal history of Y-793169 included slow cooling, either during impact processing or during its initial crystallization. Our natural TL data indicate that most lunar meteorites have apparently been irradiated in space a few thousand years, with most less than 15,000 a. Elephant Moraine 87521 has the lowest irradiation exposure time, being less than 1,000 a. Either the natural TL of ALHA81005, Asuka 881757 and Y-82192 was only partially reset by lunar ejection or these meteorites were in small perihelia orbits (less than or equal to 0.7 AU).

  16. Improved contact lens disinfection by exposure to violet radiation.

    PubMed

    Hoenes, Katharina; Stangl, Felix; Gross, Andrej; Hessling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional procedures for contact lens disinfection, based on solutions with aggressive chemical ingredients, not only affect microorganisms but operate likewise damaging towards the epithelial eye surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an alternative or complementary disinfection procedure for contact lenses based on irradiation within the visible wavelength range. Suspensions of S. auricularis, B. subtilis and E. coli were exposed to 405 nm irradiation, for determining the disinfection efficacy. Surviving rates were analyzed by membrane filtration as well as a semi-quantitative analysis using DipSlides. A significant antibacterial effect of the 405 nm irradiation is verifiable for all probed bacteria. Using S. auricularis, there has been no colony forming after an irradiation exposure of 2 hours. The hitherto existing results give reason for the assumption that violet LEDs integrated in contact lens cases will provide a subsidiary disinfection activity and maybe even offer the reduction of chemical ingredients in lens cleaning solutions to become gentler to the eye. In addition the danger of a rerise of the germ concentration after the completion of the disinfection procedure will be reduced.

  17. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and frommore » animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.« less

  18. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Fabrikant, J. I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy. PMID:7043913

  19. No evidence for an increase in circulatory disease mortality in astronauts following space radiation exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Little, Mark P.

    2016-08-01

    Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U.S. population or to non-flight astronauts. In this Commentary we discuss important deficiencies in the methods and assumptions on radiation exposures used by Delp et al. that we judge cast serious doubt on their conclusions.

  20. No evidence for an increase in circulatory disease mortality in astronauts following space radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Little, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U.S. population or to non-flight astronauts. In this Commentary we discuss important deficiencies in the methods and assumptions on radiation exposures used by Delp et al. that we judge cast serious doubt on their conclusions. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic friction and wear of a solid film lubricant during radiation exposure in a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of nuclear reactor radiation on the performance of a solid film lubricant was studied. The film consisted of molybdenum disulfide and graphite in a sodium silicate binder. Radiation levels of fast neutrons (E or = 1 MeV) were fluxed up to 3.5 times 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm-sec (intensity) and fluences up to 2 times 10 to the 18th power n/sq cm (total exposure). Coating wear lives were much shorter and friction coefficients higher in a high flux region of the reactor than in a low flux region. The amount of total exposure did not affect lubrication behavior as severely as the radiation intensity during sliding.

  2. Radiation exposure from conventional radiographic examinations in very and extremely low birth weight patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gois, M. L. C.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The survival of very premature neonates has improved significantly at the last decades owing to the utilization of modern intensive care interventions that usually requires prolonged hospitalisation and are accompanied by frequent radiographic examinations. Their elevated radiosensitivity and numerous examinations combined with their greater remaining lifetime raise the issue of high risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Because it is presently impossible to substitute this type of examinations with others that do not involve radiation exposure, investigations on a hospital's routine practices becomes relevant. In this work, we present the results of an investigation on the radiation exposure of patients with birth weight lower than 1500 g in one paediatric hospital in Brazil. We analyse some important patient characteristics, like weight, gestational age, length of stay, and number of radiographs performed in the neonatal intensive care unit, in connection with the patient dose. The obtained results are compared with the existing information from other studies.

  3. Astronaut Exposures to Ionizing Radiation in a Lightly-Shielded Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Simonsen, L. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Atwell, W.

    1999-01-01

    The normal working and living areas of the astronauts are designed to provide an acceptable level of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiation of the space environment. Still there are occasions when they must don a spacesuit designed mainly for environmental control and mobility and leave the confines of their better-protected domain. This is especially true for deep space exploration. The impact of spacesuit construction on the exposure of critical astronaut organs will be examined in the ionizing radiation environments of free space, the lunar surface and the Martian surface. The computerized anatomical male model is used to evaluate astronaut self-shielding factors and to determine space radiation exposures to critical radiosensitive human organs.

  4. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Kawano, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypocentres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypocentres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing.

  5. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures...

  7. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures...

  10. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants C Appendix C to Part 79 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  11. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants C Appendix C to Part 79 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  12. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  13. Thyroid Cancer Following Childhood Low-Dose Radiation Exposure: A Pooled Analysis of Nine Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Adams, M Jacob; Shore, Roy; Holmberg, Erik; Schneider, Arthur B; Hawkins, Michael M; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D; Lundell, Marie; Johansson, Robert; Kleinerman, Ruth A; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Sadetzki, Siegal; Tucker, Margaret; Sakata, Ritsu; Veiga, Lene H S

    2017-07-01

    The increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that involve radiation raises concerns about radiation effects, particularly in children and the radiosensitive thyroid gland. Evaluation of relative risk (RR) trends for thyroid radiation doses <0.2 gray (Gy); evidence of a threshold dose; and possible modifiers of the dose-response, e.g., sex, age at exposure, time since exposure. Pooled data from nine cohort studies of childhood external radiation exposure and thyroid cancer with individualized dose estimates, ≥1000 irradiated subjects or ≥10 thyroid cancer cases, with data limited to individuals receiving doses <0.2 Gy. Cohorts included the following: childhood cancer survivors (n = 2); children treated for benign diseases (n = 6); and children who survived the atomic bombings in Japan (n = 1). There were 252 cases and 2,588,559 person-years in irradiated individuals and 142 cases and 1,865,957 person-years in nonirradiated individuals. There were no interventions. Incident thyroid cancers. For both <0.2 and <0.1 Gy, RRs increased with thyroid dose (P < 0.01), without significant departure from linearity (P = 0.77 and P = 0.66, respectively). Estimates of threshold dose ranged from 0.0 to 0.03 Gy, with an upper 95% confidence bound of 0.04 Gy. The increasing dose-response trend persisted >45 years after exposure, was greater at younger age at exposure and younger attained age, and was similar by sex and number of treatments. Our analyses reaffirmed linearity of the dose response as the most plausible relationship for "as low as reasonably achievable" assessments for pediatric low-dose radiation-associated thyroid cancer risk. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Reducing operator radiation exposure during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Occhetta, Eraldo; Ronconi, Martina; Plebani, Laura; Carriero, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    To quantify the reduction in equivalent dose at operator's hand that can be achieved by placement of a radiation-absorbing drape (RADPAD) during long-lasting cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) procedures. This is a prospective observational study that included 22 consecutive patients with drug-refractory heart failure who underwent implantation of a CRT device. The cases were randomly assigned to Group A (11 cases), performed without RADPAD, and to Group B (11 cases), performed using RADPAD. Dose equivalent at the examiner's hand was measured as H(p)(0.07) and as a time-adjusted H(p)(0.07) rate (mGy/min) with a direct reading dosimeter. The mean fluoroscopy time was 20.8 ± 7.7 min and the mean dose area product (DAP) was 118.6 ± 45.3 Gy cm(2). No significant differences were found between body mass index, fluoroscopy time, and DAP between patients examined with or without RADPAD. The correlation between the fluoroscopy time and the DAP was high (R(2) = 0.94, P < 0.001). Mean dose and dose rate measurement without the RADPAD at the finger and hand were H(p)(0.07) = 1.27 ± 0.47 mGy per procedure and H(p)(0.07) rate = 0.057 ± 0.011 mGy/min, respectively. The dosage was reduced with the RADPAD to H(p)(0.07) = 0.48 ± 0.20 (P < 0.05) and to H(p)(0.07) rate = 0.026 ± 0.008 (P < 0.001), respectively. A mean reduction of 54% in the equivalent dose rate to the operator's hand can be achieved with the use of RADPAD. The use of the RADPAD in CRT devices implantation will make unlikely the necessity of limiting the yearly number of implants for high volume operators.

  15. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete nationalmore » coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology

  16. Radiation exposure in transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure: time to tune?

    PubMed

    Villemain, Olivier; Malekzadeh-Milani, Sophie; Sitefane, Fidelio; Mostefa-Kara, Meriem; Boudjemline, Younes

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe radiation level at our institution during transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion and to evaluate the components contributing to radiation exposure. Transcatheter occlusion relying on X-ray imaging has become the treatment of choice for patients with patent ductus arteriosus. Interventionists now work hard to minimise radiation exposure in order to reduce risk of induced cancers. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive children who underwent transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus from January 2012 to January 2016. Clinical data, anatomical characteristics, and catheterisation procedure parameters were reported. Radiation doses were analysed for the following variables: total air kerma, mGy; dose area product, Gy.cm2; dose area product per body weight, Gy.cm2/kg; and total fluoroscopic time. A total of 324 patients were included (median age=1.51 [Q1-Q3: 0.62-4.23] years; weight=10.3 [6.7-17.0] kg). In all, 322/324 (99.4%) procedures were successful. The median radiation doses were as follows: total air kerma: 26 (14.5-49.3) mGy; dose area product: 1.01 (0.56-2.24) Gy.cm2; dose area product/kg: 0.106 (0.061-0.185) Gy.cm2/kg; and fluoroscopic time: 2.8 (2-4) min. In multivariate analysis, a weight >10 kg, a ductus arteriosus width <2 mm, complications during the procedure, and a high frame rate (15 frames/second) were risk factors for an increased exposure. Lower doses of radiation can be achieved with subsequent recommendations: technical improvement, frame rate reduction, avoidance of biplane cineangiograms, use of stored fluoroscopy as much as possible, and limitation of fluoroscopic time. A greater use of echocardiography might even lessen the exposure.

  17. Molecular effects of 1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate and solar radiation exposures on human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferrucio, Bianca; Tiago, Manoela; Fannin, Richard D; Liu, Liwen; Gerrish, Kevin; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Paules, Richard S; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes

    2017-02-01

    Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate), a broad-spectrum insecticide, has recently been associated with the development of cutaneous melanoma in an epidemiological cohort study with U.S. farm workers also exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the main etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that carbaryl exposure may increase deleterious effects of UV solar radiation on skin melanocytes. This study aimed to characterize human melanocytes after individual or combined exposure to carbaryl (100μM) and solar radiation (375mJ/cm 2 ). In a microarray analysis, carbaryl, but not solar radiation, induced an oxidative stress response, evidenced by the upregulation of antioxidant genes, such as Hemeoxygenase-1 (HMOX1), and downregulation of Microphtalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF), the main regulator of melanocytic activity; results were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Carbaryl and solar radiation induced a gene response suggestive of DNA damage and cell cycle alteration. The expression of CDKN1A, BRCA1/2 and MDM2 genes was notably more intense in the combined treatment group, in a synergistic manner. Flow cytometry assays demonstrated S-phase cell cycle arrest, reduced apoptosis levels and faster induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) lesions in carbaryl treated groups. Our data suggests that carbaryl is genotoxic to human melanocytes, especially when associated with solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith E.; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in medical X-ray imaging have enabled the development of new techniques capable of assessing not only bone quantity but also structure. This article provides (a) a brief review of the current X-ray methods used for quantitative assessment of the skeleton, (b) data on the levels of radiation exposure associated with these methods and (c) information about radiation safety issues. Radiation doses associated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are very low. However, as with any X-ray imaging technique, each particular examination must always be clinically justified. When an examination is justified, the emphasis must be on dose optimisation of imaging protocols. Dose optimisation is more important for paediatric examinations because children are more vulnerable to radiation than adults. Methods based on multi-detector CT (MDCT) are associated with higher radiation doses. New 3D volumetric hip and spine quantitative computed tomography (QCT) techniques and high-resolution MDCT for evaluation of bone structure deliver doses to patients from 1 to 3 mSv. Low-dose protocols are needed to reduce radiation exposure from these methods and minimise associated health risks. PMID:20559834

  19. [The remote effects of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields with respect to hygienic standardization].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Shafirkin, A V; Nikitina, V N; Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    A variety and rate of non-cancer diseases occurred in humans as a result of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation or to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of high and superhigh frequency have been compared. The intensity of EMR was slightly higher than a sanitary standard for population. A risk of health impairments in workers having occupational exposure to EMR was assessed on the basis of Selie's concept of development of non-specific reaction of the body to chronic stress factors (general adaptation syndrome), models of changes in the body compensatory reserves and calculations of radiation risk after severe and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation.

  20. Risk of whole body radiation exposure and protective measures in fluoroscopically guided interventional techniques: a prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kim A; Moss, Tammy L; Rivera, Jose; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2003-08-06

    BACKGROUND: Fluoroscopic guidance is frequently utilized in interventional pain management. The major purpose of fluoroscopy is correct needle placement to ensure target specificity and accurate delivery of the injectate. Radiation exposure may be associated with risks to physician, patient and personnel. While there have been many studies evaluating the risk of radiation exposure and techniques to reduce this risk in the upper part of the body, the literature is scant in evaluating the risk of radiation exposure in the lower part of the body. METHODS: Radiation exposure risk to the physician was evaluated in 1156 patients undergoing interventional procedures under fluoroscopy by 3 physicians. Monitoring of scattered radiation exposure in the upper and lower body, inside and outside the lead apron was carried out. RESULTS: The average exposure per procedure was 12.0 PlusMinus; 9.8 seconds, 9.0 PlusMinus; 0.37 seconds, and 7.5 PlusMinus; 1.27 seconds in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Scatter radiation exposure ranged from a low of 3.7 PlusMinus; 0.29 seconds for caudal/interlaminar epidurals to 61.0 PlusMinus; 9.0 seconds for discography. Inside the apron, over the thyroid collar on the neck, the scatter radiation exposure was 68 mREM in Group I consisting of 201 patients who had a total of 330 procedures with an average of 0.2060 mREM per procedure and 25 mREM in Group II consisting of 446 patients who had a total of 662 procedures with average of 0.0378 mREM per procedure. The scatter radiation exposure was 0 mREM in Group III consisting of 509 patients who had a total 827 procedures. Increased levels of exposures were observed in Groups I and II compared to Group III, and Group I compared to Group II.Groin exposure showed 0 mREM exposure in Groups I and II and 15 mREM in Group III. Scatter radiation exposure for groin outside the apron in Group I was 1260 mREM and per procedure was 3.8182 mREM. In Group II the scatter radiation exposure was 400 mREM and with

  1. Radiation exposure of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography compared with full-field digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Lalji, Ulrich C; Meijer, Eduard; Bakija, Betina; Theunissen, Robin; Wildberger, Joachim E; Lobbes, Marc B I

    2014-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) shows promising initial results but comes at the cost of increased dose as compared with full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We aimed to quantitatively assess the dose increase of CESM in comparison with FFDM. Radiation exposure-related data (such as kilovoltage, compressed breast thickness, glandularity, entrance skin air kerma (ESAK), and average glandular dose (AGD) were retrieved for 47 CESM and 715 FFDM patients. All examinations were performed on 1 mammography unit. Radiation dose values reported by the unit were validated by phantom measurements. Descriptive statistics of the patient data were generated using a statistical software package. Dose values reported by the mammography unit were in good qualitative agreement with those of phantom measurements. Mean ESAK was 10.5 mGy for a CESM exposure and 7.46 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Mean AGD for a CESM exposure was 2.80 mGy and 1.55 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Compared with our institutional FFDM, the AGD of a single CESM exposure is increased by 1.25 mGy (+81%), whereas ESAK is increased by 3.07 mGy (+41%). Dose values of both techniques meet the recommendations for maximum dose in mammography.

  2. Public Exposure from Indoor Radiofrequency Radiation in the City of Hebron, West Bank-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afefeh; ALMasri, Hussien

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the results of measured indoor exposure levels to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitting sources in one of the major cities in the West Bank-the city of Hebron. Investigated RF emitters include FM, TV broadcasting stations, mobile telephony base stations, cordless phones [Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)], and wireless local area networks (WLAN). Measurements of power density were conducted in 343 locations representing different site categories in the city. The maximum total power density found at any location was about 2.3 × 10 W m with a corresponding exposure quotient of about 0.01. This value is well below unity, indicating compliance with the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The average total exposure from all RF sources was 0.08 × 10 W m. The relative contributions from different sources to the total exposure in terms of exposure quotient were evaluated and found to be 46% from FM radio, 26% from GSM900, 15% from DECT phones, 9% from WLAN, 3% from unknown sources, and 1% from TV broadcasting. RF sources located outdoors contribute about 73% to the population exposure indoors.

  3. Physician exposure to ionizing radiation during trauma resuscitation: A prospective clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.L.; Singer, C.M.; Benedict, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    A prospective study of emergency physician whole body and extremity exposure to ionizing radiation during trauma resuscitation over a three-month period was conducted. Radiation film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeter finger rings were permanently attached to leaded aprons worn by emergency medicine residents during all trauma resuscitations. One set of apron and finger ring dosimeters was designated for the resident who managed the airway and stabilized the neck, when necessary, during cervical spine radiography (A-CS resident). A separate set of dosimeters was designated for the resident supervising the resuscitation. During the study period, 150 major trauma patients requiring 481 radiographic studiesmore » were treated. The mean monthly cumulative whole body exposures were 136.7 +/- 85.0 and 103.3 +/- 60.3 mrem for A-CS and supervising residents, respectively. The mean weekly cumulative extremity exposures were 523.3 +/- 611.0 and 46.7 +/- 18.6 mrem for A-CS and supervising residents, respectively. Calculated whole body exposures per patient were 2.7 mrem for the A-CS resident and 2.1 mrem for the supervising resident. Calculated extremity exposures per patient were 41.9 +/- 48.9 and 3.7 +/- 1.5 mrem, respectively. To exceed the annual whole body exposure limit established by the National Council of Radiologic Protection, the A-CS resident, working 200 shifts per year, would have to treat 9.2 trauma patients per shift. To exceed the annual extremity exposure limit, the A-CS resident would have to treat 5.9 trauma patients per shift. Of note, European exposure limits are 10% of current US limits. We conclude that significant exposures may occur to physicians working in trauma centers and that the use of shielding devices is indicated.« less

  4. Effect of space relevant radiation exposure on differentiation and mineralization of murine osteoprogenitor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Patrick; Hu, Yueyuan; Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Guenther

    Extended exposure to altered gravity conditions like during long-term space flight results in significant bone loss. Exposure to ionizing radiation for cancer therapy causes bone damage and may increase the risk of fractures. Similarly, besides altered gravity conditions, astronauts on exploratory missions beyond low-Earth orbit will be exposed to high-energy heavy ions in addition to proton and photon radiation, although for prolonged periods and at lower doses and dose rates compared with therapy. Space conditions may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. Until now, little is known about the effects of space radiation on the skeletal system especially on osteoprogenitor cells. Accelerator facilities are used to simulate parts of the radiation environment in space. Heavy ion accelerators therefore could be used to assess radiation risks for astronauts who will be exposed to higher radiation doses e.g. on a Mars mission. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological effects of spaceflight-relevant radiation exposure on the cellular level using murine osteoprogenitor cell lines compared to nonirradiated controls. To gain a deeper understanding of bone cell differenti-ation and mineralization after exposure to heavy ions, we examined gene expression modulation of bone specific transcription factors, osteoblast specific marker genes as well as genes function as coupling factors that link bone resorption to bone formation. We investigated the transcrip-tional modulation of type I collagen (Col I), osteocalcin (Ocn), Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the bone specific transcription factor Runx2 (Cbfa1). To gain deeper insight into potential cellular mechanisms involved in cellular response after ex-posure to heavy ions, we investigated gene expression modulations after exposure to energetic carbon ions (35 MeV/u, 73.2 keV/µm), iron ions (1000 MeV/u, 150 keV/µm) and lead ions (29 MeV/u, 9600

  5. Weekend personal ultraviolet radiation exposure in four cities in Australia: influence of temperature, humidity and ambient ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fan; Harrison, Simone; Nowak, Madeleine; Kimlin, Michael; Van der Mei, Ingrid; Neale, Rachel E; Sinclair, Craig; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effects of meteorological factors on weekend sun exposure behaviours and personal received dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in Australian adults. Australian adults (n=1002) living in Townsville (19°S, 146°E), Brisbane (27°S, 153°E), Canberra (35°S, 149°E) and Hobart (43°S, 147°E) were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Data on sun exposure behaviours were collected by daily sun exposure dairies; personal UVR exposure was measured with a polysulphone dosimeter. Meteorological data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; ambient UVR levels were estimated using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument data. Higher daily maximum temperatures were associated with reduced likelihood of wearing a long-sleeved shirt or wearing long trousers in Canberra and Hobart, and higher clothing-adjusted UVR dose in Canberra. Higher daily humidity was associated with less time spent outdoors in Canberra. Higher ambient UVR level was related to a greater clothing-adjusted personal UVR dose in Hobart and a greater likelihood of using sunscreen in Townsville. The current findings enhance our understanding of the impact of weather conditions on the population's sun exposure behaviours. This information will allow us to refine current predictive models for UVR-related diseases, and guide future health service and health promotion needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age at exposure to ionising radiation and cancer mortality among Hanford workers: follow up through 1994

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Richardson, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of workers at the plutonium production factory in Hanford, WA have led to conflicting conclusions about the role of age at exposure as a modifier of associations between ionising radiation and cancer. Aims: To evaluate the influence of age at exposure on radiation risk estimates in an updated follow up of Hanford workers. Methods: A cohort of 26 389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978 was followed through 1994 to ascertain vital status and causes of death. External radiation dose estimates were derived from personal dosimeters. Poisson regression was used to estimate associations between mortality and cumulative external radiation dose at all ages, and in specific age ranges. Results: A total of 8153 deaths were identified, 2265 of which included cancer as an underlying or contributory cause. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Sievert (ERR/Sv) for cumulative radiation doses at all ages combined were negative for all cause and leukaemia and positive for all cancer and lung cancer. Cumulative doses accrued at ages below 35, 35–44, and 45–54 showed little association with mortality. For cumulative dose accrued at ages 55 and above (10 year lag), the estimated ERR/Sv for all cancers was 3.24 (90% CI: 0.80 to 6.17), primarily due to an association with lung cancer (ERR/Sv: 9.05, 90% CI: 2.96 to 17.92). Conclusions: Associations between radiation and cancer mortality in this cohort are primarily a function of doses at older ages and deaths from lung cancer. The association of older age radiation exposures and cancer mortality is similar to observations from several other occupational studies. PMID:15961623

  7. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  9. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of codes assessing galactic cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J F; Beck, P; Bennett, B; Bennett, L; Bütikofer, R; Clairand, I; Desorgher, L; Dyer, C; Felsberger, E; Flückiger, E; Hands, A; Kindl, P; Latocha, M; Lewis, B; Leuthold, G; Maczka, T; Mares, V; McCall, M J; O'Brien, K; Rollet, S; Rühm, W; Wissmann, F

    2009-10-01

    The assessment of the exposure to cosmic radiation onboard aircraft is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher onboard aircraft than at ground level and its intensity depends on the solar activity. The dose is usually estimated using codes validated by the experimental data. In this paper, a comparison of various codes is presented, some of them are used routinely, to assess the dose received by the aircraft crew caused by the galactic cosmic radiation. Results are provided for periods close to solar maximum and minimum and for selected flights covering major commercial routes in the world. The overall agreement between the codes, particularly for those routinely used for aircraft crew dosimetry, was better than +/-20 % from the median in all but two cases. The agreement within the codes is considered to be fully satisfactory for radiation protection purposes.

  12. Simulation of Spatial and Temporal Radiation Exposures for ISS in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Sandridge, Christopher A.; Qualls, Garry D.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) living areas receive the preponderance of ionizing radiation exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and geomagnetically trapped protons. Practically all trapped proton exposure occurs when the ISS passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. The fact that this region is in proximity to a trapping mirror point indicates that the proton flux is highly directional. The inherent shielding provided by the ISS structure is represented by a recently-developed CAD model of the current 11-A configuration. Using modeled environment and configuration, trapped proton exposures have been analytically estimated at selected target points within the Service and Lab Modules. The results indicate that the directional flux may lead to substantially different exposure characteristics than the more common analyses that assume an isotropic environment. Additionally, predictive capability of the computational procedure should allow sensitive validation with corresponding on-board directional dosimeters.

  13. Reduction in radiation exposure to nursing personnel with the use of remote afterloading brachytherapy devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Perez, C.A.; Eichling, J.

    The radiation exposure to nursing personnel from patients with brachytherapy implants on a large brachytherapy service were reviewed. Exposure to nurses, as determined by TLD monitors, indicates a 7-fold reduction in exposure after the implementation of the use of remote afterloading devices. Quarterly TLD monitor data for six quarters prior to the use of remote afterloading devices demonstrate an average projected annual dose equivalent to the nurses of 152 and 154 mrem (1.5 mSv). After the implementation of the remote afterloading devices, the quarterly TLD monitor data indicate an average dose equivalent per nurse of 23 and 19 mrem (0.2more » mSv). This is an 87% reduction in exposure to nurses with the use of these devices (p less than 0.01).« less

  14. A Cell Kinetic Model of Granulocytopoiesis Under Radiation Exposure: Extension from Murines to Canines and Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Space radiation poses significant challenges to space travel, and it is essential to understand the possible adverse effects from space radiation exposure to the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of human, e.g., the hematopoietic system. In this presentation a biomathematical model of granulocytopoiesis is described and used to analyze the blood granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under continuous and acute radiation exposure. This is one of a set of hematopoietic models that have been successfully utilized to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. We discuss the underlying implicit regulation mechanism and the biological relevance of the kinetic parameters estimation method. Extension of the model to predictions in dogs and humans systems indicates that the modeling results are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources. This implies the potential to integrate the models into one united system for monitoring the hematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. Based on the evidence of threshold responses of dogs to extended periods of low daily dose exposures, we discuss the potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation and the possibly encountered Solar Particle Events.

  15. Electromagnetic navigation reduces surgical time and radiation exposure for proximal interlocking in retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Somerson, Jeremy S; Rowley, David; Kennedy, Chad; Buttacavoli, Frank; Agarwal, Animesh

    2014-07-01

    To compare the time required for proximal locking screw placement between a standard freehand technique and the navigated technique, and to quantify the reduction in ionizing radiation exposure. A fresh frozen cadaver model was used for 48 proximal interlocking screw procedures. Each procedure consisted of insertion of 2 anteroposterior locking screws. Standard fluoroscopic technique was used for 24 procedures, and an electromagnetic navigation system was used for the remaining 24 procedures. Procedure duration was recorded using an electronic timer and radiation doses were documented. Mean total insertion time for both proximal interlocking screws was 405 ± 165.7 seconds with the freehand technique and 311 ± 78.3 seconds in the navigation group (P = 0.002). All procedures resulted in successful locking screw placement. Mean ionizing radiation exposure time for proximal locking was 29.5 ± 12.8 seconds. Proximal locking screw insertion using the navigation technique evaluated in this work was significantly faster than the standard fluoroscopic method. The navigated technique is effective and has the potential to prevent ionizing radiation exposure.

  16. A national survey of natural radionuclides in soils and terrestrial radiation exposure in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kardan, M R; Fathabdi, N; Attarilar, A; Esmaeili-Gheshlaghi, M T; Karimi, M; Najafi, A; Hosseini, S S

    2017-11-01

    In the past, some efforts have been made for measuring natural radioactivity and evaluating public exposure to natural radiation in certain areas of Iran especially in well-known High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRA) in Ramsar and Mahallat. However, the information on radionuclide concentrations, and, consequently, terrestrial radiation exposure for many other areas are not available. There was therefore a need for a systematic and nation-wide survey. For this purpose, 979 soil samples from 31 provinces were collected. The activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were measured by HPGe detector. The average activity concentrations for Iran were found to be 457.7 Bq/kg for 40 K, 24.3 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 25.8 Bq/kg for 232 Th. Results were compared with previous regional or provincial surveys. The population-weighted average outdoor and indoor annual effective dose due to external exposure to terrestrial sources of radiation are 0.06 mSv and 0.33 mSv, respectively. It was shown that there is a significant correlation between the activity concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K in soil. In addition, the results of chi square tests show normal and lognormal distributions cannot be considered for the frequency distributions of activity concentration of 232 Th and 226 Ra while 40 K has a normal distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical Properties of Thermal Control Coatings After Weathering, Simulated Ascent Heating, and Simulated Space Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Tuan, George C.; Westheimer, David T.; Peters, Wanda C.; Kauder, Lonny R.

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings and coatings play an important role in this heat rejection. The coatings provide the combined optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. The coatings are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an applique. Not designed for a terrestrial weathering environment, the durability of spacecraft paints, coatings, and appliques upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to ascent heating, solar wind, and ultraviolet radiation was studied. In addition to traditional aluminum panels, new isocyanate ester composite panels were exposed for a total of 90 days at the Atmospheric Exposure Site of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Beach Corrosion Facility for the purpose of identifying their durability to weathering. Selected panel coupons were subsequently exposed to simulated ascent heating, solar wind, and vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation to identify the effect of a simulated space environment on as-weathered surfaces. Optical properties and adhesion testing were used to document the durability of the paints, coatings, and appliques.

  18. Chromosome neighborhood composition determines translocation outcomes after exposure to high-dose radiation in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brianna Caddle, Lura; Grant, Jeremy L; Szatkiewicz, Jin; van Hase, Johann; Shirley, Bobbi-Jo; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Cremer, Christoph; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre; Mills, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard for military personnel, some health care professionals, airport security screeners, and medical patients, with some individuals at risk for acute, high-dose exposures. Therefore, the biological effects of radiation, especially the potential for chromosome damage, are major occupational and health concerns. However, the biophysical mechanisms of chromosome instability subsequent to radiation-induced DNA damage are poorly understood. It is clear that interphase chromosomes occupy discrete structural and functional subnuclear domains, termed chromosome territories (CT), which may be organized into 'neighborhoods' comprising groups of specific CTs. We directly evaluated the relationship between chromosome positioning, neighborhood composition, and translocation partner choice in primary lymphocytes, using a cell-based system in which we could induce multiple, concentrated DNA breaks via high-dose irradiation. We critically evaluated mis-rejoining profiles and tested whether breaks occurring nearby were more likely to fuse than breaks occurring at a distance. We show that CT neighborhoods comprise heterologous chromosomes, within which inter-CT distances directly relate to translocation partner choice. These findings demonstrate that interphase chromosome arrangement is a principal factor in genomic instability outcomes in primary lymphocytes, providing a structural context for understanding the biological effects of radiation exposure, and the molecular etiology of tumor-specific translocation patterns.

  19. Radiation Exposure Decreases the Quantity and Quality of Cardiac Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Urata, Yoshishige; Yan, Chen; Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Tou, Fang-Fang; Xie, Yucai; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure may increase cardiovascular disease risks; however, the precise molecular/cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that radiation impairs cardiac stem cells (CSCs), thereby contributing to future cardiovascular disease risks. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy γ-rays, and heart tissues were collected 24 hours later for further experiments. Although c-kit-positive cells were rarely found, radiation exposure significantly induced apoptosis and DNA damage in the cells of the heart. The ex vivo expansion of CSCs from freshly harvested atrial tissues showed a significantly lower production of CSCs in irradiated mice compared with healthy mice. The proliferative activity of CSCs evaluated by Ki-67 expression was not significantly different between the groups. However, compared to the healthy control, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice showed significantly lower telomerase activity, more 53BP1 foci in the nuclei, lower expression of c-kit and higher expression of CD90. Furthermore, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice had significantly poorer potency in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1. Our data suggest that radiation exposure significantly decreases the quantity and quality of CSCs, which may serve as sensitive bio-parameters for predicting future cardiovascular disease risks. PMID:27195709

  20. Health risks of exposure to non-ionizing radiation--myths or science-based evidence.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Maila

    2006-01-01

    The non-ionizing radiation (NIR) contains large range of wavelengths and frequencies from vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) radiation depend greatly on wavelength and other physical parameters. The Sun is the most significant source of environmental UV exposure, so that outdoor workers are at risk of chronic over-exposure. Also exposure to short-wave visible light is associated with the aging and degeneration of the retina. Especially hazardous are laser beams focused to a small spot at the retina, resulting in permanent visual impairment. Exposure to EM fields induces body currents and energy absorption in tissues, depending on frequencies and coupling mechanisms. Thermal effects caused by temperature rise are basically understood, whereas the challenge is to understand the suspected non-thermal effects. Radiofrequency (RF) fields around frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz are of special interest because of the rapid advances in the telecommunication technology. The field levels of these sources are so low that temperature rise is unlikely to explain possible health effects. Other mechanisms of interaction have been proposed, but biological experiments have failed to confirm their existence.

  1. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  2. Radiation environment at aviation altitudes and in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, L; Ploc, O; Puchalska, M; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Kyselová, D; Shurshakov, V

    2015-06-01

    On the Earth, protection from cosmic radiation is provided by the magnetosphere and the atmosphere, but the radiation exposure increases with increasing altitude. Aircrew and especially space crew members are therefore exposed to an increased level of ionising radiation. Dosimetry onboard aircraft and spacecraft is however complicated by the presence of neutrons and high linear energy transfer particles. Film and thermoluminescent dosimeters, routinely used for ground-based personnel, do not reliably cover the range of particle types and energies found in cosmic radiation. Further, the radiation field onboard aircraft and spacecraft is not constant; its intensity and composition change mainly with altitude, geomagnetic position and solar activity (marginally also with the aircraft/spacecraft type, number of people aboard, amount of fuel etc.). The European Union Council directive 96/29/Euroatom of 1996 specifies that aircrews that could receive dose of >1 mSv y(-1) must be evaluated. The dose evaluation is routinely performed by computer programs, e.g. CARI-6, EPCARD, SIEVERT, PCAire, JISCARD and AVIDOS. Such calculations should however be carefully verified and validated. Measurements of the radiation field in aircraft are thus of a great importance. A promising option is the long-term deployment of active detectors, e.g. silicon spectrometer Liulin, TEPC Hawk and pixel detector Timepix. Outside the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere, the environment is much harsher than at aviation altitudes. In addition to the exposure to high energetic ionising cosmic radiation, there are microgravity, lack of atmosphere, psychological and psychosocial components etc. The milieu is therefore very unfriendly for any living organism. In case of solar flares, exposures of spacecraft crews may even be lethal. In this paper, long-term measurements of the radiation environment onboard Czech aircraft performed with the Liulin since 2001, as well as measurements and

  3. UNBROKEN: UH 1N AIRCREW CONTINUE OPS DESPITE WEAK HEARING PROTECTION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-29

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UNBROKEN: UH-1N AIRCREW CONTINUE OPS DESPITE WEAK HEARING... student training. The final one at Fairchild AFB, Washington, is focused on search and rescue operations and supports the Survival, Evasion

  4. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  5. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum and...

  6. Measuring the ability of military aircrews to adapt to perceived stressors when undergoing centrifuge training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenhung; Lin, Pei-Chun; Li, Shih-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of military aircrews to adapt to stressors when undergoing centrifuge training and determined what equipment items caused perceived stress and needed to be upgraded. We used questionnaires and the Rasch model to measure aircrew personnel's ability to adapt to centrifuge training. The measurement items were ranked by 611 military aircrew personnel. Analytical results indicated that the majority of the stress perceived by aircrew personnel resulted from the lightproof cockpit without outer reference. This study prioritized the equipment requiring updating as the lightproof cockpit design, the dim lighting of the cockpit, and the pedal design. A significant difference was found between pilot and non-pilot subjects' stress from the pedal design; and considerable association was discernible between the seat angle design and flight hours accrued. The study results provide aviators, astronauts, and air forces with reliable information as to which equipment items need to be urgently upgraded as their present physiological and psychological effects can affect the effectiveness of centrifuge training.

  7. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  8. Non-Malignant Thyroid Diseases Following a Wide Range of Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Background The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high and low dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. Methods We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate to high dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Results Following a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades following exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak and significant radiation effects were most often observed following high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant radiation dose-response relation was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

  9. Impacts of exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone radiation on liver function in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-rong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Wang, Gui-ying; Song, Cui-miao; Ma, Xue-lian; Cao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Guo-hong

    2015-11-01

    To study the impacts of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on liver function in rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group and radiated group. The rats in normal group were not radiated, those in radiated group were exposed to EMR 4 h/ d for 18 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and those of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue were evaluated by colorimetric method. The liver histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the protein expression of bax and bcl- 2 in liver tissue were detected by immunohistochemical method. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick and labelling (TUNEL) method was used for analysis of apoptosis in liver. Compared with the normal rats, the serum levels of ALT and AST in the radiated group had no obvious changes (P>0.05), while the contents of MDA increased (P < 0.01) and those of GSH decreased (P < 0.01) in liver tissues. The histopathology examination showed diffuse hepatocyte swelling and vacuolation, small pieces and focal necrosis. The immunohistochemical results displayed that the expression of the bax protein was higher and that of bcl-2 protein was lower in radiated group. The hepatocyte apoptosis rates in radiated group was higher than that in normal group (all P < 0.01). The exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone 4 h/d for 18 days could induce the liver histological changes, which may be partly due to the apoptosis and oxidative stress induced in liver tissue by electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Parental knowledge of radiation exposure in medical imaging used in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Hans-David R; Clingenpeel, Joel; Perkins, Amy M; Rose, Whitney; Abdullah-Anyiwo, Joel

    2013-06-01

    We sought to quantify the knowledge base among parents and legal guardians presenting to our pediatric emergency department regarding radiation exposure during medical imaging and potential risks to children resulting from ionizing radiation. We sought to examine if a child's previous exposure to medical imaging changed caregiver knowledge base and discern caregivers' preference for future education on this topic. A prospective convenience sample survey was performed of caregivers who presented with their child to our tertiary pediatric emergency department. Parents or legal guardians (18-89 years) who accompanied a child (0-17 years) were eligible for inclusion and approached for enrollment. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers, and a chart review was conducted to ascertain if their child had a history of previous imaging. Sixty percent of caregivers interviewed (n = 205 of 340) did not associate any long-term negative effects with medical imaging. Among participants who did express a perceived risk from medical imaging radiation exposure, only 50% could indicate a known negative effect from exposure. We found no significant association between a child having had documented imaging studies and awareness of long-term negative effects (P = 0.22). Participants preferred to learn more about this topic from an Internet-based resource (50%), informational pamphlet (38%), or via treating physician (33%). Parents and legal guardians are largely unaware that exposure to radiation during medical imaging carries an inherent risk for their child. Health care providers wishing to educate caregivers should utilize reliable Internet sources, educational pamphlets, and direct communication.

  11. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Artalejo, F; Castaño Lara, S; de Andrés Manzano, B; García Ferruelo, M; Iglesias Martín, L; Calero, J R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to ascertain whether mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (Junta de Energía Nuclear-JEN) was higher than that for the Spanish population overall; and secondly, if this were so, to ascertain whether this difference was associated with exposure to ionising radiation. METHODS: A retrospective follow up of a cohort of 5657 workers was carried out for the period 1954-92. Cohort mortality was compared with that for the Spanish population overall, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for sex, age, and calendar period. Also, Poisson models were used to analyse mortality from lung cancer in the cohort by level of exposure to ionising radiation. RESULTS: Workers' median and mean cumulative exposures were 4.04 and 11.42 mSv, respectively. Mean annual exposure was 1.33 mSv. Excess mortality due to bone tumours was found for the cohort as a whole (six deaths observed; SMR 2.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 6.43). Among miners, excess mortality was found for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 2.94; 95% CI 2.27 to 3.75), and for lung cancer bordering on statistical significance (SMR 1.50; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.23; P = 0.055). Relative risks of dying of lung cancer from ionising radiation in the dose quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus the lowest dose quartile, were 1.00, 1.64, and 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality from lung cancer was found among JEN miners. Nevertheless, no clear relation was found between mortality from lung cancer and level of exposure to ionising radiation in the JEN cohort. Continued follow up of the cohort is required to confirm excess mortality from bone tumours. PMID:9155782

  12. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Artalejo, F; Castaño Lara, S; de Andrés Manzano, B; García Ferruelo, M; Iglesias Martín, L; Calero, J R

    1997-03-01

    Firstly, to ascertain whether mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (Junta de Energía Nuclear-JEN) was higher than that for the Spanish population overall; and secondly, if this were so, to ascertain whether this difference was associated with exposure to ionising radiation. A retrospective follow up of a cohort of 5657 workers was carried out for the period 1954-92. Cohort mortality was compared with that for the Spanish population overall, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for sex, age, and calendar period. Also, Poisson models were used to analyse mortality from lung cancer in the cohort by level of exposure to ionising radiation. Workers' median and mean cumulative exposures were 4.04 and 11.42 mSv, respectively. Mean annual exposure was 1.33 mSv. Excess mortality due to bone tumours was found for the cohort as a whole (six deaths observed; SMR 2.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 6.43). Among miners, excess mortality was found for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 2.94; 95% CI 2.27 to 3.75), and for lung cancer bordering on statistical significance (SMR 1.50; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.23; P = 0.055). Relative risks of dying of lung cancer from ionising radiation in the dose quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus the lowest dose quartile, were 1.00, 1.64, and 0.94, respectively. Excess mortality from lung cancer was found among JEN miners. Nevertheless, no clear relation was found between mortality from lung cancer and level of exposure to ionising radiation in the JEN cohort. Continued follow up of the cohort is required to confirm excess mortality from bone tumours.

  13. Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Zaebst, D D; Seel, E A; Yiin, J H; Nowlin, S J; Chen, P

    2009-07-01

    In support of a nested case-control study at a U.S. naval shipyard, the results of the reconstruction of historical exposures were summarized, and an analysis was undertaken to determine the impact of historical exposures to potential chemical confounders. The nested case-control study (N = 4388) primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and external ionizing radiation. Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fume (as iron oxide fume), and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume. Exposures to the potential confounders were estimated by an expert panel based on a set of quantitatively defined categories of exposure. Distributions of the estimated exposures and trends in exposures over time were examined for the study population. Scatter plots and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of association between the estimates of exposure to asbestos, welding fume, and ionizing radiation. Correlation coefficients were calculated separately for 0-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year time-lagged cumulative exposures, total radiation dose (which included medical X-ray dose) and occupational radiation dose. Exposed workers' estimated cumulative exposures to asbestos ranged from 0.01 fiber-days/cm(3) to just under 20,000 fiber-days/cm(3), with a median of 29.0 fiber-days/cm(3). Estimated cumulative exposures to welding fume ranged from 0.16 mg-days/m(3) to just over 30,000 mg-days/m(3), with a median of 603 mg-days/m(3). Spearman correlation coefficients between cumulative radiation dose and cumulative asbestos exposures ranged from 0.09 (occupational dose) to 0.47 (total radiation dose), and those between radiation and welding fume from 0.14 to 0.47. The estimates of relative risk for ionizing radiation and lung cancer were unchanged when lowest and highest estimates of asbestos and welding fume were considered. These results suggest a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to

  14. Elodea nuttallii exposure to mercury exposure under enhanced ultraviolet radiation: Effects on bioaccumulation, transcriptome, pigment content and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Regier, Nicole; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    The hypothesis that increased UV radiation result in co-tolerance to Hg toxicity in aquatic plants was studied at the physiological and transcriptomic level in Elodea nuttallii. At the transcriptomic level, combined exposure to UV+Hg enhanced the stress response in comparison with single treatments, affecting the expression level of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, nutrition, and redox homeostasis. Single and combined UV and Hg treatments dysregulated different genes but with similar functions, suggesting a fine regulation of the plant to stresses triggered by Hg, UV and their combination but lack of co-tolerance. At the physiological level, UV+Hg treatment reduced chlorophyll content and depleted antioxidative compounds such as anthocyanin and GSH/GSSG in E. nuttallii. Nonetheless, combined exposure to UV+Hg resulted in about 30% reduction of Hg accumulation into shoots vs exposure to Hg alone, which was congruent with the level of expression of several transporter genes, as well as the UV effect on Hg bioavailability in water. The findings of the present work underlined the importance of performing experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions and to consider the interplay between contaminants and environmental variables such as light that might have confounding effects to better understand and anticipate the effects of multiple stressors in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical Implications of Space Radiation Exposure Due to Low-Altitude Polar Orbits.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Auñon-Chancellor, Serena M; Charles, John

    2018-01-01

    Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity. In this study, we have modeled the nominal and off-nominal radiation environment that a MOL-like spacecraft vehicle would be exposed to during a 30-d mission using high performance, multicore computers. Projected doses from a historically large SPE (e.g., the August 1972 solar event) have been analyzed in the context of the MOL orbit profile, providing an opportunity to study its impact to crew health and subsequent contingencies. It is reasonable to presume that future commercial, government, and military spaceflight missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) will have vehicles with similar shielding and orbital profiles. Studying the impact of cosmic radiation to the mission's operational integrity and the health of MOL crewmembers provides an excellent surrogate and case-study for future commercial and military spaceflight missions.Chancellor JC, Auñon-Chancellor SM, Charles J. Medical implications of space radiation exposure due to low-altitude polar orbits. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):3-8.

  16. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) higher incidence of cataracts, keratoconjunctivitis, dermatitis and erythema in welders than in their nonwelders. This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  17. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV)